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1.
Nutrients ; 11(8)2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31374892

RESUMO

Barley intake reportedly reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease, but effects on the systemic phenotypes during healthy aging have not yet been examined. Therefore, we examined the effects of barley on the lifespan; behavioral phenotypes, such as locomotor activity, and cognitive functions, and intestinal microbiome in the senescence-accelerated mouse-prone 8 (SAMP8) mouse. We prepared two mild high-fat diets by adding lard, in which the starch components of AIN-93G were replaced by rice or barley "Motchiriboshi." SAMP8 (four weeks old, male) mice were fed AIN-93G until eight weeks old, and then rice (rice group) or barley diet (rice: barley = 1:4, barley group) until death. Changes in aging-related phenotypes, object and spatial recognition, locomotor and balancing activities, and the intestinal microbiome were recorded. Moreover, plasma cholesterol levels were analyzed at 16 weeks old. Barley intake prolonged the lifespan by approximately four weeks, delayed locomotor atrophy, and reduced balancing ability and spatial recognition. Barley intake significantly increased the medium and small particle sizes of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, which is associated with a reduced risk of total stroke. The Bacteroidetes to Firmicutes ratio in the barley group was significantly higher than that in the rice group during aging. Thus, lifelong barley intake may have positive effects on healthy aging.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Comportamento Animal , Cognição , Envelhecimento Cognitivo/psicologia , Grão Comestível , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Envelhecimento Saudável/psicologia , Hordeum , Fatores Etários , Animais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Glicemia/metabolismo , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , Envelhecimento Saudável/sangue , Locomoção , Longevidade , Masculino , Camundongos , Estado Nutricional , Valor Nutritivo , Equilíbrio Postural , Comportamento Espacial
2.
Rev Esc Enferm USP ; 53: e03476, 2019 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31365724

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To understand the life experiences that favor the plenitude and transcendence of the elderly being. METHOD: Qualitative study of hermeneutical phenomenological approach. It was conducted from January 2014 to March 2017 in two social groups for seniors. Selection of participants was by intentional sampling with information saturation. Characteristics of participants: men or women aged 60 years and over. Data collection through a phenomenological interview. Study in compliance with the General Law of Health, Subject of Health Research and the Declaration of Helsinki. Analysis through the Heidegger's hermeneutic circle: Pre-understanding, understanding and interpretation. RESULTS: Units of meaning arose. Ontologically, seniors are revealed in their historicity and temporality, emphasize fear and anguish in their daily life, and fall into a feeling of nothing with the need to be authentic that is achieved through care. This understanding of the being is transcendence, and its manifestation is enlightenment. CONCLUSION: Transcendence is favored by care in the life cycle. Nursing as a science of care can promote actions that facilitate the reach of the encounter of seniors at different stages of their lives.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/psicologia , Envelhecimento Saudável/psicologia , Acontecimentos que Mudam a Vida , Idoso , Feminino , Hermenêutica , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Enfermagem/organização & administração , Pesquisa Qualitativa
3.
Int J Qual Stud Health Well-being ; 14(1): 1658333, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31451098

RESUMO

Purpose: Government strategies are putting increasing emphasis on sustaining the capacity of older persons to continue living independently in their own homes to ease strain on aged care services. The aim of this study was to understand the experiences and strategies that older people utilize to remain living at home from their own perspective. Methods: A grounded theory methodology was used to explore the actions and strategies used by persons over the age of 65 to enable them to remain living in their own homes. Data were collected from 21 women and men in three focus group discussions and 10 in-depth semi-structured interviews. Results: The data revealed that the central process participants used to hold momentum and sustain living at home involves a circular process in which older people acknowledge change and make ongoing evaluations and decisions about ageing at home. Conclusion: These findings have implications for informing policy and service provision by identifying appropriate resources and services to promote successful ageing at home.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde para Idosos/organização & administração , Envelhecimento Saudável/psicologia , Serviços de Assistência Domiciliar/organização & administração , Vida Independente/psicologia , Vida Independente/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Austrália , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Teoria Fundamentada , Humanos , Masculino
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31357741

