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1.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 659, 2019 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31340774

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is estimated that over a third of the world population is infected by malaria and helminthiases mainly among communities with high poverty indices. The distribution of these parasitic infections overlaps in many epidemiological settings and have varying outcomes in the host. In this paper we report the prevalence of malaria and intestinal helminthiases coinfections among malaria suspected patients and the association of helminthiases with the occurrence of malaria and its outcomes in Wondo Genet, southern Ethiopia. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study conducted from December 2009 to July 2010 in Kella, Aruma and Busa Health Centers in Wondo Genet, a total of 427 consenting febrile patients were screened for malaria and intestinal helminths infections. Malaria parasite detection and quantification were done using Giemsa stained thick and thin blood films. Helminth infections were screened and quantified by Kato-Katz thick smear method. Haemoglobin level was assessed using haemocue machine (HemoCue HB 201+). Difference in proportions and means were tested by Student's t test and ANOVA while logistic regression analysis was used to determine the association between variables. RESULTS: Of the total examined, 196 (45.90%) were positive for at least one helminth infection while 276 (64.64%) were positive for malaria. The prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax infections were 47.31 and 16.62%, respectively. The most common helminth parasites detected were Ascaris lumbricoides (33.96%), Trichuris trichiura (21.55%), Schistosoma mansoni (13.35%), and hookworms (6.79%). The overall malaria-helminthiases coinfection was 33.96%. The prevalence of anaemia was 43.12%. Helminthiases coinfection showed a positive correlation with the occurrence of malaria (AOR = 2.17, 95% CI: 1.44-3.28; P < 0.001). Schistosoma mansoni coinfection was associated with the increased risk of developing malaria associated anaemia (OR = 14.4, 95% CI: 1.37-150.80; P = 0.026). CONCLUSION: Malaria and helminth coinfections are important causes of morbidities among the population in Wondo Genet necessitating integrated control measures. Nevertheless, further detailed studies on the consequences and pathogenesis of these coinfections are needed to institute sound control and intervention measures.


Assuntos
Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Helmintíase/epidemiologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Malária/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Criança , Coinfecção/parasitologia , Coinfecção/prevenção & controle , Comorbidade , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Febre/epidemiologia , Febre/parasitologia , Helmintíase/parasitologia , Helmintíase/prevenção & controle , Helmintos/genética , Helmintos/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Enteropatias Parasitárias/parasitologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/prevenção & controle , Malária/parasitologia , Malária/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Plasmodium falciparum/genética , Plasmodium falciparum/isolamento & purificação , Prevalência , Viverridae , Adulto Jovem
2.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1154: 181-213, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31297763

RESUMO

Intestinal trematodes are among the most common types of parasitic worms. About 76 species belonging to 14 families have been recorded infecting humans. Infection commonly occurs when humans eat raw or undercooked foods that contain the infective metacercariae. These parasites are diverse with regard to their morphology, geographical distribution, and life cycle, which make it difficult to study the parasitic diseases that they cause. Many of these intestinal trematodes have been considered as endemic parasites in the past. However, the geographical limits and the population at risk are currently expanding and changing in relation to factors such as growing international markets, improved transportation systems, new eating habits in developed countries and demographic changes. These factors make it necessary to better understand intestinal trematode infections. This chapter describes the main features of human intestinal trematodes in relation to their biology, epidemiology, host-parasite relationships, pathogenicity, clinical aspects, diagnosis, treatment, and control.


Assuntos
Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Enteropatias Parasitárias , Infecções por Trematódeos , Animais , Biodiversidade , Parasitologia de Alimentos , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita/fisiologia , Humanos , Enteropatias Parasitárias/diagnóstico , Enteropatias Parasitárias/tratamento farmacológico , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/prevenção & controle , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida , Trematódeos/fisiologia , Infecções por Trematódeos/diagnóstico , Infecções por Trematódeos/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Trematódeos/epidemiologia , Infecções por Trematódeos/prevenção & controle
3.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 330, 2019 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31266521

