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1.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 87(9)2021 04 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33608287

RESUMO

Linezolid is a last-resort antibiotic for the treatment of severe infections caused by multidrug-resistant Gram-positive organisms; although linezolid resistance remains uncommon, the number of linezolid-resistant enterococci has increased in recent years due to worldwide spread of acquired resistance genes (cfr, optrA, and poxtA) in clinical, animal, and environmental settings. In this study, we investigated the occurrence of linezolid-resistant enterococci in marine samples from two coastal areas in Italy. Isolates grown on florfenicol-supplemented Slanetz-Bartley agar plates were investigated for their carriage of optrA, poxtA, and cfr genes; optrA was found in one Enterococcus faecalis isolate, poxtA was found in three Enterococcus faecium isolates and two Enterococcus hirae isolates, and cfr was not found. Two of the three poxtA-carrying E. faecium isolates and the two E. hirae isolates showed related pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) profiles. Two E. faecium isolates belonged to the new sequence type 1710, which clustered in clonal complex 94, encompassing nosocomial strains. S1 PFGE/hybridization assays showed a double (chromosome and plasmid) location of poxtA and a plasmid location of optrA Whole-genome sequencing revealed that poxtA was contained in a Tn6657-like element carried by two plasmids (pEfm-EF3 and pEh-GE2) of similar size, found in different species, and that poxtA was flanked by two copies of IS1216 in both plasmids. In mating experiments, all but one strain (E. faecalis EN3) were able to transfer the poxtA gene to E. faecium 64/3. The occurrence of linezolid resistance genes in enterococci from marine samples is of great concern and highlights the need to improve practices aimed at limiting the transmission of linezolid-resistant strains to humans from environmental reservoirs.IMPORTANCE Linezolid is one of the few antimicrobials available to treat severe infections due to drug-resistant Gram-positive bacteria; therefore, the emergence of linezolid-resistant enterococci carrying transferable resistance determinants is of great concern for public health. Linezolid resistance genes (cfr, optrA, and poxtA), often plasmid located, can be transmitted via horizontal gene transfer and have the potential to spread globally. This study highlights the detection of enterococci carrying linezolid resistance genes from sediment and zooplankton samples from two coastal urban areas in Italy. The presence of clinically relevant resistant bacteria, such as linezolid-resistant enterococci, in marine environments could reflect their spillover from human and/or animal reservoirs and could indicate that coastal seawaters also might represent a source of these resistance genes.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Enterococcus/isolamento & purificação , Sedimentos Geológicos/microbiologia , Linezolida/farmacologia , Zooplâncton/microbiologia , Animais , Enterococcus/efeitos dos fármacos , Enterococcus/genética , Monitoramento Ambiental , Genes Bacterianos , Itália
2.
J Int Med Res ; 49(2): 300060520985742, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33541174

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Phlegmonous gastritis is a rare bacterial infection of the gastric wall, characterised by purulent inflammation of the gastric mucosa, submucosa and muscularis layers. Phlegmonous gastritis has a high mortality rate, even with correct diagnosis and antimicrobial therapy. CASE PRESENTATION: A 22-year-old man presented for acute epigastric pain associated with aqueous diarrhoea, vomiting and sustained fever. Abdominal computed tomography showed diffuse oedema and thickened gastric wall, increased number and size of abdominal lymph nodes and the absence of pneumoperitoneum. Fibregastroscopy revealed oedematous, ridged and thickened gastric mucosa with abundant purulent secretion, especially in the antrum, consistent with phlegmonous gastritis, which was confirmed by histological evaluation of gastric biopsies. Cultures of the tissue biopsies and purulent secretion were positive for Enterococcus cecorum. He was treated with sensitive antibiotics according to the antibiogram, and importantly, with continuous gastric lavage and individualised nutritional support therapy. He eventually recovered well and was discharged with no abdominal symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Our case indicates that early diagnosis and immediate treatment are crucial to achieve positive outcomes. The combination of sensitive antibiotics, gastric lavage and early enteral nutrition via nasojejunal feeding might be an effective alternative for the comprehensive treatment of acute phlegmonous gastritis.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Celulite (Flegmão)/terapia , Nutrição Enteral/métodos , Lavagem Gástrica , Gastrite/terapia , Celulite (Flegmão)/diagnóstico , Celulite (Flegmão)/microbiologia , Celulite (Flegmão)/patologia , Terapia Combinada/métodos , Enterococcus/isolamento & purificação , Mucosa Gástrica/diagnóstico por imagem , Mucosa Gástrica/microbiologia , Mucosa Gástrica/patologia , Gastrite/diagnóstico , Gastrite/microbiologia , Gastrite/patologia , Gastroscopia , Humanos , Intubação Gastrointestinal , Masculino , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
3.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 341: 109050, 2021 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33498008

