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1.
Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed ; 105(1): 76-86, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31154420

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a non-invasive bedside monitor of tissue oxygenation that may be a useful clinical tool in monitoring of gut oxygenation in newborn infants. OBJECTIVE: To systematically review literature to determine whether NIRS is a reliable tool to monitor gut oxygenation on neonatal units. DATA SOURCES: PubMed and Embase databases were searched using the terms 'neonate', 'preterm infants', 'NIRS' and 'gut oxygenation' (2001-2018). STUDY SELECTION: Studies were included if they met inclusion criteria (clinical trial, observational studies, neonatal population, articles in English and reviewing regional gut oxygen saturations) and exclusion criteria (not evaluating abdominal NIRS or regional oxygen saturations). DATA EXTRACTION: Two authors independently searched PubMed and Embase using the predefined terms, appraised study quality and extracted from 30 studies the study design and outcome data. LIMITATIONS: Potential for publication bias, majority of studies were prospective cohort studies and small sample sizes. RESULTS: Thirty studies were reviewed assessing the validity of abdominal NIRS and potential application in neonates. Studies reviewed assessed abdominal NIRS in different settings including normal neonates, bolus and continuous feeding, during feed intolerance, necrotising enterocolitis and transfusion with packed red cells. Several observational studies demonstrated how NIRS could be used in clinical practice. CONCLUSIONS: NIRS may prove to be a useful bedside tool on the neonatal unit, working alongside current clinical tools in the monitoring of newborn infants (preterm and term) and inform clinical management. We recommend further studies including randomised controlled trials looking at specific measurements and cut-offs for abdominal NIRS for use in further clinical practice.


Assuntos
Oxigênio/metabolismo , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho , Circulação Esplâncnica , Transfusão de Sangue , Permeabilidade do Canal Arterial/complicações , Enterocolite Necrosante/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Sepse/prevenção & controle
2.
N Engl J Med ; 381(15): 1434-1443, 2019 10 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31597020

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Observational data have shown that slow advancement of enteral feeding volumes in preterm infants is associated with a reduced risk of necrotizing enterocolitis but an increased risk of late-onset sepsis. However, data from randomized trials are limited. METHODS: We randomly assigned very preterm or very-low-birth-weight infants to daily milk increments of 30 ml per kilogram of body weight (faster increment) or 18 ml per kilogram (slower increment) until reaching full feeding volumes. The primary outcome was survival without moderate or severe neurodevelopmental disability at 24 months. Secondary outcomes included components of the primary outcome, confirmed or suspected late-onset sepsis, necrotizing enterocolitis, and cerebral palsy. RESULTS: Among 2804 infants who underwent randomization, the primary outcome could be assessed in 1224 (87.4%) assigned to the faster increment and 1246 (88.7%) assigned to the slower increment. Survival without moderate or severe neurodevelopmental disability at 24 months occurred in 802 of 1224 infants (65.5%) assigned to the faster increment and 848 of 1246 (68.1%) assigned to the slower increment (adjusted risk ratio, 0.96; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.92 to 1.01; P = 0.16). Late-onset sepsis occurred in 414 of 1389 infants (29.8%) in the faster-increment group and 434 of 1397 (31.1%) in the slower-increment group (adjusted risk ratio, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.86 to 1.07). Necrotizing enterocolitis occurred in 70 of 1394 infants (5.0%) in the faster-increment group and 78 of 1399 (5.6%) in the slower-increment group (adjusted risk ratio, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.68 to 1.16). CONCLUSIONS: There was no significant difference in survival without moderate or severe neurodevelopmental disability at 24 months in very preterm or very-low-birth-weight infants with a strategy of advancing milk feeding volumes in daily increments of 30 ml per kilogram as compared with 18 ml per kilogram. (Funded by the Health Technology Assessment Programme of the National Institute for Health Research; SIFT Current Controlled Trials number, ISRCTN76463425.).


Assuntos
Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/prevenção & controle , Nutrição Enteral/métodos , Fórmulas Infantis , Doenças do Prematuro/prevenção & controle , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Recém-Nascido de muito Baixo Peso , Leite Humano , Pré-Escolar , Nutrição Enteral/efeitos adversos , Enterocolite Necrosante/prevenção & controle , Seguimentos , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Recém-Nascido de muito Baixo Peso/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal , Tempo de Internação , Sepse/prevenção & controle
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(41): e17521, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31593123