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Endoparasites are considered a major health problem of South American camelids as shown in a recent survey among German and Austrian camelid owners. Although prophylactic and therapeutic measures such as application of anthelmintics are commonly used, treatment efficacy is usually not assessed. Owners have expressed significant concerns regarding the effect of antiparasitic therapy, so this study aimed to evaluate the outcome of anthelmintic treatment in German alpaca herds with different drugs. RESULTS: Overall, 617 samples from 538 clinically healthy alpacas > 1 year-old from 27 farms (n = 11-157 animals/herd) were examined. The most common parasites detected by flotation were Eimeria spp. (75.1%) followed by strongylids (55.0%), Nematodirus spp. (19.3%), cestodes (3.1%) and Trichuris (2.7%). After initial coproscopical examination by flotation and strongylid egg quantification by the McMaster technique, positive animals excreting at least 150 eggs per gram of faeces were included in a faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT) using fenbendazole (n = 71 samples), moxidectin (n = 71) or monepantel (n = 66). Pre-treatment larval cultures (n = 23 positive pooled farm samples) revealed Haemonchus (87% of the farms), Cooperia (43.5%), Trichostrongylus (21.7%), Ostertagia (13.0%), Nematodirus and Oesophagostomum (4.3% each). Fenbendazole treatment reduced egg excretion by 45%, moxidectin by 91% and monepantel by 96%. On the farm level, 13/18 farms that used fenbendazole, 6/6 farms that used moxidectin and 2/5 farms that used monepantel had individual FECR values < 90% (fenbendazole) or < 95% (moxidectin, monepantel). Haemonchus and Cooperia were overrepresented on the farms with reduced treatment efficacy. CONCLUSIONS: Gastrointestinal strongylids are common in German alpacas and fenbendazole in particular was not sufficiently effective to reduce strongylid egg excretion. Although the FECRT could not unambiguously determine anthelmintic resistance in the present study, the finding that small ruminant strongylids, especially Haemonchus, are common in alpacas indicates that determination of effective anthelmintic doses, monitoring of efficacy and adapted (selective) treatment regimens must be implemented as part of sustainable deworming practices in this species in accordance with recommendations for ruminants.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos/administração & dosagem , Camelídeos Americanos/parasitologia , Helmintíase Animal/prevenção & controle , Enteropatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Infecções por Strongylida/veterinária , Estrongilídios/efeitos dos fármacos , Aminoacetonitrila/administração & dosagem , Aminoacetonitrila/análogos & derivados , Animais , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Fenbendazol/administração & dosagem , Haemonchus/efeitos dos fármacos , Helmintíase Animal/parasitologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/parasitologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/prevenção & controle , Macrolídeos/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas/veterinária , Infecções por Strongylida/parasitologia , Infecções por Strongylida/prevenção & controle
4.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 31(2): 148-154, 2019 May 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31184045

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To understand and analyze the epidemic status of human intestinal parasitic diseases in the ecological region of the Qinba Mountains in Henan Province, so as to provide the evidence for the control of the diseases in this region. METHODS: According to the methods of National Survey Scheme on Major Human Parasitic Diseases, 26 survey spots were selected in 8 counties (cities) in ecological regions of Qinba Mountains in Henan Province in 2015. After collecting the human fecal samples, the eggs of intestinal helminthes were detected with the modified Kato-Katz thick smear method, the species of Ancylostoma of the hookworm egg-positive samples were identified with the tube fecal culture method, the eggs of Enterobius vermicularis were detected by using the adhesive tape method in children aged 3 to 6 years, and the cyst and trophozoite of intestinal protozoa were examined by iodine staining. The infections of intestinal parasites in different populations and the related influencing factors were analyzed. RESULTS: Totally 6 706 residents were recruited in this study, 8 kinds of parasites were found including 3 species of helminthes and 5 species of protozoans. The overall infection rate of intestinal parasites was 3.39%, covering 2.92% for helminthes and 0.49% for protozoans. The infection rate of E. vermicularis in children aged 3 to 6 years was 3.93%. The 3 identified helminthes were Ascaris lumbricoides, E. vermicularis, and Dicrocoelium dendriticum, with the highest infection rate of E. vermicularis (2.68%, χ2 = 306.362, P < 0.05). The 5 identified protozoans were Entamoeba hartmani, E. coli, Endolimax nana, Giardia lamblia, and Blastocystis hominis, and the infection rate of E. nana was the highest (χ2 = 23.842, P < 0.05). Among the 8 counties (cities), the highest infection rate of helminthes, mainly with Enterobius infection, existed in Ruyang County, and the infection rate of protozoans in Xin'an County was the highest, mainly with E. nana infection. There was a significant difference in the infection rates of helminthes and protozoans among the 8 counties (cities) (helminthes: χ2 = 357.525, P < 0.05; protozoans: χ2 = 38.795, P < 0.05). There was no significant difference in the helminth infection rate between males and females ( χ2 = 0.034, P > 0.05), but the protozoan infection rate of the males was higher than that of the females ( χ2 = 12.946, P < 0.05). The helminth infection rate of the 0-9 years old group was the highest ( χ2 = 62.600, P < 0.05), up to 6.60%, mainly with E. vermicularis infection. There was no significant difference in the infection rate of intestinal parasites among nationalities ( χ2 = 0.212, P > 0.05). The helminth infection rate of preschool children was the highest and up to 8.43%, mainly with E. vermicularis infection. The infection of A. lumbricoides was mainly happened among farmers, with the infection rate of 0.31%. There was a significant difference in the helminth infection rate among different occupations (χ2 = 84.333, P < 0.05). The intestinal parasites infection rate of the illiterate population was the highest and up to 7.63%, there was a significant difference among the populations with different educational levels (χ2 = 72.013, P < 0.05). The helminth infection rate of plain areas was higher than that of valley and hill ( χ2 = 11.690, P < 0.05). The helminth infection rate of people with low-income was the highest and up to 10.32% (χ2 = 244.999, P < 0.05). The protozoan infection rate of people with middle-income was the highest, who had the annual per capita net income of 6 000 to 7 999 Yuan ( χ2 = 24.749, P < 0.05). The helminth infection rate of people drinking well water was much higher than that of people drinking tap water (χ2 = 62.255, P < 0.05). The protozoan infection rate of people without insect repellent was higher than that of people with insect repellent (χ2 = 5.235, P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The infection rates of human intestinal parasites in the ecological region of the Qinba Mountains in Henan Province have decreased sharply. E. vermicularis infection in children should be the main point of prevention and treatment of parasitic diseases in the future.


