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1.
Pol J Vet Sci ; 22(4): 753-760, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31867918

RESUMO

We described a first case of resistance to eprinomectin in goat herd in Poland in which resistance to benzimidazoles had been previously reported. The herd was established in 2011 by purchasing several goats from a single herd in south-eastern Poland. Resistance to benzimidazoles in the herd was first reported in 2017. Shortly after the owner started to signal low effectiveness of the treatment with eprinomectin. In June 2018 the larval development test from pooled faecal sample was performed and the results indicated the presence of resistance to macrocyclic lactones and levamisole. In July 2018 a faecal egg count (FEC) reduction test was performed in 39 animals with levamisole, eprinomectin and one untreated control group. Drugs were used in doses recommended for goats. Three methods of calculation of FEC reduction were compared. After eprinomectin treatment, FEC reduction ranged from 0 to 20%, depending on the method of calculation. FEC reduction following levamisole treatment was 100%. Main species present in the faecal samples after treatment and in larvicidal concentrations in larval development test was Haemonchus contortus. This is the first report of anthelminthic resistance to macrocylic lactones (eprinomectin) in goats in Poland.


Assuntos
Benzimidazóis/farmacologia , Doenças das Cabras/tratamento farmacológico , Enteropatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Ivermectina/análogos & derivados , Nematoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Nematoides/veterinária , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Resistência a Medicamentos , Fezes/parasitologia , Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Cabras , Enteropatias Parasitárias/tratamento farmacológico , Enteropatias Parasitárias/parasitologia , Ivermectina/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Nematoides/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Nematoides/parasitologia , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas
2.
J Helminthol ; 94: e103, 2019 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31679528

RESUMO

Helminth and protozoan infections are responsible for important diseases in grazing sheep, which can be especially threatening in an autochthonous breed at risk of extinction like the Churra Galega Mirandesa Portuguese sheep breed. The aim of the present study was to determine the diversity, prevalence and burden of gastrointestinal parasites in these sheep and to assess the effects of deworming practices, cohabiting animals on the farm and feed management. Coprological qualitative and quantitative analysis (flotation, natural sedimentation and McMaster method) were used to identify and quantify gastrointestinal parasites and a questionnaire was designed and applied. A total of 512 faecal samples were collected from 49 flocks, and 49 replies to the questionnaire were received. Parasites were identified in 100% of the flocks, and in 97% of the samples. The genera or species that have been morphologically identified were: strongyle-type, Nematodirus spp., Skrjabinema spp., Moniezia expansa, Moniezia benedeni, Trichuris spp., Capillaria spp., Eimeria spp., Dicrocoelium spp. and Fasciola hepatica. This is the first report in Portugal of Skrjabinema spp. The burden of parasites' oocysts and eggs per gram in faecal samples ranged, respectively, from 50 to 17,550 for Eimeria spp., and from 50 to 6250 for strongyle-type eggs. Factors affecting parasitic infections were evaluated using a multivariate logistic regression. Grazing time and a lack of anthelmintic treatment were positively associated with Nematodirus spp. infection. This study showed that there is a high prevalence and diversity of gastrointestinal parasites in the Churra Galega Mirandesa sheep breed.


Assuntos
Enteropatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Parasitos/isolamento & purificação , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Animais , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Trato Gastrointestinal/parasitologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/parasitologia , Masculino , Parasitos/classificação , Parasitos/genética , Portugal/epidemiologia , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia
3.
J Helminthol ; 94: e104, 2019 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31679531

RESUMO

The human-animal bond is beneficial for human health, but companion animals also pose a potential threat as vectors of zoonotic parasites, especially in urban areas where both human and dog densities are high. However, the knowledge about parasitic spillover in the urban environment is relatively scarce. The aim of the present study was to reveal which factors determine parasitic contamination in Estonian towns and provide up-to-date information about intestinal parasites of the Estonian dog population. In total, 657 samples of dog excrement was collected over one year of investigation from five towns in Estonia. Generalized linear mixed models were used to evaluate factors predicting infection risk in urban areas. In general, infection risk and intensity models predicted higher infection with endoparasites for small dogs in smaller towns, especially in apartment-house districts and in potential hazard zones. Helminth eggs and Giardia/Cystoisospora oocysts were detected in 64 samples, with an overall prevalence of 9.8%.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Parasitos/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Cidades/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Cães , Estônia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/parasitologia , Masculino , Parasitos/classificação , Parasitos/genética
4.
Parasitol Res ; 118(12): 3409-3418, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31729572

RESUMO

The arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus), an apex predator with an omnipresent distribution in the Arctic, is a potential source of intestinal parasites that may endanger people and pet animals such as dogs, thus posing a health risk. Non-invasive methods, such as coprology, are often the only option when studying wildlife parasitic fauna. However, the detection and identification of parasites are significantly enhanced when used in combination with methods of molecular biology. Using both approaches, we identified unicellular and multicellular parasites in faeces of arctic foxes and carcasses of sibling voles (Microtus levis) in Svalbard, where molecular methods are used for the first time. Six new species were detected in the arctic fox in Svalbard, Eucoleus aerophilus, Uncinaria stenocephala, Toxocara canis, Trichuris vulpis, Eimeria spp., and Enterocytozoon bieneusi, the latter never found in the arctic fox species before. In addition, only one parasite was found in the sibling vole in Svalbard, the Cryptosporidium alticolis, which has never been detected in Svalbard before.


