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1.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 126, 2021 01 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33435943

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Air pollution has been linked to increased mortality and morbidity. The Program 4 of the Healthy Aging in Industrial Environment study investigates whether the health and wellbeing benefits of physical activity (PA) can be fully realized in individuals living in highly polluted environments. Herein, we introduce the behavioral, psychological and neuroimaging protocol of the study. METHODS: This is a prospective cohort study of N = 1500 individuals aged 18-65 years comparing: (1) individuals living in the highly polluted, industrial region surrounding the city of Ostrava (n = 750), and (2) controls from the comparison region with relative low pollution levels in Southern Bohemia (n = 750). Quota sampling is used to obtain samples balanced on age, gender, PA status (60% active runners vs. 40% insufficiently active). Participants are screened and complete baseline assessments through online questionnaires and in-person lab-based assessments of physiological, biomechanical, neuroimaging and cognitive function parameters. Prospective 12-month intensive monitoring of air pollution and behavioral parameters (PA, inactivity, and sleep) follows, with a focus on PA-related injuries and psychological factors through fitness trackers, smartphones, and mobile apps. Subsequently, there will be a 5-year follow-up of the study cohort. DISCUSSION: The design of the study will allow for (1) the assessment of both short-term variation and long-term change in behavioral parameters, (2) evaluation of the incidence of musculoskeletal injuries and psychological factors impacting behavior and injury recovery, and (3) the impact that air pollution status (and change) has on behavior, psychological resilience, and injury recovery. Furthermore, the integration of MRI techniques and cognitive assessment in combination with data on behavioral, biological and environmental variables will provide an opportunity to examine brain structure and cognitive function in relation to health behavior and air pollution, as well as other factors affecting resilience against and vulnerability to adverse changes in brain structure and cognitive aging. This study will help inform individuals about personal risk factors and decision-makers about the impact of environmental factors on negative health outcomes and potential underlying biological, behavioral and psychological mechanisms. Challenges and opportunities stemming from the timing of the study that coincided with the COVID-19 pandemic are also discussed.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Exercício Físico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Envelhecimento Saudável , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neuroimagem , Estudos Prospectivos , Pirimidinas/química , Projetos de Pesquisa , Resiliência Psicológica , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33430189

RESUMO

Targeting dementia prevention, first trials addressing multiple modifiable risk factors showed promising results in at-risk populations. In Germany, AgeWell.de is the first large-scale initiative investigating the effectiveness of a multi-component lifestyle intervention against cognitive decline. We aimed to investigate the recruitment process and baseline characteristics of the AgeWell.de participants to gain an understanding of the at-risk population and who engages in the intervention. General practitioners across five study sites recruited participants (aged 60-77 years, Cardiovascular Risk Factors, Aging, and Incidence of Dementia/CAIDE dementia risk score ≥ 9). Structured face-to-face interviews were conducted with eligible participants, including neuropsychological assessments. We analyzed group differences between (1) eligible vs. non-eligible participants, (2) participants vs. non-participants, and (3) between intervention groups. Of 1176 eligible participants, 146 (12.5%) dropped out before baseline; the study population was thus 1030 individuals. Non-participants did not differ from participants in key sociodemographic factors and dementia risk. Study participants were M = 69.0 (SD = 4.9) years old, and 52.1% were women. The average Montreal Cognitive Assessment/MoCA score was 24.5 (SD = 3.1), indicating a rather mildly cognitively impaired study population; however, 39.4% scored ≥ 26, thus being cognitively unimpaired. The bandwidth of cognitive states bears the interesting potential for differential trial outcome analyses. However, trial conduction is impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic, requiring adjustments to the study protocol with yet unclear methodological consequences.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva/prevenção & controle , Estilo de Vida , Seleção de Pacientes , Idoso , Feminino , Alemanha , Envelhecimento Saudável , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33371404

RESUMO

Active ageing (AA) policies aim to improve quality of life of older people by enabling better social participation and inclusion. Despite many international initiatives to promote AA undertaken in recent years, Italy did not systematically address this policy challenge until very recently. This paper presents the first national Plan-of-Action (PoA) (2019-2022) adopted by this country for supporting policy design and recommendation in this field. The PoA aims to create a multilevel, co-managed coordination of AA policies, by involving a network of national and regional policy makers, experts, researchers and stakeholders in civil society. The ad-hoc consultation process established for this purpose helps the recognition of different interests and expectations on AA, fostering new solutions by involvement, consultation and joint discussion of policy options. The PoA is designed to cover the traditional policy cycle, including the stages of agenda setting, policy formulation, decision-making, implementation and monitoring. At the end of the period covered by the PoA, an Italian AA Strategy will be launched to achieve systematic impact in this field, thus ensuring a long-term, sustainable impact on national and regional policy makers, civil society and research community.


