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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(9)2021 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34068525

RESUMO

Consuming a balanced, nutritious diet is important for maintaining health, especially as individuals age. Several studies suggest that consuming a diet rich in antioxidants and anti-inflammatory components such as those found in fruits, nuts, vegetables, and fish may reduce age-related cognitive decline and the risk of developing various neurodegenerative diseases. Numerous studies have been published over the last decade focusing on nutrition and how this impacts health. The main objective of the current article is to review the data linking the role of diet and nutrition with aging and age-related cognitive decline. Specifically, we discuss the roles of micronutrients and macronutrients and provide an overview of how the gut microbiota-gut-brain axis and nutrition impact brain function in general and cognitive processes in particular during aging. We propose that dietary interventions designed to optimize the levels of macro and micronutrients and maximize the functioning of the microbiota-gut-brain axis can be of therapeutic value for improving cognitive functioning, particularly during aging.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Disfunção Cognitiva/dietoterapia , Envelhecimento Saudável/fisiologia , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Disfunção Cognitiva/metabolismo , Disfunção Cognitiva/patologia , Frutas , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Envelhecimento Saudável/metabolismo , Humanos , Micronutrientes/uso terapêutico , Avaliação Nutricional , Estado Nutricional , Nozes , Verduras
2.
Nutrients ; 13(4)2021 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33924100

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate several sociodemographic, lifestyle, and clinical characteristics of the IKARIA study participants and to find healthy aging trajectories of multimorbidity of Ikarian islanders. During 2009, 1410 people (aged 30+) from Ikaria Island, Greece, were voluntarily enrolled in the IKARIA study. Multimorbidity was defined as the combination of at least two of the following chronic diseases: hypertension; hypercholesterolemia; diabetes; obesity; cancer; CVD; osteoporosis; thyroid, renal, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. A healthy aging index (HAI) ranging from 0 to 100 was constructed using 4 attributes, i.e., depression symptomatology, cognitive function, mobility, and socializing. The prevalence of multimorbidity was 51% among men and 65.5% among women, while the average number of comorbidities was 1.7 ± 1.4 for men and 2.2 ± 1.4 for women. The most prevalent chronic diseases among men with multimorbidity were hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and obesity while among women they were hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and thyroid disease. Multimorbidity was correlated with HAI (Spearman's rho = -0.127, p < 0.001) and for every 10-unit increase in HAI, participants had 20% lower odds of being multimorbid. Multimorbidity in relation to HAI revealed a different trend across aging among men and women, coinciding only in the seventh decade of life. Aging is usually accompanied by chronic diseases, but multimorbidity seems to also be common among younger adults. However, healthy aging is a lifelong process that may lead to limited co-morbidities across the lifespan.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento Saudável/fisiologia , Multimorbidade , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Modelos Logísticos , Longevidade/fisiologia , Masculino , Multimorbidade/tendências , Razão de Chances , Prevalência
3.
J Nutr Health Aging ; 25(4): 520-527, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33786571