RESUMO

We aimed to (1) describe the subjective well-being (SWB) of older residents in Fukushima Prefecture seven years and seven months after the Great East Japan Earthquake (GEJE) and examine the effect of relocation to the restoration public housing (RPH) on SWB, social capital, and health indicators; and (2) investigate the association between social capital and SWB. Questionnaires were administered to collect data of both RPH and non-RPH residents (≥65 years). Respondents' SWB was collected via the Japanese version of the World Health Organization Five Well-Being Index. Additionally, residents' social capital (trust, reciprocity, and participation), physical activity level, social network, functional health, history of chronic disease, and demographic data were collected. We analyzed 101 responses (valid response rate: approximately 34%) from RPH and 158 (53%) from non-RPH residents. SWB was lower in RPH compared to non-RPH residents but not statistically significant. Older RPH residents may demonstrate lower social capital and health indicators after the GEJE. Mistrust was found to be positively associated with low SWB in RPH residents. Future studies should examine the effectiveness of support for enhancing the trust of older RPH residents regarding, for example, the involvement of scientists-including medical professionals-in risk communications in promoting SWB.


Assuntos
Abrigo de Emergência , Envelhecimento Saudável/psicologia , Habitação Popular , Capital Social , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Terremotos , Exercício , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários
5.
PLoS Med ; 16(6): e1002827, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31211779

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An individual's rate of aging directly influences his/her susceptibility to morbidity and mortality. Thus, quantifying aging and disentangling how various factors coalesce to produce between-person differences in the rate of aging, have important implications for potential interventions. We recently developed and validated a novel multi-system-based aging measure, Phenotypic Age (PhenoAge), which has been shown to capture mortality and morbidity risk in the full US population and diverse subpopulations. The aim of this study was to evaluate associations between PhenoAge and a comprehensive set of factors, including genetic scores, childhood and adulthood circumstances, and health behaviors, to determine the relative contributions of these factors to variance in this aging measure. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Based on data from 2,339 adults (aged 51+ years, mean age 69.4 years, 56% female, and 93.9% non-Hispanic white) from the US Health and Retirement Study, we calculated PhenoAge and evaluated the multivariable associations for a comprehensive set of factors using 2 innovative approaches-Shapley value decomposition (the Shapley approach hereafter) and hierarchical clustering. The Shapley approach revealed that together all 11 study domains (4 childhood and adulthood circumstances domains, 5 polygenic score [PGS] domains, and 1 behavior domain, and 1 demographic domain) accounted for 29.2% (bootstrap standard error = 0.003) of variance in PhenoAge after adjustment for chronological age. Behaviors exhibited the greatest contribution to PhenoAge (9.2%), closely followed by adulthood adversity, which was suggested to contribute 9.0% of the variance in PhenoAge. Collectively, the PGSs contributed 3.8% of the variance in PhenoAge (after accounting for chronological age). Next, using hierarchical clustering, we identified 6 distinct subpopulations based on the 4 childhood and adulthood circumstances domains. Two of these subpopulations stood out as disadvantaged, exhibiting significantly higher PhenoAges on average. Finally, we observed a significant gene-by-environment interaction between a previously validated PGS for coronary artery disease and the seemingly most disadvantaged subpopulation, suggesting a multiplicative effect of adverse life course circumstances coupled with genetic risk on phenotypic aging. The main limitations of this study were the retrospective nature of self-reported circumstances, leading to possible recall biases, and the unrepresentative racial/ethnic makeup of the population. CONCLUSIONS: In a sample of US older adults, genetic, behavioral, and socioenvironmental circumstances during childhood and adulthood account for about 30% of differences in phenotypic aging. Our results also suggest that the detrimental effects of disadvantaged life course circumstances for health and aging may be further exacerbated among persons with genetic predisposition to coronary artery disease. Finally, our finding that behaviors had the largest contribution to PhenoAge highlights a potential policy target. Nevertheless, further validation of these findings and identification of causal links are greatly needed.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/genética , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Envelhecimento Saudável/genética , Acontecimentos que Mudam a Vida , Aposentadoria , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Envelhecimento/psicologia , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde/fisiologia , Envelhecimento Saudável/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Aposentadoria/psicologia , Aposentadoria/tendências
6.
Womens Health (Lond) ; 15: 1745506519846747, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31084282

