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2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32178603

RESUMO

From 1 January to 31 December 2018, thirty-six institutions around Australia participated in the Australian Enterococcal Sepsis Outcome Programme (AESOP). The aim of AESOP 2018 was to determine the proportion of enterococcal bacteraemia isolates in Australia that were antimicrobial resistant, and to characterise the molecular epidemiology of the E. faecium isolates. Of the 1,248 unique episodes of bacteraemia investigated, 93.5% were caused by either E. faecalis (54.2%) or E. faecium (39.3%). Ampicillin resistance was not detected in E. faecalis but was detected in 89.4% of E. faecium. Vancomycin non-susceptibility was not detected in E. faecalis but was reported in 45.0% of E. faecium. Overall 49.3% of E. faecium isolates harboured vanA or vanB genes. Of the vanA/vanB positive E. faecium isolates, 52.9% harboured vanA genes and 46.2% vanB genes; 0.8% harboured both vanA and vanB genes. The percentage of E. faecium bacteraemia isolates resistant to vancomycin in Australia is substantially higher than that seen in most European countries. E. faecium consisted of 59 multilocus sequence types (STs) of which 74.4% of isolates were classified into six major STs containing ten or more isolates. All major STs belong to clonal cluster (CC) 17, a major hospital-adapted polyclonal E. faecium cluster. The predominant STs (ST17, ST1424, ST796, ST80, ST1421, and ST262) were found across most regions of Australia. The most predominant clone was ST17 which was identified in all regions except the Australian Capital Territory and the Northern Territory. Overall, 55.8% of isolates belonging to the six predominant STs harboured vanA or vanB genes. The AESOP 2018 study has shown that enterococcal bacteraemias in Australia are frequently caused by polyclonal ampicillin-resistant high-level gentamicin-resistant vanA- or vanB-harbouring E. faecium which have limited treatment options.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Bacteriemia , Enterococcus faecium , Enterococcus , Sepse , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Território da Capital Australiana , Bacteriemia/epidemiologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Enterococcus/efeitos dos fármacos , Enterococcus faecium/efeitos dos fármacos , Enterococcus faecium/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Epidemiologia Molecular , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , Northern Territory , Sepse/epidemiologia , Sepse/microbiologia
3.
Sci Total Environ ; 719: 137275, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32109727

RESUMO

The rise of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus spp. (VRE) has led to treatment challenges in hospital settings worldwide. Hospital wastewater (HW) might disseminate this threat to the aquatic environment. Thus, this study elucidates the VRE resistance quotient (RQ) of different environmental matrixes in wastewater and compares genomic determinants of VRE strains recovered from HW to water resources. Presumptive Enterococcus spp. and VRE were quantified and isolated using standard microbiological procedures. Fourteen VRE genomes were then sequenced using an Illumina HiSeq X™ Ten platform. Subsequently, VRE genomes were compared based on antibiotic resistance genes, plasmids, bacteriophages, insertion sequences, transposons, virulence and pathogenicity. Wastewater effluent showed the highest RQ among all sampled matrixes. The phylogeny of vancomycin-resistant E. faecalis (VREfs) and E. faecium (VREfm) revealed a tree structure based on their respective sequence type. A comparative genomic analysis of 14 genomes highlighted regions encoding phage protein, phage holin, phage integrase, integrase and transposase on both query genomes and the reference genome. Acquired resistance to vancomycin was conferred by vanA, vanN, vanL, vanG and the intrinsic resistance vanC operons. Plasmids were dominated by the presence of conserved areas of the replication initiating genes (rep). The Tn3-like and Tn917 transposons were present in all erythromycin-carrying erm(B) isolated VRE genomes. All VRE genomes expect one were putatively predicted as human pathogens with varying degrees of virulence. The presence of such resistant bacteria in African water resource is of great public health concern. It is, therefore, recommended that these bacteria be tracked and characterised from different environments to contribute to improved epidemiological containment action.