Assuntos
Enteropatias Parasitárias , Animais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Helmintíase/epidemiologia , Helmintíase/parasitologia , Helmintíase/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Lactente , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/parasitologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos
5.
Vet Parasitol ; 270 Suppl 1: S38-S44, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31104940

RESUMO

The efficacy and safety of a new topical formulation containing selamectin plus sarolaner (Revolution® Plus / Stronghold® Plus, Zoetis) was evaluated for the prevention of heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis) disease and the treatment of roundworm infection in cats enrolled as veterinary patients in two field studies conducted in Japan. In the heartworm field study, 91 cats negative for D. immitis antigen and anti-D. immitis antibody were enrolled and received 9 monthly topical treatments with selamectin plus sarolaner during the period of April to December 2015. Efficacy was assessed by testing post-treatment blood samples collected 8, 12, and 15 months after initiation of treatment for the presence of D. immitis antigen and anti-D. immitis antibody. Eighty-seven cats completed the entire study and were included in the determination of efficacy. No D. immitis antigen or anti-D. immitis antibody were detected in any of the post-treatment samples. In the roundworm field study, completed in the period from April to November 2015, 64 cats with ≥100 roundworm eggs per gram (EPG) of feces were enrolled and allocated randomly in a 1:1 ratio, to receive either selamectin plus sarolaner or emodepside plus praziquantel (Profender®, Bayer). Treatments were administered topically on Days 0 and 30, and efficacy was assessed by fecal EPG counts conducted on Days 14, 30, and 60. All cats completed the entire study. At enrollment, all cats were infected with Toxocara cati. Compared to pre-treatment, geometric mean T. cati EPG counts on Days 14, 30, and 60 were reduced by >99.9% in both treatment groups. There were no treatment-related adverse events in either study. Monthly topical administration of Revolution® Plus / Stronghold® Plus providing a minimum of 6 mg/kg selamectin and 1 mg/kg sarolaner was safe and effective in the prevention of heartworm disease and the treatment of roundworm infection in cats enrolled as veterinary patients in Japan.


Assuntos
Antiparasitários/administração & dosagem , Azetidinas/administração & dosagem , Doenças do Gato/prevenção & controle , Dirofilariose/prevenção & controle , Enteropatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Ivermectina/análogos & derivados , Infecções por Nematoides/veterinária , Compostos de Espiro/administração & dosagem , Administração Tópica , Animais , Doenças do Gato/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças do Gato/parasitologia , Gatos , Dirofilaria immitis/efeitos dos fármacos , Dirofilaria immitis/imunologia , Dirofilariose/tratamento farmacológico , Dirofilariose/parasitologia , Composição de Medicamentos/veterinária , Feminino , Helmintíase/tratamento farmacológico , Helmintíase/parasitologia , Helmintíase/prevenção & controle , Enteropatias Parasitárias/tratamento farmacológico , Enteropatias Parasitárias/parasitologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/prevenção & controle , Ivermectina/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Infecções por Nematoides/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Nematoides/parasitologia , Infecções por Nematoides/prevenção & controle , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas/veterinária , Distribuição Aleatória , Toxocara/efeitos dos fármacos , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(4): e0007345, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31009474

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Human hookworms (Necator americanus, Ancylostoma duodenale, and Ancylostoma ceylanicum) are intestinal blood-feeding parasites that infect ~500 million people worldwide and are among the leading causes of iron-deficiency anemia in the developing world. Drugs are useful against hookworm infections, but hookworms rapidly reinfect people, and the parasites can develop drug resistance. Therefore, having a hookworm vaccine would be of tremendous benefit. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We investigated the vaccine efficacy in outbred Syrian hamsters of three A. ceylanicum hookworm antigen candidates from two classes of proteins previously identified as promising vaccine candidates. These include two intestinally-enriched, putatively secreted cathepsin B cysteine proteases (AceyCP1, AceyCPL) and one small Kunitz-type protease inhibitor (AceySKPI3). Recombinant proteins were produced in Pichia pastoris, and adsorbed to Alhydrogel. Recombinant AceyCPL (rAceyCPL)/Alhydrogel and rAceySKPI3/Alhydrogel induced high serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) titers in 8/8 vaccinates, but were not protective. rAceyCP1/Alhydrogel induced intermediate serum IgG titers in ~60% of vaccinates in two different trials. rAceyCP1 serum IgG responders had highly significantly decreased hookworm burdens, fecal egg counts and clinical pathology compared to Alhydrogel controls and nonresponders. Protection was highly correlated with rAceyCP1 serum IgG titer. Antisera from rAceyCP1 serum IgG responders, but not nonresponders or rAceyCPL/Alhydrogel vaccinates, significantly reduced adult A. ceylanicum motility in vitro. Furthermore, rAceyCP1 serum IgG responders had canonical Th2-specific recall responses (IL4, IL5, IL13) in splenocytes stimulated ex vivo. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings indicate that rAceyCP1 is a promising vaccine candidate and validates a genomic/transcriptomic approach to human hookworm vaccine discovery.


