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1.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 30(1): e016320, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33605387

RESUMO

This study aimed to identify the intestinal parasites of road-killed wild felines in the North Central and North, Paraná state, southern Brazil. The animals were monitored by sampling previously established transects. The places where the felines were run over were mapped, the animals were identified, and the gastrointestinal tract was evaluated. The feces were submitted to coproparasitological techniques of spontaneous sedimentation, floating in hypersaturated NaCl solution and centrifugal floating in zinc sulfate. All the parasitic structures detected were photomicrographed. In the coproparasitological analyses were identified oocysts of Cystoisospora spp., eggs of Ancylostomatidae, and Capillaria spp.; eggs of Aelurostrongylus spp., Toxocara spp., Physaloptera spp., Taenia spp., and Spirometra spp.; Aelurostrongylus abstrusus larvae; and eggs and adults of Ancylostoma cati and Taenia spp. One of the cats was parasitized by a flea of Ctenocephalides felis felis. Based on these results, the animals analyzed in this study supplied important samples for the evaluation of parasitic diversity of North of Paraná and suggested that this region may have conditions that allow the maintenance of these parasites life cycles in the environment and among wildlife.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens , Doenças do Gato , Enteropatias Parasitárias , Parasitos , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais , Animais , Animais Selvagens/parasitologia , Biodiversidade , Brasil/epidemiologia , Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Doenças do Gato/parasitologia , Gatos , Fezes/parasitologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/parasitologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Parasitos/isolamento & purificação , Parasitos/fisiologia , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/epidemiologia , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/parasitologia , Prevalência
2.
Exp Parasitol ; 223: 108089, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33639135

RESUMO

The morphological, biological, and molecular characterisation of Cryptosporidium piscine genotype 7 from red-eye tetras (Moenkhausia sanctaefilomenae) are described, and the species name Cryptosporidium abrahamseni n. sp. is proposed. Histological analysis of intestinal tissue identified large numbers of Cryptosporidium organisms along the epithelial lining of the intestine. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis at 18S rRNA (18S) and actin loci conducted on intestinal scrapings revealed that C. abrahamseni n. sp. was genetically distinct from other Cryptosporidium species. At the 18S locus, it was most closely related to C. huwi (3.2% genetic distance) and exhibited genetic distances ranging from 5.9 to 6.5% (C. molnari) to 14.9% (C. scolpthalmi) from all other Cryptosporidium species. At the actin locus, the genetic distances were larger and C. abrahamseni n. sp. exhibited 10.3% genetic distance from C. huwi, and 17.6% (C. molnari) to 28% (C. canis) genetic distance from other Cryptosporidium spp. Phylogenetic analysis of concatenated 18S and actin sequences confirmed that C. abrahamseni n. sp. shares the closest genetic relationship with C. huwi (6.7% genetic distance), while the genetic distance between C. abrahamseni n. sp. and other Cryptosporidium spp. ranged from 12.1% (C. molnari) to 20.4% (C. canis). Based on genetic and histological data, C. abrahamseni n. sp. is validated as a separate species.


Assuntos
Characidae/parasitologia , Criptosporidiose/parasitologia , Cryptosporidium/classificação , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Actinas/genética , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Criptosporidiose/patologia , Cryptosporidium/genética , Cryptosporidium/ultraestrutura , Doenças dos Peixes/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Peixes/patologia , Genótipo , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/parasitologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/patologia , Intestinos/parasitologia , Intestinos/patologia , Filogenia , Prevalência , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , Austrália Ocidental/epidemiologia
3.
J Parasitol ; 106(6): 789-801, 2020 11 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33351949

RESUMO

Examination of 4 specimens of the leopard whipray Himantura leoparda, a dasyatid stingray from northern Australia, led to the discovery of 3 new species of Rhinebothrium. Rhinebothrium leopardensis n. sp., Rhinebothrium nandoi n. sp., and Rhinebothrium ruhnkei n. sp. are described, increasing the diversity of the genus to 51 species globally. All 3 new species differ from their congeners in terms of testis number, proglottid number, loculus number, and size. With respect to one another, R. leopardensis n. sp. has bothridia that are weakly constricted at their centers and has a greater number of proglottids than the other 2 species (93-108 vs. 11-15, and 48-78, respectively). Rhinebothrium nandoi n. sp. is the smallest of the 3 species found in H. leoparda (3.6-5 vs. 10-15 mm and 10.1-15.8 mm in total length [TL], respectively) and bears bothridia that are constricted at their centers. Rhinebothrium ruhnkei n. sp. bears bothridia that are conspicuously constricted at their centers and has more testes than R. leopardensis and fewer than R. nandoi (7-10 vs. fewer than 7 and 21-33, respectively). Before this study, 56% (27 of 48) of Rhinebothrium species had been described from the freshwater river systems of South America and the marine waters surrounding South and North America. In contrast, despite the remarkably diverse nature of its batoid fauna, only 19 species were known from the Indo-Pacific region. Our work increases this number to 22, emphasizing the highly underestimated nature of Rhinebothrium diversity in this region of the globe. The discovery of these 3 new species was not unexpected, given the relatively poor status of our current knowledge of the cestode faunas of dasyatid stingrays in the Indo-Pacific region, and given the fact that it is common for a single batoid species to host 2 or more species of Rhinebothrium. Our results suggest that additional work on the cestode faunas of the batoids, especially dasyatids, from the Indo-Pacific region is likely to be highly productive in terms of contributing to the knowledge of Rhinebothrium diversity.