Assuntos
Arvicolinae/parasitologia , Raposas/parasitologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Ancylostomatoidea/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Animais Selvagens/parasitologia , Regiões Árticas , Cryptosporidium/isolamento & purificação , Cães , Eimeria/isolamento & purificação , Fezes/parasitologia , Helmintos/isolamento & purificação , Nematoides/isolamento & purificação , Svalbard , Toxocara canis/isolamento & purificação , Trichuris/isolamento & purificação
5.
J Fish Dis ; 42(12): 1697-1711, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31617232

RESUMO

Wild bluegill, Lepomis macrochirus Rafinesque, succumb to seasonal mortality in the early spring during cool water temperatures, shown previously to be related to bacteraemia caused by a psychrotrophic bacterium, Pseudomonas mandelii. In the study herein, intestinal coccidiosis in wild bluegill had seasonal prevalence causing heavy intestinal infections and sloughing of intestinal epithelium occurring in late winter/early spring. Infections were predominantly related to two different species, Goussia washuti n. sp., an epicellular coccidium, and a coccidium closely resembling Goussia desseri Molnár 1996, previously only described in percid fish in Europe. In 2019, co-infections of bacteraemia and intestinal coccidiosis occurred in bluegills. Evaluating coccidium infection intensity by fresh parasite examination and histology, an association was observed in which fish with moderate-to-heavy intestinal coccidiosis were 8-12 times more likely to have bacteraemia compared to fish with no or light coccidiosis. The association of these co-infections suggests that intestinal coccidiosis could contribute to seasonal bacterial epizootics of wild bluegill.


Assuntos
Coccidiose/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Peixes/microbiologia , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Perciformes/parasitologia , Infecções por Pseudomonas/veterinária , Estações do Ano , Animais , Bacteriemia/mortalidade , Bacteriemia/veterinária , Coccidiose/microbiologia , Coccidiose/patologia , Temperatura Baixa , Doenças dos Peixes/mortalidade , Enteropatias Parasitárias/diagnóstico , Enteropatias Parasitárias/microbiologia , Perciformes/microbiologia , Pseudomonas/patogenicidade , Infecções por Pseudomonas/mortalidade , Infecções por Pseudomonas/parasitologia
6.
Prev Vet Med ; 172: 104788, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31627164

RESUMO

The contamination of public areas by dog faeces is a social behaviour and public health problem. In fact, the most frequently isolated intestinal helminths in dogs are distributed worldwide, and most of them have zoonotic potential (i.e., ascarids and ancylostomatids). The aims of this survey were to evaluate citizen awareness of health risks for animals and humans related to canine faecal pollution and to estimate the presence and prevalence of intestinal helminths in dog faeces collected in green public areas in three municipalities of Italy (Padua, Rome and Teramo). The awareness of citizens about the health risks related to faecal pollution was evaluated using questionnaires submitted to 313 dog owners and 159 non-dog owners in Padua (n = 341) and Rome (n = 131). Most dog owners (85.4%) declared they picked up their dog's faeces every time, and these data were confirmed by operators secretly observing dog owners. Moreover, 84.3% participants were aware of the existence of a municipal regulation concerning the correct management of animals in public areas with no significant differences between dog owners and non-dog owners, whereas Rome citizens were significantly more aware than Padua citizens. Nonetheless, only 10.9% (51/469) of responders knew the health risks related to canine faecal pollution, with no significant differences between dog and non-dog owners. A total of 677 dog stool samples were collected and copromicroscopically analysed. Forty-eight (7.1%) samples were positive for at least one parasite species, with significantly lower prevalence values in Padua (2.2%) than in Rome (11.9%) and Teramo (8.6%). The highest prevalence was detected for Trichuris vulpis (4.4%), followed by Toxocara canis (1.9%); T. vulpis presented significantly lower prevalence in Padua than in the other cities. Other helminths were found with values under 0.5% in the investigated cities. This survey shows that most citizens are unaware of the health risk related to abandoned canine faeces on public soils. Nevertheless, laboratory results suggest a limited risk for dog and human health, but the zoonotic risk due to the high vitality of infective helminths eggs in the soil should always be considered.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Helmintíase Animal/epidemiologia , Helmintos/isolamento & purificação , Enteropatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Animais , Cidades , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , Helmintíase Animal/parasitologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/parasitologia , Itália/epidemiologia , Parques Recreativos , Percepção , Prevalência , Medição de Risco
7.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 28(3): 432-442, 2019 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31531671

