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1.
Rev. enferm. UERJ ; 29: e57581, jan.-dez. 2021.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1224578

RESUMO

Objetivo: descrever as características sociodemográficas e de saúde de mulheres e homens com 75 anos ou mais de idade, no baseline e follow-up de quatro anos e verificar para mulheres e homens as mudanças nas condições de saúde. Métodos: estudo longitudinal com 109 idosos de 75 anos ou mais de idade de um município no Triângulo Mineiro. A coleta dos dados, realizada em dois momentos (2014-2018), ocorreu no domicílio com a aplicação de instrumentos validados no Brasil. Procederam-se às análises descritiva e teste t pareado (p<0,05). Os projetos foram aprovados pelo Comitê de Ética e Pesquisa com Seres Humanos. Resultados: verificaram-se, em ambos os sexos, aumento do número de morbidades e diminuição do escore total das atividades instrumentais da vida diária. Entre as mulheres observou-se, ainda, aumento do número de quedas e do escore de fragilidade. Conclusão: ao longo do seguimento houve piora nas condições de saúde dos idosos, sendo mais expressiva entre as mulheres.


Objective: to describe the sociodemographic and health characteristics of women and men aged 75 or over, at baseline and after four years of follow-up, and to ascertain changes in their health status. Methods: in this longitudinal study of 109 elderly people aged 75 or over from a city in the Triângulo Mineiro, data were collected at two points (2014 and 2018), at home, by applying instruments validated for use in Brazil. Descriptive analysis and paired t-tests were performed (p < 0.05). The projects were approved by the human research ethics committee. Results: in both genders, the number of morbidities increased and the total score for instrumental activities of daily living decreased. Among women, the number of falls and frailty score also increased. Conclusion: the older people's health status worsened over the course of follow-up, more so among the women.


Objetivo: describir las características sociodemográficas y de salud de mujeres y hombres de 75 años o más, en la base de referencia y el seguimiento durante cuatro años, y verificar los cambios en las condiciones de salud de mujeres y hombres. Métodos: estudio longitudinal con 109 personas mayores, de 75 años o más, de un municipio del Triângulo Mineiro. La recolección de datos, realizada en dos momentos (2014-2018), se realizó en sus domicilios aplicando instrumentos validados en Brasil. Se realizaron análisis descriptivos y prueba t pareada (p <0.05). Los proyectos fueron aprobados por el Comité de Ética en Investigación con Humanos. Resultados: en ambos os sexos, hubo un aumento en el número de morbilidades y una disminución en la puntuación total de las actividades instrumentales de la vida diaria. Entre las mujeres, se observó asimismo un aumento en el número de caídas y la puntuación de fragilidad. Conclusión: a lo largo del seguimiento, las condiciones de salud de las personas mayores empeoraron, más expresivamente entre las mujeres.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Idoso , Envelhecimento , Nível de Saúde , Enfermagem Geriátrica , Estudos Longitudinais , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde
2.
An. psicol ; 37(2): 371-377, mayo-sept. 2021. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-202560

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: According to spirituality well-being, ambiguity intolerance, and happiness conceptualizations, this study was purposed to investigate the influences of spiritual well-being and uncertainty tolerance on happiness with regards to the moderating roles of sex in the elderly. Meth-od: Participants included 120 elders from Shiraz City, Fars province, Iran. A demographic questionnaire, the Spiritual Well-Being Inventory (SWBI), the Multiple Stimulus Types Ambiguity Tolerance Scale-II (MSTAT-II), and the Oxford Happiness Questionnaire (OHI) were used for data collection. RESULTS: Findings showed that spirituality well-being and uncertainty intolerance explain 60% of happiness variation in the elderly. But results rejected the role of sex on the prediction of happiness in the present study. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates the predictive roles of spiritual well-being and ambiguity tolerance on happiness in the field of gerontology


