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1.
Pol J Vet Sci ; 22(4): 753-760, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31867918

RESUMO

We described a first case of resistance to eprinomectin in goat herd in Poland in which resistance to benzimidazoles had been previously reported. The herd was established in 2011 by purchasing several goats from a single herd in south-eastern Poland. Resistance to benzimidazoles in the herd was first reported in 2017. Shortly after the owner started to signal low effectiveness of the treatment with eprinomectin. In June 2018 the larval development test from pooled faecal sample was performed and the results indicated the presence of resistance to macrocyclic lactones and levamisole. In July 2018 a faecal egg count (FEC) reduction test was performed in 39 animals with levamisole, eprinomectin and one untreated control group. Drugs were used in doses recommended for goats. Three methods of calculation of FEC reduction were compared. After eprinomectin treatment, FEC reduction ranged from 0 to 20%, depending on the method of calculation. FEC reduction following levamisole treatment was 100%. Main species present in the faecal samples after treatment and in larvicidal concentrations in larval development test was Haemonchus contortus. This is the first report of anthelminthic resistance to macrocylic lactones (eprinomectin) in goats in Poland.


Assuntos
Benzimidazóis/farmacologia , Doenças das Cabras/tratamento farmacológico , Enteropatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Ivermectina/análogos & derivados , Nematoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Nematoides/veterinária , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Resistência a Medicamentos , Fezes/parasitologia , Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Cabras , Enteropatias Parasitárias/tratamento farmacológico , Enteropatias Parasitárias/parasitologia , Ivermectina/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Nematoides/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Nematoides/parasitologia , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas
3.
Ann Parasitol ; 65(3): 217-223, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31578845

RESUMO

The majority of the population in Yemen lives in rural areas and suffers from parasitic infections. Therefore, the present study aimed to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitoses and schistosome infections among the students enrolled in the primary schools in Hajjah governorate ­ north of Yemen, along with an assessment of praziquantel (PZQ) in the treatment of microscopy-confirmed cases of Schistosoma mansoni and Schistosoma haematobium. For this purpose, 780 samples (320 stool and 460 urine) were examined microscopically. The present study revealed an overall infection rate of 75.3% (241/320) with intestinal parasites and Schistosoma mansoni. The detected parasite species included Entamoeba histolytica (27.8%), Hymenolepis nana (12.2%), Giardia lamblia (9.7%), Entamoeba coli (9.4%), S. mansoni (9.1%), Ascaris lumbricoides (6.9%), Trichuris trichiura (3.1%), Enterobius vermicularis (2.8%) and Ancylostoma duodenale (2.2%). Schistosoma haematobium was prevalent among 1.7% (8/460) of the investigated students. On the other hand, PZQ yielded a cure rate of 75.7% of Schistosoma-infected students when administered at 40 mg/kg body weight. However, a 100% cure rate was achieved when administered at 60 mg/kg body weight. Therefore, the findings of the present study highlight the importance of monitoring PZQ efficacy through large-scale studies in different settings endemic for schistosomosis in the country.


Assuntos
Enteropatias Parasitárias , Praziquantel , Esquistossomose , Animais , Criança , Fezes/parasitologia , Humanos , Enteropatias Parasitárias/tratamento farmacológico , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/parasitologia , Praziquantel/uso terapêutico , Prevalência , Schistosoma haematobium , Esquistossomose/tratamento farmacológico , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose/parasitologia , Esquistossomose Urinária/tratamento farmacológico , Esquistossomose Urinária/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose Urinária/parasitologia , Esquistossomose mansoni/tratamento farmacológico , Esquistossomose mansoni/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose mansoni/parasitologia , Estudantes , Resultado do Tratamento , Urina/parasitologia , Iêmen/epidemiologia
4.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 9: CD000371, 2019 09 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31508807