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Population ageing impacts many areas of society from health and social care cost to housing and future workforce, and whole-of-society approach is required to promote healthy ageing. The Decade of Healthy Ageing report has called upon multi-sectoral collaboration to promote age-friendly communities. The Healthy Ageing Promotion Program for You (HAPPY) is a community-based dual-task exercise program for older adults led by health coaches (HC) or trained volunteers (HAPPY leaders) to promote healthy ageing. The primary objective was to observe improvement in cognition. The secondary objective was to observe improvement in frailty status, functional status, perceived health and reduction of social isolation. We also aim to evaluate the effectiveness and describe the implementation of the HAPPY program. DESIGN: To engage older adults with prefrailty, frailty and/or cognitive impairment in dual-task exercise program. Recruitment and publicity were through country-wide multisectoral collaboration. SETTING: Community setting. PARTICIPANTS: More than 700 older adults participated in ≥ 50 different sites including senior activity centres. Five hundred and sixty-nine participants attended phase 1 screening. Pre-frail or frail ambulant participants or those with underlying cognitive impairment were invited to participate in phase 2 screening. Among them 296 participants enrolled in phase 2 with 66.6% follow up rate at 3 months. MEASUREMENTS: Phase 1 and 2 screening consisted of screening for frailty (FRAIL), cognition (Montreal Cognitive Assessment [MoCA]), falls, vision, grip strength, perceived health (EuroQol vertical visual analogue scale), depression (geriatric depression scale), social network (6-item Lubben Social Network Scale), gait speed and physical function (Short physical performance battery [SPPB]). RESULTS: HC led 61.7% of the participants, and HAPPY was conducted twice weekly for 64% of the participants. There was significant improvement in the MoCA scores both in the HC and HAPPY leaders' led groups. Overall physical function, chair-stand and balance domain improved significantly especially in the groups led by HC and those participating in twice-weekly exercises. There was significant improvement in perceived health, reduction in social isolation, improvement in frailty status and reduction of falls at 3 months. CONCLUSION: Community embedded peer-led program to promote healthy ageing like HAPPY can improve cognition, physical function, and frailty status, reduce social isolation, and improve perceived health. It takes a "village" to promote healthy ageing, and the need to have a life course approach to healthy longevity which must involve local government and ministerial organisations, non-profit organisations, industries, academia, and community to redesign health.


Assuntos
Idoso Fragilizado/psicologia , Fragilidade/psicologia , Envelhecimento Saudável/fisiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Características de Residência
4.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 96(3): 788-814, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33673927

RESUMO

Increased life expectancy combined with the aging baby boomer generation has resulted in an unprecedented global expansion of the elderly population. The growing population of older adults and increased rate of age-related chronic illness has caused a substantial socioeconomic burden. The gradual and progressive age-related decline in hormone production and action has a detrimental impact on human health by increasing risk for chronic disease and reducing life span. This article reviews the age-related decline in hormone production, as well as age-related biochemical and body composition changes that reduce the bioavailability and actions of some hormones. The impact of hormonal changes on various chronic conditions including frailty, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and dementia are also discussed. Hormone replacement therapy has been attempted in many clinical trials to reverse and/or prevent the hormonal decline in aging to combat the progression of age-related diseases. Unfortunately, hormone replacement therapy is not a panacea, as it often results in various adverse events that outweigh its potential health benefits. Therefore, except in some specific individual cases, hormone replacement is not recommended. Rather, positive lifestyle modifications such as regular aerobic and resistance exercise programs and/or healthy calorically restricted diet can favorably affect endocrine and metabolic functions and act as countermeasures to various age-related diseases. We provide a critical review of the available data and offer recommendations that hopefully will form the groundwork for physicians/scientists to develop and optimize new endocrine-targeted therapies and lifestyle modifications that can better address age-related decline in heath.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento Cognitivo/fisiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/prevenção & controle , Envelhecimento Saudável/fisiologia , Terapia de Reposição Hormonal/estatística & dados numéricos , Estilo de Vida , Idoso , Terapia Comportamental/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/metabolismo , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal/metabolismo
5.
Nat Metab ; 3(2): 274-286, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33619379

RESUMO

The gut microbiome has important effects on human health, yet its importance in human ageing remains unclear. In the present study, we demonstrate that, starting in mid-to-late adulthood, gut microbiomes become increasingly unique to individuals with age. We leverage three independent cohorts comprising over 9,000 individuals and find that compositional uniqueness is strongly associated with microbially produced amino acid derivatives circulating in the bloodstream. In older age (over ~80 years), healthy individuals show continued microbial drift towards a unique compositional state, whereas this drift is absent in less healthy individuals. The identified microbiome pattern of healthy ageing is characterized by a depletion of core genera found across most humans, primarily Bacteroides. Retaining a high Bacteroides dominance into older age, or having a low gut microbiome uniqueness measure, predicts decreased survival in a 4-year follow-up. Our analysis identifies increasing compositional uniqueness of the gut microbiome as a component of healthy ageing, which is characterized by distinct microbial metabolic outputs in the blood.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Envelhecimento Saudável/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Aminoácidos/sangue , Bacteroides/metabolismo , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Metabolômica , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Análise de Sobrevida , Adulto Jovem
6.
Clin Immunol ; 225: 108685, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33549833