ANTECEDENTES: De acuerdo con las conceptualizaciones del bienestar espiritual, la intolerancia a la ambigüedad y la felicidad, este estudio se propuso investigar las influencias del bienestar espiritual y la tolerancia a la incertidumbre sobre la felicidad con respecto a los roles moderadores del sexo en los ancianos. MÉTODO: Participaron 120 ancianos de la ciudad de Shiraz, provincia de Fars, Irán. Para la recopilación de datos se utilizaron un cuestionario demográfico, el Inventario de Bienestar Espiritual (SWBI), la Escala II de Tolerancia a la Ambigüedad de Tipos de Estímulos Múltiples (MSTAT-II) y el Cuestionario de Felicidad de Oxford (OHI). RESULTADOS: Los resultados mostraron que la espiritualidad, el bienestar y la intolerancia a la incertidumbre explican el 60% de la variación de la felicidad en los ancianos. Pero los resultados rechazaron el papel del sexo en la predicción de la felicidad en el presente estudio. CONCLUSIÓN: Este estudio demuestra los roles predictivos del bienestar espiritual y la tolerancia a la ambigüedad sobre la felicidad en el campo de la gerontología


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Espiritualidade , Permissividade , Felicidade , Incerteza , Saúde do Idoso , Inquéritos e Questionários , Inventário de Personalidade , Satisfação Pessoal , Envelhecimento/psicologia
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34208002

RESUMO

The aging of human populations, including those in Europe, is an indisputable fact. The challenge for the future is not simply prolonging human life at any cost or by any means but rather extending self-sufficiency and quality of life. Even in the most advanced societies, the eternal questions remain. Who will take care of the older generations? Will adult children's own circumstances be sufficient to support family members as they age? For a range of complex reasons, including socioeconomic conditions, adult children are often unable or unwilling to assume responsibility for the care of older family members. For this reason, it is imperative that aging adults maintain their independence and self-care for as long as possible. Movement is an important part of self-sufficiency. Moreover, movement has been shown to improve patients' clinical status. At a time when the coronavirus pandemic is disrupting the world, older people are among the most vulnerable. Our paper explores current knowledge and offers insights into the significant benefits of movement for the elderly, including improved immunity. We discuss the biochemical processes of aging and the counteractive effects of exercise and endogenous substances, such as vitamin D.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Exercício Físico , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/metabolismo , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/patologia , COVID-19/virologia , Humanos , Obesidade/patologia , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Sarcopenia/patologia , Estresse Psicológico , Vitamina D/administração & dosagem
4.
Orv Hetil ; 162(27): 1079-1088, 2021 07 04.
Artigo em Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34224396

RESUMO

Összefoglaló. A fejlett társadalmak egészségügyi rendszereinek legnagyobb kihívását az öregedéssel összefüggo, korfüggo betegségek jelentik. Annak megértéséhez, hogy az egyes genetikai variánsoknak mi a szerepük egy korfüggo betegség kialakulásában, meg kell ismerkednünk magával az öregedési folyamattal, az egészséges hosszú élettel asszociált, valamint az adott populációra jellegzetes variánsokkal is. A Semmelweis Egyetem Genomikai Medicina és Ritka Betegségek Intézete a Nemzeti Bionika Program keretén belül a Magyar Genomikai Egészségtárház felállítását tuzte ki célul, idoskoruk mellett is egészséges önkéntesek teljesgenom-szekvenciáinak és kapcsolódó fenotípusadatainak katalogizálásával és elemzésével, létrehozva az elso magyar teljes genomi referencia-adatbázist. Fontos szempont volt, hogy a kutatás az egészséges öregedést vizsgáló nemzetközi projektekhez is kapcsolódást biztosítson, így lehetoséget teremtve a különbözo országokból származó adatok harmonizálására és közös elemzésére. A kutatás résztvevoinek 49%-a 70-80 éves, 36%-a 81-90 éves, 14%-uk pedig 90 év feletti; a nemek aránya 44/56%-os megoszlást mutatott a férfiak és a nok között. A résztvevok csaknem fele (46%) egyedül él. Magas a felsofokú végzettséguek aránya (46%), a résztvevok 61%-a hosszú idon át sportolt, 70%-uk sosem dohányzott. A vizsgálati alanyok szülei is magas életkort éltek meg, az édesapáknál 74,3, az édesanyák esetében pedig 80,47 év volt a halálozáskori átlagéletkor. Adattárházunk elsoként tervez hozzáférést biztosítani egy magyar teljes genomi referencia-adatbázishoz, amely a genetikusan meghatározott betegségek és fenotípusok kutatásában és a klinikai gyakorlatban is alapveto fontosságú. A projekt bioinformatikai fejlesztései a genetikai/genomikai információk többszintu elérését támogatják a személyes adatok védettségét megorzo statisztikai elemzési és mesterségesintelligencia-eljárások segítségével. Orv Hetil. 2021; 162(27): 1079-1088. Summary. Genetics has proven to be a a successful approach in the study of ageing. To understand the role of each genetic variant in the development of an age-dependent disease, we need to become familiar with the ageing process itself and with the population-specific variants. The Institute of Genomic Medicine and Rare Disorders of the Semmelweis University within the framework of the National Bionics Program set up a data collection, the Hungarian Genomic Data Warehouse, by cataloging and analyzing complete genome sequences and related phenotype data of healthy volunteers, which also serves as a reference national Hungarian genomic database. The structure of the data warehouse allows interoperability with the most important international research projects on ageing. 49% of the participants in the Hungarian Genomic Data Warehouse were 70-80 years old, 36% were 81-90, 14% over 90 years old. The gender ratio was 44/56% between men and women. The proportion of people with higher education is high (46%), 61% of the participants played sports for a long time, and 70% never smoked. The parents of the participants also lived a high age, with an average age at death of 74.3 years for fathers and 80.47 years for mothers. The Hungarian Genomic Data Warehouse can provide vital and timely support in personalized medicine, especially in the research and diagnosis of genetically inherited disorders. The long-term goal of these bioinformatic developments is to provide access at multiple levels to the genomic data using privacy-preserving data analysis methods in genomics. Orv Hetil. 2021; 162(27): 1079-1088.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Motivação , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Pai , Feminino , Humanos , Hungria , Masculino , Mães
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34204098

