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2.
Actas esp. psiquiatr ; 48(3): 106-115, mayo-jun. 2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-193796

RESUMO

INTRODUCCIÓN: Las personas de edad avanzada presentan las tasas más altas de suicidio en todo el mundo. A su vez, tienen las menores tasas de intentos de suicidio. Muchos estudios coinciden en señalar que en este grupo de edad existe un mayor contacto sanitario previo a las conductas suicidas, especialmente con Atención Primaria. El contacto previo con otros niveles asistenciales es menos conocido. OBJETIVO: El objetivo del estudio es conocer las características del contacto con centros sanitarios, de todos los niveles asistenciales, previo a un intento de suicidio, en personas mayores de 65 años, en un área sanitaria bien delimitada. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: En el periodo de enero de 2015 a diciembre de 2017, todas las personas mayores de 65 años del área sanitaria de Santiago de Compostela atendidas en el servicio de urgencias por intentos de suicidio fueron entrevistadas. La entrevista incluyó una evaluación psiquiátrica y la recogida de distintas variables clínicas y sociodemográficas, así como datos sobre el contacto previo con centros sanitarios. RESULTADOS: Se registraron 80 intentos de suicidio, lo que supone una incidencia de 35,3/100.000. La edad media de nuestra muestra fue de 74,85 ± 7 años, la proporción entre hombre: mujer fue de 2:3. En las cuatro semanas previas a la tentativa, el 61,3% visitó a su médico de Atención Primaria y el 72,5% visitó algún centro sanitario. El 41,3% no estaba a seguimiento en servicios de Salud Mental. CONCLUSIONES: El hecho quedo de cada tres personas mayores de 65 años que cometen un intento de suicidio en nuestra área visitaron a su médico de Atención Primaria durante el mes previo y el 90% hubieran visitado algún centro sanitario durante los tres meses previos, plantea la posibilidad de que las medidas preventivas del suicidio pudieran llevarse a cabo más allá del ámbito de la Atención Primaria


INTRODUCTION. Older people have the highest suicide rates in the world. In turn, they have the lowest rates of suicide attempts. Many studies have found greater health contact, especially with general practitioner, prior to suicidal behaviour in this age group. Less information is availbale about prior contact with other health services. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study is to know the characteristics of contact with all levels of health services, prior to a suicide attempt in people over 65 years of age in a defined population. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Along the period January 2015 to December 2017, all persons over 65 years of age admitted by suicide attempt to emergency room in the health area of Santiago de Compostela were interviewed. The interview included a psychiatric evaluation and the collrection of relevant clinical and sociodemographic variables, in particular, data on prior contact with health services. RESULTS: 80 suicide attempts were recorded, which rep-resents an incidence of 35.3 / 100,000. The average age of our sample was 74.85 ± 7 years, the ratio between male: female was 2: 3. 61.3% had visited their general practitioner the month prior to the attempt, 72.5% had visited a health centre. On the other hand, 41.3% were not under the follow up of Mental Health services


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Tentativa de Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Serviços de Saúde Mental , Entrevista Psiquiátrica Padronizada , Entrevista Psicológica , Espanha/epidemiologia , Incidência , Estudos Transversais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Fatores de Tempo
3.
BMC Psychol ; 8(1): 62, 2020 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32532332

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Death rattle is a frequently occurring symptom in the last phase of life. The experience of death rattle of relatives has been found to vary. It is unclear if treatment with medication is useful. The most fitting solution for this symptom is still under debate. AIM: This study aims to better understand the experience of relatives of their loved ones' death rattle. DESIGN: A qualitative interview study with a phenomenological approach was performed. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews which were audio recorded, transcribed and analyzed using qualitative content analysis. PARTICIPANTS: Nineteen family members of 15 patients were interviewed. RESULTS: Most relatives had experienced death rattle as a distressing symptom. Concerns about how long the rattling would last resulted in more distress. Experience of death rattle was less fierce when other symptoms such as pain or dyspnea prevailed. Hearing the sound of death rattle sometimes reminded relatives of previously witnessed dying trajectories, which seemed to increase their current level of distress. The experience of death rattle is not always influenced by the amount and quality of information given about the symptom. CONCLUSION: Death rattle is a stressful symptom and the experience of relatives is influenced by more factors than the sound itself. Communication and information alone seem inefficient to address relatives' distress. The best approach for dealing with this symptom is unclear. Further research needs to show if prophylactically given drugs may be helpful in its prevention.