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends treating all school children at regular intervals with deworming drugs in areas where helminth infection is common. Global advocacy organizations claim routine deworming has substantive health and societal effects beyond the removal of worms. In this update of the 2015 edition we included six new trials, additional data from included trials, and addressed comments and criticisms. OBJECTIVES: To summarize the effects of public health programmes to regularly treat all children with deworming drugs on child growth, haemoglobin, cognition, school attendance, school performance, physical fitness, and mortality. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register; Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL); MEDLINE; Embase; LILACS; the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT); reference lists; and registers of ongoing and completed trials up to 19 September 2018. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs that compared deworming drugs for soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) with placebo or no treatment in children aged 16 years or less, reporting on weight, height, haemoglobin, and formal tests of cognition. We also sought data on other measures of growth, school attendance, school performance, physical fitness, and mortality. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: At least two review authors independently assessed the trials for inclusion, risk of bias, and extracted data. We analysed continuous data using the mean difference (MD) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Where data were missing, we contacted trial authors. We stratified the analysis based on the background burden of STH infection. We used outcomes at time of longest follow-up. We assessed the certainty of the evidence using the GRADE approach. MAIN RESULTS: We identified 51 trials, including 10 cluster-RCTs, that met the inclusion criteria. One trial evaluating mortality included over one million children, and the remaining 50 trials included a total of 84,336 participants. Twenty-four trials were in populations categorized as high burden, including nine trials in children selected because they were helminth-stool positive; 18 with intermediate burden; and nine as low burden.First or single dose of deworming drugsFourteen trials reported on weight after a single dose of deworming drugs (4970 participants, 14 RCTs). The effects were variable. There was little or no effect in studies conducted in low and intermediate worm burden groups. In the high-burden group, there was little or no effect in most studies, except for a large effect detected from one study area in Kenya reported in two trials carried out over 30 years ago. These trials result in qualitative heterogeneity and uncertainty in the meta-analysis across all studies (I2 statistic = 90%), with GRADE assessment assessed as very low-certainty, which means we do not know if a first dose or single dose of deworming impacts on weight.For height, most studies showed little or no effect after a single dose, with one of the two trials in Kenya from 30 years ago showing a large average difference (2621 participants, 10 trials, low-certainty evidence). Single dose probably had no effect on average haemoglobin (MD 0.10 g/dL, 95% CI 0.03 lower to 0.22 higher; 1252 participants, five trials, moderate-certainty evidence), or on average cognition (1596 participants, five trials, low-certainty evidence). The data are insufficient to know if there is an effect on school attendance and performance (304 participants, one trial, low-certainty evidence), or on physical fitness (280 participants, three trials, very low-certainty evidence). No trials reported on mortality.Multiple doses of deworming drugsThe effect of regularly treating children with deworming drugs given every three to six months on weight was reported in 18 trials, with follow-up times of between six months and three years; there was little or no effect on average weight in all but two trials, irrespective of worm prevalence-intensity. The two trials with large average weight gain included one in the high burden area in Kenya carried out over 30 years ago, and one study from India in a low prevalence area where subsequent studies in the same area did not show an effect. This heterogeneity causes uncertainty in any meta-analysis (I2 = 78%). Post-hoc analysis excluding trials published prior to 2000 gave an estimate of average difference in weight gain of 0.02 kg (95%CI from 0.04 kg loss to 0.08 gain, I2 = 0%). Thus we conclude that we do not know if repeated doses of deworming drugs impact on average weight, with a fewer older studies showing large gains, and studies since 2000 showing little or no average gain.Regular treatment probably had little or no effect on the following parameters: average height (MD 0.02 cm higher, 95% CI 0.09 lower to 0.13 cm higher; 13,700 participants, 13 trials, moderate-certainty evidence); average haemoglobin (MD 0.01 g/dL lower; 95% CI 0.05 g/dL lower to 0.07 g/dL higher; 5498 participants, nine trials, moderate-certainty evidence); formal tests of cognition (35,394 participants, 8 trials, moderate-certainty evidence); school performance (34,967 participants, four trials, moderate-certainty evidence). The evidence assessing an effect on school attendance is inconsistent, and at risk of bias (mean attendance 2% higher, 95% CI 5% lower to 8% higher; 20,650 participants, three trials, very low-certainty evidence). No trials reported on physical fitness. No effect was shown on mortality (1,005,135 participants, three trials, low-certainty evidence). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Public health programmes to regularly treat all children with deworming drugs do not appear to improve height, haemoglobin, cognition, school performance, or mortality. We do not know if there is an effect on school attendance, since the evidence is inconsistent and at risk of bias, and there is insufficient data on physical fitness. Studies conducted in two settings over 20 years ago showed large effects on weight gain, but this is not a finding in more recent, larger studies. We would caution against selecting only the evidence from these older studies as a rationale for contemporary mass treatment programmes as this ignores the recent studies that have not shown benefit.The conclusions of the 2015 edition have not changed in this update.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Helmintíase/tratamento farmacológico , Enteropatias Parasitárias , Estado Nutricional , Solo/parasitologia , Ganho de Peso , Peso Corporal , Criança , Desenvolvimento Infantil/efeitos dos fármacos , Cognição , Doenças Endêmicas , Humanos , Enteropatias Parasitárias/complicações , Enteropatias Parasitárias/tratamento farmacológico , Saúde Pública , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
5.
Acta Trop ; 200: 105181, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31542370

RESUMO

China was once a country plagued by parasitic diseases. At the beginning of the founding of the People's Republic of China, nearly 80% of the population suffered from parasitic diseases because of poverty and poor sanitary conditions. After nearly 70 years of development, China has made remarkable achievements in the prevention and control of parasitic diseases, and the prevalence of parasitic diseases has been greatly reduced. In addition to organizational leadership from the government and various preventive measures, drug treatment and drug research & development are important and irreplaceable links in prevention and control work. Since the 1950s, China has begun to introduce, produce and imitate antiparasitic drugs from abroad, such as santonin, benzimidazole, and praziquantel. Chinese scientists have also contributed to the optimization of production techniques, improvements in drug formulation, the application in the clinic and the mechanisms of actions of generic drugs. At the same time, China has independently developed tribendimidine (TrBD, a broad spectrum anthelminthic), and its anthelminthic spectrum has been comprehensively studied. It is active against almost 20 parasites, is especially superior to benzimidazoles against Necator americanus, and surpasses the effectiveness of praziquantel against Clonorchis sinensis. In the treatment of tapeworm disease, the traditional Chinese medicines pumpkin seeds and betel nuts have good curative effects for taeniasis. Chinese scientists have explored the action modes and clinical administration methods of pumpkin seeds and betel nuts, which is still the main clinical regimen for the disease. This paper reviews the history and progress of the study of anthelmintics in intestinal helminth infections since the founding of the People's Republic of China and aiming to support clinicians and drug researchers in China and other countries.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos/história , Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Cestoides/tratamento farmacológico , Helmintíase/tratamento farmacológico , Enteropatias Parasitárias/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Parasitárias/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Parasitárias/história , Animais , Infecções por Cestoides/epidemiologia , Infecções por Cestoides/história , China/epidemiologia , Clonorchis sinensis/efeitos dos fármacos , Helmintíase/história , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Enteropatias Parasitárias/história , Doenças Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Fenilenodiaminas/uso terapêutico , Praziquantel/história , Praziquantel/uso terapêutico , Teníase/tratamento farmacológico , Teníase/história
6.
Parasitol Res ; 118(10): 2901-2907, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31388787