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Attitudes to aging have been linked with important health outcomes. It is unclear whether interventions to improve attitudes to aging are effective across cultural contexts. This study investigated the efficacy of an intervention among women of either Australian or Chinese backgrounds. METHODS: Among 96 women who provided baseline measures, 86 attended a single, 90-min group session on either healthy aging or healthy diet. Measures of three domains of attitudes to aging were collected at baseline, then immediately and 8 weeks after the intervention. RESULTS: The intervention improved attitudes in the psychological growth domain, but not the physical change or psychosocial loss domains. Cultural identification did not moderate intervention efficacy. DISCUSSION: The findings suggest that brief, culturally inclusive interventions may be partially effective at improving attitudes to aging. Furthermore, research is needed to investigate if the intervention would be more effective when baseline attitudes to aging are less positive.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/etnologia , Envelhecimento/psicologia , Atitude , Competência Cultural , Promoção da Saúde/organização & administração , Austrália , China , /psicologia , Feminino , Promoção da Saúde/normas , Envelhecimento Saudável/etnologia , Envelhecimento Saudável/psicologia , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Saúde da Mulher
7.
Neural Plast ; 2019: 7067592, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31065259

RESUMO

Aging is a physiological process accompanied by cognitive decline, principally in memory and executive functions. Alterations in the connectivity of the default mode network (DMN) have been found to participate in cognitive decline, as well as in several neurocognitive disorders. The DMN has antisynchronic activity with attentional networks (task-positive networks (TPN)), which are critical to executive function and memory. Findings pointing to the regulation of the DMN via activation of TPN suggest that it can be used as a strategy for neuroprotection. Meditation is a noninvasive and nonpharmacological technique proven to increase meta-awareness, a cognitive ability which involves the control of both networks. In this review, we discuss the possibility of facilitating healthy aging through the regulation of networks through meditation. We propose that by practicing specific types of meditation, cognitive decline could be slowed, promoting a healthy lifestyle, which may enhance the quality of life for the elderly.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiologia , Envelhecimento Saudável/fisiologia , Envelhecimento Saudável/psicologia , Meditação , Processos Psicoterapêuticos , Atenção/fisiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Metacognição , Atenção Plena , Vias Neurais/fisiologia
9.
Australas J Ageing ; 38(3): e85-e92, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31077541

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Guided by the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT), the study explored information and communications technology (ICT) use and anticipation among middle-aged adults in urban China. METHODS: Path analysis was performed on data from 401 participants aged 45-65 to examine the associations between anticipated ICT support and the acceptance and adoption process of ICT. RESULTS: For the late middle-aged adults, those who had greater belief in ICT usefulness and received more social support for ICT use were more likely to anticipate greater ICT support in old age. These associations were not found in the early middle-aged group. DISCUSSION: The frequency of ICT use may be the key explanation for different ICT predictors and patterns. The constructs of UTAUT are sequential steps. Middle-aged adults may believe in ICT usefulness even though they have not witnessed it in person.