Assuntos
Atitude Frente a Morte , Família , Sons Respiratórios , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevista Psicológica , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Doente Terminal
4.
Rev. psicol. clín. niños adolesc ; 7(2): 50-55, mayo 2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-193693

RESUMO

La alta prevalencia de suicidio en población adolescente en todo el mundo supone un reto mundial en salud mental. El ambiente familiar ha sido señalado como una importante variable implicada en el riesgo de suicidio de los adolescentes, ejerciendo tanto de factor de riesgo como protector. El estudio tiene como objetivo entender qué variables del funcionamiento familiar de la Escala de Clima Social en la Familia se relacionan con la puntuación de la Escala de Ideación Suicida de Beck en una muestra 37 adolescentes entre 14 y 18 años (M = 15.76; DT = 1.07) con rasgos de personalidad límite. Se partió de la hipótesis de que peores niveles de funcionamiento familiar aumentarían el riesgo de suicidio. Los resultados mostraron que la ideación suicida era mayor cuando las puntuaciones en la escala Relaciones (calidad de la comunicación e interacción) en la familia eran menores. Al analizar cada escala, se demostró la importancia específica de la subescala Expresividad, referida al grado de expresión libre de los sentimientos en la familia de forma que, a menor expresividad en la familia, mayor ideación suicida presentaban los adolescentes, y la subescala Social-Recreativa, referida a la participación social y en actividades de ocio de la familia, de modo que a mayor participación social, menor riesgo suicida. Estos resultados son apoyados por otros estudios que demuestran la importancia de modificar el entorno familiar para influir en el riesgo suicida de los adolescentes. El valor de estos datos implica la consideración de incluir a las familias en los programas de tratamiento para adolescentes suicidas


High prevalence of suicide in adolescent population all over the world is considered a world challenge in mental health. Family environment has been pointed as an important factor involved in adolescents' suicide risk, playing a role not only as a risk factor but also as protective. This study has its goal on understanding which factors of the family functioning, measured by the Social Environment in the Family Scale, are related to the total score of the Beck Suicide Ideation Scale in a sample of 37 adolescents with ages between 14 and 17 years old (M = 15.76; SD = 1.06) borderline personality traits. It was hypothesized that worse levels of family functioning will increase suicide risk in adolescents. Results showed that the risk of suicide was higher when the Relationships Scale total score (quality of communication and interaction in the family) was lower. After analyzing each subscale separately, it was demonstrated the specific relevance of Expressivity Subscale, referred to the level of free expression of feelings in the family, suggesting that the lower expressivity in the family, the higher suicide ideation showed by the adolescents, and Social-Recreative, referred to the social participation and leisure of the family, what means the more social participation, the less suicide ideation. These results are supported by other studies that show the relevance of modifying the family environment for reducing the suicidal risk among adolescents. The value of this data involves taking into account the families in the treatment programs for suicidal adolescents


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Transtorno da Personalidade Borderline/psicologia , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Ideação Suicida , Família/psicologia , Entrevista Psicológica , Fatores de Risco
7.
Psychopharmacology (Berl) ; 237(7): 2213-2230, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32382783

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Witnesses and victims typically provide the central leads in police investigations, yet statistics from past research indicates in many instances these individuals are intoxicated. OBJECTIVES: To date, however, no research has looked at how best to interview such witnesses to maximise the amount of accurate information they recall. METHODS: In the present research, whilst on a night out, participants watched a videoed theft whilst either sober or moderately (MBAC = 0.05%) or severely (MBAC = 0.14%) intoxicated. A week later, in a different location, participants were interviewed using either the Enhanced Cognitive (ECI) or Structured Interview. RESULTS: The ECI was found to improve the recall accuracy and completeness of witness accounts across all three drinking conditions. However, no significant interaction was indicated between alcohol and interview condition. CONCLUSIONS: The study findings are discussed in terms of their real-world value in aiding police officers to elicit as complete and as accurate an account as possible from intoxicated witnesses.