Assuntos
Ancilostomíase/prevenção & controle , Anticorpos Anti-Helmínticos/sangue , Antígenos de Helmintos/imunologia , Cisteína Proteases/imunologia , Vacinação , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Ancylostoma/imunologia , Animais , Antígenos de Superfície/imunologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Enteropatias Parasitárias/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Mesocricetus , Proteínas Recombinantes/imunologia , Vacinas/imunologia , Vacinas Sintéticas
7.
Acta Trop ; 195: 58-61, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31022382

RESUMO

Parasitic intestinal infections occur worldwide and affect the poorest and deprived populations. In Mexico, indigenous peoples live with the highest levels of poverty and marginalization. This study aimed to analyze the occurrence of intestinal parasites among Mayan children from the villages of Xkalakdzonot and Paraíso in Yucatán State. Stool samples from 83 children were examined using two coproparasitological tests (formalin-ethyl acetate concentration and FLOTAC Pellet techniques). The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites in children was 65.1%. Six protozoa and four helminths were identified. Blastocystis sp. (44.6%), Giardia intestinalis (26.5%), and Entamoeba coli (26.5%) were the most prevalent parasites. The prevalence of helminth infections (7.1%) was lower in children from Xkalakdzonot than in Paraíso (29.3%). The study provides relevant information on the occurrence of intestinal parasites in Mayan children from two villages. This data, therefore, can be used by local health authorities to plan appropriate programs for parasite control, considering suitable drug therapies and health education.


Assuntos
Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Animais , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Enteropatias Parasitárias/prevenção & controle , Masculino , México/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde
9.
Environ Health Prev Med ; 24(1): 16, 2019 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30851729

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Soil-transmitted helminthes (STH) infections are among the most common infections worldwide and affect the most deprived communities. Adequate water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) prevents environmental contamination, thereby preventing transmission of STH. Cognizant of this, WASH education was implemented in rural Dembiya to reduce intestinal parasitic infections. This study was, therefore, conducted to assess the impacts of the intervention on households' WASH conditions and prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections. METHOD: An uncontrolled before-and-after intervention study was used. Cross-sectional studies were done before and after the intervention. Two hundred twenty-five and 302 under five children were recruited randomly at the baseline and endline, respectively. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire and observational checklists. Direct stool examination and Kato-Katz methods were used to identify parasites in the stool. We used percent point change and prevalence ratio (PR) to see the effects of the intervention on WASH conditions and prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections respectively. Pearson chi-squared and Fisher's exact tests were used to test for statistically significant percentage point changes of WASH conditions. The effect of the intervention on intestinal parasitic infections was statistically tested on the basis of PR with 95% confidence interval (CI). RESULTS: The baseline prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections was 25.8%, and the endline prevalence was 23.8%. The prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections was not significantly decreased at the endline compared with the baseline [PR = 0.92, 95% CI = (0.62, 1.38)]. Ascaris Lumbricoides was the most prevalent parasitic infection both at the baseline and endline. The proportion of children who had good hygienic condition increased from 1.3% at the baseline to 34.4% at the end line (p <  0.05). The percentage of mothers/care givers who washed hands at different pick times was significantly increased from 24.4% at the baseline to 68.2% at the endline (p <  0.001). The proportion of households who practiced home-based water treatment was significantly increased from 7.6% at the baseline to 47% at the endline (p <  0.001). The proportion of households who used sanitary latrine was increased from 32% at the baseline to 49% at the endline (p <  0.05). CONCLUSION: This before-and-after intervention study found that households' WASH performance was significantly improved at the endline compared with the baseline. The endline prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections was slightly lower than the baseline prevalence; however, the reduction was not statistically significant. The local health office needs to strengthen the WASH education program, mobilize the community to construct WASH facilities, and support the community to sustain households' WASH performance.


Assuntos
Água Potável/normas , Educação em Saúde , Helmintíase/prevenção & controle , Higiene , Enteropatias Parasitárias/prevenção & controle , Saneamento , Adulto , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Água Potável/parasitologia , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Características da Família , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde/fisiologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Helmintíase/epidemiologia , Humanos , Higiene/educação , Lactente , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Masculino , Prevalência , População Rural , Solo/parasitologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
BMC Res Notes ; 12(1): 192, 2019 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30925938

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs) are a major cause of morbidity among children in developing countries. Investigation about the etiological agents and socio-ecological pattern of the infection would help to design better preventive strategy. The previous studies reported high prevalence of IPIs among schoolchildren of Nepal. Though these data may be essential for the policymakers and researchers, in Kathmandu, the capital of Nepal it remains unexplored whether the types of school and socioeconomic status affect the IPIs or not. The present study is an extension of previous works to investigate causative agents and associated risk factors. We examined 508 stool samples of schoolchildren from two schools by formal-ether concentration technique and analyzed the data based on school types. RESULTS: The overall IPIs rate was 19.9% (n = 101) with the dominance of protozoans (78.4%) over helminths (21.6%). Giardia duodenalis (32.7%) and Ascaris lumbricoides (21.8%) were the most commonly detected protozoan and helminth species respectively. Prevalence of IPIs was higher among children from public school (26.1%) than private school (12.1%). Higher infection rates were found among farmer's children (29.0%) and Dalit children (36.2%). These findings reveal the different prevalence of IPIs among public and private schoolchildren and suggest the need of effective preventive measures.


