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1.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1131: 985-1012, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31646542

RESUMO

Calcium (Ca2+) ions are highly versatile intracellular signaling molecules and are universal second messenger for regulating a variety of cellular and physiological functions including synaptic plasticity. Ca2+ homeostasis in the central nervous system endures subtle dysregulation with advancing age. Research has provided abundant evidence that brain aging is associated with altered neuronal Ca2+ regulation and synaptic plasticity mechanisms. Much of the work has focused on the hippocampus, a brain region critically involved in learning and memory, which is particularly susceptible to dysfunction during aging. The current chapter takes a specific perspective, assessing various Ca2+ sources and the influence of aging on Ca2+ sources and synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus. Integrating the knowledge of the complexity of age-related alterations in neuronal Ca2+ signaling and synaptic plasticity mechanisms will positively shape the development of highly effective therapeutics to treat brain disorders including cognitive impairment associated with aging and neurodegenerative disease.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Encéfalo , Sinalização do Cálcio , Doenças Neurodegenerativas , Plasticidade Neuronal , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Hipocampo/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Plasticidade Neuronal/fisiologia
2.
Wiad Lek ; 72(9 cz 1): 1602-1606, 2019.
Artigo em Polonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31586970

RESUMO

All over world people live longer. In highly civilized societies the elderly people are half of the population. The old age crowns the whole life, it is the period when one enjoys the fruits of his labours. The man, when living on earth, completes a certain cycle which begins with the birth and is crowned with the old age. Each age is somehow beautiful but the extreme happiness is to go through the whole cycle. The old age is the specific beauty enriched with the past which had prepared it. Through their whole life one should be preparing to have successful, cheerful old age as it crowns air existence. The elderly like calmness, rest, silence and deadened sounds. Thanks to these traits they make every environment harmonious, calm and peaceful. They do it subconsciously thanks to their existence, exclusively through their own presence because these traits are the inherent part of their lives. The old age is God's grace given to man. That is why we may easily say that in their hand an old man holds their life's achievements that they will introduce to God one day.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/psicologia , Felicidade , Idoso , Humanos
3.
Wiad Lek ; 72(9 cz 1): 1655-1659, 2019.
Artigo em Polonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31586978

RESUMO

In the elderly, there is a reduction of the efficiency in many organs, including muscles. The weight, strength and power reduction of elderly muscles is defined as sarcopenia. The pathophysiology of sarcopenia is multifactorial, it can be influenced by intrinsic and extrinsic factors such as reduced caloric intake, denervation of muscle fibers - in the course of various neurodegenerative diseases, intracellular oxidative stress, hormonal disorders and others. The European Working Group on sarcopenia in the elderly published diagnostic criteria for sarcopenia in 2010, which should increase the recognition of this disease and speed up the treatment process. The best-confirmed methods of treatment of sarcopenia are nutritional hyperalimentation and resistance training. Pharmacological agents, i.e. selective androgen receptor modulators, and myostatin inhibitors are not sufficiently tested to be approved, by the FDA as a treatment regimen of sarcopenia.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/patologia , Sarcopenia/diagnóstico , Idoso , Ingestão de Energia , Humanos , Estresse Oxidativo
4.
Wiad Lek ; 72(9 cz 1): 1660-1666, 2019.
Artigo em Polonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31586979

RESUMO

There is continuous ageing in world population. Although life expectancy still increases there is no similar trend in maintaining quality of life. The number of disabilities due to age is expected to double in 2060. Muscle mass is one of the most important factors of health and nutrition in old age and it constant loss is characteristic for process of ageing. Muscle mass is controlled by number of different factors. The most important of which is balance between muscle protein synthesis and degradation. Ageing has no influence on muscle protein degradation so for maintaining muscle mass it is better to target muscle protein synthesis. Optimal protein dose in the meal is the minimal amount of protein effecting in maximal anabolic response. Threshold for anabolic response increase with age. This process, named anabolic resistance can be overwhelmed with high amount of protein in diet. Experts in the field of ageing and nutrition recommend 1,2-1,5 g/kg/d protein for the maintaining of muscle mass, 1,2-1,5 g/kg/d for older with additional risk factors, 2,0 g/kg/d for seriously ill and malnourished. Physical training has synergistic influence with diet protein. Physical training improves muscle performance, muscle strength and prevents muscle wasting. Physical training combined with increased amount of protein in diet results with increased muscle mass.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Exercício , Sarcopenia/terapia , Humanos , Músculo Esquelético , Qualidade de Vida , Sarcopenia/prevenção & controle
5.
Wiad Lek ; 72(9 cz 1): 1671-1675, 2019.
Artigo em Polonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31586981