RESUMO

Cooperia sp. and Ostertagia sp. are two cosmopolitan parasitic nematodes often found in mixed gastrointestinal infections in cattle across temperate regions. In light of the recent increase in the emergence of anthelmintic resistance in these and other nematodes derived from cattle around the globe, and their negative impact on animal health and productivity, novel molecular assays need to be put forth in order to facilitate the monitoring of parasite burden in infected herds, using pasture and/or fecal samples. Here, we describe a novel droplet digital PCR platform-based concept for precise identification and quantification of the two most abundant and important parasite genera in grazing western European cattle. By exploiting a single nucleotide difference in the two parasites' ITS2 sequence regions, we have developed two specific hydrolysis probes labeled with FAM™ or HEX™ fluorophores, which can not only distinguish between the DNA sequences of the two, but also quantify them in mixed DNA samples. A third, newly developed universal probe was also tested along the genus-specific probes to provide a robust and accurate reference. It was evident that the universal probe displayed congruent results to those obtained by the genus-specific probes when used with DNA from both parasites in a single sample. All in all, the results of our assay suggest that this novel protocol could be used to distinguish and quantify cattle parasites belonging to the two most important genera (i.e., Cooperia and Ostertagia) in a single mixed DNA sample.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/diagnóstico , DNA de Helmintos/genética , Enteropatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Ostertagia/genética , Trichostrongyloidea/genética , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Gastroenteropatias , Enteropatias Parasitárias/diagnóstico , Enteropatias Parasitárias/tratamento farmacológico , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas/veterinária , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos
7.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1154: 181-213, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31297763

RESUMO

Intestinal trematodes are among the most common types of parasitic worms. About 76 species belonging to 14 families have been recorded infecting humans. Infection commonly occurs when humans eat raw or undercooked foods that contain the infective metacercariae. These parasites are diverse with regard to their morphology, geographical distribution, and life cycle, which make it difficult to study the parasitic diseases that they cause. Many of these intestinal trematodes have been considered as endemic parasites in the past. However, the geographical limits and the population at risk are currently expanding and changing in relation to factors such as growing international markets, improved transportation systems, new eating habits in developed countries and demographic changes. These factors make it necessary to better understand intestinal trematode infections. This chapter describes the main features of human intestinal trematodes in relation to their biology, epidemiology, host-parasite relationships, pathogenicity, clinical aspects, diagnosis, treatment, and control.


Assuntos
Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Enteropatias Parasitárias , Infecções por Trematódeos , Animais , Biodiversidade , Parasitologia de Alimentos , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita/fisiologia , Humanos , Enteropatias Parasitárias/diagnóstico , Enteropatias Parasitárias/tratamento farmacológico , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/prevenção & controle , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida , Trematódeos/fisiologia , Infecções por Trematódeos/diagnóstico , Infecções por Trematódeos/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Trematódeos/epidemiologia , Infecções por Trematódeos/prevenção & controle
8.
Korean J Parasitol ; 57(3): 243-248, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31284346

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was 2-fold: 1) to investigate the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasite infection in cats reared in Daegu, Republic of Korea and 2) to assess the efficacy and safety of a topical emodepside/praziquantel formulation for cats with parasitic infections. The gastrointestinal parasite infections were examined microscopically using the flotation method. Of 407 cats, 162 (39.8%) were infected by at least one gastrointestinal parasite, including Toxocara cati (63.0%), Toxascaris leonina (31.5%), Taenia taeniaeformis (3.7%), and Cystoisospora felis (1.9%). None of the infected animals had multiple infections. When the data were analyzed according to sex, age, and type of cat, stray cats showed statistically higher prevalence than companion cats (P<0.05). On the 5th day after treatment, no parasitic eggs were detected using microscopic examination. In addition, no adverse effects, such as abnormal behaviors and clinical symptoms, were observed in the cats treated with the drug. These results quantify the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in cats in Daegu, Republic of Korea, and show that topical emodepside/praziquantel is a safe and effective choice for treating the parasitic infections in cats.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos/administração & dosagem , Doenças do Gato/tratamento farmacológico , Depsipeptídeos/administração & dosagem , Trato Gastrointestinal/parasitologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Praziquantel/administração & dosagem , Animais , Doenças do Gato/parasitologia , Gatos , Composição de Medicamentos , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Enteropatias Parasitárias/tratamento farmacológico , Enteropatias Parasitárias/parasitologia , Masculino , República da Coreia , Taenia/efeitos dos fármacos , Taenia/isolamento & purificação , Taenia/fisiologia , Toxascaris/efeitos dos fármacos , Toxascaris/isolamento & purificação , Toxascaris/fisiologia , Toxocara/efeitos dos fármacos , Toxocara/isolamento & purificação , Toxocara/fisiologia
9.
BMC Vet Res ; 15(1): 216, 2019 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31248417