Assuntos
Fezes/parasitologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/prevenção & controle , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Geografia , Giardíase/epidemiologia , Giardíase/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Masculino , Nepal/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Setor Privado , Setor Público , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
11.
Acta Trop ; 193: 211-216, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30871988

RESUMO

Parasitic diseases are among the major health problems of various societies, especially people in developing countries, causing high economic and mortality burdens. Many researchers have reported that awareness and knowledge of a disease are effective in preventing and controlling the disease. The aim of the present study was to assess the knowledge and attitudes on parasitic diseases of the population in Ahvaz County, southwestern Iran. This community-based cross-sectional study was carried out in 2017 on 3500 subjects above 15 years old of Ahvaz County. First, participants were provided the necessary information regarding the study, and then data were collected using a constructed questionnaire. Of the 3500 participants, 1732 (49.5%) were female and 1768 (50.5%) were male, 348 (9.9%) said that they had been infected with a parasitic disease at least once in their lifetime. Almost half of the participants (42.8%) knew malaria was a parasitic disease and 50.2%, 48.9%, and 41.5% were aware of the possible transmission of parasitic diseases through uncooked meat, dirty hands, and close contact with animals. Regarding clinical symptoms, 73.2% and 32.6% of the respondents knew diarrhea and abdominal pain respectively were clinical symptoms of intestinal parasitic diseases. However, only 31.3% were aware of the close contact with cats and the risk of human toxoplasmosis and possible abortion in pregnant women. The findings reveal that the attitude of most participants toward treatment was positive (93.9%), but only 47.5% of believed that disinfecting fruits and vegetables could prevent intestinal parasitic infections.


Assuntos
Países em Desenvolvimento , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Doenças Parasitárias/complicações , Doenças Parasitárias/transmissão , Dor Abdominal/parasitologia , Aborto Espontâneo/parasitologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Gatos , Estudos Transversais , Diarreia/parasitologia , Feminino , Humanos , Enteropatias Parasitárias/complicações , Enteropatias Parasitárias/prevenção & controle , Enteropatias Parasitárias/transmissão , Irã (Geográfico) , Malária/parasitologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Parasitárias/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Parasitárias/prevenção & controle , Gravidez , Inquéritos e Questionários , Toxoplasmose/complicações , Toxoplasmose/transmissão , Adulto Jovem
12.
Evol Anthropol ; 28(2): 60-71, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30771227

RESUMO

Reconstructing plant use before domestication is challenging due to a lack of evidence. Yet, on the small number of sites with assemblages, the wide range of different plant species cannot be explained simply in terms of nutrition. Assemblages from the Lower Paleolithic to the Early Neolithic were examined to investigate the relative edible and medicinal properties of the plants. The assemblages contain a mixture of edible species, plants that are both edible and medicinal, and plants with only medicinal properties. The proportion of medicinal plants at all sites is well above the natural average and increases over time. Mechanisms for preventing intestinal parasitic infections are common among animals and together with chimpanzees' preventative and curative self-medication practices suggest an evolutionary context for this behavior. A broad-spectrum approach to plant collection is likely to have been in place throughout the Paleolithic driven, in part, by the need for medicinal compounds.


Assuntos
Dieta , Hominidae/fisiologia , Plantas Comestíveis , Plantas Medicinais , Automedicação , Animais , Dieta/história , Dieta/veterinária , Comportamento Alimentar , História Antiga , Humanos , Enteropatias Parasitárias/prevenção & controle , Enteropatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Paleontologia , Pan troglodytes/fisiologia , Automedicação/história , Automedicação/veterinária
14.
J Infect Public Health ; 12(2): 205-212, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30385237

