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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32236387

RESUMO

Giardia duodenalis is one of the most important and widespread gastrointestinal parasites in the world. Despite its relevance as a causative agent of diarrhea, asymptomatic giardiasis occurs frequently, especially in low resources settings in which children are exposed to many risk factors. Based on microscopic examination and the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification and sequencing of beta-giardin (bg), triose phosphate isomerase (tpi) and glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh) genes, we assessed G. duodenalis occurrence and genetic diversity in isolates of children attending a daycare center and living in low income families, in an economically successful region. Considering both, microscopic examination and PCR/sequencing methods, the overall prevalence of Giardia infection was 51.4%, with the highest frequency in children aged 1-4 years old (p<0.05). Genotyping of 50 isolates revealed that the assemblage A was found in 60% of the samples (30/50), followed by the assemblage B in 38% (19/50) and 2% of mixed-assemblage infections (1/50). At the sub-assemblage level, isolates genotyped as A were AII and among isolates B, BIII and BIV were identified. Both assemblages A and B were detected in children of all age groups, however assemblage A was more prevalent. The detection of anthroponotic assemblages and sub-assemblages (AII, BIII and BIV) reinforces human-to-human transmission, mainly in children of all age groups when they have not yet received toilet training, making them more vulnerable to infection.


Assuntos
Variação Genética/genética , Giardia lamblia/genética , Giardíase/parasitologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/parasitologia , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Creches , Pré-Escolar , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Genótipo , Giardia lamblia/isolamento & purificação , Giardíase/diagnóstico , Giardíase/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Enteropatias Parasitárias/diagnóstico , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Masculino , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Pobreza , Prevalência
2.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0228770, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32023307

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis is a neglected tropical disease that continues to cause morbidity and mortality in Sub Saharan Africa. Due to its endemicity, co-infection with malaria is common. The diseases cause anaemia and impaired nutritional status among children. We investigated the prevalence of intestinal schistosomiasis and its association with malaria, anaemia and nutritional status among school children. METHODS: This was a cross sectional survey among 830 children in Nyamikoma village along Lake Victoria in Tanzania. A pre-tested questionnaire was used to collect socio-demographic data, history of drug use, and clinical data. Two faecal samples were collected on two consecutive days and analyzed using thick smears Kato Katz method. Diagnosis of malaria was done by malaria rapid diagnostic test, and haemoglobin concentration was determined using HemoCue. Nutritional status was assessed by anthropometric measurements. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of intestinal schistosomiasis was 90.6% (95% CI = 88.6% - 92.6%). Intensity of infection was light 24.1% (200/830), moderate 38.4% (319/830) and heavy 28.1% (233/830). Pre-adolescents (≤12 years) were more infected with intestinal schistosomiasis (93.2%) than adolescents (>12 years) (84.7%) (p < 0.001). Prevalence of malaria was 1.7% (14/824), and that of intestinal schistosomiasis-malaria co-infection was 1.6% (13/824). The overall prevalence of anaemia was 24.6% (95%CI = 18.7% - 30.5%). Severe anaemia was found in 2.3% (19/824) of study participants. The prevalence of stunting and wasting were 29.0% and 11.3%, respectively. On both univariate and multivariate regression analysis, only lower age was significantly associated intestinal schistosomiasis infection, but not anemia, malaria, stunting or wasting. However among those infected, a negative binomial regression analysis indicated independent significant association of male sex, loose stool consistency, and stunting with high eggs count/gram of stool. CONCLUSIONS: Despite several rounds of annual mass praziquantel administration, intestinal schistosomiasis is highly prevalent among school children particularly in younger children living in the study area. Biannual targeted mass praziquantel treatments or alternative regimens may be considered in future in the study area to redress the situation.


Assuntos
Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , Criança , Coinfecção/complicações , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Enteropatias Parasitárias/complicações , Malária/complicações , Masculino , Desnutrição/complicações , Prevalência , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Esquistossomose/complicações , Tanzânia/epidemiologia
3.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 156, 2020 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32075585

