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1.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 399, 2019 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31409374

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sampling methodologies for mosquitoes that are capable of transmitting vector-borne infectious diseases provide critical information on entomological endpoints. Reliable and meaningful field data is vital to the understanding of basic vector biology as well as disease transmission. Various traps take advantage of different vector behaviors and are inevitably subject to sampling biases. This study represents the first comparison of kelambu traps (KT) to barrier screens (BS), barrier screens with eaves (BSE) and indoor and outdoor human landing catches (HLCs). METHODS: Two trap comparison studies were undertaken. In the first study, mosquitoes were collected in Karama over 26 trapping nights to evaluate the kelambu trap relative to indoor and outdoor HLCs. In the second study, mosquitoes were collected in Karama over 12 trapping nights to compare the kelambu trap, barrier screen, barrier screen with eaves and outdoor HLCs. The kelambu trap, barrier screen and barrier screen with eaves obstruct the flight of mosquitos. HLCs target host-seeking behaviors. RESULTS: There was no significant difference between indoor and outdoor HLCs for overall Anopheles mosquito abundance. All five of the molecularly identified Anopheles species collected by HLCs, An. aconitus, An. barbirostris, An. peditaeniatus, An. vagus and An. tessellatus, are reported as vectors of malaria in Indonesia. The kelambu trap (n = 2736) collected significantly more Anopheles mosquitoes than indoor HLCs (n = 1286; Z = 3.193, P = 0.004), but not the outdoor HLCs (n = 1580; Z = 2.325, P = 0.053). All traps collected statistically similar abundances for the primary species, An. barbirostris. However, both comparison studies found significantly higher abundances for the kelambu trap for several secondary species compared to all other traps: An. nigerriumus, An. parangensis, An. tessellatus and An. vagus. The kelambu trap retained the highest species richness and Gini-Simpson's diversity index for both comparison studies. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that the kelambu trap collects overall Anopheles abundance and species-specific abundances at statistically similar or higher rates than HLCs in Sulawesi, Indonesia. Therefore, the kelambu trap should be considered as an exposure-free alternative to HLCs for research questions regarding Anopheles species in this malaria endemic region.


Assuntos
Anopheles , Comportamento Alimentar , Controle de Mosquitos/métodos , Mosquitos Vetores , Animais , Entomologia/instrumentação , Entomologia/métodos , Indonésia , Especificidade da Espécie
2.
Microsc Res Tech ; 82(10): 1741-1747, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31295381

RESUMO

In this work a single glycerol-water mixture, determined to be most apt at 30% (wt/vol), was used to immobilize Drosophila samples as well as to create a liquid lens for smartphone magnification viewing. This provides the advantage of being able to observe immobilized insects directly in the field rather than in the laboratory. In order to avoid having bubbles in the liquid lens and immobilizing medium that hinder visibility, an approach was developed where a stable pendant drop is moved in tandem with the dispensing tip by gravity and stopped abruptly so that sufficient momentum is transferred to the drop for its dislodgement. With 30% glycerol-water (wt/vol) mixtures, applying a minimal stroke of 10 mm with longitudinal impact delivered a momentum of 0.1464 N/s that allowed transfer of a preselected liquid volume for the processes.


Assuntos
Drosophila/anatomia & histologia , Entomologia/instrumentação , Entomologia/métodos , Microscopia/instrumentação , Microscopia/métodos , Smartphone , Animais
3.
Malar J ; 18(1): 83, 2019 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30885205