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have neglected to report the specific action of different probiotic genera in preterm infants. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of specific probiotic genera, we performed a network meta-analysis (NMA) to identify the best prevention strategy for necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm infants. METHODS: MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials had been searched for randomized control trials reporting the probiotics strategy for premature infants. RESULTS: We identified 34 eligible studies of 9161 participants. The intervention in the observation group was to add probiotics for feeding: Lactobacilli in 6 studies; Bifidobacterium in 8 studies; Bacillus in 1 study; Saccharomyces in 4 studies and probiotic mixture in 15 studies. This NMA showed a significant advantage of probiotic mixture and Bifidobacterium to prevent the incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm infants. A probiotic mixture showed effectiveness in reducing mortality in preterm infants. CONCLUSION: The recent literature has reported a total of 5 probiotic strategies, including Bacillus, Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus, Saccharomyces, and probiotic mixture. Our thorough review and NMA provided a piece of available evidence to choose optimal probiotics prophylactic strategy for premature infants. The results indicated that probiotic mixture and Bifidobacterium showed a stronger advantage to use in preterm infants; the other probiotic genera failed to show an obvious effect to reduce the incidence of NEC, sepsis and all-cause death. More trials need to be performed to determine the optimal probiotic treatment strategy to prevent preterm related complications.


Assuntos
Enterocolite Necrosante/tratamento farmacológico , Enterocolite Necrosante/prevenção & controle , Doenças do Recém-Nascido/prevenção & controle , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Bifidobacterium/fisiologia , Enterocolite Necrosante/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Doenças do Recém-Nascido/epidemiologia , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Lactobacillus/fisiologia , Placebos/administração & dosagem , Cuidado Pré-Natal/métodos , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Sepse/epidemiologia , Sepse/mortalidade , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
Lakartidningen ; 1162019 Oct 08.
Artigo em Sueco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31593285

RESUMO

The recently documented high survival of extremely preterm infants in Sweden is related to a high degree of centralization of pre- and postnatal care and to recently issued national consensus guidelines providing recommendations for perinatal care at 22-24 gestational weeks. The prevalence of major neonatal morbidity remains high and exceeded 60 % in a recent study of extremely preterm infants born at < 27 gestational weeks delivered in Sweden in 2014-2016 and surviving to 1 year of age. Damage to immature organ systems inflicted during the neonatal period causes varying degrees of functional impairment with lasting effects in the growing child. There is an urgent need for evidence-based novel interventions aiming to prevent neonatal morbidity with a subsequent improvement of long-term outcome.


Assuntos
Lactente Extremamente Prematuro , Doenças do Prematuro , Nascimento Prematuro , Displasia Broncopulmonar/epidemiologia , Displasia Broncopulmonar/fisiopatologia , Displasia Broncopulmonar/prevenção & controle , Serviços Centralizados no Hospital , Hemorragia Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Hemorragia Cerebral/epidemiologia , Hemorragia Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Hemorragia Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Ventrículos Cerebrais/irrigação sanguínea , Ventrículos Cerebrais/diagnóstico por imagem , Enterocolite Necrosante/epidemiologia , Enterocolite Necrosante/fisiopatologia , Enterocolite Necrosante/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Doenças do Prematuro/epidemiologia , Doenças do Prematuro/fisiopatologia , Doenças do Prematuro/prevenção & controle , Assistência Perinatal/organização & administração , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/mortalidade , Retinopatia da Prematuridade/sangue , Retinopatia da Prematuridade/epidemiologia , Retinopatia da Prematuridade/fisiopatologia , Retinopatia da Prematuridade/prevenção & controle , Taxa de Sobrevida , Suécia/epidemiologia
5.
Cell Host Microbe ; 26(2): 147-148, 2019 08 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31415742

RESUMO

Human milk feeding is associated with lower rates of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), but an understanding of mechanism is lacking. In recent work, Gopalakrishna et al. report that human infants who develop NEC first experience an increase in Enterobacteriaceae in the portion of the microbiota not bound to IgA.


Assuntos
Enterocolite Necrosante/prevenção & controle , Imunoglobulina A/uso terapêutico , Leite Humano/imunologia , Animais , Disbiose/prevenção & controle , Enterobacteriaceae/patogenicidade , Enterocolite Necrosante/epidemiologia , Enterocolite Necrosante/microbiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Mães , Tato
6.
Pediatr Surg Int ; 35(10): 1143-1162, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31420743

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We aimed to compare probiotics with placebo for necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm infants and to evaluate the safety and effect and strict effect of specific probiotic genera. METHODS: Data recorded until January 2019 were searched, and relevant academic articles from PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were selected by two independent reviewers. Two reviewers independently included randomized controlled trials that compared probiotics and placebo in preterm infants. The outcomes included more than one of the following outcomes: incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis, necrotizing enterocolitis-related mortality, incidence of sepsis, and all-cause mortality. Two reviewers independently extracted data and assessed the risk of bias and quality of evidence. RESULTS: We identified 34 eligible studies of 9161 participants. This meta-analysis showed an overall advantage of probiotics to prevent the incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis (3.54%) and gut-associated sepsis (15.59%), and decrease mortality (5.23%) in preterm infants. A probiotic mixture showed a huge advantage and vitality in preventing necrotizing enterocolitis (2.48%) and gut-associated sepsis (18.39%), and in reducing mortality (5.57%) in preterm infants. CONCLUSION: The probiotic mixture showed advantages over the single strains to decrease the incidences of necrotizing enterocolitis and gut-associated sepsis, and mortality in preterm infants.