Assuntos
Política de Saúde , Envelhecimento Saudável , Qualidade de Vida , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Humanos , Itália , Participação Social
4.
Brasília, D.F.; OPAS; 2020-10-20. (OPAS-W/BRA/FPL/20-120).
em Português | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr2-52902

RESUMO

Este documento descreve o plano para uma Década do Envelhecimento Saudável 2020-2030, que consistirá em 10 anos de colaboração combinada, catalítica e sustentada. As próprias pessoas idosas estarão no centro desse plano, que reunirá governos, a sociedade civil, agências internacionais, profissionais, a academia, a mídia e o setor privado para melhorar a vida das pessoas idosas, de suas famílias e de suas comunidades. Este é o segundo plano de ação da Estratégia Global sobre envelhecimento e saúde da OMS, construído com base no Plano de Ação Internacional sobre o Envelhecimento das Nações Unidas de Madri e alinhado com o cronograma da Agenda 2030 das Nações Unidas sobre Desenvolvimento Sustentável e com os Objetivos de Desenvolvimento Sustentável.


Assuntos
Idoso , Envelhecimento Saudável , Promoção da Saúde , Envelhecimento , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Objetivos de Desenvolvimento do Milênio
5.
J Cross Cult Gerontol ; 35(4): 389-408, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33034796

RESUMO

Understanding older adults perceptions of health and adaptation processes to ageing can allow for more culturally aligned services and better targeted care. The aim of this exploratory qualitative study was to examine older adults perceptions of physical, psychological and social health and further understand the processes of adaptation and self-management of these health perceptions. Semi-structured in depth interviews (IDI) were conducted with ethnically diverse older adults in Singapore, aged 60 and above. Participants were asked open ended questions about their physical health, psychological health and their current social health and relationships. They were also asked methods of adaptation to these age related changes. In total, forty participants were interviewed. A thematic analysis identified five main themes when exploring perceptions of physical, psychological and social health. These included; 1) Slowing down 2) Relationship harmony 3) Financial harmony 4) Social connectedness and 5) Eating together. Adaptation and self-management of these health perceptions included six additional themes; 1) Keep moving 2) Keep learning; where continued self-determination and resilience was a key method in adapting to negative thoughts about declining physical health 3) Adopting avoidant coping behaviours 4) 'It feels good to do good'; where finding meaning in life was to help others 5) 'Power of Prayer'; which highlighted how older adults relegated responsibilities to a higher spiritual power 6) Social participation; which included engaging in community and religious social activities that all contributed to self-management of older adults psychological health and social health. In conclusion, our study highlighted specific cultural nuances in older adults perceptions of health, particularly psychological and social health. These findings can help develop more targeted intervention programmes and better methods of measuring older adults health, which can assist with the global ageing phenomena.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/psicologia , Envelhecimento Saudável/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Adaptação Psicológica , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Singapura , Apoio Social
6.
J Cross Cult Gerontol ; 35(4): 455-478, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33064233

RESUMO

Successful aging is a concept that has gained popularity and relevance internationally among gerontologists in recent decades. Examining lay older adults' perspectives on successful aging can enhance our understanding of what successful aging means. We conducted a systematic review of peer reviewed studies from multiple countries published in 2010-2020 that contained qualitative responses of lay older adults to open-ended questions such as "What does successful aging mean to you?" We identified 23 studies conducted in 13 countries across North America, Western Europe, the Middle East, Asia, and Oceania. We identified no studies meeting our criteria in Africa, South America, Eastern Europe, North Asia, or Pacific Islands. Across all regions represented in our review, older adults most commonly referred to themes of social engagement and positive attitude in their own lay definitions of successful aging. Older adults also commonly identified themes of independence and physical health. Least mentioned were themes of cognitive health and spirituality. Lay definitions of successful aging varied by country and culture. Our findings suggest that gerontology professionals in fields including healthcare, health psychology, and public health may best serve older adults by providing services that align with older adults' priority of maintaining strong social engagement as they age. Lay perspectives on successful aging acknowledge the importance of positive attitude, independence, and spirituality, in addition to physical and cognitive functioning.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/etnologia , Atitude Frente a Saúde/etnologia , Comparação Transcultural , Envelhecimento Saudável/etnologia , Adaptação Psicológica , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Ásia , Cognição , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Geriatria , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Oriente Médio , América do Norte , Oceania , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Apoio Social , Espiritualidade
7.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0237207, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33125392