Assuntos
Cestoides/classificação , Infecções por Cestoides/veterinária , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Rajidae/parasitologia , Animais , Austrália , Cestoides/anatomia & histologia , Cestoides/ultraestrutura , Infecções por Cestoides/parasitologia , Feminino , Enteropatias Parasitárias/parasitologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Masculino , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura/veterinária
4.
Parasitol Res ; 119(11): 3659-3673, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32960371

RESUMO

Alongside exotic reptiles, amphibians, such as toads, frogs, salamanders, and newts, are nowadays considered popular pets worldwide. As reported for other exotic pet animals, amphibians are known to harbor numerous gastrointestinal parasites. Nonetheless, very little data are available on captive amphibian parasitic diseases. In this study, we applied direct saline fecal smears (DSFS) to examine in total 161 stool samples from 41 different amphibian species belonging to the orders Anura and Caudata. In addition, carbolfuchsin-smear (CFS) staining (n = 74 samples) was used to detect amphibian Cryptosporidium oocysts. Also, complete dissections of deceased amphibians (n = 107) were performed to specify parasite infections and to address parasite-associated pathogenicity. Overall, examined amphibian fecal samples contained 12 different parasite taxa. The order Rhabditida with the species Rhabdias spp. and Strongyloides spp. were the most prevalent nematode species (19.3%), followed by flagellated protozoans (8.7%), Amphibiocapillaria spp./Neocapillaria spp. (7.5%), Oswaldocruzia spp. (4.3%), Blastocystis spp. (3.1%), Cosmocerca spp. (3.1%), oxyurids (Pharyngonoidae) (3.1%), spirurids (1.2%), un-sporulated coccidian oocysts (0.6%), Tritrichomonas spp. (0.6%), Karotomorpha spp. (0.6%), and Cryptosporidium spp. (0.6%). One CFS-stained fecal sample (1.4%) was positive for Cryptosporidium oocysts. Within dissected amphibians, 31 (48.4%) of the anurans and 11 (26.2%) of the salamanders were infected with gastrointestinal parasites. One cutaneous Pseudocapillaroides xenopi infection was diagnosed in an adult African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis). Etiologically, 17 (15.9%) of them died due to severe parasitic and/or bacterial infections (e.g., Chryseobacterium indologenes, Citrobacter freudii, Sphingobacterium multivorum, Klebsiella pneumoniae). High prevalence and pathological findings of several clinical amphibian parasitoses call for more detailed investigation on gastrointestinal parasite-derived molecular mechanisms associated with detrimental lesions or even death.


Assuntos
Animais Exóticos , Animais de Zoológico/parasitologia , Anuros/parasitologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Urodelos/parasitologia , Animais , Anuros/microbiologia , Blastocystis/isolamento & purificação , Chryseobacterium/isolamento & purificação , Criptosporidiose/parasitologia , Cryptosporidium/isolamento & purificação , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Enteropatias Parasitárias/parasitologia , Nematoides/isolamento & purificação , Oocistos , Sphingobacterium , Strongyloides/isolamento & purificação , Urodelos/microbiologia
5.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 29(3): e014920, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32935772

RESUMO

Dogs play a potential role as reservoirs for zoonotic parasites, being especially problematic uncontrolled dog populations such as stray and farm dogs with access to populated areas. In order to investigate the prevalence of canine intestinal parasites in at-risk dog populations, we tested a total of 233 faecal samples shed by stray and dairy farm dogs from northern Spain. Telemann method was used to detect the presence of eggs and (oo)cysts of common dog intestinal parasites and Cryptosporidium was detected by PCR. One hundred and forty eight out of 233 samples (63.5%) were positive for at least one intestinal parasite, being Ancylostomidae (35.6%; 83/233) and Trichuris (35.2%; 82/233) the parasites most frequently identified. Cryptosporidium DNA was not detected in any of the faecal samples analysed. The overall prevalence was significantly higher in stray dogs than in farm dogs (72.5% vs 58.8%). Specifically, stray dogs had a significantly higher prevalence of Ancylostomatidae, Toxocara, Toxascaris and Taenidae. These dog populations are an important source of environmental contamination with intestinal parasite forms, which could be of significance to animal and human health.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão , Fazendas , Enteropatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Animais , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Cryptosporidium , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , Fazendas/estatística & dados numéricos , Fezes/parasitologia , Humanos , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/parasitologia , Prevalência , Espanha/epidemiologia
6.
Parasitol Res ; 119(10): 3401-3413, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32780185