RESUMO

A total of thirty Austral thrushes Turdus falcklandii Quoy & Gaimard, 1824 (Turdidae) carcasses were brought to the Departamento de Ciencia Animal, Facultad de Ciencias Veterinarias, Universidad de Concepción, to be examined for ecto- and endoparasites. Ectoparasites were found on 20% (6/30) of the thrushes and belonged to species Brueelia magellanica Cichino, 1986 (Phthiraptera), Menacanthus eurysternus Burmeister, 1838 (Phthiraptera) and Tyrannidectes falcklandicus Mironov & González-Acuña, 2011 (Acari). Endoparasites were isolated from 26.6% (8/30) of the birds and identified as Lueheia inscripta Westrumb, 1821 (Acanthocephala), Plagiorhynchus cylindraceus Goeze, 1782 (Acanthocephala), Wardium sp. sensu Mayhew, 1925 (Cestoda), Dilepis undula (Cestoda) Schrank, 1788, and Zonorchis sp. (sensu Travassos, 1944) (Trematoda). To our knowledge, all endoparasites collected in this study are new records in T. falcklandii and expand their distributional range to Chile.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/diagnóstico , Ectoparasitoses/veterinária , Enteropatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Aves Canoras/parasitologia , Animais , Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Chile , Ectoparasitoses/diagnóstico , Ectoparasitoses/parasitologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/diagnóstico , Enteropatias Parasitárias/parasitologia
8.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 430, 2019 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31488192

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The three most commonly diagnosed gastrointestinal parasites of pet dogs within the USA are the whipworm, the hookworm, and the roundworm. The collection of large data sets from various sources throughout the industry have produced a number of publications on parasite prevalence in recent years. In this study, we look at data captured by the Companion Animal Parasite Council from 2012-2018, which includes 4.3-7.2 million annual fecal exams, to evaluate not only changes in prevalence, but also possible seasonal fluctuations of the three most common canine gastrointestinal parasites. METHODS: Annual and monthly data were collected from the CAPC parasite prevalence maps for canine roundworms, hookworms and whipworm. The map data were provided to CAPC by two large national reference laboratories. The data were evaluated for changes in prevalence on a monthly basis throughout each year as well as changes in prevalence from year to year from 2012-2018. Additionally, positive test results and total tests performed for each of the three parasites from 2012-2018 during individual months were totaled without using the year as a variable in order to evaluate the results for seasonality (i.e. all tests and positive results occurring in January, regardless of year, were totaled and analyzed). RESULTS: Evaluation of gastrointestinal nematode prevalence data from over 39 million fecal samples examined over a 7-year period revealed a subtle, yet significant, increasing prevalence for roundworms, an increasing prevalence for hookworms, and a slightly decreasing prevalence for whipworms. Seasonality was demonstrated for roundworms, hookworms, and to our knowledge, for the first time canine whipworms. Highest seasonal prevalence for roundworms, hookworms, and whipworms occurred during December-January, July-August, and January-February, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Evaluation of monthly gastrointestinal parasite prevalence data from over 39 million fecal samples collected over a 7-year period revealed a slightly increasing prevalence for roundworms, an increasing prevalence for hookworms, and a slightly decreasing prevalence for whipworms. In addition to the annual changes in prevalence, seasonal prevalence was shown for the first time for whipworms. Prevalence of both whipworm and roundworm peaked in the winter, while prevalence of hookworm peaked in the late summer and early autumn.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Infecções por Nematoides/veterinária , Estações do Ano , Animais , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , Fezes/parasitologia , Infecções por Uncinaria/epidemiologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Infecções por Nematoides/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Tricuríase/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
9.
J Helminthol ; 94: e88, 2019 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31537202

RESUMO

Free-ranging grey wolves (Canis lupus), which are presently recolonizing Italy, can be parasitized by a diversity of helminths, but have rarely been subject to studies of their parasites. Therefore, this study aims to determine the prevalence of gastrointestinal helminths of road-killed grey wolves from the Piedmont region of Italy. Forty-two wolves were collected and examined for the presence of helminths. We recorded 12 helminth species: nine Nematoda and three Cestoda. The nematodes were: Ancylostoma caninum (7.1%), Capillaria sp. (2.4%), Molineus sp. (2.4%), Pterygodermatites affinis (11.9%), Physaloptera sibirica (9.5%), Toxocara canis (9.5%), Toxascaris leonina (2.4%) and Uncinaria stenocephala (26.2%); the cestodes were: Dipylidium caninum (4.8%), Mesocestoides sp. (4.8%) and Taenia multiceps (76.2%). Physaloptera sibirica had the highest mean intensity and T. multiceps had the highest prevalence. Based on age and sex, no differences in the intensity or prevalence of helminth species were found among the hosts. Molineus sp. was recorded for the first time in wolves from the Palearctic region; P. affinis and P. sibirica are respectively reported for the first time in wolves from Europe and Italy.