Assuntos
Atitude Frente aos Computadores , Envelhecimento Saudável/psicologia , Informática Médica , Apoio Social , Telecomunicações , População Urbana , Fatores Etários , Idoso , China , Feminino , Humanos , Vida Independente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
10.
Neurobiol Aging ; 79: 119-130, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31051329

RESUMO

Exercise plays a key role in healthy aging by promoting both physical and cognitive function. Physical function and cognitive function appear to be interrelated and may share common mechanisms. Thus, exercise-induced improvements in physical function and cognitive function may co-occur and be associated with each other. However, no systematic review has specifically assessed and compared the effects of exercise on both physical function and cognitive function in older adults, and the association between changes in both outcomes after exercise training. Thus, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis (N = 48 studies) among older adults (60+ years). These data suggest exercise training has a significant benefit for both physical function (g = 0.39; p < 0.001) and cognitive function (g = 0.24; p < 0.001). At the study level, there was a positive correlation between the size of the exercise-induced effect on physical function and on cognitive function (b = 0.41; p = 0.002). Our results indicate exercise improves both physical and cognitive function, reiterating the notion that exercise is a panacea for aging well.


Assuntos
Idoso/fisiologia , Idoso/psicologia , Cognição , Exercício/fisiologia , Envelhecimento Saudável/fisiologia , Envelhecimento Saudável/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Desempenho Físico Funcional
11.
Neurobiol Aging ; 79: 1-10, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31026617

RESUMO

Age-related impairments in episodic memory have been linked to alterations in encoding-induced neural activity. In young individuals, even prestimulus activity has been shown to influence the encoding of an upcoming stimulus, with ongoing theta and beta oscillations being predictive of subsequent recognition. The present study investigated if these memory-related ongoing oscillations are also affected by aging. In an EEG experiment, healthy older and young individuals performed an encoding task with a subsequent recognition test on picture and word stimuli. The group of younger participants showed an increased oscillatory activity in the lower frequency range (ranging from 3 to 17 Hz) in the pre- and post-stimulus period compared with the older adults. Only in young participants, ongoing beta power during encoding was related to later memory in both stimulus categories, whereas in older participants, this effect was diminished. Interestingly, there was no general age-related decrease in recognition performance. These results indicate that ongoing low beta oscillations might constitute a functional indicator of cognitive aging that reveals itself even before a strong decline in behavioral performance is noticeable, and that could be a potential target for neuromodulatory interventions.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento Cognitivo/fisiologia , Envelhecimento Cognitivo/psicologia , Eletroencefalografia , Envelhecimento Saudável/fisiologia , Envelhecimento Saudável/psicologia , Memória Episódica , Idoso , Ritmo beta/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ritmo Teta/fisiologia
13.
Braz J Med Biol Res ; 52(4): e8041, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30994731

RESUMO

Although normal aging has been related to several cognitive difficulties, other processes have been studied less, such as spatial memory. Our aim was to compare egocentric and allocentric memory in an elderly population using ecological tasks. Twenty-eight cognitively unimpaired participants performed Egocentric and Allocentric Spatial Memory Tasks, as well as Spatial Span from CANTAB, Benton's Judge of Line Orientation test (JoLO), and Montreal Cognitive Assessment test (MoCA). The results revealed that younger participants showed better performance than older participants on both the Egocentric and Allocentric Spatial Memory Tasks, although only the Egocentric test was able to discriminate between younger, middle, and older elderly participants. Learning effect was found in Allocentric Spatial Memory Task in younger and older groups, but not in the middle group. Allocentric and egocentric performance was not related to other visuospatial neuropsychological scores and gender did not influence performance in any task. Egocentric and Allocentric Spatial Memory Tasks may be useful tools in early screening for cognitive decline, as they are able to detect age differences in the cognitive unimpaired elderly population.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento Saudável/fisiologia , Envelhecimento Saudável/psicologia , Percepção Espacial/fisiologia , Memória Espacial/fisiologia , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Envelhecimento/psicologia , Análise de Variância , Disfunção Cognitiva/fisiopatologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Fatores Sexuais , Navegação Espacial/fisiologia
14.
Neurobiol Aging ; 78: 52-63, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30877839