Assuntos
Enterocolite Necrosante/prevenção & controle , Doenças do Prematuro/prevenção & controle , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Enterocolite Necrosante/epidemiologia , Saúde Global , Humanos , Incidência , Recém-Nascido , Doenças do Prematuro/epidemiologia
7.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 7: CD000366, 2019 07 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31283839

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inositol is an essential nutrient required by human cells in culture for growth and survival. Inositol promotes maturation of several components of surfactant and may play a critical role in fetal and early neonatal life. A drop in inositol levels in infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) can be a sign that their illness will be severe. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness and safety of supplementary inositol in preterm infants with or without respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) in reducing adverse neonatal outcomes including: death (neonatal and infant deaths), bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH), periventricular leukomalacia (PVL), necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) and sepsis. SEARCH METHODS: We used the standard search strategy of Cochrane Neonatal to search the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL 2018, Issue 11), MEDLINE via PubMed (1966 to 5 November 2018), Embase (1980 to 5 November 2018), and CINAHL (1982 to 5 November 2018). We searched clinical trial databases, conference proceedings, and the reference lists of retrieved articles for randomised controlled trials (RCT) and quasi-randomised trials. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included all randomised controlled trials of inositol supplementation of preterm infants compared with a control group that received a placebo or no intervention. Outcomes included neonatal death, infant death, bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH), necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) and sepsis. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: The three review authors independently abstracted data on neonatal outcomes and resolved any disagreements through discussion and consensus. Outcomes were reported as typical risk ratio (RR), risk difference (RD) and number needed to treat for an additional beneficial outcome (NNTB) or number needed to treat for an additional harmful outcome (NNTH). We used the GRADE approach to assess the quality of evidence. MAIN RESULTS: Six published randomised controlled trials were identified, with a total of 1177 infants. Study quality varied for the comparison 'Inositol supplementation to preterm infants (repeat doses in any amount and any duration of treatment) versus control' and interim analyses had occurred in several trials for the outcomes of interest. In this comparison, neonatal death was found to be significantly reduced (typical RR 0.53, 95% CI 0.31 to 0.91; typical RD -0.09, 95% CI -0.16 to -0.01; NNTB 11, 95% CI 6 to 100; 3 trials, 355 neonates). Infant deaths were not reduced (typical RR 0.89, 95% CI 0.71 to 1.13; typical RD -0.02, 95% CI -0.07 to 0.02; 5 trials, 1115 infants) (low-quality evidence). ROP stage 2 or higher or stage 3 or higher was not significantly reduced (typical RR 0.89, 95% CI 0.75 to 1.06; typical RD -0.04, 95% CI -0.10 to 0.02; 3 trials, 810 infants) (moderate-quality evidence). There were no significant findings for ROP (any stage), NEC (suspected or proven), sepsis, IVH grade greater than II (moderate-quality evidence). For the comparison 'Inositol supplementation IV initially followed by enteral administration (repeat doses of 80 mg/kg/day) in preterm infants born at less than 30 weeks' postmenstrual age (PMA) compared to placebo for preterm infants at risk for or having respiratory distress syndrome' the results from two studies of high quality were included (N = 760 neonates). Recruitment to the larger study (N = 638) was terminated because of a higher rate of deaths in the inositol group. We did not downgrade the quality of the study. The meta-analyses of the outcomes of 'Type 1 ROP or death before determination of ROP outcome using the adjudicated ROP outcome', 'Type 1 ROP including adjudicated ROP outcome', 'All-cause mortality (outcome collected through first event: death, hospital discharge, hospital transfer, or 120 days after birth)' and 'Severe IVH (grade 3 or 4)' did not show significant findings (moderate-quality evidence). There were no significant findings for the outcomes 'BPD or death by it prior to 37 weeks' postmenstrual age (outcomes collected through first event: death, hospital discharge, hospital transfer, or 120 days after birth)', 'Late onset sepsis (> 72 hours of age)', and 'Suspected or proven NEC' (high-quality evidence). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Based on the evidence from randomised controlled trials to date, inositol supplementation does not result in important reductions in the rates of infant deaths, ROP stage 3 or higher, type 1 ROP, IVH grades 3 or 4, BPD, NEC, or sepsis. These conclusions are based mainly on two recent randomised controlled trials in neonates less than 30 weeks' postmenstrual age (N = 760), the most vulnerable population. Currently inositol supplementation should not be routinely instituted as part of the nutritional management of preterm infants with or without RDS. It is important that infants who have been enrolled in the trials included in this review are followed to assess any effects of inositol supplementation on long-term outcomes in childhood. We do not recommend any additional trials in neonates.


