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1.
J Endod ; 46(3): 419-424, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31980201

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of using the XP-endo Finisher (XPF; FKG Dentaire, La Chaux de Fonds, Switzerland) in teeth that have a traditional access cavity (TEC) and a contracted access cavity (CEC) design on the amount of decrease in the number of Enterococcus faecalis bacteria within the root canal system. METHODS: Eighty mandibular first molar teeth were selected and randomly divided into 2 groups: TEC and CEC (n = 40/group). After access cavity preparation in the 2 groups, 80 mesiobuccal root canals were contaminated with Enterococcus faecalis for 4 weeks. After the first sampling (S1), in order to perform root canal instrumentation, the TEC and CEC groups were further divided into 4 subgroups (10 teeth/group): Reciproc (VDW GmbH, Munich, Germany) and ProTaper Next (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland) with or without XPF. Bacterial sampling from the root canals was performed with sterile paper points before (S1) and after (S2) instrumentation to determine the bacterial load. The bacterial reduction was counted as colony-forming units/mL and analyzed statistically by 3-factor repeated measures analysis of variance. Multiple comparisons of the main factor effect were performed using the Bonferroni correction (α < .05), all at 5% significance. RESULTS: The number of E. faecalis bacteria in all the samples with different cavity designs were significantly reduced after instrumentation. The lowest value of bacterial decrease percentage was observed in the CEC-Reciproc-XPF (82.8%) group. CONCLUSIONS: The bacterial reduction counts of E. faecalis were a similar level in the TEC and CEC cavities, and the use of XPF did not show significant differences between groups.


Assuntos
Cavidade Pulpar , Enterococcus faecalis , Preparo de Canal Radicular , Instrumentos Odontológicos , Enterococcus faecalis/isolamento & purificação , Alemanha , Preparo de Canal Radicular/métodos
2.
Microb Cell Fact ; 18(1): 188, 2019 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31690323

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Probiotic bacteria can provide health benefits when delivered in functional foods. This study involved isolation of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from traditionally dried and salted anchovy fish and characterization of their survival in simulated gastrointestinal digestion. Promising strains were used to prepare fermented fish sausages which were then evaluated for cytotoxicity activity against two cancer cell-lines, antidiabetic activity as determined by α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibition, and antioxidant and proteolytic activities in vitro, as compared to non-fermented control sausages. RESULTS: Out of 85 LAB obtained, 13 isolates with high tolerance to simulated gastrointestinal digestion were obtained, which were identified as Enterococcus spp. Four E. faecium strains, one E. faecalis, and one E. durans were used separately to make fermented fish sausages. The α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibition from fish sausages fermented by Enterococcus spp. ranged from 29.2 to 68.7% and 23.9 to 41.4%, respectively, during 21 days of storage. The cytotoxicity activities against Caco2 and MCF-7 cells of fish sausages fermented with Enterococcus spp. ranged from 18.0 to 24% and 13.9 to 27.9%, respectively. Cytotoxicity activities correlated positively with proteolysis and antioxidant activities, α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibition activities, but negatively with the pH in fermented fish sausages. Strains also exhibited antimicrobial activity against foodborne pathogens and presented no significant concerns with regards to antibiotic resistance or virulence gene content. CONCLUSIONS: Fish sausages fermented by potential probiotic isolates of Enterococcus spp. from dried fish had valuable health-promoting benefits compared with non-fermented control sausages.


Assuntos
Enterococcus faecalis , Enterococcus faecium , Enterococcus , Produtos Pesqueiros/microbiologia , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Probióticos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Diabetes Mellitus/terapia , Enterococcus/isolamento & purificação , Enterococcus/metabolismo , Enterococcus faecalis/isolamento & purificação , Enterococcus faecalis/metabolismo , Enterococcus faecium/isolamento & purificação , Enterococcus faecium/metabolismo , Humanos , Probióticos/isolamento & purificação , Probióticos/metabolismo
3.
Braz Oral Res ; 33: e021, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31508722