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of anthelmintics in goats raised under mountain farming conditions in northern Italy. On 8 goat farms (n = 143 animals), a faecal egg count reduction (FECR) test was done after farmers conducted their routine anthelmintic treatments. Furthermore, on 5 goat farms (n = 135 animals) a FECR test was done under controlled conditions applying oral formulations of a macrocyclic lactone (ML), benzimidazole (BZ) (partly in combination with salicylanilide (SA)) or a combination of imidazothiazole (IT) and SA on the same farm. AR was assumed if FECR and the upper confidence interval (CI) was < 95% and the lower 95% CI was < 90%. RESULTS: Underdosing was found in 6 of the 8 farms tested after routine treatments. Out of the 6 routinely ML-treated goat flocks, only three were found where ML showed adequate efficacy. FECR in all others ranged between 64 and 93%. In one flock Trichostrongylus spp. and in one Haemonchus spp. larvae were identified after treatment. BZ-treated flocks had an efficacy of 99 and 37%. Larvae identified after treatment were Trichostrongylus spp. in one and Haemonchus spp. in the other flock. Under controlled conditions, ML had an adequate efficacy on 4 farms and a FECR of 88% on another one. BZ was effective on all farms. The combination of BZ and SA had a FECR of 99% on the farm it was tested. IT + SA in combination was effective on 2 farms and had a FECR of 91% on a third farm. Larvae identified after treatment were composed of Haemonchus spp. (ML and BZ), Trichostrongylus spp. (BZ) and Teladorsagia spp. (BZ and SA). CONCLUSIONS: This first report on the prevalence of AR in goats in the mountainous region of South Tyrol reveals a low efficacy of the most commonly used anthelmintics after routine treatments. This might be explained by a high level of underdosing as observed in the farms. However, results from the controlled FECR tests suggest that the observed level of AR was lower but cannot be solely explained by underdosing.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Doenças das Cabras/tratamento farmacológico , Enteropatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Infecções por Nematoides/veterinária , Animais , Fazendas , Feminino , Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Cabras , Enteropatias Parasitárias/tratamento farmacológico , Itália , Masculino , Nematoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Nematoides/tratamento farmacológico , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas/veterinária
10.
Vet Parasitol ; 270 Suppl 1: S38-S44, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31104940

RESUMO

The efficacy and safety of a new topical formulation containing selamectin plus sarolaner (Revolution® Plus / Stronghold® Plus, Zoetis) was evaluated for the prevention of heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis) disease and the treatment of roundworm infection in cats enrolled as veterinary patients in two field studies conducted in Japan. In the heartworm field study, 91 cats negative for D. immitis antigen and anti-D. immitis antibody were enrolled and received 9 monthly topical treatments with selamectin plus sarolaner during the period of April to December 2015. Efficacy was assessed by testing post-treatment blood samples collected 8, 12, and 15 months after initiation of treatment for the presence of D. immitis antigen and anti-D. immitis antibody. Eighty-seven cats completed the entire study and were included in the determination of efficacy. No D. immitis antigen or anti-D. immitis antibody were detected in any of the post-treatment samples. In the roundworm field study, completed in the period from April to November 2015, 64 cats with ≥100 roundworm eggs per gram (EPG) of feces were enrolled and allocated randomly in a 1:1 ratio, to receive either selamectin plus sarolaner or emodepside plus praziquantel (Profender®, Bayer). Treatments were administered topically on Days 0 and 30, and efficacy was assessed by fecal EPG counts conducted on Days 14, 30, and 60. All cats completed the entire study. At enrollment, all cats were infected with Toxocara cati. Compared to pre-treatment, geometric mean T. cati EPG counts on Days 14, 30, and 60 were reduced by >99.9% in both treatment groups. There were no treatment-related adverse events in either study. Monthly topical administration of Revolution® Plus / Stronghold® Plus providing a minimum of 6 mg/kg selamectin and 1 mg/kg sarolaner was safe and effective in the prevention of heartworm disease and the treatment of roundworm infection in cats enrolled as veterinary patients in Japan.


Assuntos
Antiparasitários/administração & dosagem , Azetidinas/administração & dosagem , Doenças do Gato/prevenção & controle , Dirofilariose/prevenção & controle , Enteropatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Ivermectina/análogos & derivados , Infecções por Nematoides/veterinária , Compostos de Espiro/administração & dosagem , Administração Tópica , Animais , Doenças do Gato/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças do Gato/parasitologia , Gatos , Dirofilaria immitis/efeitos dos fármacos , Dirofilaria immitis/imunologia , Dirofilariose/tratamento farmacológico , Dirofilariose/parasitologia , Composição de Medicamentos/veterinária , Feminino , Helmintíase/tratamento farmacológico , Helmintíase/parasitologia , Helmintíase/prevenção & controle , Enteropatias Parasitárias/tratamento farmacológico , Enteropatias Parasitárias/parasitologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/prevenção & controle , Ivermectina/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Infecções por Nematoides/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Nematoides/parasitologia , Infecções por Nematoides/prevenção & controle , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas/veterinária , Distribuição Aleatória , Toxocara/efeitos dos fármacos , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Exp Parasitol ; 200: 16-23, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30914262