Assuntos
Trato Gastrointestinal/parasitologia , Helmintíase Animal/parasitologia , Helmintos/isolamento & purificação , Enteropatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Lobos/parasitologia , Animais , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Helmintíase Animal/epidemiologia , Helmintos/classificação , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Prevalência
10.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(12): 11308-11316, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31548050

RESUMO

The primary aim of this work was to isolate common bovine digestive tract parasites in recycled manure bedding (RMS), as well as to determine the ability of current RMS preparation procedures to eliminate these pathogens. Other objectives were to assess whether any of the aforementioned parasites could be retrieved in bulk milk from dairies using RMS and to study whether the prevalence of these parasites differed among manure of cows housed on RMS versus on straw bedding. For the study, 27 RMS farms and 61 control farms were recruited. Samples of manure from the pre-pit and milk from the bulk tank were recovered from straw-bedding farms and RMS-based farms. In addition, samples from the manure solid fraction after liquid extraction, RMS before use, and RMS currently in use were recovered from RMS herds. Parasites were first detected by double centrifugation zinc sulfate flotation to enhance isolation of gastrointestinal protozoa, and by modified Wisconsin sugar flotation for the appraisal of gastrointestinal nematodes. Cryptosporidium parasites were confirmed by nested PCR amplification and sequencing of a portion of the gene encoding the small subunit rRNA. Results revealed a high prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. (C. parvum, C. andersoni, and C. meleagridis, identified by PCR) and Eimeria spp. (mainly E. bovis and E. zuernii) parasites in both types of farms, with a larger proportion of manure samples from RMS-bedded farms testing positive for Cryptosporidium parasites compared with manure from straw-bedded farms. Both Cryptosporidium spp. and Eimeria spp. oocysts were found at every step of RMS preparation and transformation, showing that current RMS preparation strategies do not guarantee the destruction of protozoan parasites. Cryptosporidium parvum, a potential zoonotic risk for professionals in close contact with livestock, was found to be present in 32 out of 61 straw-bedded and 24 of 27 RMS farms. No protozoan parasites were found in any sample derived from bulk milk, neither by microscopy analysis nor by molecular methods.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Cryptosporidium parvum/isolamento & purificação , Indústria de Laticínios/métodos , Eimeria/isolamento & purificação , Enteropatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Esterco , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Animais , Bovinos , Feminino , Enteropatias Parasitárias/parasitologia , Leite/química , Oocistos , Reciclagem
11.
Acta Trop ; 199: 105126, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31394078

RESUMO

Gastrointestinal (GIT) parasite infections result in significant economic losses to ruminant livestock production. To determine the prevalence and risk factors associated with GIT parasite infections in livestock from Ghana, a cross-sectional survey was conducted in cattle and small ruminants kept under different management systems in the Coastal Savannah zone from October 2014 to February 2015. Faecal samples were collected from 328 cattle and 502 small ruminants (sheep and goats) and examined by formal ether concentration microscopy. The management systems and environmental conditions of the farm or household were observed, and a questionnaire administered to the livestock owners. Overall, 90.8% (754/830) of livestock were infected with at least one of ten different parasites (Eimeria, Strongylid nematodes, Toxocara, Trichuris, Schistosoma, Dicrocoelium, Paramphistomum, Fasciola, Moniezia and Thysaniezia), with Eimeria the most prevalent (78.4%). Most (64.5%) livestock had coinfections with two to five parasites with parasite intensity mostly light and at least one parasite was found in 98.6% (140/142) of the herds. Binary logistic regression models were generated to assess the risk factors associated with infection. Earthen floor was positively associated with strongylid infection, multiple ruminant species with Paramphistomum infection and flock size (>25 animal) with Thysaniezia, Dicrocoelium and Fasciola infections. Separating young animals from older animals was negatively associated with Strongylid infection, feed supplementation with Thysaniezia infection and small ruminant species with Paramphistomum and Toxocara infections. The findings from this study suggests that good sanitation, proper husbandry practices and improved nutrition can improve livestock health and production in Ghana.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Ruminantes/parasitologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Estudos Transversais , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Gana/epidemiologia , Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Cabras , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Gado , Masculino , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
Parasitol Res ; 118(10): 2901-2907, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31388787