RESUMO

Cortical excitability depends on sleep-wake regulation, is central to cognition, and has been implicated in age-related cognitive decline. The dynamics of cortical excitability during prolonged wakefulness in aging are unknown, however. Here, we repeatedly probed cortical excitability of the frontal cortex using transcranial magnetic stimulation and electroencephalography in 13 young and 12 older healthy participants during sleep deprivation. Although overall cortical excitability did not differ between age groups, the magnitude of cortical excitability variations during prolonged wakefulness was dampened in older individuals. This age-related dampening was associated with mitigated neurobehavioral consequences of sleep loss on executive functions. Furthermore, higher cortical excitability was potentially associated with better and lower executive performance, respectively, in older and younger adults. The dampening of cortical excitability dynamics found in older participants likely arises from a reduced impact of sleep homeostasis and circadian processes. It may reflect reduced brain adaptability underlying reduced cognitive flexibility in aging. Future research should confirm preliminary associations between cortical excitability and behavior and address whether maintaining cortical excitability dynamics can counteract age-related cognitive decline.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Envelhecimento/psicologia , Córtex Cerebral/fisiologia , Ritmo Circadiano/fisiologia , Cognição , Disfunção Cognitiva/etiologia , Excitabilidade Cortical/fisiologia , Envelhecimento Saudável/fisiologia , Envelhecimento Saudável/psicologia , Privação do Sono/fisiopatologia , Sono/fisiologia , Vigília/fisiologia , Idoso , Envelhecimento Cognitivo , Feminino , Homeostase , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
15.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 240, 2019 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30819125

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests that the use of alcohol among older adults (defined as those aged 50+) has increased in recent years, with people aged 55-64 now more likely to exceed the recommended weekly guidelines than any other age group. METHODS/ DESIGN: This is a quasi-experimental study with a before-after design. A postal questionnaire will be sent to 76,000 people aged 50 and over registered with a general practice in five different 'demonstration' (intervention) and control areas in the UK. Multiple interventions will then be delivered in demonstration areas across the UK. At the end of the programme, a postal questionnaire will be sent to the same individuals who completed it pre-programme to establish if there has been a reduction in alcohol use, at-risk drinking and alcohol related problems. Qualitative interviews with clients and staff will explore how the interventions were experienced; how they may work to bring about change and to identify areas for practice improvements. DISCUSSION: This study protocol describes a multi-level, multi-intervention prevention-to-treatment programme which aims to reduce alcohol-related harm in people aged 50 and over.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/prevenção & controle , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Envelhecimento Saudável/fisiologia , Envelhecimento Saudável/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
Nihon Koshu Eisei Zasshi ; 66(2): 88-95, 2019.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30814427

RESUMO

Objectives In forthcoming preventive care, it is important to perceive that the health of the elderly is multifaceted. The purpose of the research is to analyze the difference in positive thinking between the elderly with long-term care risk and the healthy elderly, to clarify the relationship between long-term care risk and positive thinking.Methods A postal mail survey, based on a self-administered questionnaire, was conducted in City A. The subject were elderly people who were turning 75 years old in 2016, 593 people. There were 319 valid responses included in the analysis, of which 141 responses were from the previous survey (a factual survey performed in City A from August 2015 to January 2016) and 178 responses were from the late survey (in July 2016). The subjects included in the analysis were divided into the long-term care risk and the healthy group, and the component scores on positive thinking were compared to determine the relationship between positive thinking and long-term care risk. For the comparison of two groups, we used a t-test for normally distributed scales, the Mann-Whitney U test for deviated scales, and the χ2 test for the comparison of dispersed variants. Discriminant analysis was performed to evaluate the degree of each component of positive thinking in long-term care risk. The significance levels of all tests were set at less than 5%.Results The components of positive thinking that demonstrated significant differences in the comparison between two groups were: Life Satisfaction Index K, PGC Morale Scale, Lubben Social Network Scale, social participation (Japan Science and Technology Agency Index of Competence to Assess Functional Capacity), self-negative beliefs (Japanese version of the Brief Core Schema Scale), and State Self-esteem Scale. Based on the discriminant analysis, variables mainly related to long-term care risk were self-negative beliefs, life satisfaction level, and self-preservation (Identity Scale). In addition, all components of positive thinking, excluding negative beliefs about others, were related to "depressive tendencies."Conclusion Elderly people with long-term care risk tended to perceive themselves negatively; they lacked social relationships, and had low life satisfaction levels, morale, as well as self-esteem. It was suggested that "negative beliefs about the self" and "Life Satisfaction Index K" were important factors. It is necessary to reconsider the components of positive thinking and clarify its relationship with long-term care risk.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento Saudável/psicologia , Assistência de Longa Duração , Otimismo , Satisfação Pessoal , Pessimismo , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Princípios Morais , Risco , Autoimagem , Rede Social , Participação Social , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
Neuropsychology ; 33(4): 581-595, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30829514