RESUMO

Aging results in substantial changes in almost all cellular subpopulations within the immune system, including functional and phenotypic alterations. T lymphocytes, as the main representative population of cellular immunity, have been extensively studied in terms of modifications and adjustments during aging. Phenotypic alterations are attributed to three main mechanisms; a reduction of naïve T cell population with a shift to more differentiated forms, a subsequent oligoclonal expansion of naïve T cells characterized by repertoire restriction, and replicative insufficiency after repetitive activation. These changes and the subsequent phenotypic disorders are comprised in the term "immunosenescence". Similar changes seem to occur in chronic kidney disease, with T cells of young patients resembling those of healthy older individuals. A broad range of surface markers can be utilized to identify immunosenescent T cells. In this review, we will discuss the most important senescence markers and their potential connection with impaired renal function.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Envelhecimento Saudável/fisiologia , Imunossenescência/fisiologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/imunologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Animais , Diferenciação Celular , Senescência Celular , Humanos , Ativação Linfocitária
7.
BMC Psychol ; 9(1): 14, 2021 Jan 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33499909

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Active ageing has been a rapidly developing field of study in light of the growing population of older people. Acknowledgement of the lack of a counselling program to promote active ageing for the older people in nursing homes led to the development of this study which aims to investigate active ageing of the Thai elderly in a nursing home in addition to promoting active ageing for them through integrative counselling. METHODS: The study was conducted in a nursing home in Samut Prakan province, Thailand. The integrative counselling program referred to appropriate literature along with implementation of the Satir Model and Motivational Interviewing techniques. An intervention mixed methods design was applied in the study, which consisted of two phases. Phase 1 involved an investigation of the concept of active ageing, based on the context of older people in nursing homes by way of in-depth interviews, involving 5 participants. Phase 2 comprised of an investigation of the effects of an integrative counselling program to promote active ageing for older people in the same nursing home. There was a total of 16 participants in phase 2 which were divided equally into experimental and control groups respectively. RESULTS: Phase 1 of the study showcased qualitative results of the progress of active ageing development in older people that resulted in 4 sub-themes (Health development, spiritual development, active engagement and psychosocial support). Two parameters were used to analyze the results in phase 2. The quantitative results showed that the active ageing score of participants in the experimental arm increased significantly after enrollment (p < 0.05). Furthermore, the experimental group had a higher overall active ageing score in comparison to the control group. Qualitative results of phase 2 elicited factors promoting active ageing in the elderly which included activities, group facilitator and group atmosphere. Both quantitative and qualitative results of phase 2 proved to be significant, showing that the program managed to develop active ageing in participants. CONCLUSION: Psychologists and multidisciplinary teams looking after older people in nursing homes are able to use this integrative counselling program for development of active ageing in the elderly population.


Assuntos
Aconselhamento , Envelhecimento Saudável , Casas de Saúde , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Envelhecimento Saudável/fisiologia , Envelhecimento Saudável/psicologia , Humanos , Tailândia
8.
Nihon Koshu Eisei Zasshi ; 67(10): 734-744, 2020.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33361668