RESUMO

In wildlife, endoparasite burden can be affected by host life history stage, environmental conditions, host abundance, and parasite co-infections. We tested the effects of these factors on gastrointestinal parasite infection in plains zebras (Equus quagga) in the Serengeti ecosystem, Tanzania, using fecal egg counts of two nematode families (Strongylidae and Ascarididae) and the presence/absence of cestode (Anoplocephalidae) eggs. We predicted higher egg counts of Strongylidae and Ascarididae, and increased likelihood of Anoplocephalidae infection in individuals (1) during energetically costly life history stages when resource allocation to immune processes may decrease and in young zebras after weaning because of increased uptake of infective stages with forage, (2) when climatic conditions facilitate survival of infective stages, (3) when large zebra aggregations increase forage contamination with infective stages, and (4) in individuals co-infected with more than one parasite group as this may indicate reduced immune competence. Strongylidae egg counts were higher, and the occurrence of Anoplocephalidae eggs was more likely in bachelors than in band stallions, whereas Ascarididae egg counts were higher in band stallions. Strongylidae and Ascarididae egg counts were not increased in lactating females. Strongylidae egg counts were higher in subadults than in foals. Regardless of sex and age, Ascarididae infections were more likely under wet conditions. Co-infections did not affect Strongylidae egg counts. Ascarididae egg counts in adult females were higher when individuals were co-infected with Anoplocephalidae. We present evidence that parasite burdens in plains zebras are affected by life history stage, environmental conditions, and co-infection.


Assuntos
Equidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Equidae/parasitologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida/fisiologia , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas/veterinária , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Clima , Feminino , Helmintos/classificação , Helmintos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Helmintos/isolamento & purificação , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/parasitologia , Masculino , Parques Recreativos , Tanzânia/epidemiologia
7.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(6): e0008378, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32516309

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors of the main enteric parasitic infections that affect children and dogs in the municipality of Ilhéus, Bahia, Brazil; and to identify the geopolitical areas that should receive priority interventions to combat them. Between March and November 2016, fecal samples of 143 dogs and 193 children aged 1 month to 5 years were collected in 40 rural and semirural communities using a systematic sampling approach, stratified by district. Samples were collected by legal guardians of the children and / or dog owners. Eggs, larvae, cysts and oocysts of parasites were concentrated by centrifugal-flotation and centrifugal-sedimentation, and acid-resistant staining was used to visualize parasites. One hundred and thirty-two children (68.4%), 111 dogs (77.6%) and 199 (73.7%) dog fecal samples collected from streets were parasitized. Giardiasis, cryptosporidiosis, amoeba infections and hookworm were the most frequent infections in all studied populations, in addition to trichuriasis in dogs and ascaridiasis in children. A predominance of Giardia and hookworms was observed in children and dogs, respectively. The coastal districts of Aritaguá, Olivença and the main district had a higher parasitic diversity and overlapping of important potential zoonotic infections. Age over one year (p<0.001), adjusted OR = 3.65; 95% CI = 1.86-7.16) and income below the minimum monthly salary (p = 0.02, adjusted OR = 2.78, 95% CI = 1.17-6.59) were the main factors associated with intestinal parasitic infections in children and dogs, respectively. The coastal districts of Aritaguá and Olivença and the main district should be prioritized through enteric disease control programs, and the factors associated with infections must be considered in the design of health interventions in these districts. The integration between affirmative income actions and investments to improve the health infrastructure of these communities may work more effectively than current preventive measures to combat enteric parasites.


Assuntos
Amebíase/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Amebíase/veterinária , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Cães , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Giardia , Giardíase/epidemiologia , Giardíase/veterinária , Infecções por Uncinaria/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Análise Multivariada , Oocistos , Parasitos , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Zoonoses/parasitologia
8.
Chemosphere ; 258: 127287, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32535446

RESUMO

AIM: The study aimed at evaluating the concentration levels of organochlorine pollutants in donkey milk and their modulation on the intestinal strongyle infection. Risk evaluation for consumer health was also investigated. METHODS: We analyzed milk of grazing donkeys living in areas of Southern of Italy affected by organochlorine compounds environmental pollution and parasite infection. The presence of pollutants was assessed through summary statistics; regression analysis of intestinal strongyle on pollutant concentration was performed to investigate the relationship between the two variables. RESULTS: PCB concentrations (mainly non-dioxin-like (ndl)-PCBs) were higher than OCP ones. Mean values of ndl-PCBs across areas ranged from 93.13 to 263.64 ng g-1. In all sample units we detected the six indicator PCBs with the prevalence of the PCB 153, followed by the PCB 28 and the PCB 101. Among the dioxin-like (dl)-PCBs, non-ortho PCB 169, 77 and 126 were assessed in some milk samples; in all areas we detected the mono-ortho PCB 118 and PCB 105. Positive correlation between infection level and six indicator PCBs as well as between the former and HCB, on WW and LW, were observed (at least statistically significant at 5 percent). In some cases, Dl-PCB concentrations emerged as dangerous given the EU maximum residue limit for PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs. CONCLUSION: Evidence supports the hypothesis of an immunosuppressive role of organochlorine pollutants; risk evaluation reveals the potential health impact of dl-PCB intake, particularly for major donkey milk consumers such as infants, children with cow milk and multiple food intolerance, and elders.