RESUMO

This study investigated the effectiveness of XP-Endo Finisher (XPF) associated with XP-Endo Shaper (XPS) or Reciproc Blue (RB) files in reducing bacterial load in oval-shaped root canals (RC) during chemomechanical preparation (CMP) using 0.9% saline solution (NaCl) or 2.5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl). Eighty mandibular incisors with single oval-shaped RC were contaminated with Enterococcus faecalis. The teeth were randomly assigned to eight experimental groups (n = 10) according to the CMP, as follows: G1: XPS, G2: XPS + XPF, G3: RB, and G4: RB + XPF. CMP was performed with NaCl or NaOCl. The reduction of bacterial load was assessed by colony-forming unit count before (S1) and after (S2) CMP. Data normality was verified by using Shapiro-Wilk test. ANOVA, Tukey's test, and Bonferroni post-hoc test were used at a 5% significance level. Culturable bacteria were present in all S1 samples (p>0.05). All instrumentation techniques were effective in reducing bacterial load, irrespective of the irrigating solution (p < 0.05). With the use of NaCl, RB was more effective than XPS (p = 0.035). With the use of NaOCl, XPS and RB presented similar effectiveness (p = 0.779). XPF enhanced the bacterial reduction of both systems tested (p < 0.05). The use of NaOCl improved the CMP, irrespective of the instrumentation technique used (p < 0.05). In conclusion, XPS and RB files are effective in reducing bacterial levels in oval-shaped RC. The use of XPF as a method of agitation of the irrigating solution improved the cleaning efficiency of both file systems tested. Mechanical preparation performed with saline solution decreased culturable bacteria from the root canal, but antimicrobial substances such as NaOCl should be used to achieve a significantly better disinfection.


Assuntos
Carga Bacteriana , Instrumentos Odontológicos , Cavidade Pulpar/anatomia & histologia , Preparo de Canal Radicular/instrumentação , Cavidade Pulpar/microbiologia , Desinfetantes/uso terapêutico , Enterococcus faecalis/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas , Humanos , Incisivo , Teste de Materiais , Solução Salina/uso terapêutico , Hipoclorito de Sódio/uso terapêutico
4.
J Med Case Rep ; 13(1): 287, 2019 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31511062

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rapid diagnosis and appropriate treatment of Munchausen syndrome is important not only for the patient but also for health care workers because a delay in diagnosis can worsen patients' clinical outcomes, and result in a substantial medical cost. CASE PRESENTATION: A young and previously healthy 24-year-old Japanese woman, a nurse, presented with complaints of refractory abscess on her left upper limb for 3 months. A physical examination on admission revealed low-grade fever and a subcutaneous abscess in her left forearm. Laboratory data suggested mild systemic inflammation and liver dysfunction, but no abnormalities of the immune system, including changes in the number of lymphocytes and neutrophils, neutrophil phagocytic capacity, and natural killer (NK) cell activity, were observed. A human immunodeficiency virus test was also negative. Multiple modalities, including positron emission tomography-computed tomography, failed to detect any cause and focus of infection except her left upper limb. Streptococcus mitis and Prevotella buccae were detected from the wound, but no microorganisms were detected in a blood culture. The cellulitis promptly resolved; however, exacerbation of the subcutaneous abscess with polymicrobial bacteremia repeatedly occurred unexpectedly. Because of this puzzling clinical course, the possibility of self-injury was finally suspected. Three syringes with needles, with a turbid liquid, were found in our patient's bag. Enterobacter cloacae and Enterococcus faecalis were detected in the liquid, and an analysis via repetitive element sequence-based polymerase chain reaction determined that Enterococcus faecalis in the wound and syringe contents were genetically identical. She was diagnosed as having Munchausen syndrome and treated with the collaboration of a psychiatrist. She finally confessed that she had injected her own saliva and toilet water into the drip line and wound. CONCLUSIONS: This case report is valuable in that it is the first case in which this syndrome was diagnosed by a genetic method. Munchausen syndrome should not be neglected as a possible cause of refractory and recurrent infection.


Assuntos
Abscesso/microbiologia , Bacteriemia/microbiologia , Enterococcus faecalis/genética , Síndrome de Munchausen/diagnóstico , Tela Subcutânea/microbiologia , Celulite (Flegmão)/microbiologia , Enterococcus faecalis/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Antebraço/microbiologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/diagnóstico , Humanos , Injeções Subcutâneas , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem no Hospital/psicologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Adulto Jovem
5.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 142: 111541, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31382097