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bangladesh has implemented school-based mass drug administration (MDA) bi-annually since 2008 aimed to control soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infection. Despite several rounds of MDA, the government is still facing challenges to achieve the target coverage and utilization of the intervention. This study was done to explore and explain the barriers and gaps that hinder the utilization and coverage of MDA for STH. METHODS: This research was a mixed method study, was conducted in two selected districts of Bangladesh. A total of 160 questionnaire surveys, 12 in-depth interviews, 8 focus group discussion, and 2 key-informant interviews were done among 238 study participants which included school-age children with relevant parents, school teachers, health workers, community leaders and MDA program managers. Descriptive statistical analysis was used to analyze the quantitative data while thematic analysis was applied for the qualitative data. RESULTS: It was revealed that the participants have positive attitudes towards MDA but they pointed out the limitations in reaching all target population especially non-school going children. The level of knowledge regarding STH and MDA were found different among the study population. The evaluated coverage of MDA was also found lower than that reported. Some major barriers associated with MDA coverage found in this study were drug distribution policy, accessibility to schools, poor record keeping, follow-up, and information dissemination. Inadequate information about population dynamics and rumors about side effects of MDA drugs adversely affected the compliance of the intervention. Insufficient training of drug distributors and poor motivation among stakeholders also added to the barriers. CONCLUSION: There is the need to re-strategize drug distributing methods and create effective policies to include all targeted population. Use of local channels for community sensitization, adding local distribution points, regular monitoring and follow-up and promotion of health education can possibly enhance both treatment coverage and program infrastructure.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos/administração & dosagem , Uso de Medicamentos , Helmintíase/epidemiologia , Helmintíase/prevenção & controle , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/prevenção & controle , Administração Massiva de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Utilização de Procedimentos e Técnicas , Adolescente , Anti-Helmínticos/provisão & distribução , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde
15.
Rev. inf. cient ; 98(6): 721-733, 2019. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1049145

RESUMO

Introducción: las enfermedades parasitarias constituyen un importante problema de salud pública por su elevada morbilidad, mortalidad y potencial incapacitante en el ser humano y por su difícil control dado los variados y complicados ciclos de vida. Objetivo: presentar una reflexión desde la perspectiva técnica-científica de la aplicabilidad como material para guiones de película de ciencia ficción, de las características biológicas de varios parásitos que afectan al ser humano y a los animales con el fin de disminuir o atenuar el problema sanitario que para la salud pública representan los mismos. Método: estudio basado en el examen de una película de ciencia ficción y en la revisión documental sobre relaciones parasitarias con base en el análisis-sintético, la inducción-deducción, la observación y el enfoque sistémico. Resultados: del análisis se desprenden los siguientes aspectos: el parasitismo en la ciencia ficción y el parásito como manipulador de la conducta del hospedador. Conclusiones: algunas películas de ciencia ficción se centran de forma no intencional en las relaciones entre parásito y hospedador, pues hacen evidente la manipulación parasitaria de la conducta del hospedador en busca de incrementar su transmisión, por tanto, las películas pueden constituirse en un elemento importante de los programas educativos de control, se refuerza así el papel del cine como medio audiovisual para el éxito de los planes de salud(AU)


Introduction: parasitic diseases constitute an important public health problem due to their high morbidity, mortality and disabling potential in humans and because of their difficult control given the varied and complicated life cycles. Objective: to present a reflection from the technical-scientific perspective of the applicability as material for sci-fi movie scripts, of the biological characteristics of several parasites that affect humans and animals in order to reduce or mitigate the health problem that for public health they represent the same. Method: study based on the examination of a science fiction film and the documentary review on parasitic relationships based on synthetic-analysis, inductiondeduction, observation and systemic approach. Results: the following aspects emerge from the analysis: parasitism in science fiction and the parasite as a manipulator of host behavior. Conclusions: some science fiction films focus unintentionally on the relations between parasite and host, as they make evident the parasitic manipulation of the host's behavior in search of increasing its transmission, therefore, the films can become an important element of the educational control programs, the role of cinema as an audiovisual medium for the success of health plans is reinforced(AU)


Introdução: as doenças parasitárias constituem um importante problema de saúde pública devido à sua alta morbidade, mortalidade e potencial incapacitante em seres humanos e devido ao seu difícil controle devido aos variados e complicados ciclos de vida. Objetivo: apresentar uma reflexão, do ponto de vista técnico-científico, da aplicabilidade como material para roteiros de ficção científica, das características biológicas de vários parasitas que afetam seres humanos e animais, a fim de reduzir ou mitigar o problema de saúde que para a saúde pública, eles representam o mesmo. Método: estudo baseado no exame de um filme de ficção científica e na revisão documental sobre relações parasitárias baseadas em análise sintética, indução-dedução, observação e abordagem sistêmica. Resultados: emergem da análise os seguintes aspectos: parasitismo na ficção científica e o parasita como manipulador do comportamento do hospedeiro. Conclusões: alguns filmes de ficção científica enfocam involuntariamente as relações entre parasita e hospedeiro, pois evidenciam a manipulação parasitária do comportamento do hospedeiro em busca de aumentar sua transmissão, portanto, os filmes podem se tornar um elemento importante dos programas de controle educacional, reforça-se o papel do cinema como meio audiovisual para o sucesso dos planos de saúde(AU)


Assuntos
Enteropatias Parasitárias/prevenção & controle , Filmes Cinematográficos
16.
Korean J Parasitol ; 56(5): 401-408, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30419725

RESUMO

Korea is successfully controlled intestinal parasitic infections owing to economic development and high health consciousness. The Division of Vectors and Parasitic Diseases (formerly the Division of Malaria and Parasitology) is in the Center for Laboratory Control of Infectious Diseases of the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. It has been the governmental agency responsible for controlling and leading scientific research on parasitic diseases. The Division of Vectors and Parasitic Diseases has conducted and funded basic research and disseminated the research results to various medical fields, ultimately promoting public health in Korea. Among the noteworthy achievements of this division are the national surveillance of healthcare-associated parasitic infections, prevention and control for parasitic infections, and the elimination of lymphatic filariasis from Korea. On a broader scale, the division's research programs and academic supports were influential in preventing and treating infectious parasitic diseases through public policies and laws. In this review, we summarize the past and present role of the Division of Vectors and Parasitic Diseases in preventing and treating infectious parasitic diseases in Korea.