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intestinal infection is still an important public health problem in low-income countries. Food handlers may be infected by a wide range of enteropathogens and have been implicated in the transmission of many infections to the public. Therefore, the aim of this review was to produce the pooled prevalence and factors associated with intestinal parasitic infections among food handlers working at higher public University student's cafeterias and public food establishments in Ethiopia. METHODS: Articles published in PubMed/Medline, Hinari, Web of Science, Science Direct, and Google Scholar were used using a search strategy. Observational studies (cross-sectional) revealing the prevalence and factors associated with intestinal parasitic infections at higher public University student's cafeterias and public food establishments were incorporated. Meta-analysis was computed using STATA version 14 statistical software. Heterogeneity of the study was assessed using Cochrane Q test statistics and I2 test. The pooled prevalence of the intestinal parasitic infection and associated factors among food handlers was calculated by the random-effect model. RESULTS: Out of 138 reviewed studies, 18 studies were included to estimate the pooled prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among food handlers in Ethiopia. All the eighteen articles were included in the analysis. This study revealed that the pooled prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections was 28.5% (95% CI: 27.4, 29.7). E. hystolitica /E. dispar complex 6.38 (95% Cl: 5.73, 7.04), A.lumbricodes 4.12 (95% Cl: 3.56, 4.67), and G. lamblia 3.12(95% Cl: 2.65, 3.60) were the most common intestinal parasitic infections in this study. Untrimmed fingernail 3.04 (95% CI: 2.19, 4.22), do not washing hands after defecation 2.71 (95% CI: 1.93, 3.82), do not washing hands after touching any body parts 2.41 (95% CI: 1.64, 3.56), do not made medical checkup 2.26 (95% CI: 1.57, 3.25), and do not receive food safety training 1.79 (95% CI: 1.30, 2.45) were factors significantly and positively associated with intestinal parasitic infections. CONCLUSION: Parasitic infections among food handlers were significantly high. Untrimmed fingernail, do not washing hands after defecation, do not washing hands after touching any body parts, do not made regular medical checkup and do not receive food safety training were factors that increase the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections.


Assuntos
Manipulação de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços de Alimentação/estatística & dados numéricos , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/parasitologia , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Universidades
4.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 12, 2020 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31906872

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Determination of the prevalence and distribution pattern of intestinal parasites is a fundamental step to set up an effective control program to improve the health status. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections and associated risk factors among inhabitants of Rudbar-e Jonub county, southeast of Kerman province, southeastern Iran. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 861 stool specimens were collected from inhabitants of Rudbar-e Jonub county through a multistage cluster sampling method in 2018. The collected specimens were examined by parasitological methods including, direct wet-mounting (for the fresh specimens with a watery consistency), formalin-ethyl acetate sedimentation and agar plate culture. RESULTS: The prevalence of intestinal parasites was 34.2% (95% CI 30.1 to 38.2). The prevalence of protozoan parasites 32.3% (95% CI 28.4 to 36.5) was significantly higher than helminthic parasites 3.2% (95% CI 2.1 to 4.7). Blastocystis sp. (13.3%), Entamoeba coli (11.4%) and Giardia lamblia (10.6%) as protozoan parasite and Hymenolepis nana (2.4%) as helminthic parasite were the most common detected intestinal parasites in the study. Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (1.5%), Iodamoeba bütschlii (1.0%), Chilomastix mesnili (0.5%), Entamoeba hartmanni (0.4%), Enterobius vermicularis (0.3%) and Ascaris lambercoides (0.3%) were other detected parasites. Multiple logistic regression revealed a significant association of intestinal parasitic infections with source of drinking water and residency status (rural/urban). Multiple infections with 2 or 3 parasitic agents constituted 22.7% of 295 infected cases. CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed a high prevalence of intestinal protozoan infections among inhabitants of Rudbar-e Jonub county. Intestinal parasites especially protozoans remain a challenging public health problem wherever sanitation and health measures are limited in Iran.


Assuntos
Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Helmintíase/epidemiologia , Helmintíase/parasitologia , Humanos , Enteropatias Parasitárias/parasitologia , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Parasitos/classificação , Prevalência , Infecções por Protozoários/epidemiologia , Infecções por Protozoários/parasitologia , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
5.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 73, 2020 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31948421

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intestinal parasites remain considerable public health problems in low-income countries where poor food hygiene practice is common. Food handlers, people involved in preparing and serving food, working with poor personal hygiene could pose a potential threat of spreading intestinal parasites to the public in a community. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was, therefore, to synthesize the pooled prevalence estimate of intestinal parasites and associated pooled odds ratio of hygienic predictors among food handlers of food service establishments in Ethiopia that could aid to further bringing down the burden of intestinal parasites and it can also be used as a springboard for future studies. METHODS: We searched exhaustively for studies Published before 20 April 2019 using eight Databases; PubMed, Science Direct, Web of Science, Scopus, Embase, Google Scholar, ProQuest, and Ovid MEDLINE® complemented by the gray literature search. In the final synthesis, we included twenty study reports. We used the Cochrane Q test and I2 test to assess heterogeneity of studies, while we employed a funnel plot followed by Egger's regression asymmetry test and Begg rank correlation methods to evaluate publication bias. We also performed a point estimates and 95% confidence interval for each study using STATA version 14 statistical software. RESULTS: The overall pooled prevalence estimate of intestinal parasites among food handlers of food service establishments in Ethiopia was 33.6% (95%CI: 27.6-39.6%). Among ten intestinal parasites identified from food handlers, Entamoeba histolytica/ dispar (11, 95%CI: 7.9-14.1%) and Ascaris lumbricoides (8.8, 95%CI: 6.4-11.2%) were the most predominant intestinal parasites. Food handlers who washed hands after toilet use had 54% (OR, 0.46, 95% CI: 0.23-0.94) protection from intestinal parasites compared to those who did not. CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed that intestinal parasitic infections are notable among food handlers of food service establishments in Ethiopia, which may be a risk for transmitting intestinal parasites to food and drinks consumers through the food chain. Thus, periodic stool checkup, training on intestinal parasitic infections and personal hygiene should be applied to reduce public health and socio-economic impacts of parasitic infections.