RESUMO

Some of microorganisms are potential pathogens that can be infectious agents under some circumstances, and development of new detection methods of the pathogens is of high interest. In the present study, an Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) DNA biosensor (ef-biosensor) was fabricated to quantify the bacterium genome. A specific E. faecalis DNA probe was selected from 16S rRNA sequence of E. faecalis and immobilized on a gold electrode surface in an optimized time to fabricate the ef-biosensor. The ef-biosensor detected a synthetic target of the probe with a detection limit of 3.3 amol L-1 and with a nice selectivity to resolve from one-, two- and three-base mismatched sequences. In addition, the bacterium genomic DNA was quantified with a detection limit of 7.1 × 10-9 ng mL-1 in a concentration range of 1.1 × 10-7 to 1.1 ng mL-1. The ef-biosensor had a long time stability, good fabrication reproducibility and good regeneration ability. The ef-biosensor was successfully applied for E. faecalis detection in human samples.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , Sondas de DNA/química , DNA Bacteriano/análise , Enterococcus faecalis/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/microbiologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/química , Sequência de Bases , Sondas de DNA/genética , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Técnicas Eletroquímicas/métodos , Enterococcus faecalis/genética , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/diagnóstico , Humanos , Limite de Detecção , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
6.
J Environ Sci Health B ; 54(12): 925-929, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31382830

RESUMO

Dissemination of vancomycin resistance in enterococci has been associated with horizontal transfer of mobile genetic elements. Aim of the study was to evaluate if milk matrix is a suitable environment to support transferability of vancomycin resistance (vanA) gene from clinical vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium to vancomycin-sensitive Enterococcus faecalis. Enterococci strains were firstly screened for the presence of cpd (inducible sex pheromone determinant) gene, vanA and tetL genes (vancomycin and tetracycline resistance markers, respectively) and the gelE (extracellular metalloendopeptidase) gene to define the mating pairs. Based on these selection markers, we investigated the transferability of eight plasmid-borne vanA harbored by E. faecium (vanA+, cpd-, tetL- and gelE-) into two E. faecalis (vanA-, cpd+, tetL + and gelE+) recipient strains in milk matrix. The strains were mated in a 1:1 ratio in 7% reconstituted milk and incubated at 37 °C. Transconjugants emerged from all 16 matings within 2 h of incubation and were evidenced by dual antibiotic resistance (vancomycin and tetracycline). The vancomycin-resistance of trasconjugants was maintained even after ten subsequent passages on nonselective medium. Transconjugants were positive for vanA, tetL and gelE genes. This study indicates milk matrix as suitable environment to support gene exchange between Enterococcus species.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Enterococcus/efeitos dos fármacos , Leite/microbiologia , Resistência a Vancomicina , Animais , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Bovinos , Conjugação Genética , Enterococcus/classificação , Enterococcus/genética , Enterococcus/isolamento & purificação , Enterococcus faecalis/efeitos dos fármacos , Enterococcus faecalis/genética , Enterococcus faecalis/isolamento & purificação , Enterococcus faecium/efeitos dos fármacos , Enterococcus faecium/genética , Enterococcus faecium/isolamento & purificação , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/microbiologia , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Resistência a Tetraciclina , Vancomicina/farmacologia
7.
Arq Gastroenterol ; 56(2): 141-145, 2019 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31460576

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer is one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers around the world. One of the factors involved in the development of colorectal cancer is the changes in the normal flora of the intestine. OBJECTIVE: In this study, the mean copy number of Enterococcus faecalis in people with polyps and people with colorectal cancer has been evaluated in comparison with healthy controls. METHODS: In this study, 25 patients with colorectal cancer and 28 patients with intestinal polyps were selected and stool specimens were taken. In addition, 24 healthy individuals were selected as control group. Extraction of bacterial DNA from the stool sample were performed. The molecular methods of PCR for confirmation of standard strain and absolute Real Time PCR (qRT-PCR) method were used to evaluate the number of Enterococcus faecalis in the studied groups. RESULTS: The results of this study indicate that the mean copy number of Enterococcus faecalis in patients with colorectal cancer was 11.2x109 per gram of stool, and in patients with polyps was 9.4x108 per gram of stool. In healthy people, this number was 9x108 per gram of stool. There was a significant difference between the implicit copy numbers in the three groups. (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: Enterococcus faecalis in faecal flora of people with colorectal cancer was significantly higher than those with polyps and healthy people. This could potentially signify the ability of this bacterium to induce colorectal cancer. More studies are needed to prove this theory.