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mosquito biting rates and host preferences are crucial determinants of human exposure to vector-borne diseases and the impact of vector control measures. The human landing catch (HLC) is a gold standard method for measuring human exposure to bites, but presents risks to participants by requiring some exposure to mosquito vectors. Mosquito electrocuting traps (METs) represent an exposure-free alternative to HLCs for measuring human exposure to malaria vectors. However, original MET prototypes were too small for measuring whole-body biting rates on humans or large animals like cattle. Here a much larger MET capable of encompassing humans or cattle was designed, and its performance was evaluated relative to both the original small MET and HLC and for quantifying malaria vector host preferences. METHODS: Human landing catch, small human-baited METs (MET-SH), and large METs baited with either a human (MET-LH) or calves (MET-LC) were simultaneously used to capture wild malaria vectors outdoors in rural southern Tanzania. The four capture methods were compared in a Latin-square design over 20 nights. Malaria vector host preferences were estimated through comparison of the number of mosquitoes caught by large METs baited with either humans or cattle. RESULTS: The MET-LH caught more than twice as many Anopheles arabiensis than either the MET-SH or HLC. It also caught higher number of Anopheles funestus sensu lato (s.l.) compared to the MET-SH or HLC. Similar numbers of An. funestus sensu stricto (s.s.) were caught in MET-LH and MET-SH collections. Catches of An. arabiensis with human or cattle-baited large METs were similar, indicating no clear preference for either host. In contrast, An. funestus s.s. exhibited a strong, but incomplete preference for humans. CONCLUSIONS: METs are a sensitive, practical tool for assessing mosquito biting rates and host preferences, and represent a safer alternative to the HLC. Additionally these findings suggest the HLC underestimate whole-body human exposure. MET collections indicated the An. funestus s.s. population in this setting had a higher than expected attack rate on cattle, potentially making eliminating of this species more difficult with human-targetted control measures. Supplementary vector control tools targetted at livestock may be required to effectively tackle this species.


Assuntos
Anopheles/fisiologia , Entomologia/métodos , Comportamento Alimentar , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Adulto , Animais , Bovinos , Entomologia/instrumentação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , População Rural , Tanzânia , Adulto Jovem
4.
Environ Entomol ; 48(2): 426-433, 2019 04 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30753370

RESUMO

Minute pirate bugs of genus Orius (Wolff) are known important generalist predators of microinvertebrate pests and are therefore useful in many agricultural contexts. Effective sampling methods are thus of great importance to monitor Orius spp. populations. Sticky traps are one such sampling method; however, trap color must be carefully selected for the target insect species. In this study, we examined the most suitable sticky trap color (i.e., white, blue, or yellow) to capture Orius spp. individuals in eggplant Solanum melongena (Linnaeus) (Solanales: Solanaceae), Italian ryegrass Lolium multiflorum (Lamarck) (Poales: Poaceae), soybean Glycine max (Linnaeus) (Fabales: Fabaceae), and white clover Trifolium repens (Linnaeus) (Fabales: Fabaceae) fields. More Orius spp. adults were caught on blue and white traps than on yellow traps. The white traps also caught other insects, which hampered the counting of Orius spp. individuals and, therefore, reduced trapping efficiency. In addition, seasonal prevalence investigations showed that blue sticky traps had similar patterns to those of field observations. Thus, as the blue sticky trap can avoid capturing nontarget insects, we concluded that blue was the most suitable trap color for monitoring Orius spp. In addition, because blue sticky traps are more efficient and less-labor intensive, they can be useful as an alternative to field observations.


Assuntos
Entomologia/instrumentação , Hemípteros , Animais , Cor , Produtos Agrícolas , Estações do Ano
5.
Genome ; 62(3): 85-95, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30257096

RESUMO

Monitoring changes in terrestrial arthropod communities over space and time requires a dramatic increase in the speed and accuracy of processing samples that cannot be achieved with morphological approaches. The combination of DNA barcoding and Malaise traps allows expedited, comprehensive inventories of species abundance whose cost will rapidly decline as high-throughput sequencing technologies advance. Aside from detailing protocols from specimen sorting to data release, this paper describes their use in a survey of arthropod diversity in a national park that examined 21 194 specimens representing 2255 species. These protocols can support arthropod monitoring programs at regional, national, and continental scales.


Assuntos
Artrópodes/classificação , Artrópodes/genética , Biodiversidade , Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico/métodos , DNA/genética , Entomologia/instrumentação , Animais , DNA/análise , Filogenia , Especificidade da Espécie
6.
J Med Entomol ; 56(2): 353-361, 2019 02 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30383275