RESUMO

Cooperia sp. and Ostertagia sp. are two cosmopolitan parasitic nematodes often found in mixed gastrointestinal infections in cattle across temperate regions. In light of the recent increase in the emergence of anthelmintic resistance in these and other nematodes derived from cattle around the globe, and their negative impact on animal health and productivity, novel molecular assays need to be put forth in order to facilitate the monitoring of parasite burden in infected herds, using pasture and/or fecal samples. Here, we describe a novel droplet digital PCR platform-based concept for precise identification and quantification of the two most abundant and important parasite genera in grazing western European cattle. By exploiting a single nucleotide difference in the two parasites' ITS2 sequence regions, we have developed two specific hydrolysis probes labeled with FAM™ or HEX™ fluorophores, which can not only distinguish between the DNA sequences of the two, but also quantify them in mixed DNA samples. A third, newly developed universal probe was also tested along the genus-specific probes to provide a robust and accurate reference. It was evident that the universal probe displayed congruent results to those obtained by the genus-specific probes when used with DNA from both parasites in a single sample. All in all, the results of our assay suggest that this novel protocol could be used to distinguish and quantify cattle parasites belonging to the two most important genera (i.e., Cooperia and Ostertagia) in a single mixed DNA sample.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/diagnóstico , DNA de Helmintos/genética , Enteropatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Ostertagia/genética , Trichostrongyloidea/genética , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Gastroenteropatias , Enteropatias Parasitárias/diagnóstico , Enteropatias Parasitárias/tratamento farmacológico , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas/veterinária , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos
13.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 330, 2019 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31266521

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Endoparasites are considered a major health problem of South American camelids as shown in a recent survey among German and Austrian camelid owners. Although prophylactic and therapeutic measures such as application of anthelmintics are commonly used, treatment efficacy is usually not assessed. Owners have expressed significant concerns regarding the effect of antiparasitic therapy, so this study aimed to evaluate the outcome of anthelmintic treatment in German alpaca herds with different drugs. RESULTS: Overall, 617 samples from 538 clinically healthy alpacas > 1 year-old from 27 farms (n = 11-157 animals/herd) were examined. The most common parasites detected by flotation were Eimeria spp. (75.1%) followed by strongylids (55.0%), Nematodirus spp. (19.3%), cestodes (3.1%) and Trichuris (2.7%). After initial coproscopical examination by flotation and strongylid egg quantification by the McMaster technique, positive animals excreting at least 150 eggs per gram of faeces were included in a faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT) using fenbendazole (n = 71 samples), moxidectin (n = 71) or monepantel (n = 66). Pre-treatment larval cultures (n = 23 positive pooled farm samples) revealed Haemonchus (87% of the farms), Cooperia (43.5%), Trichostrongylus (21.7%), Ostertagia (13.0%), Nematodirus and Oesophagostomum (4.3% each). Fenbendazole treatment reduced egg excretion by 45%, moxidectin by 91% and monepantel by 96%. On the farm level, 13/18 farms that used fenbendazole, 6/6 farms that used moxidectin and 2/5 farms that used monepantel had individual FECR values < 90% (fenbendazole) or < 95% (moxidectin, monepantel). Haemonchus and Cooperia were overrepresented on the farms with reduced treatment efficacy. CONCLUSIONS: Gastrointestinal strongylids are common in German alpacas and fenbendazole in particular was not sufficiently effective to reduce strongylid egg excretion. Although the FECRT could not unambiguously determine anthelmintic resistance in the present study, the finding that small ruminant strongylids, especially Haemonchus, are common in alpacas indicates that determination of effective anthelmintic doses, monitoring of efficacy and adapted (selective) treatment regimens must be implemented as part of sustainable deworming practices in this species in accordance with recommendations for ruminants.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos/administração & dosagem , Camelídeos Americanos/parasitologia , Helmintíase Animal/prevenção & controle , Enteropatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Infecções por Strongylida/veterinária , Estrongilídios/efeitos dos fármacos , Aminoacetonitrila/administração & dosagem , Aminoacetonitrila/análogos & derivados , Animais , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Fenbendazol/administração & dosagem , Haemonchus/efeitos dos fármacos , Helmintíase Animal/parasitologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/parasitologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/prevenção & controle , Macrolídeos/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas/veterinária , Infecções por Strongylida/parasitologia , Infecções por Strongylida/prevenção & controle
14.
Korean J Parasitol ; 57(3): 243-248, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31284346

