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1.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1260: 193-265, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32304036

RESUMO

Worldwide, individuals are living longer due to medical and scientific advances, increased availability of medical care and changes in public health policies. Consequently, increasing attention has been focused on managing chronic conditions and age-related diseases to ensure healthy aging. The endogenous circadian system regulates molecular, physiological and behavioral rhythms orchestrating functional coordination and processes across tissues and organs. Circadian disruption or desynchronization of circadian oscillators increases disease risk and appears to accelerate aging. Reciprocally, aging weakens circadian function aggravating age-related diseases and pathologies. In this review, we summarize the molecular composition and structural organization of the circadian system in mammals and humans, and evaluate the technological and societal factors contributing to the increasing incidence of circadian disorders. Furthermore, we discuss the adverse effects of circadian dysfunction on aging and longevity and the bidirectional interactions through which aging affects circadian function using examples from mammalian research models and humans. Additionally, we review promising methods for managing healthy aging through behavioral and pharmacological reinforcement of the circadian system. Understanding age-related changes in the circadian clock and minimizing circadian dysfunction may be crucial components to promote healthy aging.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/patologia , Relógios Circadianos/fisiologia , Ritmo Circadiano/fisiologia , Doença , Longevidade/fisiologia , Animais , Envelhecimento Saudável/fisiologia , Humanos
2.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 290, 2020 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32306918

RESUMO

In the context of global aging, HIV infection has become a new chronic disease and requires innovative models of care. Treating isolated comorbidities represents a useless and potentially harmful practice at advanced age. Therefore, a patient-centered approach, in which the interventions are focused on the biology and function of the individual, with understanding of the importance of securing social and home environment that provides psychosocial support, better suits unmet health needs. We present a paradigmatic case of healthy aging: the first reported HIV-infected patient who achieved 100th of life - the Lisbon patient. The construct of healthy aging, recently introduced by the World Health Organization, is the best example of this comprehensive model and could represent the fourth target of UNAIDS agenda of the end of AIDS.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/terapia , Envelhecimento Saudável/fisiologia , Longevidade/fisiologia , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Objetivos , Infecções por HIV/fisiopatologia , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde , Serviços de Saúde para Idosos , Envelhecimento Saudável/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Assistência Centrada no Paciente
3.
Rev Saude Publica ; 54: 35, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32267369

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of robustness among older adults assisted in primary health care and identify factors in successful aging. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study conducted with older adults in Northern Minas Gerais, Brazil. Two questionnaires were used for data collection: the Brazilian Older Americans Resources and Services Multidimensional Function Assessment Questionnaire (BOMFAQ) and the Clinical-Functional Vulnerability Index IVCF-20). The adjusted prevalence ratios were obtained by robust Poisson regression. Statistical analysis was performed for older adults in general (60 to 107 years) and stratified by age: from 60 to 79 years and 80 years or more. RESULTS: A total of 1,750 older adults aged 60 to 107 years participated; between them, 48.7% were robust. Older adults aged 60 to 79 years (n = 1,421) and 80 years or more (n = 329) had a prevalence of robustness of 55.4% and 19.3%, respectively. Some factors associated with successful aging were: positive self-perception of health, dancing habits, walking habits, absence of cognitive impairment, absence of depressive symptoms and polypathology, as well as daily life independence. After adjustment by age, the absence of polypathology and independence for activities of daily living stand out for robustness between 60 and 79 years; in those aged 80 years and over, independence for activities of daily living and dance practice presented greater strength of association. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of robust older adults in primary care is considered satisfactory for the older population in general but decreases with age and is associated with the absence of diseases and disabilities. These results denote the need to redesign the health care system, focusing on promoting and preventing clinical-functional vulnerability.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento Saudável/fisiologia , Estilo de Vida Saudável/fisiologia , Atividades Cotidianas , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Autoavaliação Diagnóstica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários
4.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0229583, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32126105

RESUMO

Getting a grip on how we may age healthily is a central interest of biogerontological research. To this end, a number of academic teams developed platforms for life- and healthspan assessment in Caenorhabditis elegans. These are very appealing for medium- to high throughput screens, but a broader implementation is lacking due to many systems relying on custom scripts for data analysis that others struggle to adopt. Hence, user-friendly recommendations would help to translate raw data into interpretable results. The aim of this communication is to streamline the analysis of data obtained by the WorMotel, an economically and practically appealing screening platform, in order to facilitate the use of this system by interested researchers. We here detail recommendations for the stepwise conversion of raw image data into activity values and explain criteria for assessment of health in C. elegans based on locomotion. Our analysis protocol can easily be adopted by researchers, and all needed scripts and a tutorial are available in S1 and S2 Files.