RESUMO

Biting midges (Ceratopogonidae: Culicoides) are vectors of bluetongue virus and epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus which cause significant morbidity and mortality in ruminants. Recently, ultraviolet light emitting diodes (UV/LEDs) in conjunction with suction traps have been widely utilized for Culicoides spp. collections. Despite the use of these traps, limited work has been done comparing sampling variability associated with these light types with and without CO2. For this objective, mini-CDC light traps with four different attractant combinations were operated at eight sites across Florida between April and October 2017. Trap attractants included white-incandescent lights and UV/LEDs with and without CO2 to determine optimum combinations of light type and attractant for species richness, diversity, and abundance of Culicoides spp. in Florida. The results of the study demonstrate that traps with UV/LED light collect greater richness, diversity, and abundance of Culicoides species than traps with white-incandescent light. Addition of CO2 resulted in greater diversity in traps with UV/LED lights, but lower diversity in traps with white-incandescent light. Therefore, CO2 may be used to increase the abundance of Culicoides spp. collected by traps, regardless of light type, but the ability for CO2 to attract a higher number and diversity of species to traps varies by the light type used. Therefore, we suggest using CO2 primarily in conjunction with UV/LED light. When CO2 is not available, UV/LED light used alone can be substituted without a significant loss in species richness or diversity, although abundance of most Culicoides species will be significantly lower in the absence of CO2.


Assuntos
Comportamento Apetitivo/efeitos da radiação , Biodiversidade , Ceratopogonidae/efeitos da radiação , Entomologia/instrumentação , Animais , Dióxido de Carbono , Feminino , Florida , Incandescência , Masculino , Raios Ultravioleta
7.
Neotrop Entomol ; 48(1): 50-56, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29949122

RESUMO

Pitfall traps are commonly used for the collection of terrestrial insects in ecology and biology studies; they are relatively straightforward to manufacture and there is a large variety of models described in the literature. However, they present a few drawbacks: (i) the removal and transport of the collected material are not practical; (ii) they have low resistance and durability; (iii) they fail to correctly protect the attractive bait against adverse weather conditions and scavengers, and (iv) evaporation of the liquid used inside the trap. We proposed an optimized pitfall trap design for terrestrial insect collection made from cheap and easily accessible materials. The new design allows the transfer of the collected material to the lab by removing only that part of the trap where the insects have been captured; the other part remains in its original place. Thus, the proposed trap allows easier operation since there is no need to transport water to replenish the traps after each transfer; in addition, there is less volume and weight to be carried. The trap can remain in the field for months because of the durability of its material. Furthermore, the collected material is better protected against adverse weather conditions and scavengers. Currently, an efficient and rapid sampling strategy in the field is of global interest to understand mechanisms that can contribute to the monitor changes in phenology, succession, and biodiversity.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Ecologia/instrumentação , Entomologia/instrumentação , Insetos , Animais
8.
Parasit Vectors ; 11(1): 603, 2018 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30463624

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To ensure the success of a mosquito control programme that integrates the sterile insect technique (SIT), it is highly desirable to release sterile males with a maximal lifespan to increase release effectiveness. Understanding sterile male survival under field conditions is thus critical for determining the number of males to be released. Our study aimed to investigate the effect of mass rearing, irradiation, chilling, packing and release time on irradiated male mosquito longevity. METHODS: Anopheles arabiensis and Aedes aegypti immature stages were mass-reared using a rack and tray system. Batches of 50 males irradiated at the pupal stage were immobilised, packed into canisters and chilled for 6 hours at 6 °C. Mosquitoes were then transferred either in the early morning or early evening into climate chambers set to simulate the weather conditions, typical of the beginning of the rainy season in Khartoum, Sudan and Juazeiro, Brazil for An. arabiensis and Ae. aegypti, respectively. The longevity of experimental males was assessed and compared to mass-reared control males subjected either to simulated field or laboratory conditions. RESULTS: The combined irradiation, chilling and packing treatments significantly reduced the longevity of both An. arabiensis and Ae. aegypti under simulated field conditions (P < 0.001). However, packing alone did not significantly reduce longevity of Ae. aegypti (P = 0.38) but did in An. arabiensis (P < 0.001). Overall, the longevity of mass reared, irradiated and packed males was significantly reduced, with the median survival time (days) lower following an early morning introduction (4.62 ± 0.20) compared to an evening (7.34 ± 0.35) in An. arabiensis (P < 0.001). However, there was no significant difference in longevity between morning (9.07 ± 0.54) and evening (7.76 ± 0.50) in Ae. aegypti (P = 0.14). CONCLUSIONS: Our study showed that sterile mass-reared males have a reduced lifespan in comparison to laboratory-maintained controls under simulated field conditions, and that An. arabiensis appeared to be more sensitive to the handling process and release time than Ae. aegypti. Longevity and release time are important parameters to be considered for a successful area-wide integrated vector control programme with a SIT component.