Assuntos
Intoxicação Alcoólica/psicologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Etanol/administração & dosagem , Entrevista Psicológica/métodos , Rememoração Mental/fisiologia , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos , Adulto , Intoxicação Alcoólica/diagnóstico , Cognição/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Rememoração Mental/efeitos dos fármacos
8.
Compr Psychiatry ; 100: 152177, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32360141

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To prevent negative effects of early-onset psychiatric disorders on children's development, structured diagnostics are needed. However, validated diagnostic instruments (based on DSM-5) for children aged 7 years and younger are scarce. The Diagnostic Infant and Preschool Assessment (DIPA) is a diagnostic interview developed in the USA for measuring 16 psychiatric disorders in young children. The psychometric properties of the American version of the DIPA have been validated. Here we determined the accuracy of the psychometric properties of the Dutch DSM-5 based version of the DIPA for the corresponding population. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Psychometric properties of the DSM-5 based version of the DIPA were determined based on a sample of 136 biological, foster, therapeutic foster and adoptive parents of clinically referred children and children involved in a serious accident (aged 1-7 years). In line with the American validation study, we included the following seven DIPA modules: posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), major depressive disorder (MDD), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), separation anxiety disorder (SAD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). We administered the DIPA, Trauma Symptom Checklist for Young Children (TSCYC) and Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Analyses were conducted with continuous outcomes (number of symptoms) and categorical outcomes (diagnoses). RESULTS: The Dutch DSM-5 based version of the DIPA showed good internal consistency and interrater reliability with both continuous and categorical variables. The concurrent validity was good; we found a good concordance between the DIPA and corresponding questionnaires on both the symptom and diagnoses level. In addition, the divergence on symptom level between the DIPA and non-corresponding questionnaires was adequate, which indicated adequate divergent validity. Due to a limited number of positive cases, we could not draw conclusions regarding its psychometric properties in the GAD and OCD modules. CONCLUSIONS: Our study shows promising initial results regarding the reliability and validity of the Dutch version of the DIPA, that is based on the DSM-5. Therefore, we recommend the use of the DIPA in research and clinical practice.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica/normas , Psicometria/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Entrevista Psicológica , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Psiquiatria/métodos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
9.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0233440, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32421757

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Female Genital Cutting (FGC) is a traditionally meaningful practice in Africa, the Middle East, and Asia. It is associated with a high risk of long-term physical and psychosexual health problems. Girls and women with FGC-related health problems need specialized healthcare services such as psychosexual counseling, deinfibulation, and clitoral reconstruction. Moreover, the need for psychosexual counseling increases in countries of immigration where FGC is not accepted and possibly stigmatized. In these countries, the practice loses its cultural meaning and girls and women with FGC are more likely to report psychosexual problems. In Norway, a country of immigration, psychosexual counseling is lacking. To decide whether to provide this and/or other services, it is important to explore the intention of the target population to use FGC-related healthcare services. That is as deinfibulation, an already available service, is underutilized. In this article, we explore whether girls and women with FGC intend to use FGC-related healthcare services, regardless of their availability in Norway. METHODS: We conducted 61 in-depth interviews with 26 Somali and Sudanese participants with FGC in Norway. We then validated our findings in three focus group discussions with additional 17 participants. FINDINGS: We found that most of our participants were positive towards psychosexual counseling and would use it if available. We also identified four cultural scenarios with different sets of sexual norms that centered on getting and/or staying married, and which largely influenced the participants' intention to use FGC-related services. These cultural scenarios are the virgin, the passive-, the conditioned active-, and the equal- sexual partner scenarios. Participants with negative attitudes towards the use of almost all of the FGC-related healthcare services were influenced by a set of norms pertaining to virginity and passive sexual behavior. In contrast, participants with positive attitudes towards the use of all of these same services were influenced by another set of norms pertaining to sexual and gender equality. On the other hand, participants with positive attitudes towards the use of services that can help to improve their marital sexual lives, yet negative towards the use of premarital services were influenced by a third set of norms that combined norms from the two aforementioned sets of norms. CONCLUSION: The intention to use FGC-related healthcare services varies between and within the different ethnic groups. Moreover, the same girl or woman can have different attitudes towards the use of the different FGC-related healthcare services or even towards the same services at the different stages of her life. These insights could prove valuable for Norwegian and other policy-makers and healthcare professionals during the planning and/or delivery of FGC-related healthcare services.