Assuntos
Inositol/uso terapêutico , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Recém-Nascido/tratamento farmacológico , Complexo Vitamínico B/uso terapêutico , Displasia Broncopulmonar/prevenção & controle , Suplementos Nutricionais , Enterocolite Necrosante/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Recém-Nascido/mortalidade , Retinopatia da Prematuridade/prevenção & controle , Sepse/prevenção & controle
8.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 7: CD011785, 2019 07 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31265739

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Upper gastrointestinal bleeding is typically a mild, self-limiting condition that can affect both preterm and term neonates, although it can be severe particularly when associated with co-morbidities. Pharmacological interventions with a proton pump inhibitor (PPI), H2 receptor antagonist (H2RA), antacid, bismuth and sucralfate may have effects on both the prevention and treatment of upper gastrointestinal bleeding in infants. OBJECTIVES: To assess how different pharmacological interventions (PPIs, H2RAs, antacids, sucralfate or bismuth salts) administered to preterm and term neonates for the prevention or treatment of upper gastrointestinal bleeding to reduce morbidity and mortality compare with placebo or no treatment, supportive care, or each other. SEARCH METHODS: We used the standard search strategy of Cochrane Neonatal to search the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL 2018, Issue 6), MEDLINE via PubMed (1966 to 12 July 2018), Embase (1980 to 12 July 2018), and CINAHL (1982 to 12 July 2018). We also searched clinical trial databases, conference proceedings, the reference lists of retrieved articles for randomised controlled trials and quasi-randomised trials, and online for Chinese literature articles. SELECTION CRITERIA: We selected randomised, quasi-randomised and cluster-randomised trials involving preterm and term neonates. Trials were included if they used a proton pump inhibitor, H2 receptor antagonist, antacid, sucralfate or bismuth either for the prevention or treatment of upper gastrointestinal bleeding. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently assessed the eligibility of studies for inclusion, extracted data and assessed methodological quality. We conducted meta-analysis using a fixed-effect model. We used the GRADE approach to assess quality of evidence. MAIN RESULTS: Eleven studies with 818 infants met the criteria for inclusion in this review.Four trials with 329 infants assessed the use of an H2 receptor antagonist for prevention of upper gastrointestinal bleeding in high-risk newborn infants. Meta-analysis of these four trials identified a reduction in any upper gastrointestinal bleeding when using an H2 receptor antagonist (typical risk ratio (RR) 0.36, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.22 to 0.58; typical risk difference (RD) -0.20, 95% CI -0.28 to -0.11; number needed to treat for an additional beneficial outcome (NNTB) 5, 95% CI 4 to 9). The quality of evidence was moderate. A single trial with 53 infants assessing prevention of upper gastrointestinal bleeding reported no difference in mortality in infants assigned H2 receptor antagonist versus no treatment; however the quality of evidence was very low.Seven trials with 489 infants assessed an inhibitor of gastric acid (H2 receptor antagonist or proton pump inhibitor) for treatment of gastrointestinal bleeding in newborn infants. Meta-analysis of two trials (131 infants) showed no difference in mortality from use of a H2 receptor antagonist compared to no treatment. The quality of evidence was low. Meta-analysis of two trials (104 infants) showed a reduction in duration of upper gastrointestinal bleeding from use of an inhibitor of gastric acid compared to no treatment (mean difference -1.06 days, 95% CI -1.28 to -0.84). The quality of evidence was very low. Meta-analysis of six trials (451 infants) showed a reduction in continued upper gastrointestinal bleeding from use of any inhibitor of gastric acid compared to no treatment (typical RR 0.36, 95% CI 0.26 to 0.49; typical RD -0.26, 95% CI -0.33, -0.19; NNTB 4, 95% CI 3 to 5). The quality of evidence was low. There were no significant subgroup differences in duration of upper gastrointestinal bleeding or of continued upper gastrointestinal bleeding according to type of inhibitor of gastric acid. A single trial (38 infants) reported no difference in anaemia requiring blood transfusion from use of a H2 receptor antagonist compared to no treatment.Although no serious adverse events were reported from the use of a H2 receptor antagonist or proton pump inhibitor, some neonatal morbidities - including necrotising enterocolitis, ventilator-associated pneumonia, duration of ventilation and respiratory support, and duration of hospital stay - were not reported. Long-term outcome was not reported. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: There is moderate-quality evidence that use of an H2 receptor antagonist reduces the risk of gastrointestinal bleeding in newborn infants at high risk of gastrointestinal bleeding. There is low-quality evidence that use of an inhibitor of gastric acid (H2 receptor antagonist or proton pump inhibitor) reduces the duration of upper gastrointestinal bleeding and the incidence of continued gastric bleeding in newborn infants with gastrointestinal bleeding. However, there is no evidence that use of an inhibitor of gastric acid in newborn infants affects mortality or the need for blood transfusion. As no study reported the incidence of necrotising enterocolitis, ventilator- or hospital-associated pneumonia, sepsis, or long-term outcome, the safety of inhibitors of gastric acid secretion is unclear.