Assuntos
Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/análise , Leite/química , Praguicidas/antagonistas & inibidores , Idoso , Animais , Criança , Dibenzofuranos/análise , Exposição Dietética , Equidae , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Enteropatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Itália , Praguicidas/análise , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas/análise , Medição de Risco
9.
Parasitol Res ; 119(6): 1903-1913, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32385710

RESUMO

Microsporidia is a group of spore-forming microorganisms with zoonotic potential. This study aimed to compare intestinal microsporidia infections in cat owners and non-pet owners. In total, 210 fecal samples were collected from indoor cats, cat owners, and non-pet owners. DNA extraction was performed and the small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene was amplified. To characterize the genotypes, the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) fragment was amplified and sequenced. The phylogenetic trees were drawn to evaluate the relationship among Enterocytozoon bieneusi isolates. Two (2.9%) and one (1.4%) fecal samples from cat owners and one (1.4%) and two (2.9%) fecal samples from non-pet owners were positive for E. bieneusi and Encephalitozoon intestinalis, respectively. E. bieneusi was detected in two cat samples (2.9%). Same infection was not seen between infected cats and their owners. There was no significant difference between the prevalence rate of microsporidia among the cat owners and non-pet owners. Indeed, the genotypes L and type IV were seen in cats, while the genotype D was only detected in human. In this study, E. bieneusi and E. intestinalis were more prevalent among the cat owners and non-pet owners, respectively. Indeed, the higher prevalence of E. bieneusi in cats and their owners might be resulted from the worldwide distribution of this species.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/parasitologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/parasitologia , Microsporídios , Microsporidiose/diagnóstico , Adulto , Animais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Gatos , Encephalitozoon/isolamento & purificação , Enterocytozoon/isolamento & purificação , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Enteropatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Masculino , Microsporídios/classificação , Microsporídios/genética , Microsporídios/isolamento & purificação , Microsporidiose/epidemiologia , Microsporidiose/veterinária , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Animais de Estimação/parasitologia , Filogenia , Prevalência , Zoonoses/epidemiologia
10.
Parasitol Res ; 119(5): 1707-1712, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32236710

RESUMO

Infection with blood flukes of the genus Schistosoma causes considerable human and animal morbidity, mortality and economic loss to the livestock industry. Current diagnostic tools have limitations. In this study, we compared the sedimentation and filtration methods for the diagnosis of schistosomiasis in livestock. A total of 196 faecal samples from cattle in Côte d'Ivoire were subjected to sedimentation and filtration for the diagnosis of schistosomiasis and other intestinal parasite infections. Schistosoma eggs or miracidia were discovered in 32 samples: 15 by filtration only, seven by sedimentation only, six concurrently by both methods and four by observing miracidia swimming on the sedimentation slide. The sensitivity of sedimentation and filtration was 41% and 66%, respectively. Cases with no Schistosoma eggs identified in the sediment but miracidia swimming on the slide indicate that eggs had hatched before microscopy. More accurate diagnostic are required for livestock schistosomiasis, in order to better understand the epidemiology and inform control and elimination efforts in livestock and human populations.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/diagnóstico , Enteropatias Parasitárias/diagnóstico , Esquistossomose/diagnóstico , Esquistossomose/veterinária , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Costa do Marfim , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Filtração , Humanos , Enteropatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Gado , Masculino , Schistosoma/isolamento & purificação
11.
Parasit Vectors ; 13(1): 70, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32113470

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal nematodes are parasites that commonly infect dogs, and infections can be subclinical or may cause considerable clinical disease. Some species are zoonotic and may also cause clinical disease in humans. Year-round treatment of dogs is recommended to eliminate existing infections, which also indirectly reduces the potential for subsequent human exposure to zoonotic species. Here we present two studies that evaluated the safety and efficacy of a novel chewable oral tablet containing sarolaner, moxidectin and pyrantel against gastrointestinal nematode infections in dogs presented as veterinary patients in Europe and the USA. METHODS: Dogs naturally infected with Toxocara canis, Toxascaris leonina, Ancylostoma caninum and/or Uncinaria stenocephala were enrolled in the European study, and dogs naturally infected with T. canis were enrolled in the USA study. The animals were treated once orally with Simparica Trio™ tablets to provide 1.2-2.4 mg/kg sarolaner, 24-48 µg/kg moxidectin and 5-10 mg/kg pyrantel (as pamoate salt) or with a commercially available product according to the label directions as positive control. Efficacy was based on the post-treatment reduction in geometric mean egg counts (per gram feces) 7 or 10 days after treatment compared to pre-treatment egg counts. RESULTS: Simparica Trio™ was well tolerated in both studies. In the European study, geometric mean egg counts for T. canis, T. leonina, A. caninum and U. stenocephala were reduced by ≥ 98.3% in the Simparica Trio™ group and by ≥ 97.4% in the afoxolaner + milbemycin oxime group. In the USA study, geometric mean egg counts for T. canis were reduced by 99.2% in the Simparica Trio™ group and by 98.6% in the ivermectin + pyrantel group. In the USA study, 48 and 10 dogs in the Simparica Trio™ and the ivermectin + pyrantel group, respectively, were co-infected with A. caninum and the reduction in the post-treatment mean fecal egg counts were 98.6% and 74.7%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: A single oral administration of Simparica Trio™ chewable tablets was well tolerated and was effective in the treatment of dogs with naturally occurring gastrointestinal nematode infections presented as veterinary patients in Europe and the USA.


