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1.
Molecules ; 26(7)2021 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33805024

RESUMO

Depression and anxiety disorders are widespread diseases, and they belong to the leading causes of disability and greatest burdens on healthcare systems worldwide. It is expected that the numbers will dramatically rise during the COVID-19 pandemic. Established medications are not sufficient to adequately treat depression and are not available for everyone. Plants from traditional medicine may be promising alternatives to treat depressive symptoms. The model organism Chaenorhabditis elegans was used to assess the stress reducing effects of methanol/dichlormethane extracts from plants used in traditional medicine. After initial screening for antioxidant activity, nine extracts were selected for in vivo testing in oxidative stress, heat stress, and osmotic stress assays. Additionally, anti-aging properties were evaluated in lifespan assay. The extracts from Acanthopanax senticosus, Campsis grandiflora, Centella asiatica, Corydalis yanhusuo, Dan Zhi, Houttuynia cordata, Psoralea corylifolia, Valeriana officinalis, and Withaniasomnifera showed antioxidant activity of more than 15 Trolox equivalents per mg extract. The extracts significantly lowered ROS in mutants, increased resistance to heat stress and osmotic stress, and the extended lifespan of the nematodes. The plant extracts tested showed promising results in increasing stress resistance in the nematode model. Further analyses are needed, in order to unravel underlying mechanisms and transfer results to humans.


Assuntos
Antidepressivos/farmacologia , Caenorhabditis elegans/efeitos dos fármacos , Caenorhabditis elegans/fisiologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Plantas Medicinais/química , Envelhecimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes , Resposta ao Choque Térmico/efeitos dos fármacos , Longevidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Longevidade/genética , Longevidade/fisiologia , Mutação , Pressão Osmótica/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
2.
Life Sci ; 274: 119343, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33716063

RESUMO

Aging is a risk factor for major central nervous system (CNS) disorders. More specifically, aging can be inked to neurodegenerative diseases (NDs) because of its deteriorating impact on neurovascular unit (NVU). Metformin, a first line FDA-approved anti-diabetic drug, has gained increasing interest among researchers for its role in improving aging-related neurodegenerative disorders. Additionally, numerous studies have illustrated metformin's role in ischemic stroke, a cerebrovascular disorder in which the NVU becomes dysfunctional which can lead to permanent life-threatening disabilities. Considering metformin's beneficial preclinical actions on various disorders, and the drug's role in alleviating severity of these conditions through involvement in commonly characterized cellular pathways, we discuss the potential of metformin as a suitable drug candidate for repurposing in CNS disorders.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Isquemia Encefálica/tratamento farmacológico , Reposicionamento de Medicamentos/métodos , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Metformina/uso terapêutico , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/tratamento farmacológico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Envelhecimento/patologia , Animais , Isquemia Encefálica/patologia , Humanos , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/patologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/patologia
3.
Microbiome ; 9(1): 31, 2021 01 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33509277