Assuntos
Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/tratamento farmacológico , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/prevenção & controle , Antiulcerosos/uso terapêutico , Enterocolite Necrosante/prevenção & controle , Antagonistas dos Receptores Histamínicos H2/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Sucralfato/uso terapêutico
9.
PLoS One ; 14(5): e0205784, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31150394

RESUMO

Gut microbiota has been demonstrated to be involved in intestinal nutrition, defense, and immunity, as well as participating in disease progression. This study was to investigate gut microbiota changes in chickens challenged with netB-positive Clostridium perfringens strain (CP1) and/or the predisposing Eimeria species (Eimeria) and fed diets with fishmeal supplementation. In addition, the effects of lauric acid, a medium-chain fatty acid (MCFA), on necrotic enteritis (NE) reduction and modulation of microbiota were evaluated. The results demonstrated that microbial communities in the jejunum were distinct from those in the cecum, and the microbial community change was more significant in jejunum. Challenge of CP1 in conjunction with Eimeria significantly reduced species diversity in jejunal microbiota, but cecal microbiota remained stable. In the jejunum, CP1 challenge increased the abundance of the genera of Clostridium sensu stricto 1, Escherichia Shigella, and Weissella, but significantly decreased the population of Lactobacillus. Eimeria infection on its own was unable to promote NE, demonstrating decrements of Clostridium sensu stricto 1 and Lactobacillus. Co-infection with CP1 and Eimeria reproduced the majority of NE lesions with significant increment of Clostridium sensu stricto 1 and reduction in Lactobacillus. The advance of changes on these two taxa increased the severity of NE lesions. Further analyses of metagenomeSeq, STAMP, and LEfSe consistently showed significant overgrowth of Clostridium sensu stricto 1 was associated with NE. The supplementation of lauric acid did not reduce NE incidence and severity but decreased the relative abundance of Escherichia Shigella. In conclusion, significant overgrowth of C. perfringens as well as other Clostridium species in Clostridium sensu stricto 1 with the decrement of Lactobacillus in the jejunum is the featured microbiota correlated with NE. Controlling proliferation of Clostridium sensu stricto 1 and manipulation of Lactobacillus in the jejunum should be the strategy to prevent NE.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Clostridium perfringens , Eimeria , Enterocolite Necrosante/veterinária , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Ácidos Láuricos/uso terapêutico , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Ração Animal , Animais , Infecções por Clostridium/complicações , Infecções por Clostridium/microbiologia , Infecções por Clostridium/veterinária , Coccidiose/complicações , Coccidiose/microbiologia , Coccidiose/veterinária , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Enterocolite Necrosante/microbiologia , Enterocolite Necrosante/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácidos Láuricos/farmacologia , Masculino , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/parasitologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/prevenção & controle
10.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 6: CD007263, 2019 06 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31246272