RESUMO

Dromedary camel milk is generally considered a valuable and marketable commodity but its production suffers from poor hygienic conditions that result in low microbiological quality and the presence of various pathogens. The objective of the present study was to provide a detailed report of the bacterial species level composition of Moroccan raw camel milk samples that can serve as a starting point for the selection of starter cultures to facilitate a change in manufacturing practices to an improved and safer production system. The composition of the bacterial community in four freshly collected raw camel milk samples was analyzed by performing a large-scale isolation campaign combined with 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. A total of 806 isolates were obtained from four raw camel milk samples using ten combinations of growth media and incubation conditions. Subsequent isolate dereplication using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and identification of representative isolates through sequence analysis of protein encoding and 16S rRNA genes revealed the presence of established and novel dairy lactic acid bacteria, as well as bacteria that are considered indicators of poor hygienic conditions and psychrotrophic spoilage organisms. The large numbers of Lactococcus and Enterococcus isolates obtained present an interesting resource for starter culture selection.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Camelus/fisiologia , Enterococcus/isolamento & purificação , Leite/microbiologia , Alimentos Crus/microbiologia , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Enterococcus/genética , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Lactobacillales/genética , Lactobacillales/isolamento & purificação , Marrocos , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz
4.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 341: 109059, 2021 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33508581

RESUMO

The microbial community of ungerminated and germinated barley grains from three different cultivars grown at four different locations in Norway was investigated by culture dependent and culture independent methods. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) was focused in this study and was isolated from germinated barley. The number of LAB ranged between 2.8 and 4.6 log cfu/g in ungerminated grains and between 4.9 and 6.3 log cfu/g in germinated grains. In total 66 out of 190 isolates were Gram+, catalase-negative and presumptive LAB. The LAB isolates were by 16S rRNA sequencing identified to be Carnobacterium maltaromaticum (6), Lactococcus lactis (2), Enterococcus sp. (1) and Leuconostoc sp. (57). Germination significantly influenced the bacterial composition. Regarding the different cultivars and growth places no significant difference in bacterial composition was seen. The most abundant bacterial genus was Pantoea (18.5% of the total sequences), followed by Rhizobium (10.1%) and Sphingomonas (9.9%). Fungal composition was significantly influenced by the germination process and the cultivation place, but no significant difference in fungal composition was detected between the 3 cultivars. The most abundant fungal genera were Cryptococcus (43.8% of all the sequences), Cladosporium (8.2%), Pyrenophora (7.4%) and Vagicola (6.3%). This study revealed knowledge of barley grain associated microbes of Norwegian barley that can be useful to control the malt quality. Germination affected both bacterial and fungal microbiota composition. No difference in bacterial microbiota composition was seen regarding cultivars and cultivation place, however, the fungal microbiota composition was significantly influenced by the cultivation place. Differences in fungal community of ungerminated and germinated barley samples of different geographical locations were more pronounced than differences in bacterial communities.


Assuntos
Carnobacterium/isolamento & purificação , Enterococcus/isolamento & purificação , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Hordeum/microbiologia , Lactococcus lactis/isolamento & purificação , Leuconostoc/isolamento & purificação , Carnobacterium/classificação , Carnobacterium/genética , Enterococcus/classificação , Enterococcus/genética , Fungos/classificação , Fungos/genética , Germinação/fisiologia , Lactococcus lactis/classificação , Lactococcus lactis/genética , Leuconostoc/classificação , Leuconostoc/genética , Microbiota , Noruega , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33352988

RESUMO

Enterococci are lactic acid bacteria. Most of them can adapt well to the food system due to their salt and acid-tolerance. Moreover, many enterococcal species have been found to produce antimicrobial substances of proteinaceous character, i.e., bacteriocins/enterocins. In this study, Enterococcus mundtii EM ML2/2 with bacteriocinogenic potential was identified in Slovak raw goat milk. This strain demonstrated inhibition activity against up to 36% of Gram-positive indicator bacteria, and in concentrated form the bacteriocin substance (pH 6.3) showed the highest inhibition activity (1600 AU/mL) against the principal indicator strain E. avium EA5. Semi-purified substance (SPS) EM ML2/2 produced inhibition activity up to 3200 AU/mL. Concentrated bacteriocin substance and SPS maintained active (inhibition activity up to 100 AU/mL) for three months under -20 °C storage conditions. The strain showed susceptible antibiotic profile, and it did not form biofilm. No production of damaging enzymes was noted. It was nonhemolytic, as well as DNase, and gelatinase-negative. It grew well in skim milk, and it was salt and acid-tolerant. The bacteriocin potential of E. mundtii species isolated from Slovak raw goat milk has not previously been detected, so this is an original contribution which may stimulate addtitional research and application studies.