RESUMO

In this work we propose an index to estimate the gut microbiota biodiversity using a modeling approach with the aim of describing its relationship with health and aging. The gut microbiota, a complex ecosystem that links nutrition and metabolism, has a pervasive effect on all body organs and systems, undergoes profound changes with age and life-style, and substantially contributes to the pathogenesis of age-related diseases. For these reasons, the gut microbiota is a suitable candidate for assessing and quantifying healthy aging, i.e. the capability of individuals to reach an advanced age, avoiding or postponing major age-related diseases. The importance of the gut microbiota in health and aging has been proven to be related not only to its taxonomic composition, but also to its ecological properties, namely its biodiversity. Following an ecological approach, here we intended to characterize the relationship between the gut microbiota biodiversity and healthy aging through the development a parsimonious model of gut microbiota from which biodiversity can be estimated. We analysed publicly available metagenomic data relative to subjects of different ages, countries, nutritional habits and health status and we showed that a hybrid niche-neutral model well describes the observed patterns of bacterial relative abundance. Moreover, starting from such ecological modeling, we derived an estimate of the gut microbiota biodiversity that is consistent with classical indices, while having a higher statistical power. This allowed us to unveil an increase of the gut microbiota biodiversity during aging and to provide a good predictor of health status in old age, dependent on life-style and aging disorders.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Modelos Biológicos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Envelhecimento/genética , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Biodiversidade , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Bases de Dados de Ácidos Nucleicos , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Nível de Saúde , Envelhecimento Saudável/genética , Envelhecimento Saudável/fisiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Metagenoma , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Adulto Jovem
9.
An. psicol ; 36(2): 340-347, mayo 2020. graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-192071

RESUMO

This study's goal is the validation of the Portuguese version of the Basic Need Satisfaction General Scale (BNSG-S: Sousa, Pais Ribeiro, Palmeira, Teixeira, & Silva, 2012) in a sample of Portuguese older people, and analyze through a structural equations model the effect of the Portuguese elderly individuals' global perception about the satisfaction of basic psychological needs on subjective well-being. Two samples of Portuguese elderly people aged between 60 and 90 years old were considered in this study. The results reveal that only Model 3 of the BNSG-S (3 factors, 11 items) showed good results of adjustment to the data (Χ2103,16, df=41, SRMR=.05, TLI=.90, CFI=.93, RMSEA=.07, 90% CI=.05-.08). In the second part of the study, we verified that satisfaction of basic psychological needs has a positive effect on subjective well-being in Portuguese elderly people. In the presence of this evidence, we concluded that the Portuguese version of the BNSG-S can be used as a means to evaluate the satisfaction of the basic psychological needs of the older population and their satisfaction has a positive effect on subjective well-being in the Portuguese older population


El objetivo de este estudio es la validación de la versión en portugués de la Escala General de Satisfacción de Necesidades Básicas (BNSG-S) en una muestra de personas mayores portuguesas, y analizar mediante el modelo de ecuaciones estructurales, el efecto de la percepción global de los ancianos portugueses sobre la satisfacción de las necesidades psicológicas básicas en el bienestar subjetivo. En este estudio se emplearon dos muestras de ancianos portugueses de entre 60 y 90 años de edad. Los resultados revelan que solo el Modelo 3 del BNSG-S (tres factores, 11 ítems) mostró buenos resultados de ajuste a los datos ((Χ2 = 103.16, df = 41, SRMR = .05, TLI = .90, CFI = .93, RMSEA = .07, 90% CI = .05-.08). En la segunda parte del estudio verificamos que la satisfacción de las necesidades psicológicas básicas tiene un efecto positivo en el bienestar subjetivo en los ancianos portugueses. En presencia de esta evidencia, llegamos a la conclusión de que la versión portuguesa del BNSG-S puede utilizarse como un medio para evaluar la satisfacción de las necesidades psicológicas básicas de la población de mayor edad y su satisfacción tiene un efecto positivo sobre el bienestar subjetivo en la población portuguesa de más edad