Assuntos
Pólipos do Colo/microbiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/microbiologia , Enterococcus faecalis/isolamento & purificação , Fezes/microbiologia , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , DNA Bacteriano/análise , Enterococcus faecalis/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real
8.
PLoS One ; 14(7): e0219599, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31291645

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Enterococcus faecalis is a key pathogen recovered from root canals when conventional treatment fails. Phage therapy has generated new interest in combating pathogens. A sustained-release formulation using specific phages against E. faecalis may offer an alternative approach. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy of anti-E. faecalis phages formulated in a thermo- sustained-release system against E. faecalis in vitro and in vivo. METHODS: EFDG1 and EFLK1 phages were formulated with poloxamer P407. Gelation time, phage survival, activity and toxicity were evaluated. Lytic activity was evaluated in vitro against E. faecalis at various growth phases, including anti-biofilm activity. Methods included viable bacterial count (CFU/mL), biofilm biomass determination and electron microscopy (live/dead staining). Further evaluation included infected incisors in an in vivo rat model. Anti-E. faecalis phage-cocktail suspension and sustained-release phage formulation were evaluated by viable bacterial count (CFU/mL), histology, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and 16S genome sequencing of the microbiota of the root canal. RESULTS: Gelation time for clinical use was established. Low toxicity and a high phage survival rate were recorded. Sustained-release phages reduced E. faecalis in logarithmic (4 logs), stationary (3 logs) and biofilm (4 logs) growth phases. Prolonged anti-biofilm activity of 88% and 95% reduction in biomass and viable counts, respectively, was recorded. Reduction of intracanal viable bacterial counts was observed (99% of enterococci) also seen in SEM. Phage treatment increased Proteobacteria and decreased Firmicutes. Histology showed reduced periapical inflammation and improved healing following phage treatment. CONCLUSION: Poloxamer P407 formulated with phages has an effective and long-lasting effect in vitro and in vivo targeting E. faecalis.


Assuntos
Bacteriófagos , Terapia Biológica/métodos , Doenças da Polpa Dentária/terapia , Enterococcus faecalis/virologia , Tratamento do Canal Radicular/métodos , Animais , Antibacterianos , Carga Bacteriana , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Preparações de Ação Retardada/administração & dosagem , Cavidade Pulpar/microbiologia , Doenças da Polpa Dentária/microbiologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Enterococcus faecalis/isolamento & purificação , Firmicutes/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Masculino , Proteobactérias/isolamento & purificação , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
9.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 305: 108257, 2019 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31276954

RESUMO

Freezing vegetables requires pre-treatments to reduce microbial load and destroy enzymes that impair the frozen product quality. So far blanching has been the most effective pre-treatment, preferred by the food industry, despite its severity: heating up to temperatures close to 100 °C for 1-3 min causes sensory and texture changes in most horticultural products. Alternative blanching treatments, using UV-C radiation combined with milder thermal treatments or with thermosonication, may improve the quality of the final frozen vegetables. Zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L.), the vegetable under study, has an availability in fresh restricted to a season, needing therefore to be often frozen to be used throughout the year. In this study, its surface was first inoculated with two vegetable contaminants, Enterococcus faecalis and Deinococcus radiodurans cells, which are resistant, respectively, to high temperatures and to radiation and then submitted to several blanching treatments, single or combined, and the effect on these microorganisms reduction was evaluated. As single treatments, water blanching (the control treatment, as it is the blanching treatment traditionally used) was applied up to 180 s at temperatures ranging from 65 to 90 °C, and UV-irradiation applied in continuous. As combined pre-treatments, water blanching combined with UV-C (continuous or in pulses), and thermosonication (20 kHz at 50% of power) combined with UV-C pulses were also studied. The continuous UV-C radiation incident irradiance was 11 W/m2 up to 180 s, and the pulses at incident radiance of 67 W/m2, lasting 3.5 s each (35 pulses). Mathematical modeling of bacterial reduction data was carried out using the Bigelow, the Weibull and Weibull modified models, and estimation of their respective kinetic parameters proved that the latter models presented a better fit below 75 °C. The best results proved to be the combination of water blanching at temperatures as low as 85 °C during <2 min with 25 pulses of UV-C (incident irradiance of 67 W/m2) or thermosonication at 90 °C also combined with UV-C pulses, both resulting in 3 log reductions of both microorganisms under study. These results proved to overcome what industry is requiring so far (a 2 log microbial reduction in 3 min), hence minimizing quality changes of frozen zucchini.