Assuntos
Caenorhabditis elegans/fisiologia , Locomoção/fisiologia , Longevidade/fisiologia , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/fisiologia , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/antagonistas & inibidores , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/genética , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/fisiologia , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes , Envelhecimento Saudável/fisiologia , Humanos , Modelos Animais , Modelos Biológicos , Interferência de RNA , Receptor de Insulina/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptor de Insulina/genética , Receptor de Insulina/fisiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Imagem com Lapso de Tempo
5.
Handb Clin Neurol ; 166: 113-127, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31731908

RESUMO

In this chapter, we review evidence from structural and functional neuroimaging in humans to consider the role of the cingulate cortex subregions (i.e., subgenual anterior cingulate cortex, pregenual anterior cingulate cortex, anterior midcingulate cortex, and dorsal posterior cingulate cortex) as major hubs anchoring multiple large-scale brain networks. We begin with a review of evidence from intrinsic functional connectivity and diffusion tensor imaging studies to show how connections within and between cingulate-centered networks contribute to processing and integrating signals related to autonomic, affective, executive, and memory functions. We then consider how variability in cingulate-centered networks could contribute to a range of aging outcomes, including typical aging and unusually successful aging (dubbed "superaging"), as well as early neurodegenerative dementias, including frontotemporal dementia and Alzheimer's disease.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Giro do Cíngulo/fisiologia , Envelhecimento Saudável/fisiologia , Rede Nervosa/fisiologia , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/fisiopatologia , Humanos
6.
EMBO Rep ; 20(12): e48395, 2019 12 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31667999

RESUMO

Mitochondria are organized in the cell in the form of a dynamic, interconnected network. Mitochondrial dynamics, regulated by mitochondrial fission, fusion, and trafficking, ensure restructuring of this complex reticulum in response to nutrient availability, molecular signals, and cellular stress. Aberrant mitochondrial structures have long been observed in aging and age-related diseases indicating that mitochondrial dynamics are compromised as cells age. However, the specific mechanisms by which aging affects mitochondrial dynamics and whether these changes are causally or casually associated with cellular and organismal aging is not clear. Here, we review recent studies that show specifically how mitochondrial fission, fusion, and trafficking are altered with age. We discuss factors that change with age to directly or indirectly influence mitochondrial dynamics while examining causal roles for altered mitochondrial dynamics in healthy aging and underlying functional outputs that might affect longevity. Lastly, we propose that altered mitochondrial dynamics might not just be a passive consequence of aging but might constitute an adaptive mechanism to mitigate age-dependent cellular impairments and might be targeted to increase longevity and promote healthy aging.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento Saudável/fisiologia , Longevidade/fisiologia , Dinâmica Mitocondrial/fisiologia , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/fisiologia , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Animais , Senescência Celular/fisiologia , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos/fisiologia , Humanos , Insulina/fisiologia , Microbiota/fisiologia , Modelos Biológicos , Organelas/fisiologia , Transdução de Sinais , Sirtuínas/fisiologia , Somatomedinas/fisiologia , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/fisiologia
7.
Handb Clin Neurol ; 167: 149-180, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31753131