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was 2-fold: 1) to investigate the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasite infection in cats reared in Daegu, Republic of Korea and 2) to assess the efficacy and safety of a topical emodepside/praziquantel formulation for cats with parasitic infections. The gastrointestinal parasite infections were examined microscopically using the flotation method. Of 407 cats, 162 (39.8%) were infected by at least one gastrointestinal parasite, including Toxocara cati (63.0%), Toxascaris leonina (31.5%), Taenia taeniaeformis (3.7%), and Cystoisospora felis (1.9%). None of the infected animals had multiple infections. When the data were analyzed according to sex, age, and type of cat, stray cats showed statistically higher prevalence than companion cats (P<0.05). On the 5th day after treatment, no parasitic eggs were detected using microscopic examination. In addition, no adverse effects, such as abnormal behaviors and clinical symptoms, were observed in the cats treated with the drug. These results quantify the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in cats in Daegu, Republic of Korea, and show that topical emodepside/praziquantel is a safe and effective choice for treating the parasitic infections in cats.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos/administração & dosagem , Doenças do Gato/tratamento farmacológico , Depsipeptídeos/administração & dosagem , Trato Gastrointestinal/parasitologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Praziquantel/administração & dosagem , Animais , Doenças do Gato/parasitologia , Gatos , Composição de Medicamentos , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Enteropatias Parasitárias/tratamento farmacológico , Enteropatias Parasitárias/parasitologia , Masculino , República da Coreia , Taenia/efeitos dos fármacos , Taenia/isolamento & purificação , Taenia/fisiologia , Toxascaris/efeitos dos fármacos , Toxascaris/isolamento & purificação , Toxascaris/fisiologia , Toxocara/efeitos dos fármacos , Toxocara/isolamento & purificação , Toxocara/fisiologia
15.
Genet Sel Evol ; 51(1): 37, 2019 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31269896

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed at identifying genomic regions that underlie genetic variation of worm egg count, as an indicator trait for parasite resistance in a large population of Australian sheep, which was genotyped with the high-density 600 K Ovine single nucleotide polymorphism array. This study included 7539 sheep from different locations across Australia that underwent a field challenge with mixed gastrointestinal parasite species. Faecal samples were collected and worm egg counts for three strongyle species, i.e. Teladorsagia circumcincta, Haemonchus contortus and Trichostrongylus colubriformis were determined. Data were analysed using genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and regional heritability mapping (RHM). RESULTS: Both RHM and GWAS detected a region on Ovis aries (OAR) chromosome 2 that was highly significantly associated with parasite resistance at a genome-wise false discovery rate of 5%. RHM revealed additional significant regions on OAR6, 18, and 24. Pathway analysis revealed 13 genes within these significant regions (SH3RF1, HERC2, MAP3K, CYFIP1, PTPN1, BIN1, HERC3, HERC5, HERC6, IBSP, SPP1, ISG20, and DET1), which have various roles in innate and acquired immune response mechanisms, as well as cytokine signalling. Other genes involved in haemostasis regulation and mucosal defence were also detected, which are important for protection of sheep against invading parasites. CONCLUSIONS: This study identified significant genomic regions on OAR2, 6, 18, and 24 that are associated with parasite resistance in sheep. RHM was more powerful in detecting regions that affect parasite resistance than GWAS. Our results support the hypothesis that parasite resistance is a complex trait and is determined by a large number of genes with small effects, rather than by a few major genes with large effects.


Assuntos
Enteropatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Doenças dos Ovinos/genética , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Animais , Austrália , Mapeamento Cromossômico/veterinária , Resistência à Doença/genética , Fezes/parasitologia , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/veterinária , Hereditariedade , Enteropatias Parasitárias/genética , Ovinos/genética
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31300133

RESUMO

Unawareness of canine parasitic diseases among at-risk hosts and an uncontrolled program of stray dog population have caused that zoonotic parasites received great attention in endemic regions of the Middle East. A total of 552 faecal samples were collected between December 2016 to January 2018 from stray (n = 408) and domestic (n = 144) dogs of Iran. All specimens were coproscopically observed following concentration and flotation techniques. Subsequently, the DNAs of taeniid eggs were extracted, amplified, and sequenced by targeting of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 and small-subunit ribosomal DNA markers. The overall prevalence of canine intestinal parasites found 53.6%. The following parasites and their total frequencies were identified: taeniid (10.5%), Dicrocoelium dendriticum (0.7%), Trichuris vulpis (1.2%), Capillaria spp. (2.3%), Blastocystis spp. (5.2%), Ancylostoma spp. (2%), Eimeria spp. (13.2%), Dipylidium caninum (2.3%), Toxocara canis (3.8%), Giardia spp. (8.5%), and Toxascaris leonina (3.6%). Stray dogs were characterized more likely to be poliparasitized and indicated a higher prevalence of taeniid (10.9%), T. canis (4.4%) Giardia spp. (10.1%) than domestic dogs (P > 0.05). Phylogenetic and sequence analysis of Cox1 and SSU-rDNA indicated a low genetic diversity (Haplotype diversity; 0 to 0.495) in E. granulosus sensu lato G1, G3, G7 genotypes, and Taenia hydatigena. The pairwise sequence distances between G7 isolates showed an intra-diversity of 0.7%-1.5% and identity of 98.5%-100%. The first occurrence of pig strain (G7) from Iranian dogs might have substantial implications in the drug treatment of infected dogs due to the shorter maturation time of G7 compared with G1 genotype. Thus, the preventive strategies should be noticed to determine the risk factors, the importance of applying the hygienic practices, and well adjusting deworming programs for the Iranian dogs and at-risk individuals.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Equinococose/veterinária , Enteropatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Filogenia , Teníase/veterinária , Animais , Ciclo-Oxigenase 1/genética , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Cães/parasitologia , Equinococose/diagnóstico , Equinococose/epidemiologia , Echinococcus granulosus/genética , Fezes/parasitologia , Genótipo , Enteropatias Parasitárias/diagnóstico , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Oriente Médio/epidemiologia , Mitocôndrias/genética , Prevalência , Suínos/parasitologia , Taenia/genética , Teníase/diagnóstico , Teníase/epidemiologia
17.
Parasite ; 26: 41, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31309925