Assuntos
Enterococcus/isolamento & purificação , Cabras , Leite/microbiologia , Animais , Eslováquia
6.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 667, 2020 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32912204

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Frequencies of polymicrobial infection and pathogens evidenced in course of infected nonunion treatment are largely unknown. Therefore, this study aims at investigating microbial patterns in infected nonunions. METHODS: Surgically treated patients with long bone infected nonunion admitted between January 2010 and March 2018 were included in the study. Microbiological culture and polymerase-chain-reaction results of tissue samples of initial and follow-up revision surgeries were assessed and compared with patient and treatment characteristics. RESULTS: Forty two patients with a mean age of 53.9 ± 17.7 years were included. In six patients (14.3%) polymicrobial infection was evident. A change of pathogens evidenced in course of the treatment occurred in 21 patients (50%). In 16 patients (38.1%) previously detected bacteria could be determined by microbial testing after further revision surgery. Staphylococcus aureus was most often detected (n = 34, 30.6%), followed by Enterococcus spp. (n = 25, 22.5%) and Staphylococcus epidermidis (n = 18, 16.2%). Five Staphylococcus aureus were resistant to methicillin (MRSA). In patients without polymicrobial infection or further germ detection in course of the treatment, 86.4% of the infections were due to Staphylococcus spp.. Infections due to Streptococcus spp. and gram-negative bacteria were only present in patients with polymicrobial infection and germ-change in course of the treatment. CONCLUSION: A low rate of polymicrobial infections was evidenced in the present study. Germ-change often occurs in course of revision surgeries. Prospective studies with more sensitive diagnostic tools are necessary to elucidate the therapeutical relevance of microbiological testing results for surgical as well as medical treatment in infected nonunions.


Assuntos
Coinfecção/diagnóstico , Enterococcus/genética , Consolidação da Fratura , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/genética , Infecções Estafilocócicas/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Coinfecção/tratamento farmacológico , Coinfecção/microbiologia , Enterococcus/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/isolamento & purificação , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Reoperação , Estudos Retrospectivos , Infecções Estafilocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
7.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 86(19)2020 09 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32737129

RESUMO

Enterococci are commensals that proliferated as animals crawled ashore hundreds of millions of years ago. They are also leading causes of multidrug-resistant hospital-acquired infections. While most studies are driven by clinical interest, comparatively little is known about enterococci in the wild or the effect of human activity on them. Pharmaceutical pollution and runoff from other human activities are encroaching widely into natural habitats. To assess their reach into remote habitats, we investigated the identity, genetic relatedness, and presence of specific traits among 172 enterococcal isolates from wild Magellanic penguins. Four enterococcal species, 18 lineage groups, and different colonization patterns were identified. One Enterococcus faecalis lineage, sequence type 475 (ST475), was isolated from three different penguins, making it of special interest. Its genome was compared to those of other E. faecalis sequence types (ST116 and ST242) recovered from Magellanic penguins, as well as to an existing phylogeny of E. faecalis isolated from diverse origins over the past 100 years. No penguin-derived E. faecalis strains were closely related to dominant clinical lineages. Most possessed intact CRISPR defenses, few mobile elements, and antibiotic resistances limited to those intrinsic to the species and lacked pathogenic features conveyed by mobile elements. Interestingly, plasmids were identified in penguin isolates that also had been reported for other marine mammals. Enterococci isolated from penguins showed limited anthropogenic impact, indicating that they are likely representative of those naturally circulating in the ecosystem inhabited by the penguins. These findings establish an important baseline for detecting the encroachment of human activity into remote planetary environments.IMPORTANCE Enterococci are host-associated microbes that have an unusually broad range, from the built hospital environment to the guts of insects and other animals in remote locations. Despite their occurrence in the guts of animals for hundreds of millions of years, we know little about the properties that confer this range or how anthropogenic activities may be introducing new selective forces. Magellanic penguins live at the periphery of human habitation. It was of interest to examine enterococci from these animals for the presence of antibiotic resistance and other markers reflective of anthropogenic selection. Diverse enterococcal lineages found discount the existence of a single well-adapted intrinsic penguin-specific species. Instead, they appear to be influenced by a carnivorous lifestyle and enterococci present in the coastal sea life consumed. These results indicate that currently, the penguin habitat remains relatively free of pollutants that select for adaptation to human-derived stressors.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Enterococcus/isolamento & purificação , Biomarcadores Ambientais , Spheniscidae/microbiologia , Animais , Brasil
8.
Arch Microbiol ; 202(8): 2207-2219, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32524178

RESUMO

The objectives of this study were to isolate lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from a raw Moroccan camel milk collected after the incorporation of a specific Argane by-products diet, and to investigate their technological properties as well as their probiotic features. The molecular identification of the isolates indicated that they belong to Weissella confusa, Weissella cibaria or Enterococcus durans species. Our results revealed that the tested isolates have a fast acidifying ability (values ranging between 0.045 ± 0.01 to 0.93 ± 0.01 after only 4 h incubation), important proteolysis, autolysis, lipolytic activities and an important diacetyl and exopolysaccharides production. All these isolates demonstrated a high tolerance to gastrointestinal conditions, namely to gastric simulated juice (survival rate ranged between 75.05 ± 7.88 and 85.55 ± 1.77%) and to bile salts (survival rate between 42.79 ± 1.11 and 82.75 ± 1.01%). The autoaggregation, hydrophobicity and antioxidant activity mean values of the isolates were 13.26-41.16%, 13.23-54.47% and 47.57-63.31%, respectively. Importantly, LAB cultures exhibited antibacterial activity against Gram-negative and Gram-positive pathogenic bacteria and none of the tested isolates presented antibiotic resistance, haemolytic or DNase activities. This study revealed interesting properties for LAB isolated and supported their utilization as autochthone starters for camel milk fermentation that represent a challenge process. These results presented as well the probiotic potential for a possible human consumption.