RESUMO

All people want to age "successfully," maintaining functional capacity and quality of life as they reach advanced age. Achieving this goal depends on preserving optimal cognitive and brain functioning. Yet, significant individual differences exist in this regard. Some older adults continue to retain most cognitive abilities throughout their lifetime. Others experience declines in cognitive and functional capacity that range from mild decrements in certain cognitive functions over time to severe dementia among those with neurodegenerative diseases. Even among relatively healthy "successful agers," certain cognitive functions are reduced from earlier levels. This is particularly true for cognitive functions that are dependent on cognitive processing speed and efficiency. Working memory and executive and attentional functions tend to be most vulnerable. Learning and memory functions are also usually reduced, although in the absence of neurodegenerative disease learning and retrieval efficiency rather than memory storage are affected. Other functions, such as visual perception, language, semantics, and knowledge, are often well preserved. Structural, functional, and physiologic/metabolic brain changes correspond with age-associated cognitive decline. Physiologic and metabolic mechanisms, such as oxidative stress and neuroinflammation, may contribute to these changes, along with the contribution of comorbidities that secondarily affect the brain of older adults. Cognitive frailty often corresponds with physical frailty, both affected by multiple exogenous and endogenous factors. Neuropsychologic assessment provides a way of measuring the cognitive and functional status of older adults, which is useful for monitoring changes that may be occurring. Neuroimaging is also useful for characterizing age-associated structural, functional, physiologic, and metabolic brain changes, including alterations in cerebral blood flow and metabolite concentrations. Some interventions that may enhance cognitive function, such as cognitive training, neuromodulation, and pharmacologic approaches, exist or are being developed. Yet, preventing, slowing, and reversing the adverse effects of cognitive aging remains a challenge.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento Cognitivo/fisiologia , Envelhecimento Cognitivo/psicologia , Envelhecimento Saudável/fisiologia , Envelhecimento Saudável/psicologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Neuropsicologia
8.
Asian Nurs Res (Korean Soc Nurs Sci) ; 13(5): 313-317, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31778826

RESUMO

PURPOSE: There is a growing number of older adults moving into assisted-living facilities to maintain their independence while being assisted with certain tasks and having convenient access to services. Physical activity (PA) and vitality play an important role in independence, as well as in mental health, of older adults. However, no research has examined the difference in older adults' levels of vitality (defined as the state of feeling alive and alert) between those living in assisted-living facilities and those from community-living settings. This study also explored sociodemographic predictors of PA and vitality among older adults living in two different types of housing. METHODS: This cross-sectional study examined differences in PA levels and vitality between older adults (aged ≥ 60 years; n = 148, mean age = 74.70 years) living in assisted-living facilities (n = 85, mean age = 77.46 years) and those in community-living settings (n = 63, mean age = 70.98 years). PA was assessed by accelerometry, and vitality was measured using the subjective vitality scale. RESULTS: Engagement in light PA and moderate to vigorous PA was higher in individuals living in community-living settings after controlling for sociodemographic variables. However, vitality was not significantly different between the two types of housing after controlling for sociodemographic variables. Marital status, education, and number of diagnosed diseases were associated with vitality. CONCLUSION: The support is needed for designing strategies to increase PA in older adults living in assisted-living facilities. More attention should be paid to increasing subjective vitality of older adults in both types of housing to promote healthy aging.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Nível de Saúde , Envelhecimento Saudável/fisiologia , Idoso , Moradias Assistidas , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Habitação , Humanos , Vida Independente , Masculino
10.
Nutrients ; 11(10)2019 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31623373

RESUMO

Lower cost can lead to poorer-quality diets, potentially worsening metabolic profiles. We explored these pathways among urban adults. Longitudinal data were extracted from 1224-1479 participants in the Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity across the Life Span (HANDLS) study. DASH(mean) (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension) score was computed using four 24 h recalls (v1/v2: 2004-2013) linked with a national food price database to estimate monetary value of the diet [MVD(mean)]. Allostatic load (AL) was measured at visits 2 (v2) and 3 (v3) in 2009-2018. Mixed-effects regression and structural equation modeling (SEM) were conducted, linking MVD(mean)/DASH(mean) to AL [v2 and annual change(v3-v2)] and exploring mediating pathways between MVD(mean) and AL(v3) through DASH(mean), stratifying by sex, race and poverty status. MVD(mean) tertiles were linearly associated with contemporaneous DASH(mean), after energy adjustment. In mixed-effects regression models, DASH(mean) was consistently linked to lower AL(v2). DASH(mean) and MVD(mean) were positively associated with higher serum albumin(v2). In SEM, MVD(mean) was linked to AL(v3) through DASH(mean), mainly among Whites and specifically for the cholesterol and Waist-Hip-Ratio AL components. In summary, energy and other covariate-adjusted increase in MVD may have a sizeable impact on DASH which can reduce follow-up AL among urban White middle-aged adults. More studies are needed to replicate findings in comparable samples of urban adults.