RESUMO

Ocular graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a major complication after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Ocular GVHD affects recipients' visual function and quality of life. Recent advanced research in this area has gradually attracted attention from a wide range of physicians and ophthalmologists. This review highlights the mechanism of immune processes and the molecular mechanism, including several inflammation cascades, pathogenic fibrosis, and stress-induced senescence related to ocular GVHD, in basic spectrum topics in this area. How the disease develops and what kinds of cells participate in ocular GVHD are discussed. Although the classical immune process is a main pathological pathway in this disease, senescence-associated changes in immune cells and stem cells may also drive this disease. The DNA damage response, p16/p21, and the expression of markers associated with the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) are seen in ocular tissue in GVHD. Macrophages, T cells, and mesenchymal cells from donors or recipients that increasingly infiltrate the ocular surface serve as the source of increased secretion of IL-6, which is a major SASP driver. Agents capable of reversing the changes, including senolytic reagents or those that can suppress the SASP seen in GVHD, provide new potential targets for the treatment of GVHD. Creating innovative therapies for ocular GVHD is necessary to treat this intractable ocular disease.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/patologia , Síndromes do Olho Seco/etiologia , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/complicações , Inflamação/complicações , Estresse Fisiológico , Animais , Doença Crônica , Fibrose , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/imunologia , Humanos , Inflamação/imunologia
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34208040

RESUMO

(1) Background: The pro-resolving lipid mediator Resolvin D1 (RvD1) has already shown protective effects in animal models of diabetic retinopathy. This study aimed to investigate the retinal levels of RvD1 in aged (24 months) and younger (3 months) Balb/c mice, along with the activation of macro- and microglia, apoptosis, and neuroinflammation. (2) Methods: Retinas from male and female mice were used for immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, transmission electron microscopy, Western blotting, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. (3) Results: Endogenous retinal levels of RvD1 were reduced in aged mice. While RvD1 levels were similar in younger males and females, they were markedly decreased in aged males but less reduced in aged females. Both aged males and females showed a significant increase in retinal microglia activation compared to younger mice, with a more marked reactivity in aged males than in aged females. The same trend was shown by astrocyte activation, neuroinflammation, apoptosis, and nitrosative stress, in line with the microglia and Müller cell hypertrophy evidenced in aged retinas by electron microscopy. (4) Conclusions: Aged mice had sex-related differences in neuroinflammation and apoptosis and low retinal levels of endogenous RvD1.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/patologia , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/farmacologia , Inflamação/patologia , Retina/patologia , Caracteres Sexuais , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Células Ependimogliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Ependimogliais/metabolismo , Células Ependimogliais/patologia , Células Ependimogliais/ultraestrutura , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Microglia/efeitos dos fármacos , Microglia/metabolismo , Microglia/patologia , Microglia/ultraestrutura , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Retina/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Tirosina/análogos & derivados , Tirosina/metabolismo
7.
Front Immunol ; 12: 685344, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34211472