Assuntos
Órgãos Governamentais , Doenças Parasitárias/prevenção & controle , Animais , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Filariose Linfática/epidemiologia , Filariose Linfática/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/prevenção & controle , Doenças Parasitárias/epidemiologia , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Pesquisa/estatística & dados numéricos , Pesquisa/tendências , Viagem
17.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 12(10): e0006864, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30273343

RESUMO

The current World Health Organization strategy to address soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections in children is based on morbidity control through routine deworming of school and pre-school aged children. However, given that transmission continues to occur as a result of persistent reservoirs of infection in untreated individuals (including adults) and in the environment, in many settings such a strategy will need to be continued for very extended periods of time, or until social, economic and environmental conditions result in interruption of transmission. As a result, there is currently much discussion surrounding the possibility of accelerating the interruption of transmission using alternative strategies of mass drug administration (MDA). However, the feasibility of achieving transmission interruption using MDA remains uncertain due to challenges in sustaining high MDA coverage levels across entire communities. The DeWorm3 trial, designed to test the feasibility of interrupting STH transmission, is currently ongoing. In DeWorm3, three years of high treatment coverage-indicated by mathematical models as necessary for breaking transmission-will be followed by two years of surveillance. Given the fast reinfection (bounce-back) rates of STH, a two year no treatment period is regarded as adequate to assess whether bounce-back or transmission interruption have occurred in a given location. In this study, we investigate if criteria to determine whether transmission interruption is unlikely can be defined at earlier timepoints. A stochastic, individual-based simulation model is employed to simulate core aspects of the DeWorm3 community-based cluster-randomized trial. This trial compares a control arm (annual treatment of children alone with MDA) with an intervention arm (community-wide biannual treatment with MDA). Simulations were run for each scenario for both Ascaris lumbricoides and hookworm (Necator americanus). A range of threshold prevalences measured at six months after the last round of MDA and the impact of MDA coverage levels were evaluated to see if the likelihood of bounce-back or elimination could reliably be assessed at that point, rather than after two years of subsequent surveillance. The analyses suggest that all clusters should be assessed for transmission interruption after two years of surveillance, unless transmission interruption can be effectively ruled out through evidence of low treatment coverage. Models suggest a tight range of homogenous prevalence estimates following high coverage MDA across clusters which do not allow for discrimination between bounce back or transmission interruption within 24 months following cessation of MDA.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos/administração & dosagem , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Helmintíase/prevenção & controle , Helmintíase/transmissão , Enteropatias Parasitárias/prevenção & controle , Enteropatias Parasitárias/transmissão , Administração Massiva de Medicamentos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Teóricos , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Parasit Vectors ; 11(1): 532, 2018 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30268160

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Infections with soil-transmitted helminths and pathogenic intestinal protozoa pose a considerable public health burden, particularly in low- and middle-income countries, including Nepal. We assessed the extent of intestinal parasite infections among schoolchildren in two districts of Nepal and determined underlying risk factors. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted between March and May 2015 in the districts of Dolakha and Ramechhap, Nepal. A total of 708 children, aged 8-16 years from 16 purposively selected schools, were enrolled. Each child provided a single stool sample that was subjected to a suite of copro-microscopic diagnoses for intestinal protozoa and helminths. Drinking water samples from different sources at schools (n = 29), community places (n = 43) and households (n = 562) were analysed for contamination with thermotolerant coliforms (TTC). A questionnaire was administered to determine individual- and household-level risk factors of intestinal parasite infections. Self-reported symptoms were assessed and a clinical examination was undertaken by a physician. Haemoglobin was measured and used as a proxy for anaemia. Mixed logistic regression models were applied to investigate associations. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of intestinal parasite infections was 39.7%. Trichuris trichiura (30.9%), Giardia intestinalis (30.5%) and hookworm (30.2%) were the predominant intestinal parasite infections. Children from households lacking soap for handwashing were at higher odds of intestinal parasite infections than children who had soap [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.81; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.13-2.89; P = 0.01]. Children from households without freely roaming domestic animals showed lower odds of G. intestinalis compared to children from households with freely roaming animals (aOR 0.52; 95% CI: 0.33-0.83; P = 0.01). One out of three (31.0%) children suffered from fever and 22.4% had watery diarrhoea within a two-week recall period. Anaemia was diagnosed in 23.6% of the children. Water contamination with TTC showed no clear association with intestinal parasite infection. CONCLUSIONS: Intestinal parasites are common among schoolchildren in the two surveyed districts of Nepal. An important risk factor was lack of soap for handwashing. Our findings call for efforts to control intestinal parasite infection and emphasis should be placed on improvements in water, sanitation and hygiene interventions. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN17968589 (date assigned: 17 July 2015).