RESUMO

Gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) are responsible for enormous economic losses worldwide. The use of anthelmintic drugs reduces the parasitic burden in ruminants. However, the excessive use of these drugs triggers anthelmintic resistance in these parasites, which leads to a worrisome inefficacy of most of the commercially available antiparasitic drugs. Caesalpinia coriaria is an arboreal legume possessing medical properties, although the antiparasitic potential of this plant against animal parasitic nematodes has not yet been studied. The aim of this study was to assess the in vitro ovicidal activity of a hydro-alcoholic extract (HA-E) from C. coriaria fruits against GIN and to identify the compounds responsible for this activity through an egg hatch inhibition (EHI) assay. GIN eggs obtained from cattle faeces were used in bio-guided assays. The HA-E was subjected to a liquid-liquid extraction using water and ethyl acetate to obtain two fractions, an organic fraction (EtOAc-F, 27% yield) and an aqueous (Aq-F, 73% yield) fraction. The chromatographic fractionation of the EtOAc-F (2 gr) was performed on a glass column packed with silica gel and eluted with dichloromethane/methanol with 10% ascending polarity. The bioactive compounds were analysed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with UV detection, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and mass spectroscopy (MS). The HA-E extract and the EtOAc-F showed ovicidal activity at a LC50 of 0.92 and 0.16 mg/mL, respectively. A concentration-dependant effect was observed in both treatments. Chromatographic fractionation of the EtOAc-F, allowed for the isolation and characterisation of three important compounds: methyl gallate (1), gallic acid (2) and an unidentified compound (UC). The bioactive molecules (2 and UC) displayed an ovicidal activity close to 100% at 1 mg/mL concentration. The results of this work show that gallic acid (2) isolated from C. coriaria fruits is responsible for its ovicidal activity. The use of Caesalpinia coriaria could be explored in future studies as an environmentally-friendly alternative for the control of GIN in ruminants.


Assuntos
Caesalpinia/química , Doenças dos Bovinos/tratamento farmacológico , Enteropatias Parasitárias/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Nematoides/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Bovinos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/veterinária , Cromatografia em Camada Delgada/veterinária , Ácido Gálico/química , Ácido Gálico/farmacologia , Ácido Gálico/uso terapêutico , Nematoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Óvulo/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico
13.
Onderstepoort J Vet Res ; 86(1): e1-e3, 2019 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30843409

RESUMO

Clinical indicators such as diarrhoea (DISCO) or anaemia (FAMACHA©) are used as a measure for targeted selective treatments against gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN). Enteric cestodes such as Moniezia may interfere directly with DISCO or indirectly with the FAMACHA© score. We investigated 821 Ouled Djellal rams naturally infected in a steppe environment (GIN alone, cestodes alone, GIN and cestodes) or not. The rams were treated with ivermectin 2 months before being slaughtered to reduce the impact of nematodes on the clinical scores; however, persistent or newly acquired GINs were not related to both scores. Of the non-infected rams (n = 296), 26% identified as needing treatment against GIN using the FAMACHA score, and 34.5% using DISCO would have been thus selected. This implies that the clinical indicators used for the targeted selective treatment of gastrointestinal nematodes are not fully reliable when a low infection is recorded and may well be influenced by confounding factors. As expected, only DISCO was affected by cestode infection, and we suggest that the presence of Moniezia should also be taken into consideration.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Cestoides/veterinária , Ivermectina/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Nematoides/veterinária , Doenças dos Ovinos/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Argélia/epidemiologia , Animais , Cestoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Cestoides/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Cestoides/epidemiologia , Infecções por Cestoides/parasitologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/tratamento farmacológico , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/parasitologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Masculino , Nematoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Nematoides/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Nematoides/epidemiologia , Infecções por Nematoides/parasitologia , Prevalência , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia
14.
Vet Parasitol ; 266: 67-72, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30736949

RESUMO

Targeted selective treatment (TST) aims to aid in the control of gastrointestinal nematodes in small ruminants, identifying animals that require treatment with the purpose of preserving the Refugia population and delaying the buildup of anthelmintic (AH) resistance. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of both productive and clinical indicators in the selective treatment of gastrointestinal parasites in growing lambs. Two experiments were carried out between 2015 and 2016. Experiment 1: lambs (n = 70) exclusively raised on pasture were evaluated from the ages of 60 days to 180 days old. Experiment 2: lambs (n = 48) raised on pasture and fed concentrated commercial supplementation were evaluated from the ages of 60 days to 150 days old. Parasitological (eggs per gram of feces - EPG), productive (average daily weight gain - DWG), and clinical (hematocrit - Ht and FAMACHA© system - F) parameters were measured every 14 days. The lambs were divided into 4 experimental groups with different criteria for AH treatment: the control group (CG), was treated with AH every 30 days; the FAMACHA© group (FG), in which lambs classified as F3, F4, and F5 were treated with AH; Daily weight gain group (DWGG), in which lambs with average DWG ≤ the average DWG of the CG minus one standard deviation were treated with AH; FAMACHA© + daily weight gain group (FDWGG), in which lambs classified as F3, F4 and F5 and/or lambs with average DWG ≤ the average DWG of the CG minus one standard deviation were treated with AH. In experiment 1, no significant differences in the general means of DWG and Ht (p > 0.05) were observed between experimental groups, although the lowest mean EPG was observed in the CG (p < 0.05). In experiment 2, the lowest mean EPG (p < 0.05) was also observed in the CG (1044.5 EPG), and the highest mean (p < 0.05) in the FG (4845.5 EPG). There were differences in the mean DWG of the CG (198.4 g) and FDWGG (200.0 g), which were both higher (p < 0.05) than that of the FG (90.5 g), and similar (p > 0.05) to the DWGG (151.8 g). In both experiments, considering the total mean number of AH treatments, FG had the lowest number of lambs treated with AH (p < 0.05), with the DWG and FDWGG being similar to each other (p > 0.05). Even when Haemonchus is the major parasite, it is not recommended to use the FAMACHA© system as an exclusive criterion for TST in growing lambs. The DWG productive criterion can be used effectively in the TST of growing lambs.