Assuntos
Alostase/fisiologia , Custos e Análise de Custo/economia , Dieta/economia , Abordagens Dietéticas para Conter a Hipertensão/economia , População Urbana , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano , Escolaridade , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Envelhecimento Saudável/fisiologia , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Pobreza/economia , Albumina Sérica/análise
11.
Sensors (Basel) ; 19(20)2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31618875

RESUMO

The ageing population has grown quickly in the last half century with increased longevity and declining birth rate. This presents challenges to health services and the wider society. This review paper considers different aspects (e.g., physical, mental, and social well-being) of healthy ageing and how health devices can help people to monitor health conditions, treat diseases and promote social interactions. Existing technologies for addressing non-physical (e.g., Alzheimer's, loneliness) and physical (e.g., stroke, bedsores, and fall) related challenges are presented together with the drivers and constraints of using e-textiles for these applications. E-textiles provide a platform that enables unobtrusive and ubiquitous deployment of sensors and actuators for healthy ageing applications. However, constraints remain on battery, integration, data accuracy, manufacturing, durability, ethics/privacy issues, and regulations. These challenges can only effectively be met by interdisciplinary teams sharing expertise and methods, and involving end users and other key stakeholders at an early stage in the research.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento Saudável/fisiologia , Monitorização Fisiológica , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Acidentes por Quedas/prevenção & controle , Doença de Alzheimer/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Solidão/psicologia , Lesão por Pressão/prevenção & controle , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Têxteis
12.
Gac. sanit. (Barc., Ed. impr.) ; 33(5): 491-494, sept.-oct. 2019. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-189026

RESUMO

Se presenta una experiencia práctica de implantación de la Cuádruple Hélice basada en el Modelo de Innovación de los Reference Sites de la Comisión Europea, a través del método Design Thinking. Este método establece que, para alcanzar con éxito el diseño de una solución digital, deben cubrirse cinco fases ineludibles: empatizar, definir, idear, prototipar y evaluar. Se utilizó un diseño de investigación-acción y se aplicaron técnicas cualitativas de recogida y análisis de información en cada fase: metasíntesis cualitativa, grupos focales, entrevistas biográficas, foros profesionales y comunitarios, técnicas de prototipado y testeo con personas usuarias. La aplicación sistemática de este método ha facilitado la consolidación de un modelo de trabajo cooperativo, en el que interactúan los principales agentes interesados en el envejecimiento activo y saludable. Se han creado así productos y servicios que satisfacen mejor las necesidades de las personas usuarias, haciéndolas parte activa del proceso de creación


This paper shows an experience of the practical implementation of the Quadruple Helix-Based Innovation Model of Reference Sites of the European Commission through the Design Thinking method. This method establishes that, in order to successfully achieve the design of a digital solution, five unavoidable phases must be covered: empathize, define, ideate, prototype and test. The process was approached using the research action design. Qualitative data collection and analysis techniques were applied in each phase: qualitative meta-synthesis, focus groups, biographical interviews, professional and community forums and techniques of prototyping and testing with users. The systematic application of this method has facilitated the consolidation of a cooperative work model in which the main key agents in active and healthy ageing interact. Thus, products and services have been developed to better meet the needs of the users, making them an active part of the creation process


Assuntos
Humanos , Envelhecimento Saudável/fisiologia , Programas Gente Saudável/organização & administração , Políticas Públicas de Saúde , Participação da Comunidade/métodos , Grupos Focais/métodos , Inovação Organizacional , Modelos Organizacionais , Design de Software
13.
PLoS One ; 14(9): e0222219, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31513618