Assuntos
Aedes/efeitos da radiação , Anopheles/efeitos da radiação , Longevidade , Aedes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Aedes/fisiologia , Animais , Anopheles/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Anopheles/fisiologia , Clima , Entomologia/instrumentação , Entomologia/métodos , Umidade , Infertilidade , Masculino , Pupa/efeitos da radiação , Temperatura Ambiente
9.
Parasitology ; 145(13): 1783-1791, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29898803

RESUMO

Monitoring vectors is relevant to ascertain transmission of lymphatic filariasis (LF). This may require the best sampling method that can capture high numbers of specific species to give indication of transmission. Gravid anophelines are good indicators for assessing transmission due to close contact with humans through blood meals. This study compared the efficiency of an Anopheles gravid trap (AGT) with other mosquito collection methods including the box and the Centres for Disease Control and Prevention gravid, light, exit and BioGent-sentinel traps, indoor resting collection (IRC) and pyrethrum spray catches across two endemic regions of Ghana. The AGT showed high trapping efficiency by collecting the highest mean number of anophelines per night in the Western (4.6) and Northern (7.3) regions compared with the outdoor collection methods. Additionally, IRC was similarly efficient in the Northern region (8.9) where vectors exhibit a high degree of endophily. AGT also showed good trapping potential for collecting Anopheles melas which is usually difficult to catch with existing methods. Screening of mosquitoes for infection showed a 0.80-3.01% Wuchereria bancrofti and 2.15-3.27% Plasmodium spp. in Anopheles gambiae. The AGT has shown to be appropriate for surveying Anopheles populations and can be useful for xenomonitoring for both LF and malaria.


Assuntos
Anopheles/parasitologia , Entomologia/métodos , Controle de Mosquitos/métodos , Mosquitos Vetores/parasitologia , Plasmodium/isolamento & purificação , Wuchereria bancrofti/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Filariose Linfática/transmissão , Doenças Endêmicas , Entomologia/instrumentação , Feminino , Gana , Controle de Mosquitos/instrumentação
10.
Acta Trop ; 183: 43-56, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29625092

RESUMO

Mosquito and tick feeding activity represent a key threat for humans, livestock, pets and wildlife worldwide. Rearing these vectors in laboratory conditions is extremely important to investigate basic facets of their biology, vector competence, new control strategies, as well as mechanisms of pesticide resistance. However, the use of animals or humans to provide blood for hematophagous arthropod feeding poses a strict limit to these researches, due to the accidental transmission of diseases, ethical problems concerning animal welfare, as well as expensive and time-consuming animal rearing procedures. The use of devices to artificially feed arthropod vectors can importantly leverage progresses in parasitology and entomology. The aim of this review is to summarize current knowledge about artificial feeding of mosquitoes and ticks, focusing on key concepts and case studies about the design and fabrication of blood feeding devices. From a technical standpoint, the literature analyzed here showed little standardization of materials used for fabricating membrane interfaces, as well as in the strategy used to heat the "biomimetic host". In addition, a lack of uniform methods to design an architecture merging complex and realistic cues with an easy-to-assemble approach have been found. Some commercial products are available, but they are quite expensive, thus hard to reach for many laboratories, especially in developing countries. An important challenge for future research is represented by the introduction of automation and bioinspired engineered solutions in these devices, improving the effectiveness of blood-feeding systems by increasing their host-mimicking features. Automation can reduce labor costs and provide interesting solutions - in line with the 3R principle "reduce, replace and refine" - aimed to minimize the employ of experimental animals in research.


Assuntos
Culicidae/fisiologia , Ingestão de Alimentos , Entomologia/instrumentação , Entomologia/métodos , Desenho de Equipamento , Carrapatos/fisiologia , Animais , Comportamento Alimentar
11.
Exp Appl Acarol ; 74(2): 147-158, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29423706

RESUMO

The two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch, is an important pest of cotton in mid-southern USA and causes yield reduction and deprivation in fiber fitness. Cotton and pinto beans grown in the greenhouse were infested with spider mites at the three-leaf and trifoliate stages, respectively. Spider mite damage on cotton and bean canopies expressed as normalized difference vegetation index indicative of changes in plant health was measured for 27 consecutive days. Plant health decreased incrementally for cotton until day 21 when complete destruction occurred. Thereafter, regrowth reversed decline in plant health. On spider mite treated beans, plant vigor plateaued until day 11 when plant health declined incrementally. Results indicate that pinto beans were better suited as a host plant than cotton for rearing T. urticae in the laboratory.