RESUMO

Vaccination is the best prophylaxis for the prevention of infectious diseases, including coronavirus disease 2019. However, the efficacy of vaccines and onset of adverse reactions vary among individuals. Circulating extracellular vesicles (EVs) regulate the immune responses after vaccination by delivering microRNAs (miRNAs) to myeloid and lymphoid cells. Among these, miR-192 levels in serum EVs increase with aging, in an IL-6-dependent manner, reducing excessive IL-6 expression in aged mice, creating a negative feedback loop. Excessive IL-6 expression reduces vaccination efficacy in aged mice, while EV miR-192 improves efficacy in these aged mice as well, making this miRNA an interesting focus of study. miR-21 levels in serum EVs also increase with aging, and regulates the expression of IL-12 required for Th1 responses; therefore, EV miR-21 is expected to regulate vaccine efficacy. miR-451a, another important miRNA, is abundant in serum EVs and controls the expression of cytokines, such as type I interferon and IL-6. However, levels differ among individuals and correlate with local inflammatory symptoms experienced after a seasonal flu vaccination. These findings suggest the importance of EV miRNAs as a tool to improve vaccine efficacy and also as biomarkers to predict the immune response and adverse reactions after vaccinations.


Assuntos
Vesículas Extracelulares/metabolismo , Interferon Tipo I/imunologia , Interleucina-6/imunologia , MicroRNAs/sangue , Envelhecimento/sangue , Envelhecimento/imunologia , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra COVID-19/imunologia , Humanos , Interferon Tipo I/biossíntese , Subunidade p35 da Interleucina-12/biossíntese , Subunidade p35 da Interleucina-12/imunologia , Interleucina-6/biossíntese , MicroRNAs/genética , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Células Th1/imunologia , Vacinação
8.
Front Immunol ; 12: 704773, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34220867

RESUMO

Background: Hemodialysis patients are at high risk for severe COVID-19. SARS-CoV-2 vaccination related safety and immunogenicity data in these patients are rare. Methods: In this observational study SARS-CoV-2-seronegative hemodialysis patients were vaccinated with two doses of the Pfizer/BioNTech mRNA-BNT162b2 vaccine (COMIRNATY® 30 µg) and followed for 90 days. Local and systemic side effects were assessed at every dialysis session during the first post-vaccination week after the first and second vaccine dose. Immunogenicity was determined four weeks after vaccination by quantifying anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike protein IgG antibodies (LIAISON® SARS-CoV-2-TrimericS IgG chemiluminescent immunoassay) expressed in binding activity units per milliliter (BAU/mL) adapted to the WHO International standard. Results: Fifty patients (32% women, 68% men) with a mean (SD) age of 67.6 (14.8) years were included. Mild local reactions occurred in 38% after the first injection, and in 29.2% with mild, in 2.1% with moderate and in 2.1% with severe degree after the second injection. Systemic reactive events occurred less often, with diarrhea (4% mild, 4% moderate) and fatigue (8% mild) being the most frequent ones. After the first injection 42% of the patients developed a positive response using the assay specific cut-off value of 33.8 binding activity units per milliliter (BAU/mL) with a median (Q1, Q3) anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike IgG concentration of 20.0 (11.7, 51.0) BAU/mL. After the second injection the percentage of seropositive patients increased to 97.9% with an anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike IgG concentration of 1075 (290.8, 1735) BAU/mL. Higher age and immunosuppression were associated with lower, calcitriol treatment and prior seroconversion to hepatitis B vaccination with significantly higher antibody concentration. Conclusions: The mRNA-BNT162b2 SARS-CoV-2 vaccine appears to be safe and well-tolerated and shows a high immunogenicity in hemodialysis patients.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Vacinas contra COVID-19/efeitos adversos , Vacinas contra COVID-19/imunologia , Imunogenicidade da Vacina/imunologia , Diálise Renal , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Idoso , Envelhecimento , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia
9.
Science ; 373(6551): 181-186, 2021 07 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34244407