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prebiotic galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) have an extensively demonstrated beneficial impact on intestinal health. In this study, we determined the impact of GOS diets on hallmarks of gut aging: microbiome dysbiosis, inflammation, and intestinal barrier defects ("leaky gut"). We also evaluated if short-term GOS feeding influenced how the aging gut responded to antibiotic challenges in a mouse model of Clostridioides difficile infection. Finally, we assessed if colonic organoids could reproduce the GOS responder-non-responder phenotypes observed in vivo. RESULTS: Old animals had a distinct microbiome characterized by increased ratios of non-saccharolytic versus saccharolytic bacteria and, correspondingly, a lower abundance of ß-galactosidases compared to young animals. GOS reduced the overall diversity, increased the abundance of specific saccharolytic bacteria (species of Bacteroides and Lactobacillus), increased the abundance of ß-galactosidases in young and old animals, and increased the non-saccharolytic organisms; however, a robust, homogeneous bifidogenic effect was not observed. GOS reduced age-associated increased intestinal permeability and increased MUC2 expression and mucus thickness in old mice. Clyndamicin reduced the abundance Bifidobacterium while increasing Akkermansia, Clostridium, Coprococcus, Bacillus, Bacteroides, and Ruminococcus in old mice. The antibiotics were more impactful than GOS on modulating serum markers of inflammation. Higher serum levels of IL-17 and IL-6 were observed in control and GOS diets in the antibiotic groups, and within those groups, levels of IL-6 were higher in the GOS groups, regardless of age, and higher in the old compared to young animals in the control diet groups. RTqPCR revealed significantly increased gene expression of TNFα in distal colon tissue of old mice, which was decreased by the GOS diet. Colon transcriptomics analysis of mice fed GOS showed increased expression of genes involved in small-molecule metabolic processes and specifically the respirasome in old animals, which could indicate an increased oxidative metabolism and energetic efficiency. In young mice, GOS induced the expression of binding-related genes. The galectin gene Lgals1, a ß-galactosyl-binding lectin that bridges molecules by their sugar moieties and is an important modulator of the immune response, and the PI3K-Akt and ECM-receptor interaction pathways were also induced in young mice. Stools from mice exhibiting variable bifidogenic response to GOS injected into colon organoids in the presence of prebiotics reproduced the response and non-response phenotypes observed in vivo suggesting that the composition and functionality of the microbiota are the main contributors to the phenotype. CONCLUSIONS: Dietary GOS modulated homeostasis of the aging gut by promoting changes in microbiome composition and host gene expression, which was translated into decreased intestinal permeability and increased mucus production. Age was a determining factor on how prebiotics impacted the microbiome and expression of intestinal epithelial cells, especially apparent from the induction of galectin-1 in young but not old mice. Video abstract.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Oligossacarídeos/farmacologia , Prebióticos , Envelhecimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Envelhecimento/genética , Animais , Feminino , Intestinos/efeitos dos fármacos , Intestinos/microbiologia , Intestinos/fisiologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo
4.
Nature ; 590(7844): 122-128, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33473210

RESUMO

Ageing is characterized by the development of persistent pro-inflammatory responses that contribute to atherosclerosis, metabolic syndrome, cancer and frailty1-3. The ageing brain is also vulnerable to inflammation, as demonstrated by the high prevalence of age-associated cognitive decline and Alzheimer's disease4-6. Systemically, circulating pro-inflammatory factors can promote cognitive decline7,8, and in the brain, microglia lose the ability to clear misfolded proteins that are associated with neurodegeneration9,10. However, the underlying mechanisms that initiate and sustain maladaptive inflammation with ageing are not well defined. Here we show that in ageing mice myeloid cell bioenergetics are suppressed in response to increased signalling by the lipid messenger prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), a major modulator of inflammation11. In ageing macrophages and microglia, PGE2 signalling through its EP2 receptor promotes the sequestration of glucose into glycogen, reducing glucose flux and mitochondrial respiration. This energy-deficient state, which drives maladaptive pro-inflammatory responses, is further augmented by a dependence of aged myeloid cells on glucose as a principal fuel source. In aged mice, inhibition of myeloid EP2 signalling rejuvenates cellular bioenergetics, systemic and brain inflammatory states, hippocampal synaptic plasticity and spatial memory. Moreover, blockade of peripheral myeloid EP2 signalling is sufficient to restore cognition in aged mice. Our study suggests that cognitive ageing is not a static or irrevocable condition but can be reversed by reprogramming myeloid glucose metabolism to restore youthful immune functions.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/metabolismo , Disfunção Cognitiva/prevenção & controle , Células Mieloides/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Envelhecimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Envelhecimento/genética , Animais , Respiração Celular , Células Cultivadas , Disfunção Cognitiva/tratamento farmacológico , Disfunção Cognitiva/genética , Dinoprostona/metabolismo , Metabolismo Energético , Glucose/metabolismo , Glicogênio/biossíntese , Glicogênio/metabolismo , Humanos , Inflamação/metabolismo , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/imunologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Transtornos da Memória/tratamento farmacológico , Camundongos , Microglia/efeitos dos fármacos , Microglia/imunologia , Microglia/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Células Mieloides/imunologia , Receptores de Prostaglandina E Subtipo EP2/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptores de Prostaglandina E Subtipo EP2/deficiência , Receptores de Prostaglandina E Subtipo EP2/genética , Receptores de Prostaglandina E Subtipo EP2/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Memória Espacial/efeitos dos fármacos
5.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 264: 113297, 2021 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32841691