Assuntos
Manipulação de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços de Alimentação/estatística & dados numéricos , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Humanos
6.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 117, 2020 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31992252

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have been carried out on assessing the prevalence of intestinal parasites infections (IPIs) amongpreschool and school-age children in Ethiopia, but there is lack of study systematically gathered and analyzedinformation for policymakers. Therefore, the aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to provide a summary on prevalence, geographical distribution and trends of IPIs among preschool and school-age childrenin Ethiopia. METHODS: The search were carried out in Medline via PubMed, Scopus, Science Direct, Web of Science, and Google Scholar from 1996to July2019 for studies describing prevalence of IPIs among preschooland school-age children. We conducted meta-regression to understand the trends and the source of heterogeneity and pooled the prevalence using 'metaprop' command using STATA software version 14. RESULTS: Eighty-three(83) studies examining 56,786 fecal specimens were included. The prevalence of IPIs was 48%(95%CI: 42 to 53%) and showedsignificantly decreasing trends 17% (95% CI: 2.5 to 32%) for each consecutive 6 years) and was similar in males and females. The pooled prevalence in years 1997-2002, 2003-2008, 2009-2014 and > 2014 was 71% (95% CI: 57 to 86%), 42% (95% CI: 27 to 56%), 48% (95% CI: 40 to 56%) and 42% (95% CI: 34 to 49%), respectively. Poly-parasitism was observed in 16% (95% CI: 13 to 19%,) of the cases. CONCLUSION: Intestinal parasite infections are highly prevalent among preschool and school-age children and well distributed across the regional states of Ethiopia. Southern and Amhara regional states carry the highest burden. We observed significant decreasing trends in prevalence of IPIs among preschool and school-ageEthiopian children over the last two decades. Therefore, this study is important to locate the geographical distribution and identified high risk areas that should be prioritized further interventions, which complement global efforts towards elimination of IPIs infections by 2020.


Assuntos
Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Prevalência
7.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1667, 2019 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31829156

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intestinal parasitic infections are common in rural areas with poor infrastructure and low socioeconomic status. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of selected parasitic infections in marginalized rural areas in the northern part of the Palestinian West Bank Region, using conventional and PCR-based methods, and also to assess risk predictors of infection. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 104 individuals from three rural villages in the Jordan Valley. Stool samples were collected and examined by a battery of tests that included microscopy of wet fecal samples in normal saline with iodine, concentration by ethyl acetate sedimentation and also by zinc sulfate floatation, a conventional PCR and a real-time PCR (qPCR). Risk factors were assessed that included demographic, socioeconomic, and behavioral characteristics. Data on method performance was analyzed by kappa-statistic, Cochrane's Q, and McNemar post hoc test. Mid-P exact test and odds ratio were used to discern association between outcome and risk predictors. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections was 48% (49/102). The predominant parasites were Giardia lamblia at 37% (37/102) and Hymenolepis nana at 9% (9/102). To concentrate cysts and eggs, sedimentation can be used as an alternative to floatation with a loss of 1% of positive cases. The methods employing PCRs proved crucial as it increased the detected infection rate of G. lamblia approximately three-fold from 13% by the conventional methods to 37% by the qPCR. Multiple infections were present in 13% (13/102) of the study group, which included double (10%) and triple (3%) infections. Regarding the genus Entamoeba, E. dispar and E. coli were detected at rates of 2 and 8%, respectively. While none of the individuals were infected with the pathogenic E. histolytica, E. nana (4%) was detected for the first time in the area. Age was a risk predictor for infection (OR = 2.61, CI 95% 1.05-6.45, P = 0.038). CONCLUSIONS: The increased prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in children in marginalized rural areas in Palestine is worrying. The addition of PCR-based methods is important for the diagnosis of such infections as, with cautious interpretation, it increases proficiency and overcomes underestimation and misdiagnosis of cases. Control measures including education on personal hygiene and environmental sanitation, should be introduced to reduce the prevalence of the intestinal parasites and, thus, the infections they cause in this and other areas.