Assuntos
Antinematódeos/administração & dosagem , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Enteropatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Nematoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Nematoides/veterinária , Administração Oral , Animais , Azetidinas/administração & dosagem , Cães , Combinação de Medicamentos , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Enteropatias Parasitárias/tratamento farmacológico , Macrolídeos/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Nematoides/classificação , Infecções por Nematoides/tratamento farmacológico , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas , Pirantel/administração & dosagem , Compostos de Espiro/administração & dosagem , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos
12.
Parasit Vectors ; 13(1): 71, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32113482

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ascarid infections are among the most prevalent intestinal parasitic infections occurring in dogs around the world, with Toxocara canis and Toxascaris leonina commonly observed. Toxocara canis can cause considerable disease in dogs and humans, and year-round prophylactic treatment and control in dogs is recommended. Elimination of immature stages of these parasites before egg-laying will reduce environmental contamination and the risk of infection for both dogs and humans. Studies were conducted to evaluate the efficacy of a novel, oral chewable tablet containing sarolaner, moxidectin and pyrantel (Simparica Trio™) against induced immature adult (L5) and adult T. canis, and adult T. leonina infections in dogs. METHODS: Six negative-controlled, masked, randomized laboratory studies were conducted. Two studies each evaluated efficacy against immature adult (L5) T. canis, adult T. canis, and adult T. leonina. Sixteen to 40 dogs were included in each study. Dogs experimentally infected with the target parasite were dosed once on Day 0 with either placebo tablets or Simparica Trio™ tablets to provide minimum dosages of 1.2 mg/kg sarolaner, 24 µg/kg moxidectin and 5.0 mg/kg pyrantel (as pamoate salt). Efficacy was based on the number of worms recovered at necropsy 7-10 days after treatment compared to placebo control. RESULTS: Based on geometric mean worm counts, efficacy of the sarolaner + moxidectin + pyrantel combination was ≥ 95.2% against immature adult T. canis, ≥ 97.3% against adult T. canis, and ≥ 89.7% against adult T. leonina. There were no treatment-related adverse events in any study. CONCLUSIONS: These studies confirm the efficacy of a single dose of a new oral chewable tablet containing sarolaner, moxidectin and pyrantel (Simparica Trio™) against immature adult and adult T. canis, and adult T. leonina infections in dogs.


Assuntos
Antinematódeos/administração & dosagem , Infecções por Ascaridida/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Enteropatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Administração Oral , Animais , Infecções por Ascaridida/tratamento farmacológico , Azetidinas/administração & dosagem , Cães , Combinação de Medicamentos , Feminino , Enteropatias Parasitárias/tratamento farmacológico , Macrolídeos/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas , Pirantel/administração & dosagem , Compostos de Espiro/administração & dosagem , Comprimidos , Toxascaris/efeitos dos fármacos , Toxascaris/fisiologia , Toxocara canis/efeitos dos fármacos , Toxocara canis/fisiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
Parasit Vectors ; 13(1): 145, 2020 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32188499

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The dynamics of helminth infection in African elephant populations are poorly known. We examined the effects of age, sex, social structure and the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) as primary drivers of infection patterns within and between elephant populations. METHODS: Coprological methods were used to identify helminths and determine infection patterns in distinct elephant populations in Maasai Mara National Reserve, Tsavo East National Park, Amboseli National Park and Laikipia-Samburu Ecosystem. Gaussian finite mixture cluster analyses of egg dimensions were used to classify helminth eggs according to genera. Generalized linear models (GLM) and Chi-square analyses were used to test for variation in helminth infection patterns and to identify drivers in elephant populations. RESULTS: Helminth prevalence varied significantly between the studied populations. Nematode prevalence (96.3%) was over twice as high as that of trematodes (39.1%) in elephants. Trematode prevalence but not nematode prevalence varied between populations. Although we found no associations between helminth infection and elephant social groups (male vs family groups), the median helminth egg output (eggs per gram, epg) did vary between social groups: family groups had significantly higher median epg than solitary males or males in bachelor groups. Young males in mixed sex family groups had lower epg than females when controlling for population and age; these differences, however, were not statistically significant. The average NDVI over a three-month period varied between study locations. Cluster analyses based on egg measurements revealed the presence of Protofasciola sp., Brumptia sp., Murshidia sp., Quilonia sp. and Mammomonogamus sp. GLM analyses showed that the mean epg was positively influenced by a three-month cumulative mean NDVI and by social group; female social groups had higher epg than male groups. GLM analyses also revealed that epg varied between elephant populations: Samburu-Laikipia elephants had a higher and Tsavo elephants a lower epg than Amboseli elephants. CONCLUSIONS: Elephants had infection patterns characterized by within- and between-population variation in prevalence and worm burden. Sociality and NDVI were the major drivers of epg but not of helminth prevalence. Gastrointestinal parasites can have a negative impact on the health of wild elephants, especially during resource scarcity. Thus, our results will be important when deciding intervention strategies.