RESUMO

Relatives have more similar gut microbiomes than nonrelatives, but the degree to which this similarity results from shared genotypes versus shared environments has been controversial. Here, we leveraged 16,234 gut microbiome profiles, collected over 14 years from 585 wild baboons, to reveal that host genetic effects on the gut microbiome are nearly universal. Controlling for diet, age, and socioecological variation, 97% of microbiome phenotypes were significantly heritable, including several reported as heritable in humans. Heritability was typically low (mean = 0.068) but was systematically greater in the dry season, with low diet diversity, and in older hosts. We show that longitudinal profiles and large sample sizes are crucial to quantifying microbiome heritability, and indicate scope for selection on microbiome characteristics as a host phenotype.


Assuntos
Bactérias/classificação , Meio Ambiente , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Papio/microbiologia , Actinobacteria/classificação , Actinobacteria/genética , Actinobacteria/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Actinobacteria/isolamento & purificação , Envelhecimento , Animais , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Bacteroidetes/classificação , Bacteroidetes/genética , Bacteroidetes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bacteroidetes/isolamento & purificação , Dieta , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Firmicutes/classificação , Firmicutes/genética , Firmicutes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Firmicutes/isolamento & purificação , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Papio/genética , Fenótipo , Estações do Ano , Comportamento Social
10.
Science ; 373(6551): 223-225, 2021 07 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34244415

RESUMO

Basal metabolic rate generally scales with body mass in mammals, and variation from predicted levels indicates adaptive metabolic remodeling. As a thermogenic adaptation for living in cool water, sea otters have a basal metabolic rate approximately three times that of the predicted rate; however, the tissue-level source of this hypermetabolism is unknown. Because skeletal muscle is a major determinant of whole-body metabolism, we characterized respiratory capacity and thermogenic leak in sea otter muscle. Compared with that of previously sampled mammals, thermogenic muscle leak capacity was elevated and could account for sea otter hypermetabolism. Muscle respiratory capacity was modestly elevated and reached adult levels in neonates. Premature metabolic development and high leak rate indicate that sea otter muscle metabolism is regulated by thermogenic demand and is the source of basal hypermetabolism.


Assuntos
Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Lontras/fisiologia , Termogênese , Envelhecimento , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos/fisiologia , Metabolismo Basal , Tamanho Corporal , Temperatura Baixa , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Lontras/metabolismo , Consumo de Oxigênio
11.
Yi Chuan ; 43(6): 545-570, 2021 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34284987

RESUMO

With the increase of life expectancy, the world's population is aging rapidly. Previous work in the field of aging greatly increases our understanding of biological mechanisms underlying longevity. Researchers have unraveled a number of longevity pathways conserved from yeast to mammals. However, recent evidence shows that mechanisms regulating the life span and those regulating age-related behavioral decline could be dissociated. The regulatory mechanisms underlying behavioral and cognitive aging is largely unknown. Previous work has described a significant age-related decline in cognitive behaviors including episodic memory, working memory, processing speed, as well as motor function deterioration and circadian dysfunction. With the advance of neuroscience and technology, more and more studies have focused on the age-related changes in structure and function of the brain. In this review, we briefly describe the deterioration of cognitive function and other behaviors in the aging process, and survey the role of age-related changes in brain structure and network, neuron morphology and function, transcriptome in brain and some conserved biological pathways on age-related cognitive and behavioral decline. Further studies on the mechanisms underpinning age-related cognitive and behavioral decline may provide clues not only for improving the quality of life for the ageing population, but also for developing intervention approaches for neurodegenerative diseases.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento Cognitivo , Envelhecimento/genética , Animais , Cognição , Longevidade , Qualidade de Vida
12.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34205338