Assuntos
Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Saúde da População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Jordânia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Marginalização Social , Adulto Jovem
8.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1731, 2019 Dec 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31870443

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Street child is any child whose age is less than 18 years for whom the street has become his or her habitual abode and/or source of livelihood, is inadequately protected, supervised or directed by responsible adults. In Ethiopia the health problems of street children are given poor attention in research. This problem is pronounced when it comes to intestinal parasitic infections, making it difficult to design appropriate interventions targeting this segment of population. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections and associated factors among street children in Jimma town in the year 2019. METHODS: Community based cross sectional study was employed. Complete enumeration was used to include 312 street children. Pretested questionnaire was used to collect the data. Data was entered to Epidata version 3.1 and exported to SPSS version 20. Stool samples were examined by wet mount and formalin ether concentration techniques. Bivariable and multivariable logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with intestinal parasitic infection. Significance of association was decided by using the 95% confidence interval of AOR and P-value of ≤0.05 in the multivariable model. RESULT: A total of 312 children of the street were involved in the study making the response rate 96.2%. The prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection was 66.7%. Untrimmed finger nails AOR = 2.03;95%CI (1.02-4.06), eating street food AOR = 2.24;95% CI (1.04-5.02), practice of swimming in unprotected water bodies AOR = 2.5; 95% CI (1.24-5.04), not wearing shoes at the time of data collection AOR = 3.8;95% CI (1.8-8.2) and lacking knowledge of way of transmission of intestinal parasites AOR = 2.5; 95% CI (1.25-5.0) were significantly associated with parasitic infections. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among street children in the study area was high and require integrated interventions to avert the problem. Several factors were also found to be associated with intestinal parasitic infections. Measures has to be taken to curb the problem by including them in mass drug administration and targeted health education towards identified factors.


Assuntos
Jovens em Situação de Rua/estatística & dados numéricos , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
9.
J Helminthol ; 94: e103, 2019 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31679528

RESUMO

Helminth and protozoan infections are responsible for important diseases in grazing sheep, which can be especially threatening in an autochthonous breed at risk of extinction like the Churra Galega Mirandesa Portuguese sheep breed. The aim of the present study was to determine the diversity, prevalence and burden of gastrointestinal parasites in these sheep and to assess the effects of deworming practices, cohabiting animals on the farm and feed management. Coprological qualitative and quantitative analysis (flotation, natural sedimentation and McMaster method) were used to identify and quantify gastrointestinal parasites and a questionnaire was designed and applied. A total of 512 faecal samples were collected from 49 flocks, and 49 replies to the questionnaire were received. Parasites were identified in 100% of the flocks, and in 97% of the samples. The genera or species that have been morphologically identified were: strongyle-type, Nematodirus spp., Skrjabinema spp., Moniezia expansa, Moniezia benedeni, Trichuris spp., Capillaria spp., Eimeria spp., Dicrocoelium spp. and Fasciola hepatica. This is the first report in Portugal of Skrjabinema spp. The burden of parasites' oocysts and eggs per gram in faecal samples ranged, respectively, from 50 to 17,550 for Eimeria spp., and from 50 to 6250 for strongyle-type eggs. Factors affecting parasitic infections were evaluated using a multivariate logistic regression. Grazing time and a lack of anthelmintic treatment were positively associated with Nematodirus spp. infection. This study showed that there is a high prevalence and diversity of gastrointestinal parasites in the Churra Galega Mirandesa sheep breed.


Assuntos
Enteropatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Parasitos/isolamento & purificação , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Animais , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Trato Gastrointestinal/parasitologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/parasitologia , Masculino , Parasitos/classificação , Parasitos/genética , Portugal/epidemiologia , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia
10.
J Helminthol ; 94: e104, 2019 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31679531

RESUMO

The human-animal bond is beneficial for human health, but companion animals also pose a potential threat as vectors of zoonotic parasites, especially in urban areas where both human and dog densities are high. However, the knowledge about parasitic spillover in the urban environment is relatively scarce. The aim of the present study was to reveal which factors determine parasitic contamination in Estonian towns and provide up-to-date information about intestinal parasites of the Estonian dog population. In total, 657 samples of dog excrement was collected over one year of investigation from five towns in Estonia. Generalized linear mixed models were used to evaluate factors predicting infection risk in urban areas. In general, infection risk and intensity models predicted higher infection with endoparasites for small dogs in smaller towns, especially in apartment-house districts and in potential hazard zones. Helminth eggs and Giardia/Cystoisospora oocysts were detected in 64 samples, with an overall prevalence of 9.8%.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Parasitos/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Cidades/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Cães , Estônia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/parasitologia , Masculino , Parasitos/classificação , Parasitos/genética
11.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 31(5): 491-497, 2019 Oct 12.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31713377