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde , Idoso/psicologia , Saúde Mental , Satisfação Pessoal , Envelhecimento Saudável/psicologia , Portugal , Inquéritos e Questionários , Modelos Psicológicos
10.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(39): e22381, 2020 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32991458

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The mean age of the German population increased over the last years, which resulted in a higher prevalence of cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes, cognitive impairment, sarcopenia and bone fractures. Current evidence indicates a preservation of human wellbeing in the elderly by a healthy diet, although the recommended macronutrient composition and quality remains unclear and needs further long-term investigation. In this context we investigate the effect of a specific dietary pattern on age-related disorders in a randomized controlled multi-center trial (RCT). METHODS: We assess the effect of a specific dietary pattern (NutriAct) with a high proportion of unsaturated fat, plant proteins and fibres (fat 35%-40% of total energy (%E) of which 15%E-20%E monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and 10%E-15%E polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), 15%E-25%E proteins, ≥30 g fibres per day and 35%E-45%E carbohydrates) on age-related impairment of health within a 36-months RCT conducted in the region of Berlin and Potsdam. 502 eligible men (n = 183) and women (n = 319), aged 50 to 80 years, with an increased risk to develop age-related diseases were randomly assigned to either an intervention group focusing on NutriAct dietary pattern or a control group focusing on usual care and dietary recommendations in accordance to the German Nutrition Society (DGE). In the intervention group, 21 nutrition counsellings as well as supplementation of rapeseed oil, oil cake and specific designed foods are used to achieve the intended NutriAct dietary pattern.The primary outcome is a composite endpoint of age-related disorders, including cardiovascular morbidity, decline of cognitive function as well as clinical features of sarcopenia. Secondary outcomes include diet-induced effects on quality of life, depression, frailty, cardiovascular function, bone density, fat distribution pattern, glucose, lipid and energy metabolism, as well as the identification of biomarkers linked with age-related disorders. DISCUSSION: The findings of this trial will provide clinically relevant information regarding dietary effects on age-related impairment of health and will contribute to the definition of the optimal macronutrient composition in the context of healthy aging in the German population.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Disfunção Cognitiva/prevenção & controle , Dieta Saudável , Envelhecimento Saudável , Sarcopenia/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
11.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4340, 2020 09 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32895386

RESUMO

Healthy cognitive ageing is a societal and public health priority. Cerebrovascular risk factors increase the likelihood of dementia in older people but their impact on cognitive ageing in younger, healthy brains is less clear. The UK Biobank provides cognition and brain imaging measures in the largest population cohort studied to date. Here we show that cognitive abilities of healthy individuals (N = 22,059) in this sample are detrimentally affected by cerebrovascular risk factors. Structural equation modelling revealed that cerebrovascular risk is associated with reduced cerebral grey matter and white matter integrity within a fronto-parietal brain network underlying executive function. Notably, higher systolic blood pressure was associated with worse executive cognitive function in mid-life (44-69 years), but not in late-life (>70 years). During mid-life this association did not occur in the systolic range of 110-140 mmHg. These findings suggest cerebrovascular risk factors impact on brain structure and cognitive function in healthy people.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/fisiopatologia , Transtornos Cognitivos/fisiopatologia , Envelhecimento Saudável , Adulto , Idoso , Pressão Sanguínea , Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Córtex Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Estudos de Coortes , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Feminino , Substância Cinzenta/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Substância Branca/fisiopatologia
12.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4487, 2020 09 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32900998

RESUMO

An important aspect of precision medicine is to probe the stability in molecular profiles among healthy individuals over time. Here, we sample a longitudinal wellness cohort with 100 healthy individuals and analyze blood molecular profiles including proteomics, transcriptomics, lipidomics, metabolomics, autoantibodies and immune cell profiling, complemented with gut microbiota composition and routine clinical chemistry. Overall, our results show high variation between individuals across different molecular readouts, while the intra-individual baseline variation is low. The analyses show that each individual has a unique and stable plasma protein profile throughout the study period and that many individuals also show distinct profiles with regards to the other omics datasets, with strong underlying connections between the blood proteome and the clinical chemistry parameters. In conclusion, the results support an individual-based definition of health and show that comprehensive omics profiling in a longitudinal manner is a path forward for precision medicine.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento Saudável/metabolismo , Metaboloma , Proteoma/metabolismo , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Envelhecimento Saudável/genética , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Lipidômica , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Metabolômica , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medicina de Precisão , Estudos Prospectivos , Proteômica , Suécia , Transcriptoma
13.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(38): e22248, 2020 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32957372