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Robust norms for neuropsychological tests may offer superior clinical utility to conventional norms, in their ability to distinguish normal cognitive aging from prodromal dementia. However, the availability of robust norms from midlife, where cognitive changes in those at risk of disease may arise, is limited. This study presents demographically stratified robust norms for tests of verbal memory in Australian women. METHOD: Participants were from the population-based Women's Healthy Ageing Project. Baseline (1999 to 2002; n = 368; age range = 53-67years) and follow-up (2012 to 2014; n = 291; age range = 65-80years) measures of word-list and story recall were administered at least 10 years apart. Four samples were identified: conventional (derived from a cross-sectional sample), robust (derived from a longitudinal sample), mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or Alzheimer's disease (AD), and lost to follow-up. Area under the curve (AUC) values were generated to assess the diagnostic ability of conventional and robust norms using 1 standard deviation and 1.5 standard deviation cut-offs. RESULTS: There were differences between conventional Australian and American normative data for the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease word-list recall. Individuals who declined to MCI/AD over the follow-up displayed poorer performance at baseline, however no differences in classification ability of robust (AUC range .54 to.64) and conventional (AUC range .51 to .65) norms were observed. CONCLUSION: Neuropsychological performance in midlife predicted clinical cognitive decline 1 decade later, but conventional and robust norms was similarly predictive of conversion to disease in this cohort. The use of country-specific, representative conventional norms remains a valuable tool for neuropsychologists to assess cognitive performance throughout midlife. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/diagnóstico , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico , Envelhecimento Saudável/psicologia , Memória Episódica , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doença de Alzheimer/psicologia , Austrália , Disfunção Cognitiva/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valores de Referência
18.
Am J Epidemiol ; 188(6): 1084-1091, 2019 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30834429

RESUMO

Mounting evidence indicates that there are specific associations between higher levels of optimism and healthier behaviors, reduced risk of chronic diseases, and lower mortality. Yet, for public health purposes, it is critical to consider how optimism might be related to a full scope of health conditions in aging-from cognitive to physical health. Using prospective data from the Health and Retirement Study (n = 5,698), we examined whether higher baseline optimism was associated with subsequent increased likelihood of maintaining healthy aging over 6-8 years of follow-up. Optimism was assessed at study baseline (2006 or 2008), and components of healthy aging were assessed every 2 years, defined as: 1) remaining free of major chronic diseases; 2) having no cognitive impairment; and 3) good physical functioning. Hazard ratios were obtained using Cox proportional hazards models, and a range of relevant covariates were considered (sociodemographic factors, depressive symptoms, and health behaviors). After adjusting for sociodemographic factors and depression, the most (top quartile) versus least (bottom quartile) optimistic participants had a 24% increased likelihood of maintaining healthy aging (95% CI: 1.11, 1.38). Further adjustment for health behaviors did not meaningfully change the findings. Optimism, a potentially modifiable health asset, merits further research for its potential to improve likelihood of health in aging.