Assuntos
Circuncisão Feminina/métodos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde/etnologia , Serviços de Saúde , Comportamento Sexual , Adulto , Circuncisão Feminina/efeitos adversos , Circuncisão Feminina/etnologia , Emigração e Imigração , Feminino , Humanos , Intenção , Entrevista Psicológica , Noruega/epidemiologia , Aconselhamento Sexual , Somália/etnologia , Sudão/etnologia
10.
Am J Infect Control ; 48(6): 592-598, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-38791

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is spreading rapidly, bringing pressure and challenges to nursing staff. OBJECTIVE: To explore the psychology of nurses caring for COVID-19 patients. METHODS: Using a phenomenological approach, we enrolled 20 nurses who provided care for COVID-19 patients in the First Affiliated Hospital of Henan University of Science and Technology from January 20, to February 10, 2020. The interviews were conducted face-to-face or by telephone and were analysed by Colaizzi's 7-step method. RESULTS: The psychological experience of nurses caring for COVID-19 patients can be summarized into 4 themes. First, negative emotions present in early stage consisting of fatigue, discomfort, and helplessness was caused by high-intensity work, fear and anxiety, and concern for patients and family members. Second, self-coping styles included psychological and life adjustment, altruistic acts, team support, and rational cognition. Third, we found growth under pressure, which included increased affection and gratefulness, development of professional responsibility, and self-reflection. Finally, we showed that positive emotions occurred simultaneously with negative emotions. CONCLUSIONS: During an epidemic outbreak, positive and negative emotions of the front-line nurses interweaved and coexisted. In the early stage, negative emotions were dominant and positive emotions appeared gradually. Self-coping styles and psychological growth played an important role in maintaining mental health of nurses.


Assuntos
Cuidadores/psicologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros/psicologia , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem no Hospital/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Adaptação Psicológica , Adulto , Ansiedade/psicologia , Betacoronavirus , Coleta de Dados , Emoções , Fadiga/psicologia , Medo/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevista Psicológica , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pesquisa Qualitativa
11.
Psychol Assess ; 32(7): 677-689, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32324021

RESUMO

The Self-Injurious Thoughts and Behaviors Interview (SITBI) is a widely used measure of the presence, frequency, and characteristics of suicide and self-harming thoughts and behaviors. In response to advances in the conceptualization of these outcomes, and the potential for online data collection, we created a revised version of the SITBI (SITBI-R) and tested its psychometric properties via in-person interview and online self-report formats. Across two studies, the SITBI-R demonstrated strong psychometric properties for both assessment formats. In Study 1, outcomes measured via the SITBI-R showed convergent validity with those assessed with the Columbia Suicide Severity Rating Scale, another interview assessing suicidal thoughts and behaviors. The SITBI-R also showed strong alternate-forms reliability across nearly all outcomes assessed via both assessment formats. In Study 2, the SITBI-R showed strong test-retest reliability via the online assessment format. Across both studies, reliability was strongest for more recent outcomes (e.g., past year vs. lifetime) and for more commonly assessed outcomes of suicidal thoughts, plans, and attempts than for other, less commonly assessed behaviors (e.g., suicide gestures, interrupted suicide attempts, and aborted suicide attempts). The results of these two studies suggest that the SITBI-R provides reliable and valid measurement of key self-injurious outcomes both in person and online. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Entrevista Psicológica/normas , Psicometria/normas , Ideação Suicida , Tentativa de Suicídio , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Adulto Jovem
12.
Am J Infect Control ; 48(6): 592-598, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32334904

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is spreading rapidly, bringing pressure and challenges to nursing staff. OBJECTIVE: To explore the psychology of nurses caring for COVID-19 patients. METHODS: Using a phenomenological approach, we enrolled 20 nurses who provided care for COVID-19 patients in the First Affiliated Hospital of Henan University of Science and Technology from January 20, to February 10, 2020. The interviews were conducted face-to-face or by telephone and were analysed by Colaizzi's 7-step method. RESULTS: The psychological experience of nurses caring for COVID-19 patients can be summarized into 4 themes. First, negative emotions present in early stage consisting of fatigue, discomfort, and helplessness was caused by high-intensity work, fear and anxiety, and concern for patients and family members. Second, self-coping styles included psychological and life adjustment, altruistic acts, team support, and rational cognition. Third, we found growth under pressure, which included increased affection and gratefulness, development of professional responsibility, and self-reflection. Finally, we showed that positive emotions occurred simultaneously with negative emotions. CONCLUSIONS: During an epidemic outbreak, positive and negative emotions of the front-line nurses interweaved and coexisted. In the early stage, negative emotions were dominant and positive emotions appeared gradually. Self-coping styles and psychological growth played an important role in maintaining mental health of nurses.