RESUMO

Blastocystis sp., a unicellular intestinal parasite in humans and animals worldwide, is frequently found in immunocompromized patients and people in close contact with animals. Here, we reviewed recent studies on the prevalence, subtypes, and distribution of Blastocystis infection in humans and animals in China. To date, more than 12 provinces have reported Blastocystis infection in humans, with identification of six different subtypes (ST1, ST2, ST3, ST4, ST5, and ST6). The overall infection rate reported was 3.37% (3625/107,695), with the lowest prevalence (0.80%) in Fujian province and the highest prevalence (100%) in Guangdong province. ST3 (62%, 186/300) was the most dominant subtype, identified in all tested provinces in China. A total of eight provinces have reported Blastocystis infection in various animals, with the overall prevalence being 24.66% (1202/4874). Molecular analysis revealed 14 subtypes that infected animals, including 10 known (ST1, ST2, ST3, ST4, ST5, ST6, ST7, ST10, ST13, ST14), and 4 novel (Novel1, Novel2, Novel3, Novel4) subtypes. ST5 was the dominant subtype infecting artiodactyls (44.1%, 460/1044), while ST1 commonly infected carnivores (45.5%, 5/11). These findings provide insights into the epidemiological behavior of Blastocystis sp. in China, and could help in developing effective control strategies against the parasite.


Assuntos
Infecções por Blastocystis/epidemiologia , Blastocystis/classificação , Enteropatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Animais , China/epidemiologia , DNA de Protozoário/genética , DNA Ribossômico , Fezes/parasitologia , Variação Genética , Humanos , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Prevalência
18.
BMC Vet Res ; 15(1): 216, 2019 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31248417

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of anthelmintics in goats raised under mountain farming conditions in northern Italy. On 8 goat farms (n = 143 animals), a faecal egg count reduction (FECR) test was done after farmers conducted their routine anthelmintic treatments. Furthermore, on 5 goat farms (n = 135 animals) a FECR test was done under controlled conditions applying oral formulations of a macrocyclic lactone (ML), benzimidazole (BZ) (partly in combination with salicylanilide (SA)) or a combination of imidazothiazole (IT) and SA on the same farm. AR was assumed if FECR and the upper confidence interval (CI) was < 95% and the lower 95% CI was < 90%. RESULTS: Underdosing was found in 6 of the 8 farms tested after routine treatments. Out of the 6 routinely ML-treated goat flocks, only three were found where ML showed adequate efficacy. FECR in all others ranged between 64 and 93%. In one flock Trichostrongylus spp. and in one Haemonchus spp. larvae were identified after treatment. BZ-treated flocks had an efficacy of 99 and 37%. Larvae identified after treatment were Trichostrongylus spp. in one and Haemonchus spp. in the other flock. Under controlled conditions, ML had an adequate efficacy on 4 farms and a FECR of 88% on another one. BZ was effective on all farms. The combination of BZ and SA had a FECR of 99% on the farm it was tested. IT + SA in combination was effective on 2 farms and had a FECR of 91% on a third farm. Larvae identified after treatment were composed of Haemonchus spp. (ML and BZ), Trichostrongylus spp. (BZ) and Teladorsagia spp. (BZ and SA). CONCLUSIONS: This first report on the prevalence of AR in goats in the mountainous region of South Tyrol reveals a low efficacy of the most commonly used anthelmintics after routine treatments. This might be explained by a high level of underdosing as observed in the farms. However, results from the controlled FECR tests suggest that the observed level of AR was lower but cannot be solely explained by underdosing.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Doenças das Cabras/tratamento farmacológico , Enteropatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Infecções por Nematoides/veterinária , Animais , Fazendas , Feminino , Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Cabras , Enteropatias Parasitárias/tratamento farmacológico , Itália , Masculino , Nematoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Nematoides/tratamento farmacológico , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas/veterinária
19.
Parasitol Res ; 118(7): 2257-2262, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31177405