RESUMO

This study investigated the antioxidant effects of whey protein peptide on learning and memory in aging C57BL/6N mice. A total of 72 SPF male C57BL/6N mice were used. Twelve mice were randomly selected as the control group, and the other mice were intraperitoneally injected with D-galactose (100 mg/kg body weight for 6 weeks), during which, the mice in the control group were intraperitoneally injected with the same amount of normal saline. After 6 weeks, the blood was taken from the epicanthus and the serum MDA level was measured, according to which, the mice were randomly divided into the model control group, the whey protein group (1.5 g/kg body weight), and three Whey protein peptide (WHP) intervention groups (0.3 g/kg body weight, 1.5 g/kg body weight, 3.0 g/kg body weight). The water solution of the test sample was administered by oral gavage every day. The intervention period was 30 days, during which, the model control group, the whey protein group, and the whey protein peptide group continued receiving intraperitoneal injections of D-galactose, while the control group continued receiving intraperitoneal injections of normal saline. After the intervention, behavioral experiments were conducted in the following order: open field test, water maze test, and new object recognition test. After the behavioral experiment, the morphology of hippocampal formation was observed by HE staining and TUNEL labeling. Oxidative stress-related indexes in the serum, liver, and brain were detected. Expression levels of the cholinergic system-related enzymes and proinflammatory cytokines in brain tissue were detected. Western blot was used to detect the expression of synaptic plasticity-related proteins in the mouse brain. The results showed that WHP could significantly improve the accumulation of MDA and PC, increase the activities of SOD and GSH-Px, resist oxidative stress injury, and enhance the potential of endogenous antioxidant defense mechanisms. WHP can significantly improve the decline of aging-related spatial exploration, body movement, and spatial and non-spatial learning/memory ability. Its specific mechanism may be related to reducing the degeneration of hippocampal nerve cells, reducing the apoptosis of nerve cells, improving the activity of AChE, reducing the expression of inflammatory factors (TNF-α and IL-1ß) in brain tissue, reducing oxidative stress injury, and improving the expression of p-CaMKⅡ and BDNF synaptic plasticity protein. These results indicate that WHP can improve aging-related oxidative stress, as well as learning and memory impairment.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Aprendizagem/efeitos dos fármacos , Memória/efeitos dos fármacos , Peptídeos/administração & dosagem , Proteínas do Soro do Leite/química , Envelhecimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Galactose/administração & dosagem , Hipocampo/citologia , Marcação In Situ das Extremidades Cortadas , Masculino , Malondialdeído/sangue , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Modelos Animais , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34208163

RESUMO

Cognitive decline with normal aging varies widely among individuals. This study aimed to investigate predictors of longitudinal changes in cognitive function in community-dwelling Korean adults aged 65 years and older. Data from 727 older adults who participated in the Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging (KLoSA) survey from 2006 (baseline) until 2018 (seventh wave) were used. Cognitive performance was assessed with the Korean Mini-Mental State Examination. The participants were retrospectively classified into normal cognition, mild cognitive impairment, and moderate/severe cognitive impairment. Education, income, religion, living area, alcohol intake, smoking, physical activity, handgrip strength, functional dependency, depression, comorbidity, medications, fall experience, and unintentional weight loss were included as covariates. A linear mixed regression analysis showed that a steeper decline in cognitive function over time was significantly associated with parameters of poor socio-economic status, health conditions, and unhealthy behaviors. Individuals with mild cognitive impairment or moderate/severe cognitive impairment were likely to have steeper cognitive declines compared with individuals with normal cognition. The current findings of the study showed that age-related cognitive decline was multifactorial in older Korean adults.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva , Força da Mão , Idoso , Envelhecimento , Cognição , Disfunção Cognitiva/epidemiologia , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34198481

RESUMO

Current evidence and research of the life course approach on the association between life experiences and health in old age are fragmentary. This paper empirically examines the "long arm" effect of the childhood circumstances on mental health in later life using a large longitudinal dataset (CHARLS) conducted in 2014 and 2015. We operationalize the childhood circumstances as family economic conditions, community environment, and peer network to include the meaningful content and understand their interaction. The SEM results indicate that effects of those factors contributing to older people's mental health are unequal and vary among age groups and genders. Of those, peer network in childhood determines to a large extent the mental health through the whole life course, while economic conditions and community environment are weakly associated with mental health. Furthermore, we find a distinct interaction mechanism linking those variables. The peer network completely mediates the effect of the community environment on the mental health of older adults and has a partial mediating effect on the economic conditions. Those findings suggest that social policies aimed at promoting older people's mental health in the context of the active ageing and health ageing strategy should go beyond the old age stage and target social conditions early in childhood.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento Saudável , Saúde Mental , Idoso , Envelhecimento , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34200434