Assuntos
Cadeia Alimentar , Gossypium/fisiologia , Phaseolus/fisiologia , Tecnologia de Sensoriamento Remoto/métodos , Tetranychidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Entomologia/instrumentação , Tetranychidae/fisiologia
12.
Elife ; 62017 10 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29087296

RESUMO

The direct monitoring of mosquito populations in field settings is a crucial input for shaping appropriate and timely control measures for mosquito-borne diseases. Here, we demonstrate that commercially available mobile phones are a powerful tool for acoustically mapping mosquito species distributions worldwide. We show that even low-cost mobile phones with very basic functionality are capable of sensitively acquiring acoustic data on species-specific mosquito wingbeat sounds, while simultaneously recording the time and location of the human-mosquito encounter. We survey a wide range of medically important mosquito species, to quantitatively demonstrate how acoustic recordings supported by spatio-temporal metadata enable rapid, non-invasive species identification. As proof-of-concept, we carry out field demonstrations where minimally-trained users map local mosquitoes using their personal phones. Thus, we establish a new paradigm for mosquito surveillance that takes advantage of the existing global mobile network infrastructure, to enable continuous and large-scale data acquisition in resource-constrained areas.


Assuntos
Acústica/instrumentação , Telefone Celular , Culicidae/fisiologia , Entomologia/instrumentação , Entomologia/métodos , Vigilância da População , Animais , Análise Espaço-Temporal , Gravação em Vídeo
13.
J Med Entomol ; 54(2): 349-361, 2017 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28399291

RESUMO

The aim of the present study was to compare three different collecting methods, namely, baited traps, active capture with hand net, and Malaise traps, to establish which method is more appropriate for sampling different Calyptratae guilds inhabiting temperate forests of South America. Specifically, it was analyzed which technique or combination of techniques is more adequate for obtaining sarcosaprophagous Calyptratae, which are of great interest from a veterinary and medical viewpoint. Taxa were classified into guilds according to their biology. Active capture was the technique that registered the highest diversity of guilds. When analyzing sarcosaprophagous species, it was observed that their percentage of captures, diversity, and abundance showed clear differences in guild composition between the trapping techniques studied. From these analyses it can be concluded that baited traps and active trapping are complementary methods for capturing sarcosaprophagous Calyptratae species. From the perspective of the biodiversity of this group, the combination of both methodologies allows obtaining a more complete inventory of sarcosaprophagous species of austral temperate forests of South America.


Assuntos
Dípteros/fisiologia , Entomologia/métodos , Animais , Biodiversidade , Dípteros/classificação , Entomologia/instrumentação , Florestas , América do Sul , Temperatura Ambiente
14.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 11(3): e0005245, 2017 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28278171

RESUMO

Here, we describe the development of the MosqTent, an innovative double-chamber mosquito trap in which a human being attracts mosquitoes while is protected from being bitten within the inner chamber of the trap, while mosquitoes are lured to enter an outer chamber where they are trapped. The MosqTent previously collected an average of 3,000 anophelines/man-hour compared to 240 anophelines/man-hour for the human landing catch (HLC), thereby providing high numbers of human host-seeking mosquitoes while protecting the collector from mosquito bites. The MosqTent performed well by collecting a high number of specimens of Anopheles marajoara, a local vector and anthropophilic mosquito species present in high density, but not so well in collecting An. darlingi, an anthropophilic mosquito species considered the main vector in Brazil but is present in low-density conditions in the area. The HLC showed a higher efficiency in collecting An. darlingi in these low-density conditions. The MosqTent is light (<1 kg), portable (comes as a bag with two handles), flexible (can be used with other attractants), adaptable (can be deployed in a variety of environmental settings and weather conditions), and it can be used in the intra-, peri-, and in the extradomicile. Also, the MosqTent collected similar portions of parous females and anthropophilic mosquito species and collects specimens suitable for downstream analysis. Further developments may include testing for other fabric colors, different mesh sizes and dimensions for other hematophagous insects and conditions, additional chemical mosquito attractants, and even the replacement of the human attractant in favor of other attractants. MosqTent modifications that would allow the trap to be applied as a vector control tool with killing action could also be explored.