RESUMO

Osteoarthritis is the disease connected with aging which is characterised by progressive degeneration of all elements building the joint but also influencing the muscles constituting motor unit with the affected joint. The effective and unified therapy has not been yet introduced despite the broad multi-site studies concentrating on metabolic pathways responsible for the development of the disease. The reason of which is probably its multifactorial aetiology. The treatment methods are based on decreasing of cartilage destruction activity, retardation of proinflammatory factors activity and fighting with pain. Physiotherapy, movement rehabilitation, painkillers, anti-inflammatory drugs, glucosamine sulphates and hyaluronic acids are used as therapeutic strategies. The methods recently introduced are platelet rich plasma concentrates and stem cells injected directly into the affected joint. The aim of this review article was the presentation of differential therapeutic options offered to patients in different stages of osteoarthritis.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Cartilagem/patologia , Osteoartrite/terapia , Analgésicos/uso terapêutico , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Glucosamina/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Ácido Hialurônico/uso terapêutico
6.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1175: 181-197, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31583589

RESUMO

Ageing reduces the functional capacity of all organs, so does that of the nervous system; the latter is evident in the reduction of cognitive abilities, learning and memory. While the exact mechanisms of ageing of the nervous system remain elusive, it is without doubt that morpho-functional changes in a variety of neuroglial cells contribute to this process. The age-dependent changes in neuroglia are characterised by a progressive loss of function. This reduces glial ability to homeostatically nurture, protect and regenerate the nervous tissue. Such neuroglial paralysis also facilitates neurodegenerative processes. Ageing of neuroglia is variable and can be affected by environmental factors and comorbidities.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Neuroglia/fisiologia , Humanos
7.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1164: 153-160, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31576547

RESUMO

Skeletal aging begins after peak bone mass is reached; progressive bone loss then occurs. Peak bone mass may occur at different ages in different skeletal sites and varies between sexes. Accelerated loss of bone occurs in the perimenopausal period in women, whereas more gradual but progressive loss of bone occurs in aging men. Changes in bone quality as well as bone quantity occur during growth and subsequent aging. These include changes in bone microarchitecture which may differ between cortical and trabecular compartments and in different sites, and may impact on bone size and geometry. Changes in material properties of bone matrix may also occur with aging. Loss of bone quantity and altered bone quality with aging may weaken bones and culminate in osteoporosis with an increased risk of fractures. Both genetic and epigenetic mechanisms may predispose to osteoporosis. Cellular and molecular events underlie the alterations in bone quantity and quality. Osteoclastic bone resorption and osteoblastic bone formation, tightly regulated by hormones, growth factors, and cytokines, are organized in coordinated activities resulting in remodeling and modeling. Malignancies, and anti-neoplastic therapies, may impact on the cellular and molecular events in the aging skeleton and produce focal or diffuse skeletal lesions and fractures.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Reabsorção Óssea , Osso e Ossos , Densidade Óssea , Osso e Ossos/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Osteoporose , Fatores Sexuais
8.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 40(10): 1203-1205, 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31658517

RESUMO

With accelerating and rapid ageing in China, there is an urgent need to collect reliable, valid and cross-nationally comparable data on health in the elderly to provide basis for richer and empirical analysis on the changing health over one's life course and compression of morbidity. To meet the demands of this growing special population, planning and preparing on related social protection mechanisms (health and pension systems) should also based on evidence-based decision-making process. Based on long-term follow-up, large scale cohort study is indispensible for the etiology of common chronic diseases and disabling conditions. This study aims to introduce the background, project objectives, contents, baseline characteristics, strength and weakness as well as prospect, related to the Study on global AGEing and adult health in China.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Doença Crônica , Pessoas com Deficiência , Saúde Pública , Adulto , Idoso , China , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos
9.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 22Suppl 02(Suppl 02): E190013.SUPL.2, 2019.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31596384