Assuntos
Hemoncose/veterinária , Doenças dos Ovinos/diagnóstico , Ganho de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Fezes/parasitologia , Hemoncose/diagnóstico , Hemoncose/tratamento farmacológico , Haemonchus , Enteropatias Parasitárias/tratamento farmacológico , Enteropatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas , Ovinos/parasitologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Carneiro Doméstico/parasitologia
15.
Infect Dis Health ; 24(2): 98-106, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30648601

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis and Soil-transmitted helminthiasis cause considerable morbidity and mortality in developing countries, especially among children. To this end it, a cross-sectional survey to determine the pattern of Schistosomiasis and Soil-transmitted helminthiasis co-infection was undertaken among primary school pupils in Oduma Community in Enugu State, Nigeria. METHODS: Fresh urine and stool samples were collected from pupils. The urine and stool samples were examined using sedimentation and Kat-Katz techniques respectively. RESULTS: Of the 236 pupils examined, 137 (58.1%) were found positive for at least one helminth infection. Ascaris lumbricoides was the most prevalent soil-transmitted helminth (STH), with a prevalence rate of 40.3%, followed by Trichuris trichiura (15.3%) and hookworm (8.9%). Infection with Schistosoma haematobium was detected in 13.6% of the pupils while Schistosoma mansoni infection prevalence was 7.2%. Age group 4 -7 years recorded the highest prevalence for S. haematobium, A. lumbricoides, T. Trichiura and hookworm infections. Multiple infections were also recorded, with 22.9% having double infections and 2.5% having triple infections. The most common double infection was A. lumbricoides with T. trichiura (8.9%), while the most common triple infection was A. lumbricoides, S. haematobium and hookworm (1.7%). CONCLUSION: The results from the present study revealed an evident need for the systematic and sustained administration of school-based chemotherapy program targeting the control of STH infection and Schistosomiasis using Albendazole and Praziquantel respectively in the community, instead of a one-off approach that was carried out.


Assuntos
Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Helmintíase/epidemiologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose Urinária/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Coinfecção/parasitologia , Estudos Transversais , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Helmintíase/parasitologia , Humanos , Enteropatias Parasitárias/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Esquistossomose Urinária/tratamento farmacológico , Instituições Acadêmicas , Fatores Sexuais , Solo/parasitologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Urina/parasitologia
16.
Animal ; 13(7): 1498-1507, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30419992

RESUMO

Plant secondary metabolites (PSM) are one of the promising options to control gastrointestinal nematodes in sheep and goats. The objective of this study was to assess the abilities of sheep and goats to self-medicate with tannin-rich sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) (SF) when infected with gastrointestinal nematodes, using a cafeteria and an operant conditioning trial. Hypotheses were that parasitized (P) lambs and goat kids would show greater intake and preference for SF than their non-parasitized (NP) counterparts, that kids would eat more SF than lambs (due to their lower resistance against parasites and their greater ability to consume PSM), and that SF intake would increase over time for P animals. We used 20 female kids and 20 ewe lambs aged 3 months. Half of the animals per species (n = 10) were experimentally infected with 170 L3 larvae of Haemonchus contortus/kg of BW (P). The other half were free from parasites throughout the study (NP). Five weeks after infection, animals were exposed to a 24-day cafeteria trial (three 8-day periods) offering a free choice between two legume pellets: SF (3.8% condensed tannins) and alfalfa (ALF, Medicago sativa; no tannin). Subsequently, animals were involved in an operant conditioning trial of two 4-day long sessions, to assess in short-term tests their motivation to walk for a SF reward when offered in choice with freely available ALF. In the cafeteria trial, SF preference was greater in kids than in lambs, particularly in the first two periods. We did not observe a greater preference for SF in P animals, which was even greater in NP animals for periods 1 and 2. Sainfoin intake increased through periods for P animals, which led to similar SF preferences for all groups during period 3. In the operant-conditioning trial, motivation to get the SF reward was similar between P and NP animals. These results support the hypotheses that goats are more willing to consume tanniferous feeds than sheep, and that P animals increased SF intake through time. However, the emergence of a curative self-medicative behaviour was not supported, as P individuals did not show greater SF intake, preference, nor a greater motivation to get SF than NP animals, regardless of animal species. These findings are discussed with previous results and some explanations are presented.


Assuntos
Fabaceae/química , Doenças das Cabras/tratamento farmacológico , Hemoncose/veterinária , Enteropatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Automedicação/veterinária , Doenças dos Ovinos/tratamento farmacológico , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Condicionamento Operante , Dieta/veterinária , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , França , Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Cabras , Hemoncose/tratamento farmacológico , Hemoncose/parasitologia , Haemonchus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Haemonchus/fisiologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/tratamento farmacológico , Enteropatias Parasitárias/parasitologia , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/fisiologia , Medicago sativa/química , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Carneiro Doméstico
17.
Syst Rev ; 7(1): 239, 2018 12 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30572948