Assuntos
Cucurbita/química , Cucurbita/microbiologia , Deinococcus/fisiologia , Enterococcus faecalis/fisiologia , Conservação de Alimentos/métodos , Verduras/química , Verduras/microbiologia , Carga Bacteriana , Deinococcus/genética , Deinococcus/isolamento & purificação , Enterococcus faecalis/genética , Enterococcus faecalis/isolamento & purificação , Congelamento , Temperatura Ambiente , Água/análise
10.
Biomed Res Int ; 2019: 5921840, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31317033

RESUMO

The misuse/abuse of antibiotics in intensive animal rearing and communities led to the emergence of resistant isolates such as vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VREs) worldwide. This has become a major source of concern for the public health sector. The aim of this study was to report the antibiotic resistance profiles and to highlight the presence of virulence genes in VREs isolated from feedlots cattle of the North-West Province of South Africa. 384 faecal samples, 24 drinking troughs water, and 24 soil samples were collected aseptically from 6 registered feedlots. Biochemical and molecular methods were used to identify and categorise the enterococci isolates. Their antibiotic resistance profiles were assessed and genotypic methods were used to determine their antibiotic resistance and their virulence profiles. 527 presumptive isolates were recovered, out of which 289 isolates were confirmed as Enterococcus sp. Specifically, E. faecalis (9%), E. faecium (10%), E. durans (69%), E. gallinarum (6%), E. casseliflavus (2%), E. mundtii (2%), and E. avium (2%) were screened after molecular assays. VanA (62%), vanB (17%), and vanC (21%) resistance genes were detected in 176 Enterococcus sp., respectively. Moreover, tetK (26), tetL (57), msrA/B (111), and mefA (9) efflux pump genes were detected in 138 VRE isolates. Multiple antibiotic resistances were confirmed in all the VRE isolates of this study; the most common antibiotic resistance phenotype was TETR-AMPR-AMXR-VANR-PENR-LINR-ERYR. CylA, hyl, esp, gelE, and asa1 virulence genes were detected in 86 VREs with the exception of vancomycin-resistant E. mundtii isolates that did not display any virulence factor. Most VRE isolates had more than one virulence genes but the most encountered virulence profile was gelE-hyl. Potentially pathogenic multidrug resistant VREs were detected in this study; this highlights the impact of extensive usage of antimicrobials in intensive animal rearing and its implications on public health cannot be undermined.


Assuntos
Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Enterococcus faecalis/efeitos dos fármacos , Enterococos Resistentes à Vancomicina/genética , Fatores de Virulência/genética , Animais , Bovinos , Enterococcus faecalis/isolamento & purificação , Fezes/microbiologia , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Fenótipo , África do Sul , Enterococos Resistentes à Vancomicina/classificação , Enterococos Resistentes à Vancomicina/efeitos dos fármacos
12.
Int J Antimicrob Agents ; 54(3): 329-337, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31229670

RESUMO

Orthopaedic implant-associated infections are a devastating complication of orthopaedic surgery with a significant impact on patients and healthcare systems. The aims of this work were to describe the patterns of antimicrobial resistance, pathogenicity and virulence of clinical bacterial isolates from orthopaedic implant-associated infections and to further isolate and characterise bacteriophages that are efficient in controlling these bacteria. Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis and Escherichia coli isolated from orthopaedic infections showed multiresistance patterns to the most frequently used antibiotics in clinical settings. The presence of mobile genetic elements (mecA, Tn916/Tn1545 and intl1) and virulence determinants (icaB, cna, hlb, cylLs, cylM, agg, gelE, fsr and fimA) highlighted the pathogenicity of these isolates. Moreover, the isolates belonged to clonal complexes associated with the acquisition of pathogenicity islands and antimicrobial resistance genes by recombination and horizontal gene transfer. Bacteriophages vB_SauM_LM12, vB_EfaS_LM99 and vB_EcoM_JB75 were characterised and their ability to infect clinical isolates of S. aureus, E. faecalis and E. coli, respectively, was assessed. Morphological and genomic analyses revealed that vB_EfaS_LM99 and vB_EcoM_JB75 belong to the Siphoviridae and Myoviridae families, respectively, and no genes associated with lysogeny were found. The bacteriophages showed low latent periods, high burst sizes, broad host ranges and tolerance to several environmental conditions. Moreover, they showed high efficiency and specificity to infect and reduce clinical bacteria, including methicillin-resistant S. aureus and vancomycin-resistant enterococci. Therefore, the results obtained suggest that the bacteriophages used in this work are a promising approach to control these pathogens involved in orthopaedic implant-associated infections.