RESUMO

The auditory system is a fascinating sensory organ that overall, converts sound signals to electrical signals of the nervous system. Initially, sound energy is converted to mechanical energy via amplification processes in the middle ear, followed by transduction of mechanical movements of the oval window into electrochemical signals in the cochlear hair cells, and finally, neural signals travel to the central auditory system, via the auditory division of the 8th cranial nerve. The majority of people above 60 years have some form of age-related hearing loss, also known as presbycusis. However, the biological mechanisms of presbycusis are complex and not yet fully delineated. In the present article, we highlight ion channels and transport proteins, which are integral for the proper functioning of the auditory system, facilitating the diffusion of various ions across auditory structures for signal transduction and processing. Like most other physiological systems, hearing abilities decline with age, hence, it is imperative to fully understand inner ear aging changes, so ion channel functions should be further investigated in the aging cochlea. In this review article, we discuss key various ion channels in the auditory system and how their functions change with age. Understanding the roles of ion channels in auditory processing could enhance the development of potential biotherapies for age-related hearing loss.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/patologia , Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Canais Iônicos/metabolismo , Presbiacusia/patologia , Envelhecimento/metabolismo , Animais , Humanos , Presbiacusia/metabolismo
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34200703

RESUMO

Sarcopenia is associated with adverse health outcomes among older individuals. However, little is known about its association with neighborhood environmental factors. We explored the relationship between sarcopenia and perceived neighborhood environmental factors among community-dwelling older adults aged 70-84 years. We analyzed 1778 participants (mean age of 75.9 ± 3.8 years; 54.0% women) who lived in urban areas and underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry from the Korean Frailty and Aging Cohort Study. Sarcopenia was defined according to the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia 2019 definition. Perceived neighborhood environmental factors were assessed using the Environmental Module of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ-E). In the multivariate analysis, compared to the fifth quintile of the IPAQ-E score, the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for sarcopenia in the first, second, third, and fourth quintiles were 2.13 (1.40-3.24), 1.72 (1.12-2.64), 1.75 (1.15-2.66), and 1.62 (1.06-2.47), respectively. These neighborhood environmental characteristics were linked with an increased likelihood of sarcopenia: no public transportation access (OR = 2.04; 95% CI = 1.19-3.48), poor recreational facilities access (OR = 1.39; 95% CI = 1.01-1.90), absence of destination (OR = 1.53; 95% CI = 1.06-2.20), many hill hazards (OR = 1.36; 95% CI = 1.03-1.78), and lack of traffic safety (OR = 1.35; 95% CI = 1.02-1.78). Thus, better neighborhood environmental strategies may help prevent sarcopenia among urban-dwelling older adults.


Assuntos
Fragilidade , Sarcopenia , Idoso , Envelhecimento , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Fragilidade/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Sarcopenia/epidemiologia , População Urbana
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34199458

RESUMO

As we age, our bodies accrue damage in the form of DNA mutations. These mutations lead to the generation of sub-optimal proteins, resulting in inadequate cellular homeostasis and senescence. The build-up of senescent cells negatively affects the local cellular micro-environment and drives ageing associated disease, including neurodegeneration. Therefore, limiting the accumulation of DNA damage is essential for healthy neuronal populations. The naked mole rats (NMR) are from eastern Africa and can live for over three decades in chronically hypoxic environments. Despite their long lifespan, NMRs show little to no biological decline, neurodegeneration, or senescence. Here, we discuss molecular pathways and adaptations that NMRs employ to maintain genome integrity and combat the physiological and pathological decline in organismal function.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica/genética , Senescência Celular/genética , Dano ao DNA/genética , Estresse Oxidativo/genética , Envelhecimento/genética , Animais , DNA/genética , Homeostase , Ratos-Toupeira/genética , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34199515