Assuntos
Cuidadores/psicologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros/psicologia , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem no Hospital/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Adaptação Psicológica , Adulto , Ansiedade/psicologia , Betacoronavirus , Coleta de Dados , Emoções , Fadiga/psicologia , Medo/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevista Psicológica , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pesquisa Qualitativa
13.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0229538, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32187183

RESUMO

Participation, defined as 'involvement in life situations' according to the World Health Organisation, is a well-recognized concept and critical indicator of quality of life. In addition it has become an important outcome measure in child rehabilitation. However, little is known about the level of participation of young children with Developmental Disabilities. The aim of this study was to capture their subjective experiences of participation. An adapted informed consent based on a comic strip was used to get the children's assent. A Photo Elicitation study was used, in which photographs were taken by the children when they were involved in meaningful activities. The photographs were then used to facilitate communication with the children and to initiate in depth-interviews. Forty-seven interviews with 16 children between five and nine years were conducted based on their photographs. This method generated rich data, confirming that young children with Developmental Disabilities were able to inform us accurately on their experiences of participation. Data was analysed by means of an inductive thematic analysis. Results showed that children perceived their participation as satisfying when they can play, learn and join in family gatherings resulting in feelings of inclusion, recognition and belonging. When there are-on occasions-moments that their participation was obstructed, the children used two strategies to resolve it. Or they walked away from it and choose not to participate, or when autonomously motivated for the activity, they relied primarily on their context (i.e. mothers) as enabling their participation. Related to the data, children discussed themes related to their person, activities, connections and mediators between those themes. These themes fit well within earlier and current research on the subject of participation.


Assuntos
Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/psicologia , Entrevista Psicológica/métodos , Participação Social/psicologia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/fisiopatologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/fisiopatologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Comunicação , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/fisiopatologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Família , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Motivação/fisiologia , Pais , Fotografação/métodos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Qualidade de Vida , Percepção Visual/fisiologia
14.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 4075, 2020 03 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32139811

RESUMO

Ayahuasca is a hallucinogenic decoction used as a traditional medicine in several Amazonian regions. The ritualistic use of ayahuasca has spread throughout many countries, making it necessary to study its risks and benefits. Two sub-studies were designed for this investigation. In sub-study 1, a psychiatric interview and a battery of questionnaires were administered to subjects (n = 40) before their first ayahuasca use. Two follow-ups were conducted at 1 and 6 months. In sub-study 2, the same interview and battery of questionnaires were administered to long-term ayahuasca users (n = 23) and their scores were compared with those of the ayahuasca-naïve group. In the first assessment, nearly half (45%) of the naïve users were found to meet the diagnostic criteria for a psychiatric disorder. After the ayahuasca use, more than 80% of those subjects showed clinical improvements that persisted at 6 months. The questionnaires showed significant reductions in depression and psychopathology. Regarding sub-study 2, long-term users showed lower depression scores, and higher scores for self-transcendence and quality of life, as compared to their peers in sub-study 1. Further controlled and observational naturalistic studies assessing the eventual risks and potential benefits of ayahuasca are warranted.


Assuntos
Banisteriopsis/química , Alucinógenos/efeitos adversos , Transtornos Mentais/induzido quimicamente , Saúde Mental , Personalidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Qualidade de Vida , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevista Psicológica , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/patologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Psicopatologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
15.
Behav Ther ; 51(2): 283-293, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32138938

RESUMO

Irritability is impairing in youth and is the core feature of disruptive mood dysregulation disorder (DMDD). Currently, there are no established clinician-rated instruments to assess irritability in pediatric research and clinical settings. Clinician-rated measures ensure consistency of assessment across patients and are important specifically for treatment research. Here, we present data on the psychometric properties of the Clinician Affective Reactivity Index (CL-ARI), the first semistructured interview focused on pediatric irritability. The CL-ARI was administered to a transdiagnostic sample of 98 youth (M age = 12.66, SD = 2.47; 41% female). With respect to convergent validity, CL-ARI scores were (a) significantly higher for youth with DMDD than for any other diagnostic group, and (b) showed uniquely strong associations with other clinician-, parent-, and youth-report measures of irritability compared to measures of related constructs, such as anxiety. The three subscales of the CL-ARI (temper outbursts, irritable mood, impairment) showed excellent internal consistency. Test-retest reliability of the CL-ARI was adequate. These data support that irritability can be feasibly, validly, and reliably assessed by clinicians using the CL-ARI. A validated, gold-standard assessment of pediatric irritability is critical in advancing research and treatment efforts.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Deficit da Atenção e do Comportamento Disruptivo/psicologia , Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/diagnóstico , Entrevista Psicológica/normas , Humor Irritável , Transtornos do Humor/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Ansiedade/psicologia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
16.
Psychiatry Res ; 287: 112870, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32171125