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To understand the epidemic status and influencing factors of intestinal parasitic diseases among rural children in Henan Province. METHODS: According to the Scheme for The National Survey on Current Status of Major Human Parasitic Diseases in China, the survey counties were selected based on the ecological zones and economic levels in Henan Province between 2014 and 2015. Then, the included counties were stratified according to the topography and economic levels. A township was randomly sampled from each stratum, and a village was randomly sampled from each township as the study site. Finally, a total of 104 study sites from 35 counties were enrolled for the survey of intestinal parasitic diseases in children. At least 250 fresh stool samples were collected from each study site for detection of intestinal helminth eggs with the Kato-Katz technique, for the identification of Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale with the fecal culture method, and for the detection of intestinal protozoa trophozoite and cyst with the physiological saline smear and iodine staining techniques. In addition, the Enterobius vermicularis and tapeworm eggs were detected in children aged 3 to 6 years using the adhesive cellophane-tape perianal swab method. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections was 3.21% (214/6 671) among rural children in Henan Province, and the prevalence of intestinal helminthes (2.62%, 175/6 671) was higher than that of intestinal protozoa (0.60%, 40/6 671). A total of 12 species of intestinal parasites were found, including 4 nematodes species, one trematode species, and 7 protozoa species, and the highest infection was seen in E. vermicularis (2.47%, 161/6 671). Among the four ecological zones in Henan Province, the greatest prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections was detected among children in the Qinba Mountain Ecological Zone (5.85%, 90/1 538). There was no gender-specific difference in the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in children (P > 0.05); however, there were age- (χ2 = 32.762, P < 0.05) and education level-specific differences in the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in children (χ2 = 67.507, P < 0.05), with the greatest prevalence of E. vermicularis infection seen in all species of intestinal parasites in children at all age groups. Multivariate non-conditional logistic regression analysis showed that high education level, high coverage of harmless toilets, drinking tap water and deworming were protective factors for intestinal parasitic infections in children in Henan Province. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections appeared a tendency towards a gradual decline among children in Henan Province as compared to the previous two surveys. CONCLUSIONS: The overall prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections shows a tendency towards a remarkable decline among children in Henan Province. E. vermicularis infection should be given a priority for future parasitic disease control activities among rural children in Henan Province.


Assuntos
Enteropatias Parasitárias , Animais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Humanos , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Masculino , Prevalência , Infecções por Protozoários/epidemiologia , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos
12.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 31(5): 546-548, 2019 Aug 02.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31713392

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To understand and master the infection status of key parasitic diseases in Baise City from 2006 to 2015, so as to provide evidence for the development and adjustment of the control strategy for parasitic diseases. METHODS: The relevant information of the final evaluation of the key parasitic diseases in 12 counties (cities and districts) of Baise City from 2006 to 2015 was collected, and analyzed. RESULTS: During the period of 2006-2015, a total of 20 654 person-times were investigated for parasitic diseases in Baise City and 1 147 persons were infected, with an average infection rate of 5.55%. In 2006, the infection rate was the highest (28.67%, 362/1 254), while the lowest was in 2013 (2.08%, 44/2 113). The infection rate of Clonorchis sinensis was the highest, and the infection rate of Ascaris lumbricoides was the second. The infection rates of the males and females were 5.35% (631/11 795) and 5.82% (516/8 859) respectively, with no significant difference between them (χ2 = 2.175, P > 0.05). The highest infection rate existed in the 40-49 years group, the rural residents, the farmers and the crowd with the educational level of senior high middle school or above. CONCLUSIONS: The infection rate of parasitic diseases presents a decline trend overall in Baise City from 2006 to 2013, however it rebounded in 2014 and 2015. The next step is to strengthen the prevention and control of parasitic diseases by promoting health education, regular insect repellent, and fecundity management.


Assuntos
Enteropatias Parasitárias , Doenças Parasitárias , Fatores Etários , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Cidades , Feminino , Humanos , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Vigilância da População , Fatores de Risco , População Rural
13.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 515, 2019 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31685003

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Strongyloidiasis is a health problem in Vietnam, but appropriate information is still limited. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, geographical distribution, epidemiological aspects, symptoms and other health indicators of Strongyloides stercoralis infections in patients from 27 provinces of northern Vietnam attending the Hanoi Medical University Hospital during 2016 and 2017. METHODS: Blood samples of 2000 patients were analyzed for S. stercoralis infection with an IgG ELISA test. Seroprevalence was analyzed by gender, age group, locality of origin (rural or urban areas) and symptoms. Stools from the seropositive patients were examined for the detection of worms which were subsequently used for species identification by morphology and rDNA ITS1 sequencing. RESULTS: A seroprevalence of 20% was detected, showing an increasing prevalence from young to older age groups but without significant gender difference. Seroprevalence was higher in rural areas than in urban areas, both in general and individually in all provinces without exception, and lower in the mountainous areas than in the large valley lowlands. The follow-up of the 400 patients showed eosinophilia in 100% of cases, diarrhoea in 64.5%, digestion difficulties in 58.0%, stomachache in 45.5%, stomach and duodenal ulcers in 44.5%, itching in 28.0% and fever in 9.5%. The prevalence of symptoms and signs were also higher in older age groups than in younger age groups. Worms were detected in stools of 10.5% of the patients. Sequencing of a 501-bp nuclear ribosomal DNA ITS1 fragment allowed for the verification of infection by Strongyloides stercoralis. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this study is the largest survey of human strongyloidiasis in Vietnam so far and the first molecular identification of this nematode species in this country. Long-term chronicity may probably be usual in infected subjects, mainly in the older age groups.