RESUMO

Visual and proprioceptive information is used differently at different phases of a reach. The time at which a target perturbation occurs during a reach therefore has a significant impact on how an individual can compensate for this perturbation though online control. With healthy ageing, there are notable changes to both sensory and motor control that impact motor performance. However, how the online control process changes with age is not yet fully understood. We used a target perturbation paradigm and manipulated the time at which a target perturbation occurred during the reach to investigate how healthy ageing impacts sensorimotor control. We measured how the latency of the correction and the magnitude of the corrective response changed with perturbation time and quantified the difference across groups using a percentage difference measure. For both groups, online corrections to early perturbations were more easily accounted for than those to late perturbations, despite late perturbations eliciting faster correction latencies. While there was no group difference in accuracy, older participants were slower overall and produced a correction to a change in target location proportionally less often despite similar correction latencies. We speculate that the differences in the time during the reach that the correction is first identified may explain the differences in correction latencies observed between the perturbation time conditions.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento Saudável/fisiologia , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Feminino , Mãos/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Movimento/fisiologia , Propriocepção/fisiologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Córtex Sensório-Motor/fisiologia
14.
Hum Brain Mapp ; 40(18): 5315-5329, 2019 12 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31452304

RESUMO

Cortical atrophy and degraded axonal health have been shown to coincide during normal aging; however, few studies have examined these measures together. To lend insight into both the regional specificity and the relative timecourse of structural degradation of these tissue compartments across the adult lifespan, we analyzed gray matter (GM) morphometry (cortical thickness, surface area, volume) and estimates of white matter (WM) microstructure (fractional anisotropy, mean diffusivity) using traditional univariate and more robust multivariate techniques to examine age associations in 186 healthy adults aged 20-94 years old. Univariate analysis of each tissue type revealed that negative age associations were largest in frontal GM and WM tissue and weaker in temporal, cingulate, and occipital regions, representative of not only an anterior-to-posterior gradient, but also a medial-to-lateral gradient. Multivariate partial least squares correlation (PLSC) found the greatest covariance between GM and WM was driven by the relationship between WM metrics in the anterior corpus callosum and projections of the genu, anterior cingulum, and fornix; and with GM thickness in parietal and frontal regions. Surface area was far less susceptible to age effects and displayed less covariance with WM metrics, while regional volume covariance patterns largely mirrored those of cortical thickness. Results support a retrogenesis-like model of aging, revealing a coupled relationship between frontal and parietal GM and the underlying WM, which evidence the most protracted development and the most vulnerability during healthy aging.


Assuntos
Córtex Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Córtex Cerebral/fisiologia , Envelhecimento Saudável/fisiologia , Substância Branca/diagnóstico por imagem , Substância Branca/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
15.
Aging Clin Exp Res ; 31(12): 1719-1725, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31463926

RESUMO

The positive gerontological approach to aging has resulted in successive terminologies to describe the process of aging, including successful aging, active aging, healthy aging, or healthy and active aging, amongst others. Each definition proposed by geriatricians, psychologists, sociologists or public health specialists has been based on specific aspects of aging that are most important to the authors' discipline, explaining the current difficulty in determining which is the best set of criteria to determine "good aging". Two successive analyses of the measurements used in longitudinal studies from 1989 to 2018 testify to this heterogeneity in the types of questions proposed to evaluate the quality of the individual aging process. To confront this complexity, new and integrated indices have successively been proposed to quantify and qualify the survival period of aging individuals. The present paper aims to describe and compare the value of the "healthy aging index", the "modified healthy aging index", the "healthy aging score" and the "selfie aging test". Attempts to date to identify the best individual measurement of "aging well" have been interesting, and certainly show promise, but their limitations to specific populations call for more concerted effort from the scientific community to obtain worldwide validation. Another option would be to identify the best self-assessment questionnaire and include it in a mobile device, enabling longer term personal follow-up of aging functions. There is a clear lack of data of this type at present, and an urgent need to obtain such information, to enable early and targeted interventions.