RESUMO

With the advance of medical care, the duration of dependency on nursing care in later life has increased worldwide. There is a question of whether farm work could extend or shorten the dependency duration. We investigated the association between farm work experience and the duration of dependency on nursing support or care in late life.We randomly selected 600 adults aged ≥65 years, who were independent and not hospitalized, as part of the Yamanashi Healthy-Active Life Expectancy cohort and followed them for 13 years. We defined the duration of dependency as the time from reception of long-term care insurance benefits to death, and we adjusted for multiple covariates.We analyzed data from 225 adults (139 men and 86 women) who died during the follow-up period. Ninety four had received long-term care benefits. Mean age was 79.6 years (standard deviation [SD]: 6.3) in individuals with farm work experience and 80.1 years (SD: 7.2) in individuals without farm work experience. The estimated duration of dependency on long-term care was 1.3 years (standard error [SE]: 0.4) in individuals with farm work experience vs 2.1 years (SE: 0.5) in individuals without farm work experience (P = .01). The estimated duration of dependency in individuals with farm work experience and without farm work experience was 0.4 years (SE: 0.5) vs 1.3 years (SE: 0.6) in men respectively (P = .03) and 1.6 years (SE: 0.9) vs 2.4 years (SE: 0.9) in women, respectively (P = .16). The sensitivity analysis yielded an estimated duration of 1.2 years (SE: 0.5) in those with farm work experience and 2.3 years (SE: 0.5) in those without farm work experience (P = .004).Individuals with farm work experience required less long-term care prior to death, suggesting that agricultural and physical activities promote health. Policymakers focusing on preventing the need for nursing care in older populations could consider promoting farming or gardening.


Assuntos
Utilização de Instalações e Serviços , Fazendeiros/psicologia , Envelhecimento Saudável , Vida Independente , Assistência de Longa Duração/estatística & dados numéricos , Casas de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Expectativa de Vida , Masculino , Fatores de Tempo
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32854268

RESUMO

Improving healthy life years requires an effective understanding and management of the process of healthy ageing. Assessing the perceived health status and its determinants is a relevant step in this process. This study explored the potentialities of the Minimum European Health Module (MEHM) to cope with this critical issue. Investigation was conducted on 4798 Italian residents (49.7% women, aged 35-79 years), participating in the CUORE Project Health Examination Survey 2008-2012. The three MEHM questions-perceived health status, chronic morbidity and activity limitations-were examined also in association with living context, seasonality, marital status and level of education. A higher prevalence of health status negative perception was associated with older age (9% and 24% respectively in men and women aged 35-44 years; 46% and 61% respectively in men and women aged 75-79 years). In women, this negative perception was higher than in men in any age group, and reached 50% in the 65-69 age group, 10 years earlier than in men. For both sexes, the level of education had a strong impact on this negative perception (odds ratio 2.32 and 2.72 in men and women respectively), while "living alone" played a greater impact in women than in men. MEHM activity limitations subscale was as much as 30% higher for questionnaires answered during the hottest months. This study identified potential predictors of perceived health status in adults aged 35-79 years, which can be used to target interventions aimed at improving self-perceived health status.