RESUMO

Leaf senescence is a developmental process induced by various molecular and environmental stimuli that may affect crop yield. The dark-induced leaf senescence-91 (DLS-91) plants displayed rapid leaf senescence, dramatically decreased chlorophyll contents, low photochemical efficiencies, and upregulation of the senescence-associated marker gene BrSAG12-1. To understand DLS molecular mechanism, we examined transcriptomic changes in DLS-91 and control line DLS-42 following 0, 1, and 4 days of dark treatment (DDT) stages. We identified 501, 446, and 456 DEGs, of which 16.7%, 17.2%, and 14.4% encoded TFs, in samples from the three stages. qRT-PCR validation of 16 genes, namely, 7 MADS, 6 NAC, and 3 WRKY, suggested that BrAGL8-1, BrAGL15-1, and BrWRKY70-1 contribute to the rapid leaf senescence of DLS-91 before (0 DDT) and after (1 and 4 DDT) dark treatment, whereas BrNAC046-2, BrNAC029-2/BrNAP, and BrNAC092-1/ORE1 TFs may regulate this process at a later stage (4 DDT). In-silico analysis of cis-acting regulatory elements of BrAGL8-1, BrAGL42-1, BrNAC029-2, BrNAC092-1, and BrWRKY70-3 of B. rapa provides insight into the regulation of these genes. Our study has uncovered several AGL-MADS, WRKY, and NAC TFs potentially worthy of further study to understand the underlying mechanism of rapid DLS in DLS-91.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/genética , Brassica rapa/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Transcriptoma/genética , Brassica rapa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Clorofila/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Domínio MADS/genética , Folhas de Planta/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34200325

RESUMO

The SARS-CoV-2 infection determines the COVID-19 syndrome characterized, in the worst cases, by severe respiratory distress, pulmonary and cardiac fibrosis, inflammatory cytokine release, and immunosuppression. This condition has led to the death of about 2.15% of the total infected world population so far. Among survivors, the presence of the so-called persistent post-COVID-19 syndrome (PPCS) is a common finding. In COVID-19 survivors, PPCS presents one or more symptoms: fatigue, dyspnea, memory loss, sleep disorders, and difficulty concentrating. In this study, a cohort of 117 COVID-19 survivors (post-COVID-19) and 144 non-infected volunteers (COVID-19-free) was analyzed using pyrosequencing of defined CpG islands previously identified as suitable for biological age determination. The results show a consistent biological age increase in the post-COVID-19 population, determining a DeltaAge acceleration of 10.45 ± 7.29 years (+5.25 years above the range of normality) compared with 3.68 ± 8.17 years for the COVID-19-free population (p < 0.0001). A significant telomere shortening parallels this finding in the post-COVID-19 cohort compared with COVID-19-free subjects (p < 0.0001). Additionally, ACE2 expression was decreased in post-COVID-19 patients, compared with the COVID-19-free population, while DPP-4 did not change. In light of these observations, we hypothesize that some epigenetic alterations are associated with the post-COVID-19 condition, particularly in younger patients (< 60 years).


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/genética , COVID-19/genética , COVID-19/fisiopatologia , Ilhas de CpG , Encurtamento do Telômero , Telômero/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/sangue , Biomarcadores , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/etiologia , Metilação de DNA , Dipeptidil Peptidase 4/sangue , Epigenômica , Feminino , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Sobreviventes
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34203694

RESUMO

Proper functioning of cells-their ability to divide, differentiate, and regenerate-is dictated by genomic stability. The main factors contributing to this stability are the telomeric ends that cap chromosomes. Telomere biology and telomerase activity have been of interest to scientists in various medical science fields for years, including the study of both cancer and of senescence and aging. All these processes are accompanied by telomere-length modulation. Maintaining the key levels of telomerase component (hTERT) expression and telomerase activity that provide optimal telomere length as well as some nontelomeric functions represents a promising step in advanced anti-aging strategies, especially in dermocosmetics. Some known naturally derived compounds contribute significantly to telomere and telomerase metabolism. However, before they can be safely used, it is necessary to assess their mechanisms of action and potential side effects. This paper focuses on the metabolic potential of natural compounds to modulate telomerase and telomere biology and thus prevent senescence and skin aging.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/metabolismo , Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Pele/patologia , Telomerase/metabolismo , Telômero/metabolismo , Animais , Humanos , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos
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