Assuntos
Elefantes/parasitologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Helmintíase Animal/epidemiologia , Helmintos/isolamento & purificação , Enteropatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Animais , Ecossistema , Feminino , Helmintos/classificação , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Quênia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas , Plantas , Prevalência
14.
Ann Parasitol ; 66(1): 115­118, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32199004

RESUMO

Three hundred and sixty fecal samples of stray dogs were collected between July and December 2018, from open grounds of Shendi city and two suburbs (Gulia and Musiab), River Nile State, Sudan, and were examined for helminthic infections. The results showed 43 (11.9%) of the samples were positive for at least one species of helminth. A total of four helminth species were identified, including two nematodes (Ancylostoma caninum and Trichuris vulpis) and two cestodes (Dipylidium caninum and Taenia spp.). Taenia spp. was found to be the most common helminth infection in stray dogs (6.7%) followed by D. caninum (3.1%), while the least was the nematode, A. caninum (0.8%). The prevalence of infection among stray dogs in the suburbs was found to be higher than those in the city; however, there was no statistical significance (P = 0.07). In conclusion, stray dogs in Shendi area were found to be harboring several important zoonotic helminthes such as A. caninum and Taenia spp.; this shows the necessity of stray dog population management in this area as they present a health risk to the community.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão , Helmintíase Animal , Helmintos , Enteropatias Parasitárias , Animais , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães/parasitologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Helmintíase Animal/epidemiologia , Helmintíase Animal/parasitologia , Helmintos/isolamento & purificação , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Prevalência , Sudão/epidemiologia
15.
Acta Parasitol ; 65(1): 237-249, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31960215

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal parasites may determine diarrhea, dysentery or even death in captive mammals. These animals tend to be more susceptible to parasitic infections due to confinement and stress. Purpose To increase the information about these etiological agents in captive animals in Brazil, the gastrointestinal parasites of the captive mammals of the Rio de Janeiro Zoo were investigated. METHODS: From 2016 to 2018, 180 fecal samples were collected from animals housed in the Rio de Janeiro Zoo: 63 from animals of the order Primates, 26 of Carnivora, 78 of Artiodactyla, 9 of Perissodactyla and 4 of the order Rheiformes. The feces were processed by direct examination and by the techniques of Faust et al., Sheather, Ritchie, Lutz, and smears were stained with safranin. Immunoenzymatic assays were also performed to investigate antigens of Giardia duodenalis, Cryptosporidium spp., Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar. RESULTS: Parasite positivity was identified in 68.3% of the fecal samples, with a parasite positivity rate of 68.2% among primates, 65.3% among carnivores, 69.2% among artiodactyls, 33.3% among perissodactyls, and 100% among rheiformes. The most frequently detected parasite was Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar antigens, which showed a statistically significant positivity rate (33.3%; p = 0.000), particularly in the feces of carnivores (30.7%) and artiodactyls (53.8%). A statistically significant positivity rate of Balantioides coli (11.1%; p = 0.001) was also detected in feces from nonhuman primates, tapirs, collared peccaries and rheas. The positivity of Cryptosporidium sp. antigens in feces of the orders Carnivora, Artiodactyla and Primates was also statistically significant (7.2%, p = 0.010). Oocysts compatible with Cryptosporidium spp. were detected in 6.3% from primates. The helminths most frequently detected were thin-shelled eggs of nematodes (17.7%, p = 0.000), nematode larvae (15.5%, p = 0.000) and Trichuris trichiura eggs (6.1%, p = 0.018). CONCLUSION: The positivity rate for gastrointestinal parasites demonstrates the need for a sanitation management program to be implemented in the zoo, including routine diagnostic parasitology tests followed by specific treatment for each parasitosis.


Assuntos
Animais de Zoológico/parasitologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Parasitos/classificação , Parasitos/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Brasil , Carnívoros/parasitologia , Cryptosporidium/isolamento & purificação , Entamoeba/isolamento & purificação , Giardia/isolamento & purificação , Helmintos/classificação , Helmintos/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas Imunoenzimáticas , Primatas/parasitologia
16.
J Helminthol ; 94: e114, 2020 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31928550