Assuntos
Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Enterococcus/genética , Antibacterianos , Proteínas de Bactérias , Genômica , Hospitais , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Vancomicina , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Águas Residuárias
4.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(8): 8166-8175, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31900772

RESUMO

Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have become frequently used materials in biotechnological and biomedical applications including cancer. They can be commonly synthesized by biological and chemical methods. In the present study, we synthesized Enterococcus-mediated AuNPs and evaluated their cytotoxicity in human colorectal cancer cell line (HT-29). AuNPs are synthesized intracellularly using Enterococcus sp. RMAA. Characterization of AuNPs has done using UV spectrophotometry and transmission electron microscope. Cytotoxicity was evaluated by MTT assay. Intercellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) expression and apoptosis-related morphology were evaluated by dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate and acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining via fluorescence microscopy. JC-1 staining and caspase 3 immunofluorescence expression were analyzed by confocal microscopy. Enterococcus sp. RMAA-mediated AuNPs are spherical and induced concentration-dependent cytotoxicity in HT-29 cells. AuNP treatments also induced ROS and caspase-3 expressions and reduced the mitochondrial membrane potential. Morphology related to apoptotic changes was also noticed after AuNP treatments in HT-29 cells. The present study revealed that Enterococcus-derived AuNPs induced apoptotic cell death in HT-29 cells and suggests that AuNPs could be used as a pro apoptotic agent for colon cancer treatment.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Colo , Neoplasias Colorretais , Enterococcus/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Apoptose , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Ouro , Humanos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química
5.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0226817, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31978082

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A large proportion of neonates are treated for presumed bacterial sepsis with broad spectrum antibiotics even though their blood cultures subsequently show no growth. This study aimed to investigate PCR-based methods to identify pathogens not detected by conventional culture. METHODS: Whole blood samples of 208 neonates with suspected early onset sepsis were tested using a panel of multiplexed bacterial PCRs targeting Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus agalactiae (GBS), Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes (GAS), Enterobacteriaceae, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium, Ureaplasma parvum, Ureaplasma urealyticum, Mycoplasma hominis and Mycoplasma genitalium, a 16S rRNA gene broad-range PCR and a multiplexed PCR for Candida spp. RESULTS: Two-hundred and eight samples were processed. In five of those samples, organisms were detected by conventional culture; all of those were also identified by PCR. PCR detected bacteria in 91 (45%) of the 203 samples that did not show bacterial growth in culture. S. aureus, Enterobacteriaceae and S. pneumoniae were the most frequently detected pathogens. A higher bacterial load detected by PCR was correlated positively with the number of clinical signs at presentation. CONCLUSION: Real-time PCR has the potential to be a valuable additional tool for the diagnosis of neonatal sepsis.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Bacterianas/diagnóstico , Candida/isolamento & purificação , Candidíase/diagnóstico , Sepse Neonatal/microbiologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Idade de Início , Bactérias/genética , Candida/genética , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Diagnóstico Precoce , Enterobacteriaceae/genética , Enterobacteriaceae/isolamento & purificação , Enterococcus/genética , Enterococcus/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Lactente Extremamente Prematuro , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex , Mycoplasma/genética , Mycoplasma/isolamento & purificação , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Staphylococcus aureus/genética , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação , Streptococcus/genética , Streptococcus/isolamento & purificação , Ureaplasma/genética , Ureaplasma/isolamento & purificação
6.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0225077, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31951610

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The data on infective endocarditis after transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is scarce and limited to case reports and case series in the literature. It is the need of the hour to analyze the available data on post-TAVI infective endocarditis from the available literature. The objectives of this systematic review were to evaluate the incidence of infective endocarditis after transcatheter aortic valve implantation, its microbiological profile and clinical outcomes. It will help us to improve the antibiotic prophylaxis strategies and treatment options for infective endocarditis in the context of TAVI. METHODS: EMBASE, Medline and the CENTRAL trials registry of the Cochrane Collaboration were searched for articles on infective endocarditis in post-TAVI patients till October 2018. Eleven articles were included in the systematic review. The outcomes assessed werethe incidence of infective endocarditis, its microbiological profile andclinical outcomes including major adverse cardiac event (MACE), net adverse clinical event (NACE), surgical intervention and valve-in-valve procedure. RESULTS: The incidence of infective endocarditis varied from 0%-14.3% in the included studies, the mean was3.25%. The average duration of follow-up was 474 days (1.3 years). Enterococci were the most common causative organism isolated from 25.9% of cases followed by Staphylococcus aureus (16.1%) and coagulase-negative Staphylococcus species (14.7%). The mean in-hospital mortality and mortality at follow-up was 29.5% and 29.9%, respectively. The cumulative incidence of heart failure, stroke and major bleeding were 37.1%, 5.3% and 11.3%,respectively. Only a single study by Martinez-Selles et al. reported arrhythmias in 20% cases. The septic shock occurred in 10% and 27.7% post-TAVI infective endocarditis patients according to 2 studies. The surgical intervention and valve-in-valve procedure were reported in 11.4% and 6.4% cases, respectively. CONCLUSION: The incidence of post-TAVI infective endocarditis is low being 3.25% but it is associated with high mortality and complications. The most common complication is heart failure with a cumulative incidence of 37.1%. Enterococciare the most common causative organism isolated from 25.9% of cases followed by Staphylococcus aureus in 16.1% of cases. Appropriate measures should be taken to prevent infective endocarditis in post-TAVI patients including adequate antibiotics prophylaxis directed specifically against these organisms. STUDY REGISTRATION: PROSPERO registration number CRD42018115943.