Assuntos
Bacteriólise , Bacteriófagos/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Escherichia coli/terapia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/terapia , Terapia por Fagos/métodos , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Bacteriófagos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Enterococcus faecalis/efeitos dos fármacos , Enterococcus faecalis/isolamento & purificação , Enterococcus faecalis/patogenicidade , Enterococcus faecalis/virologia , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Escherichia coli/patogenicidade , Escherichia coli/virologia , Feminino , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/microbiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Procedimentos Ortopédicos/efeitos adversos , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação , Staphylococcus aureus/patogenicidade , Staphylococcus aureus/virologia
13.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 485, 2019 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31146691

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bordetella trematum is an infrequent Gram-negative coccobacillus, with a reservoir, pathogenesis, a life cycle and a virulence level which has been poorly elucidated and understood. Related information is scarce due to the low frequency of isolates, so it is important to add data to the literature about this microorganism. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a case of a 74-year-old female, who was referred to the hospital, presenting with ulcer and necrosis in both legs. Therapy with piperacillin-tazobactam was started and peripheral artery revascularization was performed. During the surgery, a tissue fragment was collected, where Bordetella trematum, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, and Enterococcus faecalis were isolated. After surgery, the intubated patient was transferred to the intensive care unit (ICU), using vasoactive drugs through a central venous catheter. Piperacillin-tazobactam was replaced by meropenem, with vancomycin prescribed for 14 days. Four days later, levofloxacin was added for 24 days, aiming at the isolation of S. maltophilia from the ulcer tissue. The necrotic ulcers evolved without further complications, and the patient's clinical condition improved, leading to temporary withdrawal of vasoactive drugs and extubation. Ultimately, however, the patient's general condition worsened, and she died 58 days after hospital admission. CONCLUSIONS: Despite being a rare finding, B. trematum is typically associated with the clinical manifestation of disorders that predispose to ulcer development, which can be infected by microorganisms. The combination of antibiotic therapy and surgical debridement plays a key role in preventing systemic infections. Monitoring the appearance of new cases of B. trematum is essential, since it can be an emerging microorganism. Isolating and defining the clinical relevance of unusual bacteria yields a more accurate perspective in the development of new diagnostic tools and allows for assessment of proper antimicrobial therapy.


Assuntos
Infecções por Bordetella/diagnóstico , Bordetella , Idoso , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Bordetella/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Bordetella/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Bordetella/microbiologia , Coinfecção , Pé Diabético/complicações , Pé Diabético/diagnóstico , Pé Diabético/tratamento farmacológico , Pé Diabético/microbiologia , Enterococcus faecalis/isolamento & purificação , Evolução Fatal , Feminino , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/complicações , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/diagnóstico , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/microbiologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/complicações , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/diagnóstico , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/microbiologia , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Necrose/diagnóstico , Necrose/microbiologia , Combinação Piperacilina e Tazobactam/uso terapêutico , Stenotrophomonas maltophilia/isolamento & purificação , Úlcera/diagnóstico , Úlcera/microbiologia
14.
J Appl Microbiol ; 127(3): 897-910, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31173435

RESUMO

AIMS: To elucidate the antibiotic resistance and virulence genes of nisin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis isolated from raw buffalo milk and to study the effect of nisin-sensitive and -resistant E. faecalis on the innate immunity of rats. METHODS AND RESULTS: Slanetz-Bartley agar plates containing nisin were used to isolate nisin-resistant E. faecalis. The virulence factors were ascertained using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Cell viability, phagocytosis, intracellular survival and enzyme assays were performed to investigate the interaction of E. faecalis with rat macrophages. Nisin-resistant E. faecalis was less prone to phagocytosis and survived longer inside the macrophages, due to reduced production of reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide. The viability and activation of macrophages was also reduced in the presence of resistant E. faecalis, as observed by enhanced lactate dehydrogenase production and reduced ß-galactosidase. CONCLUSIONS: Nisin-resistant E. faecalis and its virulence factors were reported in raw buffalo milk. This study shows that nisin-resistant variants exhibited cross resistance to antibiotics and suppressed the innate immune responses of rats by directly affecting macrophage activity. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: This study elucidated the contamination of raw buffalo milk by nisin-resistant E. faecalis, which may pose food safety risk.