RESUMO

The gastrointestinal helminth parasites of 170 common wallaroos or euros, Osphranter robustus (Gould), collected from all mainland states in which the species occurs as well as the Northern Territory, are presented, including previously published data. A total of 65 species of helminths were encountered, including four species of anoplocephalid cestodes found in the bile ducts and small intestine, and 61 species of strongylid nematodes, all but two of which occurring in the stomach, and with the remainder occurring in the terminal ileum, caecum and colon. Among the mainland subspecies of O. robustus, 52 species of helminths were encountered in O. r. robustus, compared with 30 species in O. r. woodwardi and 35 species in O. r. erubescens. Of the parasite species encountered, only 17 were specific to O. robustus, the remaining being shared with sympatric host species. Host-specific species or species occurring in O. robustus at a high prevalence can be classified as follows: widely distributed; restricted to northern Australia; restricted to the northern wallaroo, O. r. woodwardi; found only in the euro, O. r. erubescens; found essentially along the eastern coast of Australia, primarily in O. r. robustus; and species with highly limited regional distributions. The data currently available suggest that the acquisition of a significant number of parasites is due to co-grazing with other macropodids, while subspeciation in wallaroos as well as climatic variables may have influenced the diversification of the parasite fauna.


Assuntos
Helmintíase , Helmintos/isolamento & purificação , Intestinos/parasitologia , Macropodidae/parasitologia , Infecções por Strongylida/veterinária , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Austrália/epidemiologia , Ductos Biliares/parasitologia , Biodiversidade , Cestoides/isolamento & purificação , Cestoides/parasitologia , Colo/parasitologia , Helmintíase/parasitologia , Helmintíase/transmissão , Helmintos/parasitologia , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Íleo/parasitologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Nematoides/isolamento & purificação , Nematoides/parasitologia , Estômago/parasitologia , Estrongilídios/isolamento & purificação , Estrongilídios/parasitologia , Infecções por Strongylida/parasitologia , Infecções por Strongylida/transmissão
17.
Acta Parasitol ; 65(1): 118-127, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31721057

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Reports of a lack of efficacy of most of the anthelmintic compounds for ruminants associated with the long-time necessity for creating new molecules have stressed the urgency to adopt alternative methods to control gastrointestinal parasites infection, such as strategies of sharing grazing areas. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate nematode populations affecting cattle and sheep that share grazing areas before and after treatment with different anthelmintic compounds, and investigate the efficacy of anthelmintic treatment in these naturally infected ruminants at farms in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. METHODS: The presence of co-infections by Haemonchus species was investigated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for groups treated with a benzimidazole. Farms were selected by: farmers' consent, presence of 42-60 (or more) calves and sheep per farm with counts of ≥ 200 eggs per gram of feces (EPG), availability of calves and lambs aging from 6 to 9 months, absence of anthelmintic treatment for both species for 60 days before the experimental period, and shared grazing areas between this species on each farm. Animals were distributed into six treatment groups for each ruminant species per farm and treated with: ivermectin, doramectin, moxidectin, levamisole, albendazole, and closantel. RESULTS: Levamisol was the most effective anthelmintic compound for both ruminant species. In general, Cooperia spp., Haemonchus spp., and Trichostrongylus spp. were the genus present after tested treatments that were ineffective. PCR showed the presence of Haemonchus species co-infections between cattle and sheep. CONCLUSION: Therefore, this study demonstrated the similarity between nematode population, the presence of multi-resistant nematodes, and the presence of Haemonchus species co-infections affecting different ruminant species that share pastures.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos/farmacologia , Coinfecção/veterinária , Resistência a Medicamentos/genética , Enteropatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Nematoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/parasitologia , Fazendas , Fezes/parasitologia , Herbivoria , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Nematoides/genética , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia
18.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 52(1): 379-385, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31392555

RESUMO

In northeastern Brazil, with has a predominantly dry climate, farmers seek alternative sources of income and livelihood by the rearing pigs. The gastrointestinal parasites that affect these animals represent an obstacle in the production and can cause significant economic loss. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and risk factors associated with gastrointestinal nematodes and Coccidia in swine herds in the Sousa microregion, Paraíba state, northeastern Brazil. This was a cross-sectional study, and the sampling was designed to determine the prevalence of endoparasite-positive farms and pigs. We randomly selected 51 farms and 187 pigs. Fecal samples were collected from each animal, and eggs per gram and oocysts per gram feces were recorded. The data collected in the epidemiological questionnaires were used to determine the possible risk factors associated with endoparasite-positive animal status. The prevalence of gastrointestinal nematodes and Coccidia in the pigs was 79.5% (149/187). Coccidia were the most prevalent parasite found, with 56.6% (106/187) of the pigs testing positive, followed by nematodes 22.9% (43/187). Strongylidae was the most common nematodes found (67.5%, 29/43), followed by Trichuris sp. (30.2%, 13/43) and Ascaris sp. (2.3%, 1/43). In 29 coprocultures, Strongylidae was identified: Oesophagostomum (82.2%, 25/29), Strongyloides (62.0%, 18/29), and Hyostrongylus (27.5%, 8/29). Mixed nematode and coccidial infection were observed in 72.4% (21/29) of the samples. Relevant risk factors were related to the type of management adopted by family farmers. Changes in management measures could improve the health profile of farms.