Assuntos
Camelus , Enterococcus/fisiologia , Lactobacillales/fisiologia , Leite/microbiologia , Weissella/fisiologia , Animais , Antibiose , Enterococcus/classificação , Enterococcus/isolamento & purificação , Fermentação , Lactobacillales/isolamento & purificação , Probióticos/metabolismo , Alimentos Crus/microbiologia , Weissella/classificação , Weissella/isolamento & purificação
9.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 356, 2020 May 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32517758

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus spp. (VRE) have spread all over the world. The present study aims to investigate the species distribution, specimen type and susceptibilities of Enterococcal species collected from Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital from 2013 to 2018. Additionally, distribution of VRE and prevalence of van gene among VRE isolates were also analyzed. METHODS: The susceptibilities of 3913 Enterococcus isolates were retrospectively investigated. Among these strains, 60 VRE strains were further anazlyed in this study. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the VRE strains towards vancomycin, teicoplanin and linezolid were determined by E-test. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing were used to investigate the prevalence of van genes among VRE. Furthermore, the sequence types (STs) of VRE strains were explored by multi-locus sequence typing (MLST). RESULTS: Among the 3913 enterococci isolates, Enterococcus faecalis (n = 1870, 47.8%) and Enterococcus faecium (1738, 44.4%) were the main isolates. These Enterococcus strains were mainly isolated from urine (n = 1673, 42.8%), followed by secretions (n = 583, 14.9%) and ascites (n = 554, 14.2%). VRE displayed a decreasing trend year by year. Molecular analysis revealed that 49 out of 60 VRE isolates carried vanA gene, 10 carried vanM, and 1 carried both vanA and vanM genes. Sixteen distinct STs were identified among the 58 VREM, with ST78 (n = 16), ST192 (n = 8) and ST570 (n = 7) being the most dominant ones. CONCLUSIONS: E. faecalis and E. faecium were the major enterococci strains which are the main pathogens of urinary traction infections; vanA and vanM were the main determinants conferring resistance to vancomycin; ST78, ST192 and ST570 were the leading STs of VREM which displayed a decreasing trend of prevalence year by year.


Assuntos
Enterococcus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/microbiologia , Enterococos Resistentes à Vancomicina/isolamento & purificação , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , China , DNA Bacteriano/metabolismo , Enterococcus/efeitos dos fármacos , Enterococcus/genética , Enterococcus faecalis/efeitos dos fármacos , Enterococcus faecalis/genética , Enterococcus faecalis/isolamento & purificação , Enterococcus faecium/efeitos dos fármacos , Enterococcus faecium/genética , Enterococcus faecium/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/diagnóstico , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , Estudos Retrospectivos , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Vancomicina/farmacologia , Enterococos Resistentes à Vancomicina/efeitos dos fármacos , Enterococos Resistentes à Vancomicina/genética
10.
Lett Appl Microbiol ; 71(1): 3-25, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32304575

RESUMO

Surface water is prone to bacterial contamination as it receives wastes and pollutants from human and animal sources, and contaminated water may expose local populations to health risks. This review provides a brief overview on the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance (AR) phenotypes of Salmonella, Escherichia coli and Enterococcus, found in natural freshwaters. These bacteria are frequently detected in surface waters, sometimes as etiological agents of waterborne infections, and AR strains are not uncommonly identified in both developed and developing countries. Data relating to Salmonella, E. coli and Enterococcus present in environmental water are lacking, and in order to understand their development and dissemination using the One Health approach, understanding the prevalence, distribution and characteristics of the bacteria present in surface water as well as their potential sources is important. Furthermore, AR bacteria in natural watersheds are not well investigated and their impacts on human health and food safety are not well understood. As surface water is a receptacle for AR bacteria from human and animal sources and a vehicle for their dissemination, this is a crucial data gap in understanding AR and minimizing its spread. For this review, Salmonella, E. coli and Enterococcus were chosen to evaluate the presence of primary pathogens and opportunistic pathogens as well as to monitor AR trends in the environmental water. Studies around the world have demonstrated the widespread distribution of pathogenic and AR bacteria in surface waters of both developing and developed countries, confirming the importance of environmental waters as a reservoir for these bacteria and the need for more attention on the environmental bacteria for emerging AR.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Enterococcus/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Salmonella/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Enterococcus/genética , Enterococcus/isolamento & purificação , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Água Doce/microbiologia , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Fenótipo , Prevalência , Salmonella/genética , Salmonella/isolamento & purificação , Poluição da Água
11.
J Anim Sci ; 98(5)2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32277238