Assuntos
Enterococcus faecalis/genética , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Leite/microbiologia , Animais , Búfalos , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Enterococcus faecalis/efeitos dos fármacos , Enterococcus faecalis/isolamento & purificação , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Macrófagos/fisiologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Nisina/farmacologia , Ratos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Virulência/genética , Fatores de Virulência/genética
15.
Biomed Res Int ; 2019: 2815279, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31211134

RESUMO

The emergence of antimicrobial-resistant and virulent enterococci is a major public health concern. While enterococci are commonly found in food of animal origin, the knowledge on their zoonotic potential is limited. The aim of this study was to determine and compare the antimicrobial susceptibility and virulence traits of Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium isolates from human clinical specimens and retail red meat in Slovenia. A total of 242 isolates were investigated: 101 from humans (71 E. faecalis, 30 E. faecium) and 141 from fresh beef and pork (120 E. faecalis, 21 E. faecium). The susceptibility to 12 antimicrobials was tested using a broth microdilution method, and the presence of seven common virulence genes was investigated using PCR. In both species, the distribution of several resistance phenotypes and virulence genes was disparate for isolates of different origin. All isolates were susceptible to daptomycin, linezolid, teicoplanin, and vancomycin. In both species, the susceptibility to antimicrobials was strongly associated with a food origin and the multidrug resistance, observed in 29.6% of E. faecalis and 73.3% E. faecium clinical isolates, with a clinical origin (Fisher's exact test). Among meat isolates, in total 66.0% of E. faecalis and E. faecium isolates were susceptible to all antimicrobials tested and 32.6% were resistant to either one or two antimicrobials. In E. faecalis, several virulence genes were significantly associated with a clinical origin; the most common (31.0%) gene pattern included all the tested genes except hyl. In meat isolates, the virulence genes were detected in E. faecalis only and the most common pattern included ace, efaA, and gelE (32.5%), of which gelE showed a statistically significant association with a clinical origin. These results emphasize the importance of E. faecalis in red meat as a reservoir of virulence genes involved in its persistence and human infections with reported severe outcomes.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Enterococcus faecalis , Enterococcus faecium , Microbiologia de Alimentos , /microbiologia , Animais , Enterococcus faecalis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Enterococcus faecalis/isolamento & purificação , Enterococcus faecium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Enterococcus faecium/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Eslovênia
16.
Lakartidningen ; 1162019 Jun 14.
Artigo em Sueco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31211403

RESUMO

International guidelines recommend that the treatment of patients with infective endocarditis (IE) should be directed by a multidisciplinary endocarditis team. The aim of this study was to describe the first-year experience of multidisciplinary rounds by the endocarditis team in Scania, Sweden. This was a retrospective study on all possible and definitive IE episodes that were assessed by the endocarditis team from January 1st to December 31st, 2017. Descriptive statistics were used. A total of 145 multidisciplinary rounds were held and addressed 100 episodes in 97 patients. The median age was 71 years and 66% were males. The most common causative pathogens were alpha-hemolytic streptococci, Staphylococcus aureus, coagulase-negative staphylococci, and enterococci. The endocarditis team recommended surgery in 40 % of episodes. The transfer of patients between different hospitals was facilitated by the team.  The IE team evaluated a large proportion of patients with IE in the region and provided a rapid expert opinion on the optimal management of complicated cases of IE.


Assuntos
Endocardite , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente , Idoso , Endocardite/diagnóstico , Endocardite/epidemiologia , Endocardite/microbiologia , Endocardite/terapia , Enterococcus faecalis/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Staphylococcus/isolamento & purificação , Streptococcus/isolamento & purificação , Suécia/epidemiologia
17.
J Med Microbiol ; 68(8): 1244-1252, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31184571

RESUMO

The high incidence of urinary tract infection (UTI) among women and children, in combination with a lack of antibiotic efficacy with regard to pathogen eradication and recurrence prevention, as well as the negative side effects associated with antibiotics, has led researchers to explore the role of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs as a primary management strategy. The aim of this study was to determine whether ibuprofen (IBU) or one of its major metabolites, 2-carboxyibuprofen (CIBU), could affect the growth and adhesion of the two most common uropathogens, Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis. The bacterial growth and adhesion to the urothelial cells of E. coli UTI89 and E. faecalis 1131 in the presence of physiologically relevant concentrations of IBU and CIBU were assessed. The effect of IBU on bacterial adhesion to urothelial cells was also assessed following exposure to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX) and nitrofurantoin. Bacterial growth was not affected by IBU. Further, only at high levels of IBU not regularly found in the bladder was there a significant increase in E. faecalis 1131 attachment at growth inhibitory concentrations of TMP/SMX. There was no effect on the attachment of E. faecalis or E. coli to urothelial cells in the presence of nitrofurantoin. These studies indicate that the beneficial effects of IBU for UTI management are likely mediated through its anti-inflammatory properties rather than direct interactions with uropathogens in the bladder.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/farmacologia , Enterococcus faecalis/isolamento & purificação , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Ibuprofeno/farmacologia , Infecções Urinárias/microbiologia , Anti-Infecciosos Urinários/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Aderência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Enterococcus faecalis/efeitos dos fármacos , Enterococcus faecalis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Enterococcus faecalis/fisiologia , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Escherichia coli/fisiologia , Humanos , Ibuprofeno/análogos & derivados , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Viabilidade Microbiana/efeitos dos fármacos , Nitrofurantoína/farmacologia , Combinação Trimetoprima e Sulfametoxazol/farmacologia , Urotélio
18.
Microb Cell Fact ; 18(1): 94, 2019 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31138294