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The Fructus (Alpinia oxyphylla MIQ) known as Yi Zhi Ren in Chinese medicine has been used as a food and herbal medicinal substance in China for centuries; in the year 2015 Chinese Pharmacopoeia Commission reported water extracts of Alpinia oxyphyllae Fructus (AoF) as a popular medication for aging-related diseases in the form of tonic, aphrodisiac, and health-care food in south China. AIM OF THE STUDY: Adipose mesenchymal stem cells are physiologically and therapeutically associated with healthy vascular function and cardiac health. However aging conditions hinder stem cell function and increases the vulnerability to cardiovascular diseases. In this study, the effect of the anti-aging herbal medicine AoF to enhance the cardiac restorative function of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADMSCs) in aging condition was investigated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Low dose (0.1 µM) Doxorubicin and D-galactose (150 mg/kg/day for 8 weeks) were used to respectively induce aging in vitro and in vivo. For In vivo studies, 20 week old WKY rats were divided into Control, Aging induced (AI), AI + AoF, AI + ADMSC, AI + AoF Oral + ADMSC, and AI + AoF treated ADMSC groups. AoF (100 mg/kg/day) was administered orally and ADMSCs (1 × 106 cells) were injected (IV). RESULTS: AoF preconditioned ADMSC showed reduction in low dose Dox induced mitochondrial apoptosis and improved DNA replication in H9c2 cardiomyoblasts. In vivo experiments confirmed that both a combined treatment with AoF-ADMSCs and with AoF preconditioned ADMSCs reduced aging associated cardiac damages which was correlated with reduction in apoptosis and expression of senescence markers (P21 and ß-gal). Survival and longevity markers were upregulated up on combined administration of AoF and ADMSCs. The cardiac performance of the aging-induced rats was improved significantly in the treatment groups. AoF along with ADMSCs might activate paracrine factors to restore the performance of an aging heart. CONCLUSION: Hence, we propose that ADMSCs combined with AoF have promising therapeutic properties in the treatment of healthy aging heart.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/transplante , Envelhecimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Transplante de Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/métodos , Miócitos Cardíacos/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Envelhecimento/metabolismo , Envelhecimento/patologia , Animais , Apoptose/fisiologia , Linhagem Celular , Terapia Combinada/métodos , Cardiopatias/metabolismo , Cardiopatias/patologia , Cardiopatias/terapia , Masculino , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias , Modelos Animais , Miócitos Cardíacos/fisiologia , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Ratos , Ratos Endogâmicos WKY
6.
Elife ; 92020 12 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33319750

RESUMO

Aging is characterized by extensive metabolic reprogramming. To identify metabolic pathways associated with aging, we analyzed age-dependent changes in the metabolomes of long-lived Drosophila melanogaster. Among the metabolites that changed, levels of tyrosine were increased with age in long-lived flies. We demonstrate that the levels of enzymes in the tyrosine degradation pathway increase with age in wild-type flies. Whole-body and neuronal-specific downregulation of enzymes in the tyrosine degradation pathway significantly extends Drosophila lifespan, causes alterations of metabolites associated with increased lifespan, and upregulates the levels of tyrosine-derived neuromediators. Moreover, feeding wild-type flies with tyrosine increased their lifespan. Mechanistically, we show that suppression of ETC complex I drives the upregulation of enzymes in the tyrosine degradation pathway, an effect that can be rescued by tigecycline, an FDA-approved drug that specifically suppresses mitochondrial translation. In addition, tyrosine supplementation partially rescued lifespan of flies with ETC complex I suppression. Altogether, our study highlights the tyrosine degradation pathway as a regulator of longevity.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Longevidade/fisiologia , Tirosina Transaminase/metabolismo , Tirosina/metabolismo , Tirosina/farmacologia , Animais , Drosophila melanogaster/metabolismo , Complexo de Proteínas da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/efeitos dos fármacos , Longevidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Tigeciclina/farmacologia , Tirosina/análise
7.
Rev Med Suisse ; 16(714): 2172-2175, 2020 Nov 11.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33174700