RESUMO

A 42-d experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of Cu and Zn source and Cu level on pig performance, mineral status, bacterial modulation, and the presence of antimicrobial-resistant genes in isolates of Enterococcus spp. At weaning, 528 pigs (5.9 ± 0.50 kg) were allotted to 48 pens of a randomized complete block design in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement with two Cu and Zn sources (SF: sulfate and HCl: hydroxychloride) and two Cu levels (15 and 160 mg/kg). As a challenge, the pigs were reared in dirty pens used by a previous commercial batch. Two-phase diets were offered: the pre-starter (PS) phase from day 1 to 14 and the starter phase (ST) from day 14 to 42. At days 14 and 42, pigs were individually weighed and blood samples from one pig per pen were taken. At the end of the experiment, one pig per pen was euthanized to collect the samples. Feeding high levels of Cu increased body weight (BW) from 16.6 to 17.7 kg (P < 0.001). Furthermore, average daily gain, gain to feed (G:F) ratio, average daily feed intake (ADFI), and mineral status were enhanced with Cu at 160 mg/kg (P < 0.05) compared with Cu at 15 mg/kg. There was no effect of the interaction between source × level on any of the growth performance responses except for ADFI (P = 0.004) and G:F (P = 0.029) at the end of the ST period and for G:F (P = 0.006) for entire nursery period (day 0 to 42). At the end of the ST period, pigs fed Cu at 160 mg/kg as HCl had not only higher ADFI but also lower G:F than those fed Cu as SF at 160 mg/kg. Meanwhile, for the entire nursery period, G:F did not differ between pigs fed Cu at 160 mg/kg as HCl or SF. In colonic digesta, the relative abundance of Streptococcus, Enterobacter, Escherichia, among others, decreased (P-adjust < 0.05), while Lachnospira and Roseburia tended (P-adjust < 0.10) to increase in pigs fed Cu at 160 mg/kg as HCl compared with those fed Cu SF at 160 mg/kg. An increase (P-adjust < 0.05) in Methanosphaera and Roseburia was observed in pigs fed Cu at 160 mg/kg. From colon digesta, Enterococcus spp. was isolated in 40 samples, being E. faecalis the most dominating (65%) regardless of the experimental diet. Genes of ermB (7.5%) and tetM (5%) were identified. No genes for Cu (tcrB) or vancomycin (vanA, vanB, vanC1, and vanC2) were detected. In conclusion, European Union permissible levels of Cu (160 mg/kg), of both sources, were able to increase performance, mineral status, and bacterial modulation compared with nutritional level. Different effects on growth performance, mineral tissue content, and microbial modulation were observed between Cu and Zn sources.


Assuntos
Cobre/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Enterococcus/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Suínos/fisiologia , Zinco/farmacologia , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Dieta/veterinária , Enterococcus/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Masculino , Distribuição Aleatória , Suínos/genética , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Suínos/microbiologia , Desmame
12.
BMC Vet Res ; 16(1): 109, 2020 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32272916

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial resistance is becoming increasingly important in both human and veterinary medicine. According to the One Health concept, an important step is to monitor the resistance patterns of pathogenic bacteria. In this study, the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns and trends of bacteria isolated from stray cats, hospital-admitted cats, and veterinary staff in South Korea between 2017 and 2018 were investigated. RESULTS: The minimum inhibitory concentrations of different antibiotics for Staphylococcus spp., Enterobacteriaceae, and Enterococcus spp. were determined to establish representatives of different antibiotic classes relevant for treatment or surveillance. For Coagulase-positive and Coagulase-negative Staphylococci, resistance to fluoroquinolones was below 13%, but resistance to ampicillin and penicillin was high (20-88%). A total of 9.5, 12.1, and 40.3% of staphylococcal isolates from stray cats, hospital-admitted cats, and veterinary staff, respectively, were confirmed to be mecA positive. For Enterobacteriaceae, resistance to carbapenems, fluoroquinolones, and 3rd generation cephalosporins was low (0-11.1%). The Enterococcus spp. isolates showed no resistance to vancomycin. The antimicrobial resistance rates of the Staphylococcus spp. and Enterobacteriaceae isolates from stray cats were usually lower than those of isolates from hospital-admitted cats and veterinary staff, but the Enterococcus spp. isolates revealed the opposite. Thus, the antimicrobial resistance varied across bacterial species according to the source from which they were isolated. CONCLUSIONS: Resistance to critically important compounds were low. However, the presence of antimicrobial resistance in cat isolates is of both public health and animal health concern.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Gatos/microbiologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Técnicos em Manejo de Animais , Animais , Enterobacteriaceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Enterobacteriaceae/isolamento & purificação , Enterococcus/efeitos dos fármacos , Enterococcus/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , República da Coreia , Staphylococcus/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus/isolamento & purificação , Médicos Veterinários
13.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 5963, 2020 04 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32249804

RESUMO

This study investigated whether there are differences in the composition of the cutaneous microbiome of the unaffected skin between patients with pressure ulcers compared with those without pressure ulcers. The cutaneous microbiome of the unaffected skin of 15 patients with sacral pressure ulcers compared to 15 patients without pressure ulcers was analysed. It demonstrated that the inter-individual variation in skin microbiota of patients with pressure ulcers was significantly higher (P = 0.01). The abundance of 23 species was significantly different with Staphylococcus aureus and unclassified Enterococcus the most abundant species in patients with pressure ulcers. Random Forest models showed that eight species were associated with pressure ulcers occurrence in 81% of the patients. A subset of four species gave the strongest interaction. The presence of unclassified Enterococcus had the highest association with pressure ulcer occurrence. This study is the first to demonstrate that the cutaneous microbiome is altered in patients with pressure ulcers.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Lesão por Pressão/microbiologia , Pele/microbiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Enterococcus/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação
14.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(5): 4013-4025, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32113772