RESUMO

Objectives This study aimed to examine the effectiveness of a walking point project with incentives for increasing walking time, preventing the decline of physical function and worsening depression among older adults.Methods We used data from the Japan Gerontological Evaluation Study, which included subjects aged ≥65 years who lived in Yokohama City in 2013 and 2016. We obtained information on the subjects' participation in the "Yokohama Walking Point (YWP)," a program launched by Yokohama City in 2014, from the 2016 survey data. We excluded individuals with missing data for sex, age, walking time per day (<30, 30-59, 60-89, or ≥90 min/day), physical function (5 physical function category items on the Kihon Checklist), depression (15-item Geriatric Depression Scale), and participation status in the YWP. We used data from 4,509 eligible respondents. Changes in walking time, physical function, and depression were designated as independent variables, and participation status in the YWP was designated as the dependent variable in the multiple regression analysis with inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW), after adjusting for demographic variables, socioeconomic status, health status, and behavior.Results Among the total subjects, 758 (16.8%) participated in the YWP. The IPTW method showed that participants in the YWP had significantly higher walking times (B=3.61, 95% CI: 1.04, 6.17), less decline in physical function, and less depression (B=-0.13, 95% CI: -0.23, -0.03; B=-0.21, 95% CI: -0.42, -0.01) than those who did not participate in the YWP.Conclusions Our findings suggest that the YWP, with incentives, effectively increased walking time and prevented worsening of physical function and depression among older adults. The municipality's health point project, based on the number of steps, is a useful population approach for promoting health among older adults.


Assuntos
Depressão/prevenção & controle , Tolerância ao Exercício/fisiologia , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Envelhecimento Saudável/fisiologia , Envelhecimento Saudável/psicologia , Motivação/fisiologia , Desempenho Físico Funcional , Serviços Preventivos de Saúde/métodos , Pontuação de Propensão , Caminhada/fisiologia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Eficiência Organizacional , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Masculino
9.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0237207, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33125392

RESUMO

In this work we propose an index to estimate the gut microbiota biodiversity using a modeling approach with the aim of describing its relationship with health and aging. The gut microbiota, a complex ecosystem that links nutrition and metabolism, has a pervasive effect on all body organs and systems, undergoes profound changes with age and life-style, and substantially contributes to the pathogenesis of age-related diseases. For these reasons, the gut microbiota is a suitable candidate for assessing and quantifying healthy aging, i.e. the capability of individuals to reach an advanced age, avoiding or postponing major age-related diseases. The importance of the gut microbiota in health and aging has been proven to be related not only to its taxonomic composition, but also to its ecological properties, namely its biodiversity. Following an ecological approach, here we intended to characterize the relationship between the gut microbiota biodiversity and healthy aging through the development a parsimonious model of gut microbiota from which biodiversity can be estimated. We analysed publicly available metagenomic data relative to subjects of different ages, countries, nutritional habits and health status and we showed that a hybrid niche-neutral model well describes the observed patterns of bacterial relative abundance. Moreover, starting from such ecological modeling, we derived an estimate of the gut microbiota biodiversity that is consistent with classical indices, while having a higher statistical power. This allowed us to unveil an increase of the gut microbiota biodiversity during aging and to provide a good predictor of health status in old age, dependent on life-style and aging disorders.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Modelos Biológicos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Envelhecimento/genética , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Biodiversidade , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Bases de Dados de Ácidos Nucleicos , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Nível de Saúde , Envelhecimento Saudável/genética , Envelhecimento Saudável/fisiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Metagenoma , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Adulto Jovem
10.
Psicothema (Oviedo) ; 32(3): 337-345, ago. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-199773

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Graph theory has been widely used to study structural and functional brain connectivity changes in healthy aging, and occasionally with clinical samples; in both cases, during task-related and resting-state experiments. Recent studies have focused their interest on dynamic changes during a resting-state fMRI register in order to identify differences in non-stationary patterns associated with the aging process. The objective of this study was to characterize resting-state fMRI network dynamics in order to study the healthy aging process. METHOD: 114 healthy older adults were measured in a resting-state paradigm using fMRI. A sliding-window approach to graph theory was used to measure the mean degree, average path length, clustering coefficient, and small-worldness of each subnetwork, and the impact of age and time in each graph measure was assessed. RESULTS: A combined effect of age and time was detected in mean degree, average path length, and small-worldness, where participants aged 75 to 79 showed a curvilinear trend with reduced network density and increased small-world coefficient in the middle of the register. CONCLUSION: An effect of age was observed on average path length, with younger participants showing slightly lower scores