Assuntos
Anopheles/fisiologia , Entomologia/instrumentação , Entomologia/métodos , Comportamento Alimentar , Mordeduras e Picadas de Insetos/prevenção & controle , Animais , Brasil
15.
Environ Entomol ; 46(2): 362-368, 2017 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28122788

RESUMO

Terrestrial insects in water can often delay or escape drowning by floating and swimming. However, we observed that flooding of pitfall traps baited with rotting carrion results in high overnight mortality of captured beetles and reasoned that this risk may be enhanced by microbial respiration. By assessing carrion beetle (Coleoptera: Silphidae) response to flooding, tolerance to immersion, and swimming behavior, we offer insights to this cause of death and beetle behavioral physiology. Response of buried Nicrophorus orbicollis Say to soil flooding resulted in beetles moving to the soil surface. The lethal time to 50% mortality (LT50 (immersion); mean ± 95% CI) for Nicrophorus investigator Zetterstedt, Nicrophorus marginatus F., Necrodes surinamensis F., and Thanatophilus lapponicus Herbst was 14.8 ± 2.3, 9.0 ± 3.3, 3.2 ± 1.1, and 12.1 ± 2.5 h, respectively. Swimming behavior and survival time of N. investigator was tested using yeast:sucrose (Y:S) solutions to create a eutrophic, severely hypoxic aqueous environment. LT50 (swimming) for N. investigator was 7.5 ± 1.4, 6.0 ± 1.7, and 4.2 ± 1.2 h for the low, medium, and high Y:S solutions, respectively, and >24.0 h in control treatments. Nicrophorus investigator survived nearly twice as long when completely immersed in deoxygenated water, as might occur in flooded burrows, than when swimming on the surface. We document for the first time, the rapid induction of hypoxic coma and death for a terrestrial insect from enhanced microbial activity and CO2 production of an aqueous environment, as well as suggestions on trapping protocols related to the federally endangered Nicrophorus americanus Olivier.


Assuntos
Besouros/fisiologia , Ecologia/instrumentação , Entomologia/instrumentação , Inundações , Animais , Longevidade , Nebraska , Oklahoma , Saskatchewan , Solo , Especificidade da Espécie , Natação
16.
J Insect Sci ; 17(1)2017 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28042105

RESUMO

Beetles (Coleoptera) are a charismatic group of insects targeted by collectors and often used in biodiversity surveys. As part of a larger project, we surveyed a small (4 hectare) plot in the Boston Mountains of Arkansas using 70 traps of 12 trap types and Berlese-Tullgren extraction of leaf litter and identified all Buprestidae, Carabidae, Cerambycidae, and Curculionoidea (Anthribidae, Attelabidae, Brachyceridae, Brentidae, and Curculionidae excluding Scolytinae) to species. This resulted in the collection of 7,973 specimens representing 242 species arranged in 8 families. In a previous publication, we reported new state records and the number of specimens collected per species. In this publication, we used these data to determine the most effective collection method for four beetle groups: Carabidae, Cerambycidae, Curculionoidea (excluding Scolytinae), and Buprestidae. We found that the combination of pitfall and Malaise traps was most effective for Carabidae, Cerambycidae, and Curculionoidea, but that the combination of Malaise and green Lindgren funnel traps was most effective at collecting Buprestidae. Species accumulation curves did not become asymptotic and extrapolated rarefaction curves did not become asymptotic until 350-1,000 samples, suggesting that much more effort is required to completely inventory even a small site. Additionally, seasonal activity is presented for each species and the similarity and overlap between collecting dates and seasons is discussed for each family.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Besouros , Entomologia/instrumentação , Entomologia/métodos , Animais , Arkansas , Estações do Ano , Gorgulhos
17.
Sci Rep ; 7: 40074, 2017 01 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28059148

RESUMO

In this study, a light-driving bug zapper is presented for well controlling the diseases brought by insects, such as mosquitoes. In order to have the device efficient to trap the insect pests in off-grid areas, pulse width modulated light emitting diodes (PWM-LED) combined with a solar power module are proposed and implemented. With specific PWM electric signals to drive the LED, it is found that no matter what the ability of catching insects or the consumed power efficiency can be enhanced thus. It is demonstrated that 40% of the UV LED consumed power and 25.9% of the total load power consumption can be saved, and the trapped mosquitoes are about 250% increased when the PWM method is applied in the bug zapper experiments.