Assuntos
Endocardite Bacteriana/microbiologia , Endocardite/microbiologia , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/microbiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antibioticoprofilaxia/métodos , Endocardite/tratamento farmacológico , Endocardite/epidemiologia , Endocardite/patologia , Endocardite Bacteriana/tratamento farmacológico , Endocardite Bacteriana/epidemiologia , Endocardite Bacteriana/patologia , Enterococcus/efeitos dos fármacos , Enterococcus/patogenicidade , Feminino , Próteses Valvulares Cardíacas/microbiologia , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/epidemiologia , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/patologia , Fatores de Risco , Caracteres Sexuais , Infecções Estafilocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Estafilocócicas/epidemiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/patologia , Staphylococcus aureus/patogenicidade , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0227136, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31923233

RESUMO

Antibiotics are administered to livestock in animal feeding operations (AFOs) for the control, prevention, and treatment of disease. Manure from antibiotic treated livestock contains unmetabolized antibiotics that provide selective pressure on bacteria, facilitating the expression of anti-microbial resistance (AMR). Manure application on row crops is an agronomic practice used by growers to meet crop nutrient needs; however, it can be a source of AMR to the soil and water environment. This study in central Iowa aims to directly compare AMR indicators in outlet runoff from two adjacent (221 to 229 ha) manured and non-manured catchments (manure comparison), and among three catchments (600 to 804 ha) with manure influence, no known manure application (control), and urban influences (mixed land use comparison). Monitored AMR indicators included antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) ermB, ermF (macrolide), tetA, tetM, tetO, tetW (tetracycline), sul1, sul2 (sulfonamide), aadA2 (aminoglycoside), vgaA, and vgaB (pleuromutilin), and tylosin and tetracycline resistant enterococci bacteria. Results of the manure comparison showed significantly higher (p<0.05) tetracycline and tylosin resistant bacteria from the catchment with manure application in 2017, but no differences in 2018, possibly due to changes in antibiotic use resulting from the Veterinary Feed Directive. Moreover, the ARG analysis indicated a larger diversity of ARGs at the manure amended catchment. The mixed land use comparison showed the manure amended catchment had significantly higher (p<0.05) tetracycline resistant bacteria in 2017 and significantly higher tylosin resistant bacteria in 2017 and 2018 than the urban influenced catchment. The urban influenced catchment had significantly higher ermB concentrations in both sampling years, however the manure applied catchment runoff consisted of higher relative abundance of total ARGs. Additionally, both catchments showed higher AMR indicators compared to the control catchment. This study identifies four ARGs that might be specific to AMR as a result of agricultural sources (tetM, tetW, sul1, sul2) and optimal for use in watershed scale monitoring studies for tracking resistance in the environment.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos/genética , Genes Bacterianos , Água Subterrânea/microbiologia , Esterco/microbiologia , Animais , Enterococcus/genética , Iowa , Gado/microbiologia , Tetraciclina/farmacologia , Tilosina/farmacologia
8.
Water Res ; 171: 115441, 2020 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31927090