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The impact of deworming on parasite load, nutritional status and other health outcomes of non-pregnant adolescent girls and adult women is uncertain. METHODS: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and Food and Technology Abstracts databases were searched until 24 September 2018. Studies were included if they were randomised controlled trials (RCTs), controlled before and after studies or interrupted time studies comparing deworming with no intervention or placebo in non-pregnant adolescent girls and women 10 to 49 years old. Outcomes of interest included parasite load, reinfection, anaemia, severe anaemia, iron deficiency, diarrhoea or all-cause morbidity. Risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. RESULTS: We included four RCTs of mass deworming involving 1086 participants, in the analyses. Mass deworming probably reduces the prevalence of roundworm infection (RR 0.29; 95% CI 0.14 to 0.62; 2 trials; 1498 participants, moderate certainty evidence), prevalence of hookworm infection (RR 0.32; 95% CI 0.18 to 0.59; 2 trials; 1498 participants, moderate certainty evidence), prevalence of whipworm infection (RR 0.77; 95% CI 0.65 to 0.91; 2 trials; 1498 participants, moderate certainty evidence) compared to the control group. Deworming may make little or no difference in prevalence of anaemia (RR 0.82; 95% CI 0.60 to 1.11, 3 studies, 683 participants, low certainty evidence) and prevalence of iron-deficiency (RR 0.89; 95% CI 0.64 to 1.23, 1 study, 186 participants, low certainty evidence) compared to control. We are uncertain whether deworming reduces the prevalence of severe anaemia compared to control as the certainty of evidence was very low. None of the included studies assessed screen and treat deworming or reported reinfection, diarrhoea or adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: Mass deworming probably reduces the prevalence of soil-transmitted helminth infections but may have little or no effect on anaemia and iron-deficiency in adolescent girls and non-pregnant women in comparison to no intervention or placebo. We are uncertain about the effect on severe anaemia. These results are limited by sparse data and the moderate to very low quality of evidence available. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: The protocol was registered in PROSPERO (registration number: CRD42016039557 ).  Primary source of funding: Evidence and Programme Guidance unit, Department of Nutrition for Health and Development, World Health Organization (WHO).


Assuntos
Helmintíase/epidemiologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Anemia/epidemiologia , Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Helmintíase/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Enteropatias Parasitárias/tratamento farmacológico , Estado Nutricional/efeitos dos fármacos
18.
BMC Complement Altern Med ; 18(1): 327, 2018 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30526582

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Soil transmitted helminths (STHs) are among the world's neglected tropical diseases. Morbidity due to STHs is greatest in school-age children who typically have the highest burden of infection. In 2001, WHO passed a resolution for the use of large-scale mass drug administration (MDA) to deworm vulnerable children through school based programs. Though effective, there is concern that MDA might not be sustainable over extended periods. Additionally the current MDA strategy does not consider child malnutrition, a very common malady in resource limited countries. We report a pilot evaluation of an innovation that bundles school feeding and deworming. METHODS: We designed a maize (corn) flour fortified with grounded dried papaya (Carica papaya) seeds and used it to prepare porridge as per the usual school meal recipe Children from three primary schools from Nandi County in Kenya were randomized into three arms: One school received 300 ml papaya fortified porridge daily (papaya group), the second school received similar serving of plain porridge without the pawpaw ingredient (control group) and the third school received plain porridge and the conventional MDA approach of one time 400 mg dosage of albendazole (albendazole arm). Prior to the randomization, an initial baseline stool microscopy analysis was done to determine presence and intensity of intestinal worms. Core indicators of nutrition-height, weight and hemoglobin counts were also assessed. The children were monitored daily for two months and final stool sample analysis and clinical monitoring done at the end of the study. Baseline and follow-up data were analyzed and compared through SAS version 9.1 statistical package. RESULTS: A total of 326 children participated in the trial. The overall prevalence of Ascaris lumbricoides was 29.4% (96), Trichuris Trichura 5.2% (17) and hookworm 1 (0.3%). Papaya seed fortified porridge reduced the Ascaris lumbricoides egg count by 63.9% after the two month period (mean 209.7epg to 75.7 p < 0.002) as compared to the albendazole arm 78.8% (129.5 epg to 27.5, p value 0.006). The control group showed an increase in egg count (42.epg to 56.3) though it was not statistically significant. Hemoglobin counts in the papaya group increased from a mean of 2 g/dL (11.5 g/dL to 13.5 g/dL, p < 0.001), as compared to the albendazole arm that increased by 1 g/dL (12.8-13.9, p < 0.001). No significant change was observed in the placebo arm (13.2 to 13.1). Interestingly the papaya group showed a significant reduction of children with Tinea capitis (ringworms) (54.4 to 34%, p < 0.002) as compared to the albendazole arm that showed an increase in ringworm infestation though not statistically significant (39.7 to 64.7% p = 0.608). CONCLUSION: Papaya seed fortified porridge had a significant effect on reduction of Ascaris lumbricoides burden. It had a better nutritional outcome and effect on child fungal infections than albendazole. Its application as a routine school meal may aid current national school based nutrition and deworming programs in Africa. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This study was retrospectively registered at Clinicaltrials.gov Ref. NCT02725255 on 31st March 2016.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos , Carica , Alimentos Fortificados , Helmintíase/tratamento farmacológico , Enteropatias Parasitárias/tratamento farmacológico , Albendazol/administração & dosagem , Albendazol/uso terapêutico , Anti-Helmínticos/administração & dosagem , Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Criança , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Frutas , Helmintíase/epidemiologia , Humanos , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Quênia , Masculino , Administração Massiva de Medicamentos , Preparações de Plantas/administração & dosagem , Preparações de Plantas/uso terapêutico , Prevalência , Sementes , Estudantes , Zea mays
19.
J Med Case Rep ; 12(1): 346, 2018 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30463627