RESUMO

The New England cottontail rabbit (NEC, Sylvilagus transitionalis) population has decreased dramatically in New York, USA, and the role of parasites in limiting the population has never been examined. The closely related and sympatric eastern cottontail rabbit (EC, Sylvilagus floridanus) was introduced into the range of NEC by humans and is currently thriving. This study aimed to investigate gastrointestinal parasites of the NEC and the EC and compare their parasite communities. Fecal pellets from 195 NEC and 125 EC were collected from the Hudson Valley, New York, in the winter of 2013-2014. Centrifugal fecal floats were performed in Sheather's sugar solution, and parasite ova and cysts were examined microscopically to identify gastrointestinal parasites present. For all pellets combined (n = 320), 91% were found to harbor at least 1 parasite species, with Eimeria species being the most common. Genetic analysis of pellets using microsatellite DNA identified 248 individual rabbits, with parasite prevalence (94%) similar to the prevalence estimate based on all pellets (91%). EC samples had a significantly higher (p < 0.05) parasite species richness (1.73, range 0-4) than NEC (1.20, range 0-3). EC and NEC shared 3 moderate to high (9-89%) prevalence parasites, in which EC prevalence was consistently higher. One parasite species was only found in NEC, and two were only found in EC, but the majority of these were of low abundance, precluding further statistical analyses.


Assuntos
Coccidiose/veterinária , Eimeria/classificação , Enteropatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Parasitos/classificação , Coelhos/parasitologia , Animais , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Eimeria/genética , Eimeria/isolamento & purificação , Meio Ambiente , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Geografia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/parasitologia , New York/epidemiologia , Óvulo , Parasitos/genética , Parasitos/isolamento & purificação , Dinâmica Populacional , Inquéritos e Questionários , Simpatria
20.
BMC Vet Res ; 15(1): 184, 2019 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31164118

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Since pastoralists in South Darfur, Sudan, had complained about lack of albendazole (ABZ) efficacy to control nematodes in goats, the frequency of infection with gastrointestinal helminths was studied before in vivo faecal egg count reduction tests (FECRT) were conducted using ABZ orally either at the dose recommended for sheep, 5 mg/kg body weight (bw) or at 10 mg/kg bw. Experiments included goats naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes or experimentally infected with local Haemonchus contortus isolates. Three study areas (Nyala, Beleil and Kass) were visited in autumn or winter. RESULTS: Out of 478 screened goats, 82.4% were infected with gastrointestinal helminths and 82% were shedding eggs of strongyle nematodes with 90% of the strongyle larvae representing Haemonchus spp. A FECRT using naturally infected goats (n = 225: 71 untreated, 104 and 50 treated with 5 and 10 mg ABZ/kg bw, respectively) detected reduced ABZ efficacy in Nyala and Kass. Paired and unpaired FECRT calculations detected reductions of 72-92% with samples taken at 8 days post treatment with 5 mg ABZ/kg bw and of 85-94% with 10 mg ABZ/kg bw. The FECRT based on day 14 post treatment samples showed reductions of 69-77% with 5 mg/kg and of 75-87% with 10 mg ABZ/kg bw. In Beleil, ABZ efficacy was 95%. In the egg hatch test EC50 values for Nyala and Kass ranged from 0.12-0.24 µg thiabendazole/ml, corresponding to benzimidazole resistant phenotypes. Only Haemonchus spp. larvae were present after treatments in coprocultures. When the efficacy was evaluated experimentally using isolates of H. contortus from Nyala and Kass, the 5 mg ABZ/kg dose revealed reductions of 76-78% on day 8 and of 62-70% on day 14 with the unpaired method. Using 10 mg ABZ/kg, the FECR was still only 77-82%. CONCLUSIONS: Both, in vivo and in vitro methods detected resistant H. contortus populations in goats from South Darfur State. The time point 14 days post treatment was more sensitive for detection of ABZ resistance than 8 days post treatment. This is the first report on the occurrence of anthelmintic resistance in Sudan confirming that anthelmintic resistance selection is occurring in African subsistence farming systems.


Assuntos
Albendazol/uso terapêutico , Antinematódeos/uso terapêutico , Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Hemoncose/epidemiologia , Haemonchus/efeitos dos fármacos , Enteropatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Animais , Resistência a Medicamentos , Feminino , Doenças das Cabras/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Cabras , Hemoncose/tratamento farmacológico , Hemoncose/parasitologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Masculino , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas/veterinária , Prevalência , Sudão/epidemiologia
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