RESUMO

Chemotherapy is associated with transient or permanent cognitive dysfunction ranging from subjective complaints to measurable deficits in working memory, attention and language. Given that old age may be related to cognitive decline, the interaction between chemotherapy-induced cognitive impairment and the effects of age is of growing concern in view of our aging population. Chemotherapy-associated cognitive dysfunction may have an additive impact on pre-existing age-related cognitive performance decline, which calls for awareness in its detection, to reduce impact on quality of life and improve management of older patients. We discuss here the « chemobrain ¼, concept, review the existing evidence about pathophysiology, neuroimaging and cognitive phenotype and propose practical tools for routine detection in the outpatient setting.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/psicologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/induzido quimicamente , Disfunção Cognitiva/complicações , Neoplasias/complicações , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Envelhecimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Qualidade de Vida
9.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0236430, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32956357

RESUMO

Rhesus macaques represent an important species for translational and pre-clinical research studies across a multitude of disease and injury models, including aging. Ketamine anesthesia is used in humans and non-human primates but may be associated with adverse effects, including neuromuscular reactions. The effects of aging on ketamine adverse effects is not well characterized. Urodynamic recordings and electromyography (EMG) studies were performed in aged (>20 years old) and adult (3.9-14.9 years old) female rhesus macaques under an equal and light plane of sedation by constant rate infusion (CRI) of ketamine. A total of 4 of 41 adult subjects (9.7%) showed clinical signs of ketamine-induced abnormal neuromuscular reactivity, whereas a larger portion of 14 of 26 aged subjects showed similar ketamine-induced neuromuscular reactivity (53.8%; P< 0.001). The ketamine CRI rate was 19.8±0.9 mg/kg/h in adults and lower in aged subjects at 16.5±1.4 mg/kg/h (P<0.05). The ketamine CRI rate was negatively correlated with age (r = -0.30, P<0.05, n = 64). The incidence of ketamine reactivity or CRI rate was not different between aged pre-and post-menopausal females. EMG recordings during neuromuscular reactivity showed coordinated activation of multiple muscles, suggesting a central nervous system (CNS) mechanism for ketamine-associated neuromuscular reactivity. The incidence of ketamine-induced neuromuscular reactivity is age related but not affected by the estrous cycle in female rhesus macaques. A coordinated activation of multiple muscles, innervated by different peripheral nerves, suggests that ketamine-induced neuromuscular reactivity originates in the CNS.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Anestésicos Dissociativos/efeitos adversos , Ketamina/efeitos adversos , Macaca mulatta/fisiologia , Músculos/efeitos dos fármacos , Envelhecimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Eletromiografia , Feminino , Músculos/inervação , Músculos/fisiologia
10.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4510, 2020 09 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32908143

RESUMO

With human median lifespan extending into the 80s in many developed countries, the societal burden of age-related muscle loss (sarcopenia) is increasing. mTORC1 promotes skeletal muscle hypertrophy, but also drives organismal aging. Here, we address the question of whether mTORC1 activation or suppression is beneficial for skeletal muscle aging. We demonstrate that chronic mTORC1 inhibition with rapamycin is overwhelmingly, but not entirely, positive for aging mouse skeletal muscle, while genetic, muscle fiber-specific activation of mTORC1 is sufficient to induce molecular signatures of sarcopenia. Through integration of comprehensive physiological and extensive gene expression profiling in young and old mice, and following genetic activation or pharmacological inhibition of mTORC1, we establish the phenotypically-backed, mTORC1-focused, multi-muscle gene expression atlas, SarcoAtlas (https://sarcoatlas.scicore.unibas.ch/), as a user-friendly gene discovery tool. We uncover inter-muscle divergence in the primary drivers of sarcopenia and identify the neuromuscular junction as a focal point of mTORC1-driven muscle aging.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Alvo Mecanístico do Complexo 1 de Rapamicina/metabolismo , Fibras Musculares Esqueléticas/patologia , Junção Neuromuscular/patologia , Sarcopenia/patologia , Envelhecimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Eletromiografia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Humanos , Microdissecção e Captura a Laser , Masculino , Alvo Mecanístico do Complexo 1 de Rapamicina/antagonistas & inibidores , Alvo Mecanístico do Complexo 1 de Rapamicina/genética , Camundongos , Mioblastos , Junção Neuromuscular/efeitos dos fármacos , Técnicas de Patch-Clamp , RNA-Seq , Sarcopenia/genética , Sarcopenia/fisiopatologia , Sarcopenia/prevenção & controle , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Sirolimo/administração & dosagem
11.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238528, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32881908