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Preterm infants have fewer nutrient reserves at birth than full-term infants and often receive artificial formula feeds in the absence of expressed breast milk. Although it is generally agreed that feeding must be initiated slowly and advanced with much greater deliberation than in a healthy, full-term infant, the way in which feeds are introduced and advanced in preterm infants varies widely. This review focuses on whether dilute or full-strength formula is the preferable mode of introducing feeds in preterm infants for whom expressed breast milk is unavailable. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of dilute versus full-strength formula on the incidence of necrotising enterocolitis, feeding intolerance, weight gain, length of stay in hosptial and time to achieve full calorie intake in exclusively formula-fed preterm or low birth weight infants. A secondary objective was to assess the effects of different dilution strategies. SEARCH METHODS: We used the standard search strategy of Cochrane Neonatal to update the search in the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL 2018, Issue 9), MEDLINE via PubMed (1966 to 1 October 2018), Embase (1980 to 1 October 2018), and CINAHL (1982 to 1 October 2018).We searched clinical trials' registries for ongoing or recently completed trials (clinicaltrials.gov; the World Health Organization's International Trials Registry and Platform; and the ISRCTN Registry). SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised or quasi-randomised trials comparing strengths of formula milk in exclusively formula-fed preterm or low birth weight infants. We excluded studies if infants received formula as a supplement to breast milk. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We independently assessed studies for inclusion. We collected data using the standard methods of Cochrane Neonatal, with independent assessment of risk of bias and data extraction. We synthesised mean differences using a fixed-effect meta-analysis model. We used the GRADE approach to assess the certainty of evidence. MAIN RESULTS: We included three studies involving 102 preterm or low birth weight infants in the review. The studies compared dilute (double-volume, half-strength) formula with full-strength (20 kcal/oz (˜ 68 to 70 kcal/100 mL)) formula. We assessed all three studies as having unclear risk of bias due to the likely absence of blinding of study personnel and the potential for selection bias in the largest trial. Data for the primary outcome of necrotising enterocolitis were not reported in any of the studies. We could combine two of the studies (88 infants) in the meta-analysis. The evidence suggests that dilute formula with double-volume (half-strength) may lead to fewer episodes of gastric residuals per day (one study; mean difference (MD) -1.20, 95% confidence interval (CI) -2.20 to -0.20; low-certainty evidence), fewer episodes of gastric residuals per baby until attaining 100 kcal/kg (one study; MD -0.80, 95% CI -1.32 to -0.28; low-certainty evidence), fewer episodes of vomiting per day (one study; MD -0.04, 95% CI -0.07 to -0.01; low-certainty evidence) and fewer occurrences of abdominal distension greater than 2 cm (two studies; MD -0.16, 95% CI -0.19 to -0.13; low-certainty evidence). For the secondary outcomes, data suggest that infants in the dilute formula with double-volume (half-strength) group may have attained an adequate energy intake earlier than infants in the full-strength group (two studies; MD -2.26, 95% CI -2.85 to -1.67; low-certainty evidence). There was no evidence of a difference between groups for weight gain one week after commencement of intragastric feeds (one study; MD 0.05 kg, 95% CI -0.06 to 0.15; low-certainty evidence). Data were not reported for length of hospital stay. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: There is low-certainty evidence from three small, old trials that use of dilute formula in preterm or low birth weight formula-fed infants may lead to an important reduction in the time taken for preterm infants to attain an adequate energy intake.However, our confidence in this result is limited due to uncertainty over risk of bias and sparsity of available data. Dilute formula may reduce incidence of feeding intolerance, but the clinical significance of the reduction is uncertain. The impact on serious gastrointestinal problems, including necrotising enterocolitis, was not reported in any of the trials. Further randomised trials are needed to confirm these results.


Assuntos
Enterocolite Necrosante , Fórmulas Infantis , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Ingestão de Energia , Enterocolite Necrosante/epidemiologia , Enterocolite Necrosante/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Tempo de Internação , Ganho de Peso
11.
Nat Med ; 25(7): 1110-1115, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31209335

RESUMO

Neonates are protected from colonizing bacteria by antibodies secreted into maternal milk. Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a disease of neonatal preterm infants with high morbidity and mortality that is associated with intestinal inflammation driven by the microbiota1-3. The incidence of NEC is substantially lower in infants fed with maternal milk, although the mechanisms that underlie this benefit are not clear4-6. Here we show that maternal immunoglobulin A (IgA) is an important factor for protection against NEC. Analysis of IgA binding to fecal bacteria from preterm infants indicated that maternal milk was the predominant source of IgA in the first month of life and that a relative decrease in IgA-bound bacteria is associated with the development of NEC. Sequencing of IgA-bound and unbound bacteria revealed that before the onset of disease, NEC was associated with increasing domination by Enterobacteriaceae in the IgA-unbound fraction of the microbiota. Furthermore, we confirmed that IgA is critical for preventing NEC in a mouse model, in which pups that are reared by IgA-deficient mothers are susceptible to disease despite exposure to maternal milk. Our findings show that maternal IgA shapes the host-microbiota relationship of preterm neonates and that IgA in maternal milk is a critical and necessary factor for the prevention of NEC.


Assuntos
Enterocolite Necrosante/prevenção & controle , Imunoglobulina A/fisiologia , Adulto , Animais , Enterobacteriaceae/fisiologia , Enterocolite Necrosante/epidemiologia , Feminino , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Gravidez
12.
Adv Neonatal Care ; 19(3): 188-197, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31140979

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Probiotic use in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) has been linked to reduced rates of necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm infants. Currently, in the United States, probiotic use within the NICU is limited despite being commonly used in other countries. PURPOSE: To provide an overview of the current practices of using probiotics in preterm infants for the prevention of NEC in the NICU in preselected countries. METHODS: A comprehensive literature search was conducted on PubMed and clinicaltrials.gov. Also, studies from 2 recent meta-analyses on the topic were reviewed for inclusion. Selection criteria were as follows: studies involving preterm infants using probiotics in the NICU, reporting on the impact of probiotic use on the incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis, published within the last 10 years and in the English language, and originating from the United States, Canada, or any European country. RESULTS: Twenty-three studies were selected. The most common types of probiotics used were Bifidobacterium infantis and Lactobacillus rhamnosus. The most common frequency of administration was daily or twice day. Duration ranged from 10 days to the entire NICU stay. The dosage was commonly 1 billion colony-forming units daily but ranged from 12 million daily to 12 billion per kilogram daily. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Examining the current practices of probiotic use in the NICU provides useful information as this adjunctive therapy rises in popularity. IMPLICATIONS FOR RESEARCH: Refining methods of probiotic research for necrotizing enterocolitis prevention will improve safety and effectiveness and provide a framework for future clinical trials.