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We describe a patient with Strongyloides stercoralis hyperinfection associated with Streptococcus pyogenes and with streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. To the best of our knowledge this association has not been previously described. CASE PRESENTATION: A 78 year-old Israeli man, who was born in Iraq but lived in Israel for 66 years, presented with multi-organ failure including acute kidney and hepatic injury, coagulopathy, and lactic acidosis. He had a medical history including aortic valve replacement, diabetes mellitus, spinal stenosis, and low back pain treated with repeated local steroid injections. Blood cultures were positive for Streptococcus pyogenes and antibiotic treatment was switched to penicillin G, clindamycin, and intravenous immunoglobulins. Repeated physical examinations failed to identify the source of the bacteremia. On day 12 of hospitalization the serology results for Strongyloides stercoralis sent on admission, because of chronic eosinophilia, came back positive. A microscopic stool examination and stool polymerase chain reaction were positive for Strongyloides stercoralis. Ivermectin therapy was commenced and continued for a total of 4 weeks. He was discharged for rehabilitation after 25 days. He had no exposure to endemic countries or to immigrants. During many years he had multiple gastrointestinal symptoms, respiratory symptoms, cutaneous symptoms, chronic eosinophilia, and high immunoglobulin E levels. He underwent several operative procedures and numerous hospitalizations and medical encounters with different experts but a parasitic infection was not considered. His asymptomatic daughter was also found to be serologically positive. CONCLUSIONS: Strongyloides stercoralis hyperinfection associated with Streptococcus pyogenes bacteremia and toxic shock is described for the first time. The case also highlights the importance of history taking and reviewing past laboratory results, the utility of serological tests for Strongyloides stercoralis, and the importance of screening asymptomatic family members of an infected patient. Strongyloides stercoralis hyperinfection must be considered in the differential diagnosis of any patient with Streptococcus pyogenes bacteremia or toxic shock of no clear source as well as in symptomatic patients with chronic or intermittent eosinophilia, even without any epidemiological risk factors.


Assuntos
Enteropatias Parasitárias/fisiopatologia , Choque Séptico/parasitologia , Infecções Estreptocócicas/fisiopatologia , Streptococcus pyogenes/efeitos dos fármacos , Strongyloides stercoralis/isolamento & purificação , Estrongiloidíase/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Animais , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Antiparasitários/uso terapêutico , Eosinofilia , Fezes/parasitologia , Humanos , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Enteropatias Parasitárias/tratamento farmacológico , Enteropatias Parasitárias/imunologia , Ivermectina/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Choque Séptico/tratamento farmacológico , Choque Séptico/imunologia , Infecções Estreptocócicas/imunologia , Streptococcus pyogenes/imunologia , Streptococcus pyogenes/isolamento & purificação , Estrongiloidíase/tratamento farmacológico , Estrongiloidíase/imunologia , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Vet Parasitol ; 262: 11-15, 2018 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30389005

RESUMO

In a survey involving 34 sheep flocks spread over the Netherlands anthelmintic resistance (AR), based on a fecal egg count reduction (FECR) test, was determined for six different products. The study was conducted in ewes shortly after lambing during spring 2015. A FECR of less than 90%, indicating presence of AR against one or more nematode genera producing strongylid eggs, was found in 22 of 30 (73.3%) flocks against oxfendazole, 18 of 23 (78.3%) flocks against ivermectin, 15 of 32 (46.9%) flocks against moxidectin, and 2 of 26 (7.7%) flocks against monepantel. No AR was observed against levamisole. If oxfendazole resistance was observed, Haemonchus contortus was involved in 90.5% of the cases. If resistance against ivermectin, moxidectin or monepantel was observed, it invariably involved H. contortus. In the majority of cases resistance was also observed for Teladorsagia circumcincta and/or Trichostrongylus spp, between which no distinction was made in this study. Based on FECR 9 of 15 (60.0%) flocks showed resistance against closantel, which was mainly due to closantel not being effective against most other nematode species than H. contortus. However, in 44.4% of flocks showing reduced FECR it did involve H. contortus as well. Multi-drug resistance (excluding closantel) was found in 16 flocks, of which 8 showed resistance against 2 products, 7 against 3 products and 1 flock showed resistance against 4 products. If resistance against 3 or 4 products was present, there invariably was resistance against both ivermectin and moxidectin. Overall, of the 22 flocks in which both macrocyclic lactones (ML) were tested, 4 (18.2%) showed no resistance against both products, 9 (40.9%) showed resistance against ivermectin only, and 9 (40.9%) showed resistance against both MLs. It is concluded that AR is widespread in sheep in the Netherlands and involves products from all major anthelmintic classes, with possibly the exception of levamisole. It appears that the macrocyclic lactones have lost much of their efficacy against sheep nematodes over the last decade.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos/farmacologia , Resistência a Medicamentos , Hemoncose/veterinária , Haemonchus/efeitos dos fármacos , Enteropatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Aminoacetonitrila/análogos & derivados , Aminoacetonitrila/farmacologia , Animais , Benzimidazóis/farmacologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Hemoncose/tratamento farmacológico , Hemoncose/epidemiologia , Hemoncose/parasitologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/tratamento farmacológico , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/parasitologia , Ivermectina/farmacologia , Levamisol/farmacologia , Macrolídeos/farmacologia , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas/veterinária , Salicilanilidas/farmacologia , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia
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