ANTECEDENTES: la Teoría de Grafos se ha utilizado para estudiar los cambios de la conectividad cerebral en el envejecimiento sano. Trabajos recientes han centrado su interés en los cambios dinámicos en registro fMRI en estado de reposo para identificar patrones no estacionarios en el proceso de envejecimiento. Este artículo tiene como objetivo caracterizar la dinámica de la red fMRI para estudiar envejecimiento saludable. MÉTODO: se registraron 114 adultos sanos mayores de 65 años en un paradigma de estado de reposo mediante señal fMRI. Se usó Teoría de Grafos para medir el grado medio de conectividad, la longitud promedio de las conexiones, el coeficiente de agrupamiento y el small-world de cada subred. Se evaluó el impacto de la edad y el tiempo en cada medida de grafo. RESULTADOS: se detectó un efecto combinado de la edad y el tiempo en diversas medidas, los participantes de 75 a 79 años mostraron una tendencia curvilínea de la densidad y agrupación de red reducidas, pero un coeficiente small-world mayor en las ventanas centrales. CONCLUSIÓN: se observó un efecto de la edad en la longitud promedio y los participantes más jóvenes mostraron puntuaciones más bajas en los indicadores de red


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Cérebro/diagnóstico por imagem , Cérebro/fisiologia , Envelhecimento Saudável/fisiologia
11.
Neurology ; 95(8): e984-e994, 2020 08 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32699143

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore long-term predictors of avoiding ß-amyloid (Aß) deposition and maintaining unimpaired cognition as outcomes in the oldest old. METHODS: In a longitudinal observational cohort study, 100 former participants of the Ginkgo Evaluation of Memory Study (GEMS; 2000-2008) completed biannual Pittsburgh compound B-PET imaging and annual clinical-cognitive evaluations beginning in 2010. Most recent Aß status and cognitive status were selected for each participant. Longitudinal outcomes included change in serial Aß and cognitive tests. Baseline predictors from GEMS included neuropsychological tests, daily functioning, APOE genotype, lifestyle variables, occupational measures, health history, sleep, subjective memory, physical and cognitive activities, depressive symptoms, and physical performance and health indices, among others. RESULTS: Mean age at the last cognitive evaluation was 92.0 (range 86-100) years. Mean follow-up time from baseline to last measured Aß status was 12.3 (SD 1.9) years and to last cognitive evaluation was 14.1 (SD 1.9) years. The APOE*2 allele predicted last Aß status (n = 34 Aß negative vs n = 66 Aß positive). Baseline cognition predicted cognitive status (n = 30 unimpaired vs n = 70 impaired). Predictors of cognitive status among Aß-positive participants only (n = 14 normal cognition vs n = 52 impaired) were baseline cognitive test scores and smoking history. Baseline pulse pressure predicted longitudinal Aß increase; paid work engagement and life satisfaction predicted less cognitive decline. CONCLUSIONS: The APOE*2 allele and lower pulse pressure predict resistance to Aß deposition in advanced aging. Cognitive test scores 14 years prior, likely reflecting premorbid abilities, predict cognitive status and maintenance of unimpaired cognition in the presence of Aß. Several lifestyle factors appear protective.


Assuntos
Encéfalo , Reserva Cognitiva/fisiologia , Envelhecimento Saudável/fisiologia , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/metabolismo , Apolipoproteína E2/genética , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Encéfalo/patologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32560522