RESUMO

Dissociation is associated with risk for suicide in adults, but this link is not well studied in adolescents, in spite of their marked suicide risk. This study assessed adolescents' dissociative experiences in daily life and evaluated the association between dissociative experiences and suicide risk, including the independence of this relationship from related affective and clinical states and demographic characteristics. Clinically referred early adolescents (N = 162; aged 11-13) were assessed via multi-informant clinical interview, questionnaires, and 4-day ecological momentary assessment protocol. Adolescents were classified as being at elevated suicide risk using multi-informant, multi-method reports of suicide risk behavior and/or at elevated proximal risk using the 4-day EMA only. Suicide risk was associated with daily dissociative experiences, and this relationship was independent of daily negative and positive affect and co-occurring borderline personality symptoms. Gender differences emerged, such that the relationship between daily dissociative experiences and suicide risk was only significant in adolescent girls. Overall, findings suggest dissociation may be independently relevant to adolescent suicide risk, above and beyond effects of psychopathology and affective disturbance, and especially in girls. Daily dissociative experiences may help understand and detect suicide risk among early adolescents and warrant further research.


Assuntos
Atividades Cotidianas/psicologia , Transtornos Dissociativos/psicologia , Fatores Sexuais , Suicídio/psicologia , Adolescente , Transtorno da Personalidade Borderline/psicologia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevista Psicológica , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
Behav Ther ; 51(2): 294-309, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32138939

RESUMO

Irritability is a substrate of more than one dozen clinical syndromes. Thus, identifying when it is atypical and interfering with functioning is crucial to the prevention of mental disorder in the earliest phase of the clinical sequence. Advances in developmentally based measurement of irritability have enabled differentiation of normative irritable mood and tantrums from indicators of concern, beginning in infancy. However, developmentally sensitive assessments of irritability-related impairment are lacking. We introduce the Early Childhood Irritability-Related Impairment Interview (E-CRI), which assesses impairment associated with irritable mood and tantrums across contexts. Reliability and validity are established across two independent samples varied by developmental period: the Emotional Growth preschool sample (EmoGrow; N = 151, M = 4.82 years) and the When to Worry infant/toddler sample (W2W; N = 330, M = 14 months). We generated a well-fitting two-factor E-CRI model, with tantrum- and irritable mood-related impairment factors. The E-CRI exhibited good interrater, test-retest, and longitudinal reliability. Construct and clinical validity were also demonstrated. In both samples, E-CRI factors showed association to internalizing and externalizing problems, and to caregiver-reported concern in W2W. Tantrum-related impairment demonstrated stronger and more consistent explanatory value across outcomes, while mood-related impairment added explanatory utility for internalizing problems. The E-CRI also showed incremental utility beyond variance explained by the Family Life Impairment Scale (FLIS) survey indicator of developmental impairment. The E-CRI holds promise as an indicator of impairment to inform identification of typical versus atypical patterns reflecting early emerging irritability-related syndromes in the initial phase of the clinical sequence.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/diagnóstico , Entrevista Psicológica/métodos , Humor Irritável , Agressão/psicologia , Pré-Escolar , Mecanismos de Defesa , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Projetos de Pesquisa
18.
BMC Psychol ; 8(1): 16, 2020 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32046782

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The literature on loss and traumatic grief after disasters provides findings on the impact of losing a partner, child or close friend on partners, parents and friends. However, little attention has been given to the broader everyday social environment of deceased persons. The present study constitutes a qualitative exploration of the impact on colleagues and neighbors following the MH17 airplane disaster in the Ukraine, July 2014. METHODS: Eighteen structured interviews were conducted with eleven colleagues and seven neighbors. The interviews focused on the relation(-ship) with the victim, on the disaster, the first days and weeks hereafter, and the status one and a half years after the crash. RESULTS: Especially for colleagues and neighbors with an intensive, long-lasting relation and ties based on friendship and trust, the impact of the sudden death was large. The MH17 disaster was considered a special event, different from, for instance, an "ordinary" accident. It was actively covered by the media and a recurrent conversation topic in meetings with other people. In the workplace, employers and less involved colleagues show empathy for a limited period of time, but grief has an expiration date - a moment where it gets more difficult to others or influences productivity. The appreciation for rituals in the workplace or in the neighborhood varies. CONCLUSIONS: The interviews indicate a "hierarchy of bereavement". People are not part of the typical inner circle, but feel "affected" and experience little social recognition and acknowledgment, particularly in the longer term. As such, colleagues and neighbors may experience loneliness and/or isolation. Generally, there is no need to consult a practitioner, despite the experience of health complaints such as intrusive dreaming and lack of sleep.