RESUMO

This study is an analysis of relationships between microalgae (measured as chlorophyll a) and the fecal indicator bacteria enterococci. Microalgae blooms and enterococci exceedances have been occurring in Florida's recreational waterways for years. More recently, this has become a management concern as microalgae blooms have been attributed to potentially toxic cyanobacteria, and enterococci exceedances link to human infection/illness. Since both the microalgal blooms and bacterial exceedances occur in regions that receive managed freshwater releases from Lake Okeechobee, we hypothesized that both the blooms and exceedances are related to excess nutrients from the lake. Two experimental sites, on Lake Okeechobee and the St. Lucie River (downstream of the lake), plus a control site on the Loxahatchee River (which does not receive lake flow) were evaluated. The hypothesis was evaluated through three study components: 1) analysis of available long-term data from local environmental databases, 2) a year-long monthly sampling and analysis of chlorophyll a, enterococci, nutrients, and physical-chemical data, and 3) microcosm experiments with altered water/sediment conditions. Results support the hypothesis that excess nutrients play a role in both chlorophyll a and enterococci levels. For the St. Lucie River, analyses indicate that chlorophyll a correlated significantly with total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) (R2 = 0.30, p = 0.008) and the strongest model for enterococci included nitrate-nitrite, TKN, total phosphorus, orthophosphorus, and turbidity in our long-term analysis (n = 39, R2 = 0.83, p ≤ 0.001). The microcosm results indicated that chlorophyll a and enterococci only persisted for 36 h in water from all sources, and that sediments from Lake Okeechobee may have allowed for sustained levels of chlorophyll a and enterococci levels. Overall similarities were observed in chlorophyll a and enterococci relationships with nutrient concentrations regardless of a Lake Okeechobee connection, as underscored by a study of flow out of the lake and downstream areas. This suggests that both nutrient-rich lake water and untreated surface water runoff contribute to microalgae blooms and enterococci exceedances in southeast Florida.


Assuntos
Lagos , Microalgas , Proliferação de Células , Clorofila , Clorofila A , Enterococcus , Monitoramento Ambiental , Eutrofização , Florida , Nitrogênio , Fósforo
9.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(1): 128-140, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31677843

RESUMO

The dairy farm environment influences the raw milk microbiota and consequently affects milk processing. Therefore, it is crucial to investigate farm management practices such as the bedding materials. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of recycled manure solids (RMS) as bedding material on bulk tank milk and microbiological implications for cheese quality. Bulk tank samples were collected from 84 dairy farms using RMS or straw bedding. The use of RMS did not influence thermophilic and mesophilic aerobic viable counts from spores. However, straw-milk samples gave higher values for mesophilic anaerobic spore-forming bacteria (0.44 log cfu/mL) than RMS-milk samples (0.17 log cfu/mL). The presence of thermoresistant lactic acid bacteria was not increased in milk from farms using RMS. Nevertheless, taxonomic profiles of thermoresistant bacteria isolated were different between the 2 types of milk. More Enterococcus faecalis and Streptococcus spp. were identified in RMS-milk samples. Thermoresistant enterococci and streptococci could easily end up in cheese. Therefore, milk proteolytic activities of these isolates were tested. Neither Streptococcus spp. nor Enterococcus faecium isolates exhibited proteolytic activities, whereas 53% of E. faecalis showed some. Also, only 1 vancomycin-resistant enterococcus was detected. Survival of selected RMS-milk samples isolates (3 E. faecalis and 1 Streptococcus thermophilus) was evaluated during a model Cheddar cheese manufacture. Although those strains survived well, they did not modify the acidification curve of milk. However, they might cause organoleptic defects during cheese maturing.


Assuntos
Bactérias/classificação , Roupas de Cama, Mesa e Banho/veterinária , Queijo/normas , Leite/microbiologia , Animais , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Roupas de Cama, Mesa e Banho/microbiologia , Queijo/microbiologia , Enterococcus/classificação , Enterococcus/isolamento & purificação , Fazendas , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Esterco/microbiologia , Reciclagem , Streptococcus/classificação , Streptococcus/isolamento & purificação , Termotolerância
10.
Food Microbiol ; 86: 103335, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31703853

RESUMO

The presence of eight common structural enterocin genes, singly or in varying combinations, in the genome of 15 antagonistic Enterococcus spp. previously isolated from artisan Greek Graviera and Galotyri retail cheeses was tested and associated with the mode of enterocin (Ent+) antilisterial activity of each isolate in three liquid culture media. The isolates were assigned to nine distinct strain genotypes of E. faecium (4 strains), E. durans (2) and E. faecalis (3). All strains were non-hemolytic, except for a cyl-positive E. faecalis genotype isolated from Galotyri cheese, which was strongly listericidal. All other strains varied from being listeriostatic to weakly listericidal in MRS and M17 broth, whereas all failed to inhibit listerial growth in skim milk. Two E. faecium strains retained strong Ent+ activity following neutralization and filter-sterilization of their MRS or M17 co-culture supernatants, whereas, all others required contact or proximity of their viable cells with L. monocytogenes cells in order to display activity. Additional studies to evaluate safety and potential synergistic effects of each strain genotype with starter LAB species in real milk environments will reveal the most active and truly harmless Enterococcus genotypes to be applied as co-starter or bioprotective adjunct cultures in traditional Greek cheese technologies.