RESUMO

Breast milk is the main source of nutrition for infants; it contains considerable microflora that can be transmitted to the infant endogenously or by breastfeeding, and it plays an important role in the maturation and development of the immune system. In this study, we isolated and identified lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from human colostrum, and screened 2 strains with probiotic potential. The LAB isolated from 40 human colostrum samples belonged to 5 genera: Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, Streptococcus, Enterococcus, and Staphylococcus. We also isolated Propionibacterium and Actinomyces. We identified a total of 197 strains of LAB derived from human colostrum based on their morphology and 16S rRNA sequence, among them 8 strains of Bifidobacterium and 10 strains of Lactobacillus, including 3 Bifidobacterium species and 4 Lactobacillus species. The physiological and biochemical characteristics of strains with good probiotic characteristics were evaluated. The tolerances of some of the Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus strains to gastrointestinal fluid and bile salts were evaluated in vitro, using the probiotic strains Bifidobacterium lactis BB12 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG as controls. Among them, B. lactis Probio-M8 and L. rhamnosus Probio-M9 showed survival rates of 97.25 and 78.33% after digestion for 11 h in artificial gastrointestinal juice, and they exhibited growth delays of 0.95 and 1.87 h, respectively, in 0.3% bile salts. These two strains have the potential for application as probiotics and will facilitate functional studies of probiotics in breast milk and the development of human milk-derived probiotics.


Assuntos
Bifidobacterium/fisiologia , Colostro/microbiologia , Lactobacillales/fisiologia , Probióticos , Animais , Bifidobacterium/isolamento & purificação , Bifidobacterium animalis/isolamento & purificação , Enterococcus/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Humanos , Lactobacillales/isolamento & purificação , Lactobacillus/isolamento & purificação , Gravidez , Probióticos/isolamento & purificação , RNA Ribossômico 16S
15.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(5): 4056-4067, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32173014

RESUMO

Robiola di Roccaverano, from the Piedmont region of Italy, is a Protected Designation of Origin soft cheese made with raw goat milk. The peculiarity of this cheese is that during the manufacturing process, a natural starter culture (NC) is added to raw milk. This study examined the viable microorganisms of technological interest, including lactic acid bacteria and fungal populations, in samples of raw milk, NC, and fresh and ripened cheese collected from one dairy using culture-dependent techniques. First, the isolated colonies were analyzed using random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) PCR, and strains with similar fingerprints were clustered together. Further, representative isolates of each group were subjected to 16S or 26S ribosomal DNA sequencing. Finally, species-specific PCR was conducted to distinguish the Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis and Lc. lactis ssp. cremoris. Among the studied lactic acid bacteria, 13 RAPD profiles were obtained, corresponding to 9 different bacterial species or subspecies. Concerning mold and yeast isolates, 5 species were found that coincided with 5 RAPD types. Observing the strains isolated in the study, Lc. lactis was the most prevalent species in raw milk and NC samples, and Leuconostoc mesenteroides was the predominant species identified in 5- and 15-d cheese isolates. Furthermore, whereas only these 2 species were detected in NC, Enterococcus and Lactobacillus genera were found in raw milk and cheese, respectively. Concerning the mold and yeast isolates, in NC Kluyveromyces spp. was mainly found, and in cheese samples the representative species were Geotrichum candidum and Yarrowia lipolytica. Finally, raw milk and cheese safety were evaluated, and the samples complied with the standard required by European Commission regulation number 2073/2005.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Queijo/microbiologia , Enterococcus/isolamento & purificação , Lactobacillus/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Enterococcus/classificação , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Geotrichum/classificação , Geotrichum/isolamento & purificação , Cabras , Kluyveromyces/classificação , Kluyveromyces/isolamento & purificação , Leite/microbiologia , Tipagem Molecular , Técnica de Amplificação ao Acaso de DNA Polimórfico , Leveduras/classificação , Leveduras/isolamento & purificação
16.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 40(2): 129-133, Feb. 2020. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1098445

RESUMO

Enterococcus are recognized worldwide as significant nosocomial agents that have been continuously envolving to adapt to different niches and acquire resistance to several antibiotic classes. Vancomycin and gentamicin-resistant strains of E. faecalis and E. faecium have been associated with nosocomial human infections. Some epidemiological studies suggest the participation of pets as reservoirs of vancomycin and gentamicin-resistant Enterococcus strains. However, the role of companion birds as reservoirs of these strains has been poorly studied. In this study, 126 psittacine birds were evaluated and 26.9% carried Enterococcus spp., including the species E. faecalis, E. faecium, E. hirae, E. phoeniculicola, E. gallinarum and E. casseliflavus. The antibiotic resistance profile showed four high-level gentamicin-resistance (HLGR) strains. In addition, two strains presented intermediate levels of vancomycin resistance. Resistant strains were isolated from fecal and oropharynx samples of sick and clinically healthy birds, suggesting that psittacine birds may act as reservoirs of HLGR Enterococcus spp. However, sick birds appear to be more implicated in the enterococci transmission than healthy birds.(AU)