Assuntos
Atitude Frente a Saúde , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Nível de Saúde , Envelhecimento Saudável , Adulto , Idoso , Escolaridade , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32842526

RESUMO

(1) Background: The aim of this study is to establish which specific elements of the built environment can contribute to improving the physical activity of self-sufficient, noninstitutionalized and living in the city adults > 65 years. (2) Methods: An extensive literature search was conducted in several database. Umbrella review methodology was used to include the reviews that presented a sufficient methodological quality. (3) Results: Eleven reviews were included. The elements positively associated with physical activity in older adults were: walkability; residential density/urbanization; street connectivity; land-use mix-destination diversity; overall access to facilities, destinations and services; pedestrian-friendly infrastructures; greenery and aesthetically pleasing scenery; high environmental quality; street lighting; crime-related safety; traffic-related safety. The elements that were negatively associated with physical activity were: poor pedestrian access to shopping centers; poor pedestrian-friendly infrastructure and footpath quality; barriers to walking/cycling; lack of aesthetically pleasing scenery; crime-related unsafety; unattended dogs; inadequate street lighting and upkeep; traffic; littering, vandalism, decay; pollution; noise. (4) Conclusions: Evidence shows that specific elements of the built environment can contribute to promoting older people's physical activity. The city restructuring plans should take into consideration these factors.


Assuntos
Ambiente Construído , Exercício Físico , Promoção da Saúde , Envelhecimento Saudável , Características de Residência , Caminhada , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Cidades , Estudos Transversais , Cães , Planejamento Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
16.
Maturitas ; 139: 6-11, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32747042

RESUMO

The ageing of the global population is the most important medical and social demographic problem worldwide. The World Health Organization (WHO) has defined healthy ageing as a process of maintaining functional ability to enable wellbeing in older age. The WHO, Member States and Partners for Sustainable Development Goals have created a Global Strategy and Action Plan for Ageing and Health for 2016-2020 and its continuation with the WHO programme The Decade of Healthy Ageing 2020-2030. The WHO has established main priorities such as supporting country planning and action, collecting better global data and promoting research on healthy ageing, aligning health systems to the needs of older people, laying the foundations and ensuring the human resources necessary for long-term integrated care, undertaking a global campaign to combat ageism, and enhancing the global network for age-friendly cities and communities. There are several reports of coordinated preventive health and social health initiatives in well developed countries. However, there is little evidence on the application of the active ageing frameworks in developing countries. Greater national capacities and closer monitoring of the progress through age-disaggregated data is needed to effectively implement the intended programmes on healthy ageing.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Envelhecimento Saudável , Idoso , Saúde Global , Humanos , Organização Mundial da Saúde
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32751898

RESUMO

Social connectedness in later life is an important dimension of an age-friendly community, with associated implications for individual health and wellbeing. In contrast with prior efforts focusing on connections at a distance or online communities where the digital technology is the interface, we explore the design opportunities and role of technology for connectedness within a geographically local community context. We present findings from interviews with 22 older adults and a linked ideation workshop. Our analysis identified shared concerns and negative perceptions around local relationships, connections and characteristics of the geographical area. However, local connectedness through technology was largely absent from day-to-day life and even perceived as contributing to disconnection. By uncovering how older adults use and perceive technology in their social lives and combining these findings with their ideas for improving local connections, we highlight the need for thoughtful consideration of the role of technology in optimising social connections within communities. Our research highlights a need for design work to understand the specifics of the local context and reduce emphasis on technology as the interface between people. We introduce an amended definition-'underpinned by a commitment to respect and social inclusion, an age-friendly community is engaged in a strategic and ongoing process to facilitate active ageing by optimising the community's physical, social and digital environments and its supporting infrastructure'-to conceptualise our approach. We conclude by suggesting areas for future work in developing digitally connected age-friendly communities.


Assuntos
Meio Ambiente , Invenções , Apoio Social , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Envelhecimento Saudável , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino
18.
PLoS Genet ; 16(8): e1008982, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32841230