Assuntos
Strongyloides stercoralis/genética , Estrongiloidíase/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Animais , Anticorpos Anti-Helmínticos/sangue , DNA de Helmintos/análise , DNA de Helmintos/química , DNA Ribossômico/análise , DNA Ribossômico/química , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Diarreia/parasitologia , Eosinofilia/epidemiologia , Eosinofilia/parasitologia , Feminino , Geografia , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/parasitologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , População Rural , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Strongyloides stercoralis/imunologia , Strongyloides stercoralis/isolamento & purificação , Estrongiloidíase/parasitologia , Vietnã/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
14.
Ann Parasitol ; 65(3): 293-296, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31599558

RESUMO

Poultry production as one of the major sources of protein in Nigeria is constrained by parasitic diseases including haemo- and gastrointestinal (GI) parasites. The haemo- and endoparasites of indigenous chickens reared in Gwagwalada market, Gwagwalada Area Council, Abuja, Nigeria were studied. Blood and fecal samples were collected from 108 chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) between April­August, 2017. Thin blood smear, and floatation and sedimentation techniques were used for the blood and fecal samples, respectively. Of the 108 local chickens examined, 49 were males, while 59 were females. Overall, female chickens had higher infection rate with haemoparasites (53.1%) that males (46.9%). The blood parasites found mostly were Plasmodium spp., with a prevalence 54.6%, occurring in both male and female chickens examined. It was further revealed that endoparasites infected 60.8% of the female local chicken and 39.2% of the male. The mostly occured Ascaridia spp. with prevalence 35.2%; the least was Strongyloides avium (0.9%). Also, Eimeria spp. occysts were found in 8 (7.4%) of the chickens. This study provides basic information on the haemo- and endoparasites constantly infecting local breed of chickens reared in Gwagwalada Area Council, FCT- Abuja.


Assuntos
Eimeria , Enteropatias Parasitárias , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Animais , Galinhas/parasitologia , Feminino , Enteropatias Parasitárias/sangue , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/parasitologia , Masculino , Nigéria , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/sangue , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/parasitologia
15.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 838, 2019 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31604429

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Helminthic and protozoan infections are common, particularly in low- or middle-income countries. Although an association between parasite carriage and markers of poor growth have been shown in some studies, systematic reviews have suggested only a modest impact of clearing carriage. The prevalence of these pathogens and the effect that they have on growth in preschool children has never been investigated in Malawi. METHODS: One hundred ninety-three children aged 0-72 months were randomly recruited from rural villages in the Mangochi district of Malawi. Formol-ether concentration was performed on stool and the samples examined with a light microscope. Anthropometric data was taken for each child and the haemoglobin measured with a point of care test. RESULTS: The mean age of the children was 2 years 4 months. Overall prevalence of intestinal parasite infection was 37.3%. Protozoa were found in 28.5% of children, while helminths were found in 8.8%. The most commonly found organisms were Giardia lambia (12.4%), Entamoeba coli (10.4%) and Hookworm species (3.6%). Stunting was seen in 47.8% of children, 12.9% were underweight and 5.0% were wasted. No significant association was found between markers of poor growth and infection with any intestinal parasite. CONCLUSIONS: We found that prevalence of helminth infection was low in preschool children living in the Mangochi district compared to international standards. However a significant proportion of the preschool population are infected with protozoa, particularly Giardia lambia. In this cohort, despite a significant prevalence of stunting, helminth infection was not significantly associated with any markers of poor growth. The significance of protozoal carriage and contribution to growth restriction in this context creates further avenues for future research.


Assuntos
Helmintíase/diagnóstico , Enteropatias Parasitárias/diagnóstico , Ancylostomatoidea/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Entamoeba/isolamento & purificação , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Giardia lamblia/isolamento & purificação , Helmintíase/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Malaui/epidemiologia , Masculino , Estado Nutricional , Prevalência
16.
Ann Parasitol ; 65(3): 217-223, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31578845

RESUMO

The majority of the population in Yemen lives in rural areas and suffers from parasitic infections. Therefore, the present study aimed to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitoses and schistosome infections among the students enrolled in the primary schools in Hajjah governorate ­ north of Yemen, along with an assessment of praziquantel (PZQ) in the treatment of microscopy-confirmed cases of Schistosoma mansoni and Schistosoma haematobium. For this purpose, 780 samples (320 stool and 460 urine) were examined microscopically. The present study revealed an overall infection rate of 75.3% (241/320) with intestinal parasites and Schistosoma mansoni. The detected parasite species included Entamoeba histolytica (27.8%), Hymenolepis nana (12.2%), Giardia lamblia (9.7%), Entamoeba coli (9.4%), S. mansoni (9.1%), Ascaris lumbricoides (6.9%), Trichuris trichiura (3.1%), Enterobius vermicularis (2.8%) and Ancylostoma duodenale (2.2%). Schistosoma haematobium was prevalent among 1.7% (8/460) of the investigated students. On the other hand, PZQ yielded a cure rate of 75.7% of Schistosoma-infected students when administered at 40 mg/kg body weight. However, a 100% cure rate was achieved when administered at 60 mg/kg body weight. Therefore, the findings of the present study highlight the importance of monitoring PZQ efficacy through large-scale studies in different settings endemic for schistosomosis in the country.