Enterococcus são reconhecidos mundialmente como significantes agentes nosocomiais, que têm continuamente se adaptado a diferentes nichos e adquirido resistência a várias classes de antibióticos. Cepas de E. faecalis e E. faecium vancomicina e gantamicina-resistentes têm sido associadas a infecções nosocomiais em humanos. Alguns estudos epidemiológicos sugerem a participação de aves como reservatórios de cepas de Enterococcus vancomicina e gentamicina-resistentes. Entretanto, a relação das aves de companhia como reservatórios destas cepas tem sido pouco estudada. Neste estudo, 126 psitacídeos foram avaliados, e 26,9% destes eram portadores de Enterococcus spp., incluindo as espécies E. faecalis, E. faecium, E. hirae, E. phoeniculicola, E. gallinarum e E. casseliflavus. O perfil de resistência antibiótica mostrou quatro cepas com alto nível de resistência a gentamicina (ANRG). Além de duas cepas com nível intermediário de resistência a vancomicina. As cepas resistentes foram isoladas de amostras fecais e de orofaringe de aves doentes e clinicamente saudáveis, sugerindo que psitacídeos podem estar atuando como reservatórios para Enterococcus spp. com ANRG. Contudo, Aves doentes parecem estar mais relacionadas à transmissão de enterococcus, do que aves saudáveis.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Papagaios/microbiologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/veterinária , Gentamicinas , Resistência a Vancomicina , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Animais de Estimação/microbiologia , Enterococcus/isolamento & purificação
17.
BMC Vet Res ; 16(1): 7, 2020 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31910839

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study was aimed to investigate the intestinal microbiota in racing pigeons with regard to Enterococcus species distribution, virulence factors and antibiotic susceptibility. Three methods (API, Multiplex sodA-PCR, 16S rRNA sequencing) were compared for Enterococcus species identification. Cloacal samples from 179 apparently healthy pigeons of 13 different flocks were tested. RESULTS: Multiplex sodA-PCR and 16S rRNA gene sequencing showed almost perfect agreement in Enterococcus species identification. Isolates were identified as Enterococcus columbae (34.5%), Enterococcus hirae (20.7%), Enterococcus faecalis (11.7%), Enterococcus faecium (11.7%), Enterococcus gallinarum (9%), Enterococcus mundtii (4.8%), Enterococcus casseliflavus (3.4%), Enterococcus cecorum (2.1%), Enterococcus durans (2.1%). More Enterococcus species were found after the race season than before. The study showed differences between Enterococcus species in relation to 68.8% (22/32) biochemical parameters. Six out of seven virulence genes were detected: gelE (43.5%), asa1 (42.1%), efaA (30.3%), ace (30.3%), cylA (27.6%), and esp (9%). None of the isolates harboured hyl gene. Overall 15.2% of Enterococcus isolates produced gelatinase, but 66.7% gelE genes were silent. Enterococcus faecalis showed the most often efaA, ace and gelatinase activity than other enterococcal species. Nearly all isolates (93.1%) were resistant to at least one antibiotic. The most frequent resistance was to enrofloxacin (80%), doxycycline with teicoplanin (73.1%), erythromycin (49.7%). The study revealed significant differences between some enterococcal species in the antibiotic susceptibility to different antibiotics. Enterococcus columbae and E. cecorum showed significantly more frequent resistance to chloramphenicol than other enterococci. The presence of VRE (19.3%), HLGR (2.8%) and no LRE were found. Overall 30.3% of isolates were positive for vancomycin resistance genes, where vanC1 (E. gallinarum), vanC2-C3 (E. hirae, E. casseliflavus), vanB (E. columbae) predominated. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude, that intestinal microbiota in racing pigeons is composed by 9 different Enterococcus species. Given that racing pigeons are kept in close contact with humans and backyard animals, combined with their long-distance flight abilities, they can serve as potential source of virulent and antibiotic resistant Enterococcus spp. in the environment.


Assuntos
Columbidae/microbiologia , Enterococcus/classificação , Enterococcus/genética , Animais , Antibacterianos , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Enterococcus/isolamento & purificação , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex/veterinária , Prevalência , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Fatores de Virulência/genética
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31963600

RESUMO

In sub-Saharan Africa, many families travel to collect water and store it in their homes for daily use, presenting an opportunity for the introduction of fecal contamination. One stored and one source water sample were each collected from 45 households in rural Kenya. All 90 samples were analyzed for fecal indicator bacteria (E. coli and enterococci) and species-specific contamination using molecular microbial source tracking assays. Human (HF183), avian (GFD), and ruminant (BacR) contamination were detected in 52, two, and four samples, respectively. Stored water samples had elevated enterococci concentrations (p < 0.01, Wilcoxon matched pairs test) and more frequent BacR detection (89% versus 27%, p < 0.01, McNemar's exact test) relative to source water samples. fsQCA (fuzzy set qualitative comparative analysis) was conducted on the subset of households with no source water BacR contamination to highlight combinations of factors associated with the introduction of BacR contamination to stored water supplies. Three combinations were identified: (i) ruminants in the compound, safe water extraction methods, and long storage time, (ii) ruminants, unsafe water extraction methods, and no soap at the household handwashing station, and (iii) long storage time and no soap. This suggests that multiple pathways contribute to the transmission of ruminant fecal contamination in this context, which would have been missed if data were analyzed using standard regression techniques.