Assuntos
Enterocolite Necrosante/prevenção & controle , Padrões de Prática Médica , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Bifidobacterium longum subspecies infantis , Canadá , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal , Lactobacillus rhamnosus , Estados Unidos
13.
Neonatology ; 115(4): 398-405, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30974431

RESUMO

Care and outcomes for very preterm infants continue to improve, but important causes of mortality and acute and long-term morbidity associated with prolonged hospitalisation remain. Necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) and late-onset infection have emerged as the major causes of death beyond the early neonatal period and of neurodisability in very preterm infants. Although the pathogenesis of these conditions is incompletely understood, it appears to be related to the content and mode of delivery of the enteral diet, particularly the impact of immunonutrients from human breast milk on the microbial and metabolic balance within the immature intestine. Evidence exists to support investment in measures to help mothers to express breast milk as the primary source of nutrition for their very preterm infants. In the absence of maternal milk, pasteurised donor breast milk provides protection against NEC, but its nutritive adequacy is not clear and its cost-effectiveness is uncertain. Supplementation with individual immunonutrients, including immunoglobulins and lactoferrin, has not been shown to be effective in preventing NEC or infection in randomised controlled trials. The evidence base for prebiotics and probiotics is stronger, but concerns exist about the choice, safety and availability of formulations. Other strategies - including avoidance of drugs such as gastric acid suppressants that compromise innate immunity, as well as evidence-based progressive feeding strategies that reduce exposure to invasive interventions - are emerging as key components of care packages to reduce the burden of NEC, infection and associated growth and developmental faltering for very preterm infants.


Assuntos
Colostro/imunologia , Enterocolite Necrosante/prevenção & controle , Fórmulas Infantis , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Leite Humano/imunologia , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Suplementos Nutricionais/efeitos adversos , Enterocolite Necrosante/diagnóstico , Enterocolite Necrosante/imunologia , Humanos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido de muito Baixo Peso , Valor Nutritivo , Probióticos/efeitos adversos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Fatores de Risco
14.
Am J Obstet Gynecol ; 220(5): 482.e1-482.e8, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30786254

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It has been established that delayed umbilical cord clamping in preterm infants results in improvement in neonatal anemia, need for transfusion, incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis, and intraventricular hemorrhage by increasing neonatal circulating blood volume. However, the effects of umbilical cord milking as an alternative to delayed clamping in preterm infants are unclear. OBJECTIVE: The primary objective of this study was to compare the effect of delayed clamping vs milking of the umbilical cord on the initial hematocrit concentration in preterm births (23-34 weeks gestation). In addition, we sought to compare the effects of delayed clamping vs milking on the incidences of intraventricular hemorrhage, necrotizing enterocolitis, and need for transfusion (secondary objectives). STUDY DESIGN: The study was an unblinded randomized controlled trial of singleton preterm infants who were born 23 weeks 0 days to 34 weeks 6 days gestation and were assigned to 1 of 2 controlled study groups: delayed cord clamping for 60 seconds or milking of the cord towards the infant 4 times before clamping. Randomization occurred via block randomization with an allocation ratio of 1 to 1. The patients' third stage of delivery was standardized for route of delivery and randomization arm. All comparisons were preformed with an intent-to-treat analysis approach. The study was powered at 80% with a probability value of .05 for the primary outcome measure of a hematocrit difference of 3% between the 2 groups. RESULTS: Of the 204 randomized patients, 104 were assigned to the delayed subgroup, and 100 were assigned to the milking subgroup. There were no significant differences in baseline maternal characteristics noted between groups. Though there was not any statistically significant difference in neonatal outcomes between the cord clamping and milking groups, the occurrences of transfusion (15.5% vs 9.1%; P=.24), necrotizing enterocolitis (5.8% vs 3.0%; P=.49), and intraventricular hemorrhage (15.5% vs 10.1%; P=.35) were all lower in the milking group. The milking group had higher initial hematocrit concentration compared with the delayed clamping group, although this was not significant (51.8 [6.2%] vs 49.9 [7.7%]; P=.07]. Peak bilirubin levels and need for phototherapy were similar between groups. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that milking the umbilical cord may be an acceptable alternative to delayed cord clamping because there were similar effects on neonatal hematocrit concentrations and the need for neonatal transfusions and no increased risk for complications or neonatal morbidity. The present data support the concept that milking of the umbilical cord may offer an efficient and timely method of providing increased blood volume to the infant.