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze social inequalities in the prevalence of indicators of active aging in the Brazilian older adult population. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study with a sample of 11,177 older adults who participated in the Brazilian National Health Survey in 2013. We estimated the prevalence of five domains of active aging (social activities, civic engagement, leisure-time physical activity, paid work, and volunteer work) according to gender, ethnicity, schooling, income, and private health insurance. Prevalence ratios and confidence intervals were calculated using Poisson regression. RESULTS: The percentage of involvement in organized social activities, civic engagement, and physical activity was 25.1, 12.4, and 13.1%, respectively. Regarding work, 20.7% of the sample had a paid job, and 9.7% participated in volunteer work. Women had a higher prevalence of participation in organized social activities and volunteer work; while civic engagement and paid work were more frequent among men. White people were more likely to participate in social activities, volunteer work, and leisure-time physical activity, explained by their schooling. The strata with a higher level of schooling, income, and who had private health insurance showed a greater incidence of participation in all activities studied. CONCLUSION: The five activities analyzed are challenging for the proposed policy of active aging, as they are marked by considerable social inequality.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Exercício/fisiologia , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/métodos , Classe Social , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Seguro Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Atividades de Lazer , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Distribuição por Sexo , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Trabalho/fisiologia , Trabalho/estatística & dados numéricos
11.
Yi Chuan ; 41(10): 893-904, 2019 Oct 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31624052

RESUMO

Mitochondrion is the metabolic center and powerhouse of cells producing cellular energy which plays an important role in various physiological and pathophysiological processes. Recent research demonstrates that mitochondrial energy metabolism mediates the transmission of mitochondrial-nuclear signals through intermediate products which regulates epigenetic presentation of the chromatin and thereby affects gene expression. Epigenetic modification, a genetic regulatory model, is independent of DNA sequence and plays a major role in establishing and maintaining a specific gene's expression profile. Disorders of mitochondrial metabolism can induce epigenetic reprogramming which in turn initiates aging phenotypes and degenerative diseases. This review introduces recent research progress on the relationship between mitochondrial metabolism and chromatin-related epigenetic modification, discusses the role of mitochondrial stress in chromatin recombination, and suggests future research directions and their application in the study of age-related diseases such as cognitive dysfunction.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Cromatina , Epigênese Genética , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Humanos
12.
Prague Med Rep ; 120(2-3): 84-94, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31586507

RESUMO

Ageing is associated with the accumulation of damage to all the macromolecules within and outside cells leading to progressively more cellular and tissue defects and resulting in age-related frailty, disability and disease. As a result of the aging process the bone deteriorates in composition, structure and function. Age-related musculoskeletal losses are a major public health burden because they can cause physical disability and increased mortality. We tried to find out on a small set of old women, without risk factors for osteoporosis, what caused them the loss of bone minerals. All 492 women had just only one risk factor - the old age. Laboratory findings have shown a decreased serum C telopeptide and low serum alkaline phosphatase circulating markers, used to quantify bone resorption and formation, and very low level of vitamin D. Very low level of vitamin D that disrupted calcium absorption through the intestine, and decreased calcemia increased parathyroid hormone levels with resulting bone effect. The manifestation of physiological aging is worsening eyesight, peripheral neuropathy, depression, worsening of physical condition, skin aging, sarcopenia and bone mineral loss. Senile osteoporosis, which is not caused by known risk factors for osteoporosis, does not appear to be a separate disease, but is part of the physiological process of aging. Treatment of senile osteoporosis should be focused on the control of secondary hyperparathyroidism by administration of vitamin D and calcium. The risk of fractures in the advanced age is determined by a large number of factors ranging from hazards in the home environment to frailty and poor balance.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/sangue , Envelhecimento/patologia , Fosfatase Alcalina/sangue , Densidade Óssea , Cálcio/metabolismo , Colágeno Tipo I/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Osteogênese , Osteoporose/sangue , Hormônio Paratireóideo/sangue , Peptídeos/sangue , Vitamina D/sangue
13.
Rinsho Ketsueki ; 60(9): 1027-1032, 2019.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31597824