Assuntos
Água Potável/microbiologia , Enterococcus/isolamento & purificação , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Fezes/microbiologia , Gado/microbiologia , Animais , Bovinos/microbiologia , Cabras/microbiologia , Quênia , Ovinos/microbiologia
19.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 319: 108509, 2020 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31945714

RESUMO

The role of plant-based foods in the epidemiology of antimicrobial resistance has been inadequately studied. In this investigation, resistant organisms from vegetables, fruits and spices imported into Canada were identified and characterized. A total of 143 products imported from primarily Asian and African countries were purchased from international markets in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan. Samples were selectively cultured for bacterial species where resistance is known to be emerging. The proportions of samples positive for each organism were as follows: E. coli (n = 13, 9.1%), Salmonella spp. (n = 2, 1.4%), ESBL producing Enterobacter spp. (n = 2, 1.4%) and K. pneumoniae (n = 2, 1.4%), S. aureus (n = 7, 4.9%) and Enterococcus spp. (n = 66, 46.2%). Antimicrobial minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined by broth micro-dilution and agar-dilution. Based on the susceptibility of each organism, isolates were screened for resistance genes (ß-lactamases and plasmid mediated quinolones resistance determinants) by PCR. Extended-spectrum ß-lactamase producing Enterobacteriaceae and methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) were identified from 6/143 (4.2%) and 2/143 (1.4%) of samples respectively. The qnrB, qnrS and aac(6')-Ib-cr plasmid mediated quinolone resistance determinants were identified in 2/143 (1.4%) of samples tested. None of the Enterobacteriaceae isolates were resistant to meropenem or colistin. Similarly, all Enterococcus isolates remained susceptible to ampicillin, penicillin and vancomycin. Finding multi-drug resistant bacteria which are frequently isolated from human infections is concerning, although the contribution of the global food trade to the dissemination of resistance remains cryptic. These results suggest that imported plant-based foods may be an underappreciated source of clinically relevant resistant organisms. Further study is required to address these gaps in our understanding of the epidemiology of resistance, and the magnitude of the risk posed to human health by these organisms.


Assuntos
Enterobacteriaceae/isolamento & purificação , Enterococcus/isolamento & purificação , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/isolamento & purificação , Plantas Comestíveis/microbiologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Canadá , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/genética , Enterobacteriaceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Enterobacteriaceae/genética , Enterococcus/efeitos dos fármacos , Enterococcus/genética , Frutas/microbiologia , Humanos , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/genética , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Plasmídeos/genética , Quinolonas/farmacologia , Especiarias/microbiologia , Verduras/microbiologia , beta-Lactamases/genética
20.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0226817, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31978082

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A large proportion of neonates are treated for presumed bacterial sepsis with broad spectrum antibiotics even though their blood cultures subsequently show no growth. This study aimed to investigate PCR-based methods to identify pathogens not detected by conventional culture. METHODS: Whole blood samples of 208 neonates with suspected early onset sepsis were tested using a panel of multiplexed bacterial PCRs targeting Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus agalactiae (GBS), Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes (GAS), Enterobacteriaceae, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium, Ureaplasma parvum, Ureaplasma urealyticum, Mycoplasma hominis and Mycoplasma genitalium, a 16S rRNA gene broad-range PCR and a multiplexed PCR for Candida spp. RESULTS: Two-hundred and eight samples were processed. In five of those samples, organisms were detected by conventional culture; all of those were also identified by PCR. PCR detected bacteria in 91 (45%) of the 203 samples that did not show bacterial growth in culture. S. aureus, Enterobacteriaceae and S. pneumoniae were the most frequently detected pathogens. A higher bacterial load detected by PCR was correlated positively with the number of clinical signs at presentation. CONCLUSION: Real-time PCR has the potential to be a valuable additional tool for the diagnosis of neonatal sepsis.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Bacterianas/diagnóstico , Candida/isolamento & purificação , Candidíase/diagnóstico , Sepse Neonatal/microbiologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Idade de Início , Bactérias/genética , Candida/genética , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Diagnóstico Precoce , Enterobacteriaceae/genética , Enterobacteriaceae/isolamento & purificação , Enterococcus/genética , Enterococcus/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Lactente Extremamente Prematuro , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex , Mycoplasma/genética , Mycoplasma/isolamento & purificação , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Staphylococcus aureus/genética , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação , Streptococcus/genética , Streptococcus/isolamento & purificação , Ureaplasma/genética , Ureaplasma/isolamento & purificação
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