Assuntos
Queijo/microbiologia , Enterococcus/química , Listeria monocytogenes/efeitos dos fármacos , Leite/microbiologia , Animais , Hidrocarbonetos Aromáticos com Pontes/química , Hidrocarbonetos Aromáticos com Pontes/metabolismo , Hidrocarbonetos Aromáticos com Pontes/farmacologia , Bovinos , Meios de Cultura/química , Meios de Cultura/metabolismo , Enterococcus/genética , Enterococcus/isolamento & purificação , Enterococcus/metabolismo , Grécia , Listeria monocytogenes/crescimento & desenvolvimento
11.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 14: 9411-9421, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31819440

RESUMO

Purpose: Fusidic acid (FA) and sodium fusidate (SF) have problems in their skin penetration and stability resulting in a reduction in their potency; therefore, the objective of this study was to develop FA and SF nanoemulgels to improve the antibacterial activity of the drugs. Methods: FA and SF nanoemulgel formulations were prepared by the incorporation of FA and SF nanoemulsions with Carbopol hydrogel. First, the drugs were screened for their solubility in different oils and surfactants to choose the suitable oil and surfactants for the drugs, and then the drug nanoemulsion formulations were prepared by a self-nanoemulsifying technique using Tween 80, Span 20 and pine oil. The drug nanoemulgels were evaluated for their particle size, polydispersity index (PDI), rheological behaviour, drug release and anti-microbial activity. Results: Based on the solubility test, pine oil was the best solubilising oil for both drugs, Tween 80 and Span 20 showed the highest solubilising ability for both the drugs among the surfactants; therefore, they were chosen as surfactant and co-surfactant, respectively. The optimum self-nanoemulsifying formulations showed a particle size for fusidic acid and Sodium fusidate of 140.58 nm and 151.86 nm respectively, and both showed a low PDI below 0.3. After incorporating both drug SNEDDS formulations with Carbopol at different concentrations, the results of the drugs particle size and PDI showed no significant difference. The zeta potential results for both drugs nanoemulgels showed a negative potential with more than 30 mV. All nanoemulgel formulations showed pseudo-plastic behaviour with the highest release pattern at 0.4% Carbopol. The antibacterial activity of both drug nanoemulgel formulations showed superiority over the market product. Conclusion: Nanoemulgel is a promising delivery system for FA and SF that helps in improving the stability and antibacterial activities of the drugs.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Emulsões/química , Ácido Fusídico/farmacologia , Géis/química , Nanopartículas/química , Óleos Vegetais/química , Enterococcus/efeitos dos fármacos , Tamanho da Partícula , Transição de Fase , Reologia , Solubilidade , Espectrofotometria Ultravioleta , Eletricidade Estática
12.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 1062, 2019 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31852453

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To investigate the cumulative incidence of and factors associated with mortality among patients with infective endocarditis (IE) at Thailand's largest national tertiary referral center. METHODS: Medical charts of adult patients diagnosed with IE by Duke criteria at Siriraj Hospital during January 2005 to May 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. RESULTS: Of 380 patients, 66.3% had definite IE, and 81.3% had native valve IE (NVE). Cumulative IE incidence was 5.67/1000 admissions. The most common pathogens were viridans group streptococci (VGS) (39.7%), methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) (13.1%), and beta-hemolytic streptococci (11.5%) in NVE; and, MSSA (20.3%), VGS (20.3%), and Enterococcus spp. (16.9%) in prosthetic valve (PVE) or device-related IE (DRIE). Overall in-hospital mortality was 18.4%. Mortality was significantly higher in PVE/DRIE than in NVE (26.8% vs. 16.5%, p = 0.047). End-stage renal disease (ESRD) (aOR: 9.43, 95% CI: 2.36-37.70), diabetes mellitus (DM) (aOR: 2.81, 95% CI: 1.06-7.49), neurological complication (aOR: 14.16, 95% CI: 5.11-39.22), congestive heart failure (aOR: 4.32, 95% CI: 1.91-9.75), hospital-acquired infection (aOR: 3.78, 95% CI: 1.66-8.57), renal complication (aOR: 3.12, 95%CI: 1.32-7.37), and other complication during admission (aOR: 3.28, 95% CI: 1.41-7.61) were independently associated with mortality. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of IE, and the mortality rate among those diagnosed with IE are both increasing in Thailand - particularly among those with PVE or DRIE. End-stage renal disease, diabetes mellitus, and development of IE-related complications during admission were found to be independent predictors of mortality.