Assuntos
Constrição , Doenças do Prematuro/prevenção & controle , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Cordão Umbilical , Adolescente , Adulto , Transfusão de Sangue/estatística & dados numéricos , Hemorragia Cerebral Intraventricular/prevenção & controle , Enterocolite Necrosante/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Hematócrito , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
15.
Clin Perinatol ; 46(1): 129-143, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30771814

RESUMO

Multicenter groups have reported reductions in the incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) among preterm infants over the past 2 decades. These large-scale prevalence studies have coincided with reports from multicenter consortia and single centers of modifications in practice using quality-improvement techniques aimed at either reducing NEC risk specifically or reducing risk of mortality and multiple morbidities associated with extreme prematurity. The modifications in practice have been based on mechanistic studies, epidemiologic association data, and clinical trials. Recent reports from centers modifying practice to reduce NEC are reviewed and select modified/modifiable practices discussed.


Assuntos
Colostro , Nutrição Enteral/métodos , Enterocolite Necrosante/prevenção & controle , Leite Humano , Melhoria de Qualidade , Antiácidos/uso terapêutico , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Transfusão de Sangue , Enterocolite Necrosante/epidemiologia , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Fatores de Risco
17.
Clin Perinatol ; 46(1): 65-75, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30771820

RESUMO

Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a devastating bowel necrosis that predominantly affects preterm infants and is characterized by an imbalance toward a proinflammatory state. Fish oil or omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids have the potential to modulate inflammation. In this article, the authors examine the evidence in support of fish oil supplementation to alter the inflammatory response and potentially reduce the risk of NEC.


Assuntos
Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/uso terapêutico , Ácido Eicosapentaenoico/uso terapêutico , Enterocolite Necrosante/prevenção & controle , Óleos de Peixe/uso terapêutico , Inflamação/imunologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Enterocolite Necrosante/epidemiologia , Enterocolite Necrosante/imunologia , Humanos , Incidência , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Recém-Nascido de muito Baixo Peso
18.
Clin Perinatol ; 46(1): 77-88, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30771821

RESUMO

Oropharyngeal administration of mother's own milk-placing drops of milk directly onto the neonate's oral mucosa-may serve to (ex utero) mimic the protective effects of amniotic fluid for the extremely low birth weight infant; providing protection against necrotizing enterocolitis. This article presents current evidence to support biological plausibility for the use of OroPharyngeal Therapy with Mother's Own Milk (OPT-MOM) as an immunomodulatory therapy; an adjunct to enteral feeds of mother's milk administered via a nasogastric or orogastric tube. Current methods and techniques are reviewed, published evidence to guide clinical practice will be presented, and controversies in practice will be addressed.


Assuntos
Colostro/imunologia , Citocinas/imunologia , Nutrição Enteral/métodos , Enterocolite Necrosante/prevenção & controle , Imunomodulação , Tecido Linfoide/imunologia , Leite Humano/imunologia , Orofaringe/imunologia , Líquido Amniótico , Enterocolite Necrosante/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido de Peso Extremamente Baixo ao Nascer , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Mães , Gravidez
20.
Vopr Pitan ; 88(1): 77-84, 2019.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30811137

RESUMO

Diseases of intestines are among the most widespread in this connection their effective prevention and treatment represents a priority problem of practical health care. Nowadays the set of the indisputable evidence that the microbiota of intestines played a key role in pathogenesis of many diseases has been obtained. Aim - the analysis of the available data on a role of microflora and efficiency of probiotic cultures for treatment of irritable bowel syndrome, the necrotic enterocolitis, Krone's disease. Based on the data, which is available in literature, the main aspects of biological properties of probiotic bacteria, first in the context of their regulating influence on inflammatory immune reaction have been discussed. The question of strain-specific effect of probiotics has been considered. The basic provisions concerning change of a fecal microbiota, prospect and difficulty of realization of this technique have been presented in the article. Conclusion. Despite of wide use of pro- and prebiotics in clinic for treatment of diseases of digestive tract, a large number of the questions connected with selection of concrete strains for each patient, a dosage and duration of therapy for achievement of steady remission still remains.


Assuntos
Disbiose , Enterocolite Necrosante , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Disbiose/microbiologia , Disbiose/prevenção & controle , Enterocolite Necrosante/microbiologia , Enterocolite Necrosante/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/microbiologia , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/prevenção & controle
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