Assuntos
Enteropatias Parasitárias , Praziquantel , Esquistossomose , Animais , Criança , Fezes/parasitologia , Humanos , Enteropatias Parasitárias/tratamento farmacológico , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/parasitologia , Praziquantel/uso terapêutico , Prevalência , Schistosoma haematobium , Esquistossomose/tratamento farmacológico , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose/parasitologia , Esquistossomose Urinária/tratamento farmacológico , Esquistossomose Urinária/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose Urinária/parasitologia , Esquistossomose mansoni/tratamento farmacológico , Esquistossomose mansoni/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose mansoni/parasitologia , Estudantes , Resultado do Tratamento , Urina/parasitologia , Iêmen/epidemiologia
17.
Prev Vet Med ; 172: 104788, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31627164

RESUMO

The contamination of public areas by dog faeces is a social behaviour and public health problem. In fact, the most frequently isolated intestinal helminths in dogs are distributed worldwide, and most of them have zoonotic potential (i.e., ascarids and ancylostomatids). The aims of this survey were to evaluate citizen awareness of health risks for animals and humans related to canine faecal pollution and to estimate the presence and prevalence of intestinal helminths in dog faeces collected in green public areas in three municipalities of Italy (Padua, Rome and Teramo). The awareness of citizens about the health risks related to faecal pollution was evaluated using questionnaires submitted to 313 dog owners and 159 non-dog owners in Padua (n = 341) and Rome (n = 131). Most dog owners (85.4%) declared they picked up their dog's faeces every time, and these data were confirmed by operators secretly observing dog owners. Moreover, 84.3% participants were aware of the existence of a municipal regulation concerning the correct management of animals in public areas with no significant differences between dog owners and non-dog owners, whereas Rome citizens were significantly more aware than Padua citizens. Nonetheless, only 10.9% (51/469) of responders knew the health risks related to canine faecal pollution, with no significant differences between dog and non-dog owners. A total of 677 dog stool samples were collected and copromicroscopically analysed. Forty-eight (7.1%) samples were positive for at least one parasite species, with significantly lower prevalence values in Padua (2.2%) than in Rome (11.9%) and Teramo (8.6%). The highest prevalence was detected for Trichuris vulpis (4.4%), followed by Toxocara canis (1.9%); T. vulpis presented significantly lower prevalence in Padua than in the other cities. Other helminths were found with values under 0.5% in the investigated cities. This survey shows that most citizens are unaware of the health risk related to abandoned canine faeces on public soils. Nevertheless, laboratory results suggest a limited risk for dog and human health, but the zoonotic risk due to the high vitality of infective helminths eggs in the soil should always be considered.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Helmintíase Animal/epidemiologia , Helmintos/isolamento & purificação , Enteropatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Animais , Cidades , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , Helmintíase Animal/parasitologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/parasitologia , Itália/epidemiologia , Parques Recreativos , Percepção , Prevalência , Medição de Risco
18.
BMC Res Notes ; 12(1): 567, 2019 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31511045

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to assess enteropathogens carriage rate and risk factors among apparently healthy food handlers at Wolkite University cafeteria, Southern Ethiopia. RESULTS: Cross-sectional study was conducted among 170 food handlers to collect socio-demographic and related data by using structured questionnaires. Stool samples were collected and subjected to microscopic examination and cultured to determine intestinal parasites. Among the total study participants, 66% of them were found to be carriers of enteropathogens: bacteria (Salmonella typhi, Shigella species), and intestinal parasites (Ascaris lumbricoides,Taenia species, Giardia lamblia, Entameoba histolytica/dispar, Enterobius vermicularis, Hook worm and Trichuris trichiura). All Salmonella and Shigella isolates were sensitive to ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin, and gentamicin. A significant association was found between hand washing practice before food preparation and isolated pathogens [p = 0.013]. A significant proportion of food handlers were found to be carriers of pathogens which require a periodic screening and antibiotic therapy monitoring.