Assuntos
Acidentes Aeronáuticos/psicologia , Luto , Desastres , Amigos/psicologia , Adulto , Empatia , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevista Psicológica , Masculino , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Meio Social , Ucrânia
19.
J Child Sex Abus ; 29(2): 129-137, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32097109

RESUMO

This article contextualizes new knowledge about forensically interviewing and assessing children when there are concerns about child abuse. The article references the impact of the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act and the circumstance in the 1980s where investigators and clinicians had little guidance about how to interview children about alleged sexual abuse. It further speaks to the consequences of lack of interview guidelines and how videotaped interviews in the McMartin Pre-school cases served as the catalyst for the backlash against child interviewers and their interview techniques. Painful as the backlash was, it led to research and evidence-based practice in interviewing children about child sexual and other abuse. Principal among the practice innovations were forensic interview structures to be used when there is alleged child sexual and other abuse and the strong preference for one interview by a skilled interviewer, who is nevertheless a stranger to the child. Although these innovations satisfied many professionals in the child maltreatment field and critics of child interviewers, the new practices did not address a number of abiding issues: 1) how to meet the needs of children who are unable to disclose maltreatment in a single interview, 2) how to determine which children are suggestible in a forensic interview, and 3) how decisions are made about the likelihood of abuse, based upon the child's information during the interview. The articles in this special section address these cutting-edge issues.


Assuntos
Abuso Sexual na Infância , Psiquiatria Legal/normas , Entrevista Psicológica/normas , Criança , Abuso Sexual na Infância/legislação & jurisprudência , Humanos
20.
J Abnorm Psychol ; 129(4): 343-354, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32105122

RESUMO

Ratings by different informants such as parents, teachers, and youths are important to accurately assess adolescent problem behavior. Agreement among informant ratings on adolescent problem behavior, however, is typically only low to moderate. Rather than dismiss these low levels of agreement between informants' ratings as being unreliable, low agreement is considered to reflect each informant's unique view on problem behavior. The overall aim of this study is to examine how much repeated parent, teacher, and self-ratings of internalizing and externalizing problems in adolescents add to single informant ratings in the prediction of internalizing and externalizing DSM disorders in adulthood. Parent, teacher and self-ratings were obtained in 588 adolescents (49.1% boys) aged 11-14 years (at baseline) at 3 time points, spanning 4 years. Twenty years after the first assessment, DSM diagnoses were obtained through structured psychiatric interviews when individuals were 31-34 years. We used structural equation models to investigate whether discrepancies and changes in discrepancies over time between parent, teacher, and self-reports of problem behavior contributed to the prediction of DSM diagnoses. We found that higher levels of internalizing problems in adolescence correlated, r = .14, SE = .06, p = .035 with more internalizing disorders in adulthood and that higher levels of externalizing problems in adolescence correlated, r = .23, SE = .07, p = .001 with more externalizing disorders in adulthood. Increasing discrepancies across 2 time periods between teacher and self-reports of internalizing problems correlated r = .14 (SE = .06, p = .033) and r = .13 (SE = .05, p = .016), respectively, with fewer DSM internalizing disorders in adulthood. Further, higher baseline discrepancies between parent and self-reports of externalizing problems correlated, r = .11, SE = .05, p = .018 with fewer DSM externalizing disorders, whereas increases of discrepancies over time correlated, r = .13, SE = .06, p = .036 with more DSM externalizing disorders in adulthood. We found no association of problem scores in one domain with adult disorders of another domain, for example, no association between internalizing symptoms and externalizing disorders. Discrepancies and changes in discrepancies over time of parent and self-reports and of teacher and self-reports of internalizing and externalizing problems contributed to the prediction of adult internalizing and externalizing DSM disorders. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Comportamento Problema/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Entrevista Psicológica , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Pais/psicologia , Fatores de Risco , Autorrelato
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