RESUMO

High glucose diets are unhealthy, although the mechanisms by which elevated glucose is harmful to whole animal physiology are not well understood. In Caenorhabditis elegans, high glucose shortens lifespan, while chemically inflicted glucose restriction promotes longevity. We investigated the impact of glucose metabolism on aging quality (maintained locomotory capacity and median lifespan) and found that, in addition to shortening lifespan, excess glucose negatively impacts locomotory healthspan. Conversely, disrupting glucose utilization by knockdown of glycolysis-specific genes results in large mid-age physical improvements via a mechanism that requires the FOXO transcription factor DAF-16. Adult locomotory capacity is extended by glycolysis disruption, but maximum lifespan is not, indicating that limiting glycolysis can increase the proportion of life spent in mobility health. We also considered the largely ignored role of glucose biosynthesis (gluconeogenesis) in adult health. Directed perturbations of gluconeogenic genes that specify single direction enzymatic reactions for glucose synthesis decrease locomotory healthspan, suggesting that gluconeogenesis is needed for healthy aging. Consistent with this idea, overexpression of the central gluconeogenic gene pck-2 (encoding PEPCK) increases health measures via a mechanism that requires DAF-16 to promote pck-2 expression in specific intestinal cells. Dietary restriction also features DAF-16-dependent pck-2 expression in the intestine, and the healthspan benefits conferred by dietary restriction require pck-2. Together, our results describe a new paradigm in which nutritional signals engage gluconeogenesis to influence aging quality via DAF-16. These data underscore the idea that promotion of gluconeogenesis might be an unappreciated goal for healthy aging and could constitute a novel target for pharmacological interventions that counter high glucose consequences, including diabetes.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/genética , Gluconeogênese/genética , Envelhecimento Saudável/genética , Animais , Restrição Calórica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/genética , Glucose/metabolismo , Humanos , Expectativa de Vida , Longevidade/genética , Fosfoenolpiruvato Carboxiquinase (ATP)/genética , Transdução de Sinais/genética
19.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237059, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32764826

RESUMO

Mortality disparities are influenced by race and poverty. There is limited information about whether poverty influences biologic markers of mortality risk. Emerging data suggests that growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15) is associated with mortality; however, the interplay between GDF15, sociodemographic factors and mortality is not known. We sought to evaluate the interactions between GDF15 and sex, race and poverty status on mortality. Serum GDF15 was measured in 1036 African American and white middle-aged men and women above and below 125% of the Federal poverty status from the Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity across the Life Span (HANDLS) study. Multivariable adjusted Cox regression models were used to assess the association between log-transformed GDF15 (logGDF15) and 12-year mortality outcomes (all-cause, cardiovascular- and cancer-specific outcomes) and interactions with sex, race and poverty status. Likelihood ratio tests were used to assess significance of the interaction terms. Median GDF15 was 655.2 pg/mL (IQR = 575.1). During 12.2 years of follow-up, 331 died of which 94 cardiovascular- and 87 were cancer-specific deaths. One unit of increase in logGDF15 was associated with a hazard ratio for all-cause mortality, cardiovascular- and cancer-specific mortality of 2.26 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.94-2.64), 2.74 (95%CI, 2.06-3.63) and 1.41 (95%CI, 1.00-2.00), respectively. There was an interaction between logGDF15 and poverty status on all-cause mortality (p<0.05). The GDF15×poverty status interaction term improved model calibration for all-cause mortality. Our study provides the first evidence that the effect of elevated GDF15 on all-cause mortality is modified by poverty status.


Assuntos
Fator 15 de Diferenciação de Crescimento/sangue , Mortalidade , Pobreza , Saúde da População Urbana , Adulto , Afro-Americanos , Biomarcadores/sangue , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Envelhecimento Saudável/sangue , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , População Urbana
20.
Psychol Aging ; 35(5): 720-728, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32744853

RESUMO

Inhibitory control is thought to be critical for appropriate response selection in an ever-changing environment and to decline with age. However, experimental paradigms (e.g., go/no-go) confound stimulus frequency with demands to respond or inhibit responding. The present study eliminated that confound by using a modified go/no-go task controlling for stimulus frequency differences (using frequent-go, infrequent-go, and infrequent no-go types of stimuli) in healthy older and young adults. Event-related potential (ERP) components related to detection of response conflict (N2) and response evaluation (P3) were also examined. Behaviorally, older and young adults were sensitive to stimulus frequencies indicated by significant slowing for the infrequent-go compared with the frequent-go stimuli observed in both groups. Furthermore, older adults were characterized by reduced commission errors and overall slowing, suggesting that they could take advantage of their slower performance. Increase of N2 amplitude was evident for correctly inhibited no-go stimuli in both groups. In contrast, no-go stimulus-related increase in P3 amplitude could be observed only in the young. Stimulus frequency-related ERP amplitude differences were not significant either in the young or in the older adults. These results suggest preserved behavioral control over inappropriate responses in older adults and indicate that efficient response inhibition is related to compensatory mechanisms. The age-related decrease in the P3 amplitude suggests that the evaluation of response inhibition (a) could be independent of the detection of response conflict and (b) supports the notion of strategic differences in performance with age. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Potenciais Evocados/fisiologia , Envelhecimento Saudável/genética , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
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