Assuntos
Helmintos/fisiologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Animais , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Água Potável/parasitologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Giardia lamblia/fisiologia , Humanos , Higiene , Enteropatias Parasitárias/parasitologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Nepal/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Saneamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 12(9): e0006672, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30212450

RESUMO

Soil-transmitted helminthiases (STHs) constitute a public health problem that requires immediate action to resolve the morbidity of those harboring the parasites in their guts, to prevent infection in all those at risk, and to interrupt the vicious circle of poverty and disease in the affected communities, structural poverty being the main determinant of this group of infectious diseases. Since the times of the Rockefeller initiatives over a hundred years ago, the strategy has been viewed as one requiring community-wide efforts rather than pure individual case management. The World Health Organization (WHO) and its regional offices, as the governing institutions endorsed by the countries and their governments, have been the leaders in stating the actual executive measures to reach the goals and endpoints for the management of the problem. With the task of setting a group of activities that could be launched, monitored, and measured, these actions were established with the available resources since this public health problem had to be launched immediately, resources were those available at the moment and not those appearing on a wish list. Considerable progress has been made in the establishment of policies for the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), later followed by the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) through WHO-lead actions for the control of neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). With an initial goal of morbidity control, there are already discussions and proposals for elimination of STH if support is sustained and empiric facts confirm data emerging from modeling and small-scale studies. The aim of these comments is to describe and question instances of currently accepted concepts, theories, and practices that conform to the dogmatic status quo that serves as the foundation on top of which the new elimination aspirations are supposed to be built on, which might not be serving the desired purpose if taken unrevised.


Assuntos
Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Helmintíase/epidemiologia , Helmintíase/prevenção & controle , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/prevenção & controle , Administração em Saúde Pública/métodos , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Doenças Negligenciadas/epidemiologia , Doenças Negligenciadas/prevenção & controle , Organização Mundial da Saúde
20.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 12(9): e0006782, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30231029

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Control and elimination of zoonotic diseases requires robust information about their effect on both human and livestock health in order to enable policy formulation and the allocation of resources. This study aimed to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of controlling Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis in both humans and pigs, and soil-transmitted helminths (STH) in humans by integrating their control to on-going human and animal health control programmes in northern Lao People's Democratic Republic. METHOD: A cross-sectional study was carried out in 49 households, focusing on the prevalence of T. solium taenias/cysticercosis and soil transmitted helminths before and after a twelve month intervention. The village data was collected using a semi-structured questionnaire through a door-to-door survey. The village data was then projected to the wider northern Lao PDR population using stochastic modelling and cost-effectiveness ratio (after aggregating the net cost to capture both human and animal health parameters) and GDP per capita as a threshold, to determine the cost-effectiveness of the integrated control of T. solium taeniasis/ cysticercosis and STH, assuming linear scaling out of the intervention. The zoonotic DALY (zDALY) approach was also used as an alternative method of estimating the cost-effectiveness ratio of controlling T. solium taeniasis/cysticercosis in humans and pigs. FINDINGS: Using cost-effectiveness analysis after aggregating the net cost and control of T. solium taeniasis/cysticercosis alone as the base case, the study found that simultaneous control of T. solium taeniasis/cysticercosis in humans and pigs, STH in humans and Classical Swine Fever (CSF) in pigs was USD 14 per DALY averted and USD 234 per zDALY averted using zDALY method hence considered highly cost-effective whereas controlling T. solium taeniasis/cysticercosis without incorporating STH and CSF was the least cost-effective (USD 3,672 per DALY averted). Additionally, the cost-effectiveness of controlling T. solium taeniasis/cysticercosis in people and pigs using zDALY as an alternative method was USD 3,662 per zDALY averted which was quite close to our findings using the aggregate net cost method. CONCLUSION: The study showed that control of T. solium taeniasis/cysticercosis alone in humans and pigs is not cost-effective in northern Lao PDR whereas control of STH is. Consequently, integrating T. solium taeniasis/cysticercosis control with other cost-effective programmes such as STH and CSF markedly improved the cost-effectiveness of the intervention. This is especially important in low resource countries where control of zoonotic neglected tropical diseases could be integrated with the human and animal health sectors to optimize use of the limited resources. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Australia New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR) ACTRN12614001067662.


Assuntos
Peste Suína Clássica/prevenção & controle , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/economia , Análise Custo-Benefício , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Helmintíase/prevenção & controle , Enteropatias Parasitárias/prevenção & controle , Teníase/prevenção & controle , Zoonoses/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Peste Suína Clássica/economia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Helmintíase/economia , Helmintíase/transmissão , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Enteropatias Parasitárias/economia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/transmissão , Enteropatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Laos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Inquéritos e Questionários , Suínos , Teníase/economia , Teníase/transmissão , Teníase/veterinária , Adulto Jovem , Zoonoses/economia , Zoonoses/transmissão
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