Assuntos
Avaliação Geriátrica/métodos , Nível de Saúde , Envelhecimento Saudável/fisiologia , Idoso , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais
16.
Nature ; 571(7764): 183-192, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31292558

RESUMO

For several decades, understanding ageing and the processes that limit lifespan have challenged biologists. Thirty years ago, the biology of ageing gained unprecedented scientific credibility through the identification of gene variants that extend the lifespan of multicellular model organisms. Here we summarize the milestones that mark this scientific triumph, discuss different ageing pathways and processes, and suggest that ageing research is entering a new era that has unique medical, commercial and societal implications. We argue that this era marks an inflection point, not only in ageing research but also for all biological research that affects the human healthspan.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Pesquisa Biomédica , Envelhecimento Saudável/fisiologia , Rejuvenescimento/fisiologia , Envelhecimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Envelhecimento/genética , Relógios Circadianos , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Envelhecimento Saudável/efeitos dos fármacos , Envelhecimento Saudável/genética , Humanos , Inflamação , Longevidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Longevidade/genética , Longevidade/fisiologia , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Estado Nutricional , Estresse Oxidativo , Transdução de Sinais
17.
Geroscience ; 41(4): 383-393, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31332674

RESUMO

Five healthy aging phenotypes were developed in the Long Life Family Study to uncover longevity pathways and determine if healthy aging across multiple systems clustered in a subset of long-lived families. Using blood pressure, memory, pulmonary function, grip strength, and metabolic measures (body mass index, waist circumference and fasting levels of glucose, insulin, triglycerides, lipids, and inflammatory markers), offspring were ranked according to relative health using gender-, age-, and relevant confounder-adjusted z-scores. Based on our prior work, families met a healthy aging phenotype if ≥ 2 and ≥ 50% of their offspring were exceptionally healthy for that respective phenotype. Among 426 families, only two families met criteria for three healthy aging phenotypes and none met criteria for four or more healthy aging phenotypes. Using Spearman correlation, the proportion of offspring within families with exceptionally healthy pulmonary function was correlated with the proportion of offspring within families with exceptional strength (r = 0.19, p = 0.002). The proportion of offspring within families meeting the healthy blood pressure and metabolic phenotypes were also correlated (r = 0.14, p = 0.006), and more families were classified as meeting healthy blood pressure and metabolic phenotypes (Kappa = 0.10, p = 0.02), as well as the healthy pulmonary and blood pressure phenotypes than expected by chance (Kappa = 0.09, p = 0.03). Other phenotypes were weakly correlated (|r| ≤ 0.07) with low pairwise agreement (Kappa ≤ 0.06). Among these families selected for familial longevity, correspondence between healthy aging phenotypes was weak, supporting the heterogeneous nature of longevity and suggesting biological underpinnings of each individual phenotype should be examined separately to determine their shared and unique determinants.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento Saudável/fisiologia , Fenótipo , Glicemia/análise , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , Estudos de Coortes , Dinamarca , Família , Força da Mão/fisiologia , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Interleucina-6/sangue , Longevidade/fisiologia , Memória/fisiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Respiratórios , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Estados Unidos , Circunferência da Cintura/fisiologia
18.
Int J Health Geogr ; 18(1): 17, 2019 07 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31340812

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: GPS tracking is increasingly used in health and aging research to objectively and unobtrusively assess individuals' daily-life mobility. However, mobility is a complex concept and its thorough description based on GPS-derived mobility indicators remains challenging. METHODS: With the aim of reflecting the breadth of aspects incorporated in daily mobility, we propose a conceptual framework to classify GPS-derived mobility indicators based on their characteristic and analytical properties for application in health and aging research. In order to demonstrate how the classification framework can be applied, existing mobility indicators as used in existing studies are classified according to the proposed framework. Then, we propose and compute a set of selected mobility indicators based on real-life GPS data of 95 older adults that reflects diverse aspects of individuals' daily mobility. To explore latent dimensions that underlie the mobility indicators, we conduct a factor analysis. RESULTS: The proposed framework enables a conceptual classification of mobility indicators based on the characteristic and analytical aspects they reflect. Characteristic aspects inform about the content of the mobility indicator and comprise categories related to space, time, movement scope, and attribute. Analytical aspects inform how a mobility indicator is aggregated with respect to temporal scale and statistical property. The proposed categories complement existing studies that often underrepresent mobility indicators involving timing, temporal distributions, and stop-move segmentations of movements. The factor analysis uncovers the following six dimensions required to obtain a comprehensive view of an older adult's daily mobility: extent of life space, quantity of out-of-home activities, time spent in active transport modes, stability of life space, elongation of life space, and timing of mobility. CONCLUSION: This research advocates incorporating GPS-based mobility indicators that reflect the multi-dimensional nature of individuals' daily mobility in future health- and aging-related research. This will foster a better understanding of what aspects of mobility are key to healthy aging.