RESUMO

Women experience more stress in middle age than in other life stages, and health in middle age is vital, because it influences the quality of life in old age. In this study, the effects of a forest therapy program on physiological changes in 53 middle-aged women (divided into two groups) who lived in the city were examined. One group participated in a three-day program in the forest, followed by three days in the city; the other group participated in a three-day program in the city, followed by three days in the forest. Forest experiments were conducted in a "healing forest," and urban experiments were conducted near a university campus. Blood tests were performed to evaluate the physiological effects of forest therapy. Differences in serotonin levels and vitamin D levels were verified before and after the forest (experimental group) and urban (control group) programs through paired t-tests. Statistically significant increases in serotonin levels were noted for participants in the forest program; vitamin D levels also increased, but not by statistically significant values. The findings of this study verify that forest therapy programs promote health among middle-aged women, and may prevent disease and improve quality of life.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Envelhecimento/psicologia , Florestas , Fadiga Mental , Terapias Mente-Corpo/métodos , Terapia de Relaxamento/métodos , Adaptação Psicológica/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Envelhecimento/sangue , Cidades , Feminino , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Envelhecimento Saudável/sangue , Envelhecimento Saudável/fisiologia , Envelhecimento Saudável/psicologia , Humanos , Massagem/psicologia , Meditação/psicologia , Fadiga Mental/sangue , Fadiga Mental/fisiopatologia , Fadiga Mental/psicologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Terapias Mente-Corpo/psicologia , Angústia Psicológica , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Terapia de Relaxamento/psicologia , República da Coreia , Serotonina/sangue , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia , Saúde da População Urbana , População Urbana , Vitamina D/sangue , Caminhada/fisiologia , Caminhada/psicologia , Ioga/psicologia
13.
Geriatr Gerontol Int ; 20(6): 637-642, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32358851

RESUMO

AIM: The purpose of this study was to develop a machine learning prediction model for successful aging (SA) based on physical fitness tests. METHODS: A total of 3657 community-dwelling adults aged ≥60 years from Nanchang city were recruited in this study. A 3-year follow-up test was carried out for all the participants to determine whether they turn to non-SA. Developed questionnaires and physical fitness tests were used to obtain overall health condition, balance, agility, speed, reactions and gait. Four machine learning models (logistic regression, deep learning, random forest and gradient boosting decision tree) were applied to develop the prediction models, the analyzed sample was 890. RESULTS: The baseline prevalence of successful aging was 26.99%, The average annual incidence rate of SA to non-SA was 11.04%. There were significant differences between the SA and non-SA groups for all physical fitness tests at baseline. The accuracy and area under the curve of all four machine learning models was >85%, the positive predictive value and sensitivity was >75%, and the specificity was >86% on the average. The deep learning model outperformed the other model, with area under the curve 90.00%, accuracy 89.3%, positive predictive value 85.8% and specificity 93.1%, respectively. Compared with other models, the logistic regression model performed best in sensitivity. Age, arm curl, 30-s sit-to-stand and reaction time were important predictors in all models. CONCLUSION: The deep learning model is ideal in the prediction of SA maintenance, and the corresponding physical fitness interventions are essential to ensuring SA. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2020; ••: ••-••.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Envelhecimento Saudável/fisiologia , Aprendizado de Máquina , Aptidão Física/fisiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , China , Árvores de Decisões , Feminino , Seguimentos , Avaliação Geriátrica , Humanos , Vida Independente , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Curva ROC , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0230077, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32437448

RESUMO

Previous evidence suggests that modifiable lifestyle factors, such as engagement in leisure activities, might slow the age-related decline of cognitive functions. Less is known, however, about which aspects of lifestyle might be particularly beneficial to healthy cognitive ageing, and whether they are associated with distinct cognitive domains (e.g. fluid and crystallized abilities) differentially. We investigated these questions in the cross-sectional Cambridge Centre for Ageing and Neuroscience (Cam-CAN) data (N = 708, age 18-88), using data-driven exploratory structural equation modelling, confirmatory factor analyses, and age-residualized measures of cognitive differences across the lifespan. Specifically, we assessed the relative associations of the following five lifestyle factors on age-related differences of fluid and crystallized age-adjusted abilities: education/SES, physical health, mental health, social engagement, and intellectual engagement. We found that higher education, better physical and mental health, more social engagement and a greater degree of intellectual engagement were each individually correlated with better fluid and crystallized cognitive age-adjusted abilities. A joint path model of all lifestyle factors on crystallized and fluid abilities, which allowed a simultaneous assessment of the lifestyle domains, showed that physical health, social and intellectual engagement and education/SES explained unique, complementary variance, but mental health did not make significant contributions above and beyond the other four lifestyle factors and age. The total variance explained for fluid abilities was 14% and 16% for crystallized abilities. Our results are compatible with the hypothesis that intellectually and physically challenging as well as socially engaging activities are associated with better crystallized and fluid performance across the lifespan.