Assuntos
Coccidiose/veterinária , Enteropatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Infecções por Nematoides/veterinária , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Coccídios/isolamento & purificação , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Estudos Transversais , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/parasitologia , Masculino , Nematoides/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Nematoides/epidemiologia , Infecções por Nematoides/parasitologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/parasitologia
19.
Acta Parasitol ; 65(1): 208-224, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31832920

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Parasitism is a complex problem that is often ignored in companion animals, including birds, unless it develops into a severe clinical disorder. The present study was, therefore, aimed to investigate the presence of the gastrointestinal nematode infecting the domestic pigeon and provide a complete morphological description and clarify its taxonomic position through phylogenetic analysis of the ITS1-5.8s-ITS2 rDNA gene region. MATERIALS AND METHODS: During the current study, a total of twenty-six domestic pigeons, Columba livia domestica, were collected and internal organs examined for helminth detection. Using light and scanning electron microscopy, the recovered parasite species are studied. In addition, the selected gene region was obtained and sequenced using appropriate primers that aid in the formation of the phylogenetic dendrogram for the recovered parasite species with others retrieved from GenBank. RESULTS: Morphological examination showed that this nematode parasite belongs to the Ascaridiidae family within the genus Ascaridia. The material was assigned to the previously described Ascaridia columbae by providing all the characteristic features as the presence of a mouth opening surrounded by three tri-lobed lips; each lip has two triangular teeth with a spoon-like structure, cephalic papillae and amphidal pores on lips surface, presence of lateral cuticular alae and pre-cloacal sucker, 10 pairs of caudal papillae, and two equal spicules in male worms. The morphological investigations of this species were supplemented by molecular analysis of ITS1-5.8s-ITS2 rDNA gene region. The data showed that the present A. coulmbae is deeply embedded in the Ascaridia genus with a 74-99% sequence similarity to other species in the Chromadorea class. Ascaridiidae appears as monophyly and represented as a sister group to Heterakidae. The ascaridiid species examined belong to the Ascaridia genus and displaced a close relationship with the previously described A. coulmbae (gb| KF147909.1, gb| AJ001509.1, gb| KC905082.1, gb| JQ995321.1, gb| JX624729.1) as putative sister taxa. CONCLUSION: The present study revealed that the species Ascaridia is the first account of this genus as an endoparasite from the domestic pigeon inhabiting Saudi Arabia. Therefore, the combination of morphological and molecular studies helps to identify this species correctly and identified as Ascaridia columbae.


Assuntos
Ascaridia/classificação , Ascaridia/ultraestrutura , Ascaridíase/veterinária , Columbidae/parasitologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/parasitologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Animais , Ascaridíase/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , DNA de Helmintos/genética , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Feminino , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Masculino , Microscopia , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Filogenia , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia
20.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 52(4): 1583-1598, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31828571

RESUMO

Haemonchus contortus is a common, intractably pathogenic and economically important gastrointestinal nematode for goat producers worldwide, especially in tropical and subtropical regions. The objective of this study is to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of 12 candidate goat genes mainly related to the innate immune response associated with fecal egg counts (FECs) of Haemonchus contortus in goat as an indicator of the level of parasite infection. Phenotypic data including FEC and blood traits were recorded in 189 native goats from China and 191 ones from Bangladesh, respectively. Bangladeshi goats had significantly (P < 0.01) lower FEC compared to that of Chinese goats, suggesting higher susceptible and infection rates in Chinese goat populations. FEC was significantly positive correlated with body weight (r = 0.64, P < 0.01) and hemoglobin (r = 0.49, P < 0.01) value, but negative with pack cell volume (r = - 0.63, P < 0.05) in goats. Genotyping of SNPs was performed using a matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry assay and a generalized linear model was used to evaluate the association between each SNP and goat FEC trait. Eleven novel SNPs in the NLRC3, NLRC5, HIP1, and LRP8, out of 46 variants from these 12 genes, were significantly associated with FEC of goats with a nominal significance level of P < 0.05. Of these 11 SNPs, linkage disequilibrium were revealed among SNPs in LRP8 (r2 = 0.87 to 1), between SNPs in NLRC3, NLRC5, and HIP1 (r2 = 0.96 to 0.99), respectively. Further, haplotypes within NLRC3, NLRC5, and HIP1 were significantly associated (P < 0.001) with FEC. In artificial challenge trail, quantitative real-time PCR exposed that the relative expression of mRNA was higher in the resistant group for NLRC3 (P < 0.01), LRP8 and HIP1 (P < 0.001) but lower in the resistant group for NLRC5 (P < 0.0001), compared to the susceptible group. The possible SNP markers and genes identified in this study could be potentially used in marker-assisted selection for breeding local goats breeds resistant to gastrointestinal nematode parasite particularly for Haemonchus contortus, and then for improving health and productivity of goat.


Assuntos
Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Hemoncose/veterinária , Haemonchus , Enteropatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas/veterinária , Animais , Peso Corporal/genética , Cruzamento , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Doenças das Cabras/genética , Cabras/genética , Imunidade Inata , Enteropatias Parasitárias/genética , Enteropatias Parasitárias/parasitologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
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