Assuntos
Culicidae/fisiologia , Culicidae/efeitos da radiação , Entomologia/instrumentação , Entomologia/métodos , Animais , Luz , Energia Solar
18.
Acta Trop ; 167: 137-141, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28027886

RESUMO

To overcome the limitations of currently used window entry/exit traps, we developed an efficient new glue net entry/exit trap (GNT) that is economical, easily transported and assembled, and can be utilized for a variety of studies which aim to investigate the dynamics of mosquito movements between indoor and outdoor habitats. Cage experiments were conducted to determine what percentage of mosquitoes trying to pass through the netting are actually being caught. The GNT caught 97% of female and 98% of male Anopheles gambiae s.s., as well as 97.5% of female and 98% of male Culex pipiens attempting to cross into a bait chamber adjoining the release cage. During a six day field study, the bedroom windows of 12 homes in Mali were fitted with entry/exit GNTs. Traps without glue were fitted over the inside and outside bedroom windows of an additional 12 homes as a control. A total of 446 An. gambiae s.l. were caught attempting to exit dwellings while 773 An. gambiae s.l. were caught attempting to enter. The number of males and females attempting to exit dwellings were roughly similar (215 and 231 respectively) while there was a slight difference in the number of males and females trying to enter (382 and 430 respectively). Pyrethrum spray catches (PSC's) conducted inside the dwellings on the last day of the experiment yielded only six females and a single male.


Assuntos
Anopheles , Comportamento Animal , Culex , Entomologia/instrumentação , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Mali
19.
Vet Parasitol ; 223: 143-6, 2016 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27198792

RESUMO

Various types of emergence traps are available for investigations of the breeding habitats of Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). In order to assess the potential impact of the trap design on the trapping success, we compared the efficiency of opaque and white (more translucent) emergence traps and two trap shapes (cone-shaped and quadratic), to sample Culicoides emerging from cowpats. Significantly higher numbers of Culicoides chiopterus and Culicoides dewulfi were trapped with opaque traps, while there was no obvious effect of the trap shape. There were no distinct differences in the microclimate among different trap types.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal/efeitos da radiação , Ceratopogonidae/fisiologia , Entomologia/instrumentação , Luz , Animais , Bovinos , Entomologia/métodos , Fezes
20.
Parasit Vectors ; 9(1): 272, 2016 05 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27165292

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: New sampling tools are needed for collecting exophilic malaria mosquitoes in sub-Saharan Africa to monitor the impact of vector control interventions. The OviART gravid trap and squares of electrocuting nets (e-nets) were recently developed under semi-field conditions for collecting oviposition site seeking Anopheles gambiae (sensu stricto) (s.s.). This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of these traps for sampling malaria vectors under field conditions. METHODS: Prior to field testing, two modifications to the prototype OviART gravid trap were evaluated by (i) increasing the surface area and volume of water in the artificial pond which forms part of the trap, and (ii) increasing the strength of the suction fan. Six sampling tools targeting gravid females (Box gravid trap, detergent-treated ponds, e-nets insect glue-treated ponds, sticky boards and sticky floating-acetate sheets) were compared under field conditions to evaluate their relative catching performance and to select a method for comparison with the OviART gravid trap. Finally, the trapping efficacy of the OviART gravid trap and the square of e-nets were compared with a Box gravid trap during the long rainy season in three household clusters in western Kenya. RESULTS: The OviART gravid trap prototype's catch size was doubled by increasing the pond size [rate ratio (RR) 1.9; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.1-3.4] but a stronger fan did not improve the catch. The square of e-nets performed better than the other devices, collecting three times more gravid Anopheles spp. than the Box gravid trap (RR 3.3; 95 % CI 1.4-7.6). The OviART gravid trap collections were comparable to those from the e-nets and 3.3 (95 % CI 1.5-7.0) times higher than the number of An. gambiae senso lato (s.l.) collected by the Box gravid trap. CONCLUSION: Both OviART gravid trap and squares of e-nets collected wild gravid Anopheles gambiae (s.l.) where natural habitats were within 200-400 m of the trap. Whilst the e-nets are difficult to handle and might therefore only be useful as a research device, the OviART gravid trap presents a promising new surveillance tool. Further field testing is needed in different eco-epidemiological settings to provide recommendations for its use.


Assuntos
Anopheles/parasitologia , Entomologia/instrumentação , Malária/prevenção & controle , Controle de Mosquitos/instrumentação , Mosquitos Vetores/parasitologia , Animais , Ecossistema , Eletricidade , Feminino , Oviposição
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