Assuntos
Endocardite Bacteriana/epidemiologia , Enterococcus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Estafilocócicas/epidemiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Estreptocócicas/epidemiologia , Streptococcus/isolamento & purificação , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Infecção Hospitalar , Endocardite Bacteriana/microbiologia , Endocardite Bacteriana/mortalidade , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/mortalidade , Infecções Estreptocócicas/microbiologia , Infecções Estreptocócicas/mortalidade , Tailândia/epidemiologia , Estreptococos Viridans/isolamento & purificação , Adulto Jovem
13.
Biomed Res Int ; 2019: 8051438, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31886252

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate enterococci as lactic acid bacteria and as part of Firmicutes phylum. We focused on the virulence factor, biofilm formation, and antibiotic resistance and also on lactic acid production and enterocin gene detection. Intestinal samples were taken from 50 healthy trout (3 Salmo trutta and 47 Salmo gairdneri) collected in April 2007, 2010, and 2015 from different locations at the Bukovec water reservoir and the Cierny Váh River in Slovakia. Twenty pure colonies were identified using the matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry identification system based on protein fingerprints, and then seven identified strains were also phenotyped. Based on the identification methods used, the identified enterococci (7) belong taxonomically to four different enterococcal species: Enterococcus durans, E. faecium, E. mundtii, and E. thailandicus. They were hemolysis, DNase, and gelatinase negative with acceptable enzymatic activity. They did not form biofilm and were mostly susceptible to antibiotics. All strains produced lactic acid amounting to 1.78 ± 0.33 mmol/l on average and possessed the gene for enterocin A production. This is the first study reporting more detailed properties of enterococci from trout in Slovakian wild water sources, and it produces new possibilities for studying microbiota in trout.


Assuntos
Enterococcus/isolamento & purificação , Rios/microbiologia , Segurança , Truta/microbiologia , Microbiologia da Água , Animais , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Enterococcus/enzimologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Eslováquia , Especificidade da Espécie
14.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 40(7): 3270-3275, 2019 Jul 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31854728

RESUMO

Municipal sludge contains large amounts of enterococci, which can harbor antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and virulence genes (VGs). ARG- and VG-containing enterococci therefore present potential resistance and virulence and, as a consequence, represent a significant health risk to humans. Therefore, the resistance phenotype of enterococci and the prevalence of ARGs and VGs in the enterococci isolated from the mesophilic (40℃) and thermophilic (55℃) anaerobic digestion of thermal hydrolyzed sludge was investigated. Results showed that the enterococci isolated from thermal hydrolyzed sludge showed significantly higher resistance to azithromycin than that to spiramycin and tetracycline. Thermophilic anaerobic digestion resulted in a greater reduction of enterococci abundance (by two orders of magnitude and one order of magnitude, respectively), and a greater reduction in the antibiotic resistance rates of the enterococci. However, thermophilic digestion can promote the expression of tetracycline resistance genes in the enterococci. Furthermore, both mesophilic and thermophilic digestion can facilitate horizontal genes transfer (HGT) between enterococci, which might result in an increase in the occurrence of double- or multiple-resistance. Mesophilic digestion reduced the prevalence of co-occurring ARGs and VGs in enterococci, while thermophilic digestion had the opposite effect. This research improves understanding of the occurrence and fate of ARGs and VGs in potential pathogens during the treatment of municipal sludge.


Assuntos
Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos/genética , Enterococcus/genética , Genes Bacterianos , Esgotos/microbiologia , Anaerobiose , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Virulência/genética
15.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 1066, 2019 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31856747