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Flavone C-glycosides are difficult to be deglycosylated using traditional chemical methods due to their solid carbon-carbon bond between sugar moieties and aglycones; however, some bacteria may easily cleave this bond because they generate various specific enzymes. RESULTS: A bacterial strain, named W12-1, capable of deglycosylating orientin, vitexin, and isovitexin to their aglycones, was isolated from human intestinal bacteria in this study and identified as Enterococcus faecalis based on morphological examination, physiological and biochemical identification, and 16S rDNA sequencing. The strain was shown to preferentially deglycosylate the flavone C-glycosides on condition that the culture medium was short of carbon nutrition sources such as glucose and starch, and its deglycosylation efficiency was negatively correlated with the content of the latter two substances. CONCLUSION: This study provided a new bacterial resource for the cleavage of C-glycosidic bond of flavone C-glycosides and reported the carbon nutrition sources reduction induced deglycosylation for the first time.


Assuntos
Enterococcus faecalis/metabolismo , Fezes/microbiologia , Flavonas/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Glicosídeos/metabolismo , Intestinos/microbiologia , Adulto , Apigenina/metabolismo , Carbono/metabolismo , Enterococcus faecalis/classificação , Enterococcus faecalis/genética , Enterococcus faecalis/isolamento & purificação , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Glucosídeos/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Análise de Sequência de RNA
20.
J Microbiol Immunol Infect ; 52(3): 433-442, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30827858

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the occurrence of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) isolated from patients in Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Beijing, China from 2011 to 2017, and to evaluate their resistance mechanisms and genetic relatedness. METHODS: All isolates were identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF). Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed using the broth microdilution method. Molecular characterization were detected by PCR and sequencing. Genotyping of VRE isolates was performed by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis. Virulence genes were detected by multiplex PCR. RESULTS: A total of 87 consecutive VRE were collected, including 84 isolates of vancomycin resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREfm) and 3 isolates of Enterococcus faecalis (VREfs). Urine (40.2%, 35/87) and blood (17.2%, 15/87) were the most commonly specimens. All VREfm isolates were resistant to ampicillin, and were susceptible to daptomycin, linezolid and tigecycline. The resistant rate of teicoplanin was 47.6%. All of the VREfm isolates carried the vanA gene, no isolates carried vanB. 11.9% (10/84) VREfm isolates carried both vanA and vanM. Among them, 76.2% (64/84) and 66.7% (56/84) carried esp and hyl, respectively. The 3 vancomycin resistant E. faecalis (VREfs) isolates were varied, and only one carried vanB. A total of 3 and 18 STs were detected among VREfs and VREfm strains, respectively. PFGE results indicated a genetic diversity among VREfm isolates. CONCLUSION: This study confirms that VREfm isolates associated with ST78 were the main epidemic lineage responsible for nosocomial infections in China, as were also observed in other nations worldwide.


Assuntos
Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/microbiologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/epidemiologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/microbiologia , Enterococos Resistentes à Vancomicina/genética , Enterococos Resistentes à Vancomicina/isolamento & purificação , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Pequim/epidemiologia , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Enterococcus faecalis/classificação , Enterococcus faecalis/efeitos dos fármacos , Enterococcus faecalis/genética , Enterococcus faecalis/isolamento & purificação , Enterococcus faecium/classificação , Enterococcus faecium/efeitos dos fármacos , Enterococcus faecium/genética , Enterococcus faecium/isolamento & purificação , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Epidemiologia Molecular , Tipagem Molecular , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Resistência a Vancomicina/genética , Enterococos Resistentes à Vancomicina/classificação , Enterococos Resistentes à Vancomicina/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores de Virulência/genética
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