Assuntos
Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Envelhecimento Saudável/psicologia , Otimismo/psicologia , Idoso , Doença Crônica/epidemiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Desempenho Físico Funcional , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores Socioeconômicos
19.
BMC Geriatr ; 19(1): 78, 2019 03 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30871472

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several outcome measures can be utilised to measure social participation and Quality of Life (QoL) in research and clinical practice. However there have been few large-scale trials of these tools in community care to identify their value to clients and providers. This study aims to evaluate the implementation of the Australian Community Participation Questionnaire (ACPQ) and the ICEpop CAPability measure for Older people (ICECAP-O) as tools to measure social participation and QoL for clients receiving community aged care services. The specific research questions focus on determining: (1) the levels and predictors of social participation and QoL among older adults using community aged care services; (2) the acceptability and feasibility of implementation of ACPQ and ICECAP-O tools into routine community aged care assessments; (3) if implementation of the tools change service provision and outcomes for older adults receiving community aged care services. METHODS: A mixed method design will be used to collect data from a large Australian aged care provider. Community aged care clients' ACPQ and ICECAP-O scores, as well as other key outcomes (e.g. services used, hospitalisation and admission to permanent residential care), will be examined at baseline and 12-monthly follow-up assessments. Interviews and focus groups with community aged care clients and staff who administer the tools will also be completed. Descriptive statistics and multiple linear regression will be used to examine the levels and predictors of social participation and QoL. Thematic analysis of interviews and focus groups will be used to determine the acceptability and feasibility of implementing the ACPQ and ICECAP-O into routine needs assessments in community aged care. Case-controlled analyses will be used to determine whether the implementation of the ACPQ and ICECAP-O changes service use and outcomes. DISCUSSION: The novel use of the ACPQ and the ICECAP-O tools as part of routine needs assessments for community aged care clients has the potential to improve the quality and effectiveness of community aged care services and outcomes. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Australian and New Zealand clinical trial registry number: ACTRN12617001212347 . Registered 18/08/2017.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/psicologia , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/normas , Envelhecimento Saudável/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Participação Social/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Austrália/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/métodos , Assistência à Saúde/métodos , Assistência à Saúde/normas , Feminino , Envelhecimento Saudável/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia
20.
Biol Psychol ; 142: 108-115, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30721717

RESUMO

Alzheimer's Disease (AD) has become a major health issue in recent decades, and there is now growing interest in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), an intermediate stage between healthy aging and dementia, usually AD. Event-related brain potential (ERP) studies have sometimes failed to detect differences between aMCI and control participants in the Go-P3 (or P3b, related to target classification processes in a variety of tasks) and NoGo-P3 (related to response inhibition processes, mainly in Go/NoGo tasks) ERP components. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether the age factor, which is not usually taken into account in ERP studies, modulates group differences in these components. With this aim, we divided two groups of volunteer participants, 34 subjects with aMCI (51-87 years) and 31 controls (52-86 years), into two age subgroups: 69 years or less and 70 years or more. We recorded brain activity while the participants performed a distraction-attention auditory-visual (AV) task. Task performance was poorer in the older than in the younger group, and aMCI participants produced fewer correct responses than the matched controls; but no interactions of the age and group factors on performance were found. On the other hand, Go-P3 and NoGo-N2 latencies were longer in aMCI participants than in controls only in the younger subgroup. Thus, the younger aMCI participants categorized the Go stimuli in working memory and processed the NoGo stimuli (which required response inhibition) slower than the corresponding controls. Finally, the combination of the number of hits, Go-P3 latency and NoGo-N2 latency yielded acceptable sensitivity and specificity scores (0.70 and 0.92, respectively) as regards distinguishing aMCI participants aged 69 years or less from the age-matched controls. The findings indicate age should be taken into account in the search for aMCI biomarkers.


Assuntos
Fatores Etários , Amnésia/diagnóstico , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico , Potenciais Evocados/fisiologia , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Atenção/fisiologia , Biomarcadores/análise , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Eletroencefalografia , Feminino , Envelhecimento Saudável/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Memória de Curto Prazo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia
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