Assuntos
Fezes/microbiologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Manipulação de Alimentos/normas , Serviços de Alimentação/normas , Desinfecção das Mãos/normas , Universidades , Adolescente , Adulto , Infecções Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Manipulação de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços de Alimentação/estatística & dados numéricos , Desinfecção das Mãos/métodos , Humanos , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/parasitologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
19.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 430, 2019 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31488192

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The three most commonly diagnosed gastrointestinal parasites of pet dogs within the USA are the whipworm, the hookworm, and the roundworm. The collection of large data sets from various sources throughout the industry have produced a number of publications on parasite prevalence in recent years. In this study, we look at data captured by the Companion Animal Parasite Council from 2012-2018, which includes 4.3-7.2 million annual fecal exams, to evaluate not only changes in prevalence, but also possible seasonal fluctuations of the three most common canine gastrointestinal parasites. METHODS: Annual and monthly data were collected from the CAPC parasite prevalence maps for canine roundworms, hookworms and whipworm. The map data were provided to CAPC by two large national reference laboratories. The data were evaluated for changes in prevalence on a monthly basis throughout each year as well as changes in prevalence from year to year from 2012-2018. Additionally, positive test results and total tests performed for each of the three parasites from 2012-2018 during individual months were totaled without using the year as a variable in order to evaluate the results for seasonality (i.e. all tests and positive results occurring in January, regardless of year, were totaled and analyzed). RESULTS: Evaluation of gastrointestinal nematode prevalence data from over 39 million fecal samples examined over a 7-year period revealed a subtle, yet significant, increasing prevalence for roundworms, an increasing prevalence for hookworms, and a slightly decreasing prevalence for whipworms. Seasonality was demonstrated for roundworms, hookworms, and to our knowledge, for the first time canine whipworms. Highest seasonal prevalence for roundworms, hookworms, and whipworms occurred during December-January, July-August, and January-February, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Evaluation of monthly gastrointestinal parasite prevalence data from over 39 million fecal samples collected over a 7-year period revealed a slightly increasing prevalence for roundworms, an increasing prevalence for hookworms, and a slightly decreasing prevalence for whipworms. In addition to the annual changes in prevalence, seasonal prevalence was shown for the first time for whipworms. Prevalence of both whipworm and roundworm peaked in the winter, while prevalence of hookworm peaked in the late summer and early autumn.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Infecções por Nematoides/veterinária , Estações do Ano , Animais , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , Fezes/parasitologia , Infecções por Uncinaria/epidemiologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Infecções por Nematoides/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Tricuríase/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
20.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 429, 2019 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31488219

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The World Health Assembly endorsed the WHO Neglected Tropical Disease (NTD) Roadmap in 2013, in which NTDs were suggested as tracers of equity in the assessment of progress towards the Sustainable Development Goals. Nationwide surveys were undertaken in all 18 states of Sudan to identify the geographical distribution and to estimate the prevalence and intensity of schistosomiasis and other intestinal helminthiases from December 2016 to March 2017. METHODS: We used two-stage random sampling. Each district was subdivided into one to three different ecological zones (EZs) based on proximity to water bodies. Probability-proportional-to-size sampling was used to select schools from each EZ. We estimated schistosomiasis and intestinal helminthiasis prevalence by the centrifugation method and Kato-Katz smears. Multi-level mixed-effect models were used to investigate the relationship between the prevalence of infections and risk factors, including improved water or latrine status at the household or school level. We estimated the cost-effectiveness of a one-time mass drug administration (MDA) intervention with 75% coverage at the district and EZ levels. RESULTS: A total of 105,167 students from 1772 schools were surveyed. The overall egg-positive rates were: Schistosoma haematobium, 5.2%; S. mansoni, 0.06%; and intestinal helminths, 5.47%. Severe endemic areas were concentrated in East and South Darfur States. Children living in a house or attending schools with an improved latrine were less likely to be infected with schistosomiasis than those without a latrine (adjusted odds ratio, aOR: 0.45, 95% confidence interval, CI: 0.41-0.51 and aOR: 0.75, 95% CI: 0.70-0.81 at the household or the school levels, respectively). Open defecation was strongly associated with schistosomiasis (aOR: 1.50, 95% CI: 1.35-1.66). In community-wide mass treatment at the district level with an 8% threshold for schistosomiasis, 2.2 million people would not benefit from MDA interventions with 75% coverage despite high endemicity, whilst 1.7 million people would receive the MDA intervention unnecessarily. EZ-level MDA was estimated to be more cost-effective than district-level administration under all circumstances. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings provide updated prevalence figures to guide preventive chemotherapy programmes for schistosomiasis and intestinal helminthiasis in Sudan. Schistosomiasis was found to be common among the inhabitants of fragile and conflict-affected areas. In addition, we found that MDA interventions would be more cost-effective at the sub-district level than at the district level, and there was a strong association between schistosomiasis prevalence and latrine status, at both the household and school levels. This study will help the Sudanese government and its neighbouring countries develop adequate control and elimination strategies.


Assuntos
Helmintíase/epidemiologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Administração Massiva de Medicamentos/economia , Administração Massiva de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Schistosoma haematobium , Solo/parasitologia , Sudão/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
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