Assuntos
Cognição/fisiologia , Envelhecimento Cognitivo/fisiologia , Envelhecimento Saudável/fisiologia , Atividades de Lazer , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Comportamento Social , Adulto Jovem
15.
Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol ; 319(1): R19-R25, 2020 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32401629

RESUMO

Microvascular endothelial dysfunction, a precursor to atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, increases with aging. Endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factors (EDHFs), which act through K+ channels, regulate blood flow and are important to vascular health. It is unclear how EDHFs change with healthy aging. To evaluate microvascular endothelial reliance on K+ channel-mediated dilation as a function of age in healthy humans. Microvascular function was assessed using intradermal microdialysis in healthy younger (Y; n = 7; 3 M/4 W; 26 ± 1 yr) and older adults (O; n = 12; 5 M/7 W; 64 ± 2 yr) matched for V̇o2peak (Y: 39.0 ± 3.8, O: 37.6 ± 3.1 mL·kg-1·min-1). Participants underwent graded local infusions of: the K+ channel activator Na2S (10-6 to 10-1 M), acetylcholine (ACh, 10-10 to 10-1 M), ACh + the K+ channel inhibitor tetraethylammonium (TEA; 25 or 50 mM), and ACh + the nitric oxide synthase-inhibitor l-NAME (15 mM). Red blood cell flux was measured with laser-Doppler flowmetry and used to calculate cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC; flux/mean arterial pressure) as a percentage of each site-specific maximum (%CVCmax, 43°C+28 mM sodium nitroprusside). The %CVCmax response to Na2S was higher in older adults (mean, O: 51.7 ± 3.9% vs. Y: 36.1 ± 5.3%; P = 0.03). %CVCmax was lower in the ACh+TEA vs. the ACh site starting at 10-5 M (ACh: 34.0 ± 5.7% vs. ACh+TEA: 19.4 ± 4.5%; P = 0.002) in older and at 10-4 M (ACh: 54.5 ± 9.4% vs. ACh+TEA: 31.2 ± 6.7%; P = 0.0002) in younger adults. %CVCmax was lower in the ACh+l-NAME vs. the ACh site in both groups starting at 10-4 M ACh (Y: P < 0.001; O: P = 0.02). Healthy active older adults have enhanced K+ channel-dependent endothelial vasodilatory mechanisms, suggesting increased responsiveness to EDHFs with age.


Assuntos
Endotélio Vascular/fisiologia , Envelhecimento Saudável/fisiologia , Canais de Potássio/fisiologia , Vasodilatação/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Limiar Anaeróbio/fisiologia , Fatores Biológicos/fisiologia , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Eritrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Eritrócitos/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Microcirculação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , NG-Nitroarginina Metil Éster/farmacologia , Bloqueadores dos Canais de Potássio/farmacologia , Canais de Potássio/agonistas , Fluxo Sanguíneo Regional/fisiologia
16.
Lancet Neurol ; 19(6): 533-543, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32470425

RESUMO

In a world with an ageing population, dementia has become an urgent threat to global health and wellbeing. Psychosocial and lifestyle factors, such as higher socioeconomic positions, longer times spent in education, greater occupational complexity, reduced stress at work, and engagement in mental, physical, and social activities, have been hypothesised to supply resilience against dementia. Although questions remain surrounding the role of these factors in the development of dementia, scientific advancements have considerably expanded our understanding of modifiable psychosocial and lifestyle factors and their neuroprotective and compensatory influences over a life course. Evidence from observational studies is robust enough to suggest that stimulating psychosocial and lifestyle factors are protective against dementia. And, although the corresponding evidence from intervention studies is still scarce, public health campaigns promoting psychosocial and lifestyle factors might improve the health and wellbeing of people aged 60 years and older.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/psicologia , Demência/prevenção & controle , Envelhecimento Saudável/psicologia , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Demência/epidemiologia , Demência/fisiopatologia , Promoção da Saúde , Envelhecimento Saudável/fisiologia , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Psicologia , Fatores de Risco
17.
Rev Saude Publica ; 54: 35, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32267369