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Symptomatic and asymptomatic enteric infections in early childhood are associated with negative effects on childhood growth and development, especially in low and middle-income countries, and food may be an important transmission route. Although basic food hygiene practices might reduce exposure to faecal pathogens and resulting infections, there have been few rigorous interventions studies to assess this, and no studies in low income urban settings where risks are plausibly very high. The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of a novel infant food hygiene intervention on infant enteric infections and diarrhoea in peri-urban settlements of Kisumu, Kenya. METHODS: This is a cluster randomized control trial with 50 clusters, representing the catchment areas of Community Health Volunteers (CHVs), randomly assigned to intervention or control, and a total of 750 infants recruited on a rolling basis at 22 weeks of age and then followed for 15 weeks. The intervention targeted four key caregiver behaviours related to food hygiene: 1) hand washing with soap before infant food preparation and feeding; 2) bringing all infant food to the boil before feeding, including when reheating or reserving; 3) storing all infant food in sealed containers; and, 4) using only specific utensils for infant feeding which are kept separate and clean. RESULTS: The primary outcome of interest is the prevalence of one or more of 23 pre-specified enteric infections, determined using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction for enteric pathogen gene targets. In addition, infant food samples were collected at 33 weeks, and faecal indicator bacteria (Enterococcus) isolated and enumerated to assess the impact of the intervention on infant food contamination. CONCLUSION: To our knowledge this is the first randomized controlled trial to assess the effect of an infant food hygiene intervention on enteric infections in a high burden, low income urban setting. Our trial responds to growing evidence that food may be a key pathway for early childhood enteric infection and disease and that basic food hygiene behaviours may be able to mitigate these risks. The Safe Start trial seeks to provide new evidence as to whether a locally appropriate infant food hygiene intervention delivered through the local health extension system can improve the health of young children. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The trial was registered at clinicaltrial.gov on March 16th 2018 before enrolment of any participants (https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03468114).


Assuntos
Diarreia/epidemiologia , Diarreia/microbiologia , Enterite/epidemiologia , Enterite/microbiologia , Desinfecção das Mãos/métodos , Infecções/epidemiologia , Pobreza , Cuidadores , Culinária , Diarreia/prevenção & controle , Enterite/prevenção & controle , Enterococcus/isolamento & purificação , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Contaminação de Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/microbiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Lactente , Controle de Infecções , Infecções/microbiologia , Quênia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Saúde Pública , Sabões , Saúde da População Urbana
16.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 1083, 2019 Dec 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31881851

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Treatment of enterococcal periprosthetic joint infections (PJI) is challenging due to non-standardized management strategies and lack of biofilm-active antibiotics. The optimal surgical and antimicrobial therapy are unknown. Therefore, we evaluated characteristics and outcome of enterococcal PJI. METHODS: Consecutive patients with enterococcal PJI from two specialized orthopedic institutions were retrospectively analyzed. Both institutions are following the same diagnostic and treatment concepts. The probability of relapse-free survival was estimated using Kaplan-Meier survival curves and compared by log-rank test. Treatment success was defined by absence of relapse or persistence of PJI due to enterococci or death related to enterococcal PJI. Clinical success was defined by the infection-free status, no subsequent surgical intervention for persistent or perioperative infection after re-implantation and no PJI-related death within 3 months. RESULTS: Included were 75 enterococcal PJI episodes, involving 41 hip, 30 knee, 2 elbow and 2 shoulder prostheses. PJI occurred postoperatively in 61 episodes (81%), hematogenously in 13 (17%) and by contiguous spread in one. E. faecalis grew in 64 episodes, E. faecium in 10 and E. casseliflavus in one episode(s). Additional microorganism(s) were isolated in 38 patients (51%). Enterococci were susceptible to vancomycin in 73 of 75 isolates (97%), to daptomycin in all 75 isolates, and to fosfomycin in 21 of 22 isolates (96%). The outcome data was available for 66 patients (88%). The treatment success after 3 years was 83.7% (95% confidence interval [CI]; 76.1-96.7%) and the clinical success was 67.5% (95% CI; 57.3-80.8%). In 11 patients (17%), a new PJI episode caused by a different pathogen occurred. All failures occurred within 3 years after surgery. CONCLUSION: About half of enterococcal PJI were polymicrobial infections. The treatment success was high (84%). All treatment failures occurred within the first 3 years after revision surgery. Interestingly, 17% of patients experienced a new PJI caused by another pathogen at a later stage. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study was retrospectively registered with the public clinical trial identification NCT0253022 at https://www.clinicaltrials.gov on 15 July 2015.