RESUMO

Cellular senescence is a state of durable cell cycle arrest after a defined number of cell divisions. The number of population doublings of normal cells in culture depends on the species but not on the types of cells used to establish the culture, showing a positive correlation with the life span of the animals. Therefore, the results suggest a physiological link between a limited proliferative capacity in cell culture and the processes observed in organismal aging. The pivotal role of senescence in organismal aging and the onset of age-related disorders, such as atherosclerosis, type II diabetes, and Alzheimer's disease, is supported by the observation that the clearance of p16-positive senescent cells delays various age-associated disorders and extends healthy lifespan. In this review, I provide an overview of recent advances in understanding the mechanisms underlying the induction of senescence and maintenance of the specific phenotypes, such as senescence associated secretory phenotypes (SASP).


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Senescência Celular , Doença de Alzheimer , Animais , Aterosclerose , Divisão Celular , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Humanos , Fenótipo
19.
Clin Exp Rheumatol ; 37 Suppl 120(5): 48-56, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31621566

RESUMO

Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common age-related chronic and disabling joint disease. Long considered to be a "wear and tear" disease, OA is now seen as a low-grade inflammation disease that affects all tissues of the joint, involving cartilage degradation, bone remodelling, osteophytes, and synovitis. The process, called inflammaging, is characterised by the association of low-grade inflammation, profound changes in intra-cellular mechanisms, and the decreased efficiency of the immune system with ageing. The activation of innate immunity plays a critical role in the development and progression of OA. Innate immunity, including inflammasome activation, is triggered by small endogenous molecules called alarmins or damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). These molecules are released in the extracellular media after cell stress or damage, bind to pathogen-recognition receptors (PRRs), such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE), and activate the secretion of pro-inflammatory factors, leading to joint inflammation. Moreover, such sterile inflammation triggers cell senescence, characterised by a senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP). Understanding the substantial age-related changes of joint tissues that influence the pathogenesis of OA is critical to improving the quality of life of elderly people in the context of increased life expectancy. This review will focus on age-related sterile inflammation in OA and highlight the various innovative and promising therapies targeting the mechanisms of aging.


Assuntos
Osteoartrite , Qualidade de Vida , Idoso , Envelhecimento , Humanos , Inflamação/imunologia , Osteoartrite/imunologia , Osteoartrite/patologia , Osteoartrite/terapia , Receptor para Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/metabolismo , Receptores Toll-Like/metabolismo
20.
Acta Cir Bras ; 34(8): e201900803, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31618403

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate changes in the quantity of elastic fibers in the corpora cavernosa of rats during the natural aging process, and to assess the degree of this change by determining volumetric density (Vv) at different ages via stereological analysis. METHODS: Forty-eight rats, raised under similar conditions, were subjected to the natural aging process and divided into four groups (G1 to G4), according to age at the time of penectomy (6, 9, 12, and 24 months, respectively). Histological sections of the middle segment of the penis were stained with Weigert's resorcin-fuchsin, and the volumetric density (Vv) of elastic fibers of the corpora cavernosa were determined via stereological analysis. RESULTS: There were no statistically significant differences in Vv among groups G1, G2, and G3. These three groups were therefore considered as a single group. The mean Vv of this group showed a statistically significant reduction compared to that of G4 (0.16 vs. 0.11, p<0.05). CONCLUSION: Natural aging in rats was responsible for a reduction in volumetric density of elastic fibers of the corpora cavernosa (approximately 30% decrease in Vv) during senescence.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Tecido Elástico/ultraestrutura , Células Endoteliais/fisiologia , Pênis/citologia , Envelhecimento/patologia , Animais , Colágeno/fisiologia , Colágeno/ultraestrutura , Tecido Elástico/patologia , Tecido Elástico/fisiologia , Disfunção Erétil/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Modelos Animais , Pênis/fisiologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
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