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of robustness among older adults assisted in primary health care and identify factors in successful aging. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study conducted with older adults in Northern Minas Gerais, Brazil. Two questionnaires were used for data collection: the Brazilian Older Americans Resources and Services Multidimensional Function Assessment Questionnaire (BOMFAQ) and the Clinical-Functional Vulnerability Index IVCF-20). The adjusted prevalence ratios were obtained by robust Poisson regression. Statistical analysis was performed for older adults in general (60 to 107 years) and stratified by age: from 60 to 79 years and 80 years or more. RESULTS: A total of 1,750 older adults aged 60 to 107 years participated; between them, 48.7% were robust. Older adults aged 60 to 79 years (n = 1,421) and 80 years or more (n = 329) had a prevalence of robustness of 55.4% and 19.3%, respectively. Some factors associated with successful aging were: positive self-perception of health, dancing habits, walking habits, absence of cognitive impairment, absence of depressive symptoms and polypathology, as well as daily life independence. After adjustment by age, the absence of polypathology and independence for activities of daily living stand out for robustness between 60 and 79 years; in those aged 80 years and over, independence for activities of daily living and dance practice presented greater strength of association. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of robust older adults in primary care is considered satisfactory for the older population in general but decreases with age and is associated with the absence of diseases and disabilities. These results denote the need to redesign the health care system, focusing on promoting and preventing clinical-functional vulnerability.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento Saudável/fisiologia , Estilo de Vida Saudável/fisiologia , Atividades Cotidianas , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Autoavaliação Diagnóstica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários
18.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 290, 2020 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32306918

RESUMO

In the context of global aging, HIV infection has become a new chronic disease and requires innovative models of care. Treating isolated comorbidities represents a useless and potentially harmful practice at advanced age. Therefore, a patient-centered approach, in which the interventions are focused on the biology and function of the individual, with understanding of the importance of securing social and home environment that provides psychosocial support, better suits unmet health needs. We present a paradigmatic case of healthy aging: the first reported HIV-infected patient who achieved 100th of life - the Lisbon patient. The construct of healthy aging, recently introduced by the World Health Organization, is the best example of this comprehensive model and could represent the fourth target of UNAIDS agenda of the end of AIDS.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/terapia , Envelhecimento Saudável/fisiologia , Longevidade/fisiologia , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Objetivos , Infecções por HIV/fisiopatologia , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde , Serviços de Saúde para Idosos , Envelhecimento Saudável/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Assistência Centrada no Paciente
19.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1260: 193-265, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32304036

RESUMO

Worldwide, individuals are living longer due to medical and scientific advances, increased availability of medical care and changes in public health policies. Consequently, increasing attention has been focused on managing chronic conditions and age-related diseases to ensure healthy aging. The endogenous circadian system regulates molecular, physiological and behavioral rhythms orchestrating functional coordination and processes across tissues and organs. Circadian disruption or desynchronization of circadian oscillators increases disease risk and appears to accelerate aging. Reciprocally, aging weakens circadian function aggravating age-related diseases and pathologies. In this review, we summarize the molecular composition and structural organization of the circadian system in mammals and humans, and evaluate the technological and societal factors contributing to the increasing incidence of circadian disorders. Furthermore, we discuss the adverse effects of circadian dysfunction on aging and longevity and the bidirectional interactions through which aging affects circadian function using examples from mammalian research models and humans. Additionally, we review promising methods for managing healthy aging through behavioral and pharmacological reinforcement of the circadian system. Understanding age-related changes in the circadian clock and minimizing circadian dysfunction may be crucial components to promote healthy aging.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/patologia , Relógios Circadianos/fisiologia , Ritmo Circadiano/fisiologia , Doença , Longevidade/fisiologia , Animais , Envelhecimento Saudável/fisiologia , Humanos
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