Assuntos
Artroplastia de Substituição/efeitos adversos , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , Coinfecção/microbiologia , Enterococcus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/microbiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Infecções Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Coinfecção/tratamento farmacológico , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Seguimentos , Fosfomicina/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/tratamento farmacológico , Recidiva , Reoperação/efeitos adversos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Falha de Tratamento
17.
BMC Res Notes ; 12(1): 807, 2019 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31842990

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Edema syndrome is highly prevalent but under researched in captive frogs around the world. The objective of the present study was to characterize at a basic microbiological and cytological level of the bacteria of the edema fluid of 20 individuals of the genus Gastrotheca to determine the presence of possible anaerobic and aerobic bacteria. RESULTS: Fourteen types of bacteria were identified in the edema fluid, 12 of them at the species level (Pasteurella haemolytica, Hafnia alvei, Enterobacter agglomerans, Aeromonas hydrophila, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Burkholderia pseudomallei, Salmonella arizonae, Enterobacter gergoviae, Enterobacter sakazakii, Yersinia enterocolitica, Klebsiella oxytoca, and Klebsiella ozaenae) and two at the genus level (Enterococcus spp. and Streptococcus spp.). The most frequently identified cells were lymphocytes (37.7% in females and 46.4% in males), erythrocytes (23.5% in females and 17.5% in males) and neutrophils (4.2% in females and 2.8% in males). Finally, no relationship was found between the data obtained and the sex of the individuals studied.


Assuntos
Anuros/microbiologia , Edema/veterinária , Animais , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Burkholderia pseudomallei/isolamento & purificação , Edema/microbiologia , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Enterococcus/isolamento & purificação , Eritrócitos/citologia , Feminino , Klebsiella/isolamento & purificação , Linfócitos/citologia , Masculino , Neutrófilos/citologia
18.
Rev Chilena Infectol ; 36(5): 556-564, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31859796

RESUMO

During the last decades, enterococci have emerged as important etiological agents in bacteremia, osteomyelitis, endocarditis and soft tissue infections. Antimicrobial combinations have been the most used therapeutic strategies for these infections, aiming for a bactericidal synergistic effect. However, besides in vitro and in vivo models, the clinical usefulness of such combinations is controversial, especially in non-endocardic systemic infections. For example, although beta-lactam and aminoglycoside combinations or double beta-lactam treatment have achieved high cure rates in endocarditis, the optimal treatment has not yet been clarified or if these combinations are useful in other infections. The aim of this review was to analyze and summarize the results from several experimental models of antienterococcal combined therapy and from clinical trials available in PubMed/Medline, to better assess the evidence that supports the use of these combinations. In conclusion, the available information is scarce, and more and better in vivo models and clinical studies are required to confirm the potential synergistic activity of antienterococcal combinations.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Enterococcus/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/tratamento farmacológico , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Quimioterapia Combinada , Endocardite/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Science ; 366(6469): 1077-1078, 2019 11 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31780546
20.
Microb Cell Fact ; 18(1): 188, 2019 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31690323

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Probiotic bacteria can provide health benefits when delivered in functional foods. This study involved isolation of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from traditionally dried and salted anchovy fish and characterization of their survival in simulated gastrointestinal digestion. Promising strains were used to prepare fermented fish sausages which were then evaluated for cytotoxicity activity against two cancer cell-lines, antidiabetic activity as determined by α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibition, and antioxidant and proteolytic activities in vitro, as compared to non-fermented control sausages. RESULTS: Out of 85 LAB obtained, 13 isolates with high tolerance to simulated gastrointestinal digestion were obtained, which were identified as Enterococcus spp. Four E. faecium strains, one E. faecalis, and one E. durans were used separately to make fermented fish sausages. The α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibition from fish sausages fermented by Enterococcus spp. ranged from 29.2 to 68.7% and 23.9 to 41.4%, respectively, during 21 days of storage. The cytotoxicity activities against Caco2 and MCF-7 cells of fish sausages fermented with Enterococcus spp. ranged from 18.0 to 24% and 13.9 to 27.9%, respectively. Cytotoxicity activities correlated positively with proteolysis and antioxidant activities, α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibition activities, but negatively with the pH in fermented fish sausages. Strains also exhibited antimicrobial activity against foodborne pathogens and presented no significant concerns with regards to antibiotic resistance or virulence gene content. CONCLUSIONS: Fish sausages fermented by potential probiotic isolates of Enterococcus spp. from dried fish had valuable health-promoting benefits compared with non-fermented control sausages.


Assuntos
Enterococcus faecalis , Enterococcus faecium , Enterococcus , Produtos Pesqueiros/microbiologia , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Probióticos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Diabetes Mellitus/terapia , Enterococcus/isolamento & purificação , Enterococcus/metabolismo , Enterococcus faecalis/isolamento & purificação , Enterococcus faecalis/metabolismo , Enterococcus faecium/isolamento & purificação , Enterococcus faecium/metabolismo , Humanos , Probióticos/isolamento & purificação , Probióticos/metabolismo
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