Assuntos
Atividades Cotidianas , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Pesquisa Biomédica/métodos , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Envelhecimento Saudável/fisiologia , Smartphone , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Pesquisa Biomédica/tendências , Feminino , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica/tendências , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Smartphone/tendências
19.
Osteoporos Int ; 30(10): 1911-1922, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31324925

RESUMO

Maintaining mobility is an important aspect of health and well-being in older men. This literature review describes several modifiable and nonmodifiable risk factors impacting bone, muscle, and joint health. Exercise and nutritional interventions may help to prevent the progressive deterioration in bones, muscles, and joints impacting mobility in later life. Limitations in mobility are increasingly recognized as a major public health problem due to an aging population and growing number of older individuals affected by disabling comorbidities. Despite increasing numbers and debilitating consequences, there are no guidelines providing recommendations on strategies to maintain mobility for healthy aging among older men. This narrative review aims to fill this literature gap. PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar databases were searched using predefined search terms. Primary studies, exploratory analyses, cross-sectional surveys, meta-analyses, evidence-based clinical reviews, and guidelines from nationally recognized societies focusing on mobility in older men and key elements including bone, muscle and joint health, and balance were selected. Several modifiable and nonmodifiable risk factors have been reported in the literature that impact bone, muscle, and joint health and predispose older men to falls and fractures. The most common conditions impacting bones, muscles, and joints are osteoporosis, sarcopenia, and osteoarthritis, respectively. In addition to being key contributors to disability in the elderly, these conditions are all associated with a higher mortality risk. Although more studies are required, current evidence supports the use of various nonpharmacological (mainly exercise and nutrition) and/or pharmacological treatment modalities to help prevent and/or reverse these conditions. Incorporating lifestyle interventions involving exercise and nutrition at a younger age can help prevent the age-related, progressive deterioration in bones, muscles, and joints that can reduce mobility in later life. Established barriers to physical activities (e.g., poor health, social isolation) in men are important to consider for optimizing outcomes.


Assuntos
Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Envelhecimento Saudável/fisiologia , Saúde do Homem , Aptidão Física/fisiologia , Acidentes por Quedas/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Osteoartrite/etiologia , Osteoartrite/terapia , Osteoporose/etiologia , Osteoporose/terapia , Fatores de Risco , Sarcopenia/etiologia , Sarcopenia/terapia
20.
Work ; 63(4): 509-519, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31282464

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: If current population and health trends continue, workplace demographics will look significantly different by the turn of the century. Organizations will no longer have a steady pipeline of younger workers and will likely need to rely on older workers to remain competitive in the global marketplace. The future multi-generational workforce will bring with it the challenge of maximizing contributions from each generation whilst at the same time addressing the health, safety and wellbeing needs of all workers. OBJECTIVE: This review provides an insight into aging and older workers, and presents recommendations to promote worker longevity. METHODS: This narrative review draws on evidence from 108 published sources. RESULTS: The relationship between age and work is not simple; factors including the physical nature of the job and worker's health and fitness interact with age to either increase or decrease the potential effect of age. Evidence suggests that the issues arising from an aging workforce can be managed through polices that focus on active aging through: attitude management; flexible working and the provision of occupational health. CONCLUSION: The integration of such interventions would require company and organizational commitment from the top down with educational programs at all levels to ensure understanding and participation.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Emprego/normas , Saúde do Trabalhador , Exame Físico/normas , Recursos Humanos/normas , Ageismo/legislação & jurisprudência , Ageismo/prevenção & controle , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Promoção da Saúde , Envelhecimento Saudável/fisiologia , Humanos , Aptidão Física/fisiologia , Políticas , Participação dos Interessados , Local de Trabalho/legislação & jurisprudência , Local de Trabalho/normas
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