RESUMO

Quercetin is a yellow pigment that is found in many common dietary plants, and that protects against oxidative stress, inflammation, and arteriosclerosis. It has also been suggested to prolong the lifespan of, and enhance heat-stress tolerance in nematodes; thus, the present study investigated its effects on both the nematode life- and health span by assessing its capacity to promote nematode motility after aging and/or heat stress, as well as the mechanisms underlying these effects. The results of the conducted analyses showed that quercetin feeding prolonged lifespan, suppressed age-related motility retardation, improved motility recovery after heat stress, and decreased the production of both intercellular and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species in the analysed Caenorhabditis elegans strains, likely by modulating the insulin-like signalling (ILS) pathway and p38-mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. In particular, the transcription factors DAF-16 and SKN-1 were found to mediate the observed quercetin-induced effects, consistent with their previously demonstrated roles as regulators of aging. Furthermore, we demonstrated, for the first time, that quercetin induced heat-stress tolerance in C. elegans by modulating HSF-1 expression and/or activity. Thus, the present study provides valuable insights into the mechanisms by which quercetin inhibit aging and enhance heat-stress tolerance via ILS and MAPK pathway in C. elegans.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Caenorhabditis elegans/efeitos dos fármacos , Resposta ao Choque Térmico/efeitos dos fármacos , Quercetina/farmacologia , Animais , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo
12.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4496, 2020 09 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32901024

RESUMO

Aging is characterized by the loss of homeostasis and the general decline of physiological functions, accompanied by various degenerative diseases and increased rates of mortality. Aging targeting small molecule screens have been performed many times, however, few have focused on endogenous metabolic intermediates-metabolites. Here, using C. elegans lifespan assays, we conducted a worm metabolite screen and identified an eukaryotes conserved metabolite, myo-inositol (MI), to extend lifespan, increase mobility and reduce fat content. Genetic analysis of enzymes in MI metabolic pathway suggest that MI alleviates aging through its derivative PI(4,5)P2. MI and PI(4,5)P2 are precursors of PI(3,4,5)P3, which is negatively related to longevity. The longevity effect of MI is dependent on the tumor suppressor gene, daf-18 (homologous to mouse Pten), independent of its classical pathway downstream genes, akt or daf-16. Furthermore, we found MI effects on aging and lifespan act through mitophagy regulator PTEN induced kinase-1 (pink-1) and mitophagy. MI's anti-aging effect is also conserved in mouse, indicating a conserved mechanism in mammals.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/metabolismo , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/metabolismo , Inositol/metabolismo , Longevidade/fisiologia , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase/metabolismo , Envelhecimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Feminino , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/genética , Inositol/administração & dosagem , Locomoção/fisiologia , Longevidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/genética , Metabolômica , Camundongos , Mitofagia/fisiologia , Modelos Animais , Fosfatos de Fosfatidilinositol/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Interferência de RNA , RNA-Seq
13.
Anesthesiology ; 133(4): 839-851, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32773682

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: General anesthetics influence mitochondrial homeostasis, placing individuals with mitochondrial disorders and possibly carriers of recessive mitochondrial mutations at increased risk of perioperative complications. In Drosophila, mutations in the ND23 subunit of complex I of the mitochondrial electron transport chain-analogous to mammalian NDUFS8-replicate key characteristics of Leigh syndrome, an inherited mitochondrial disorder. The authors used the ND23 mutant for testing the hypothesis that anesthetics have toxic potential in carriers of mitochondrial mutations. METHODS: The authors exposed wild-type flies and ND23 mutant flies to behaviorally equivalent doses of isoflurane or sevoflurane in 5%, 21%, or 75% oxygen. The authors used percent mortality (mean ± SD, n ≥ 3) at 24 h after exposure as a readout of toxicity and changes in gene expression to investigate toxicity mechanisms. RESULTS: Exposure of 10- to 13-day-old male ND23 flies to isoflurane in 5%, 21%, or 75% oxygen resulted in 16.0 ± 14.9% (n = 10), 48.2 ± 16.1% (n = 9), and 99.2 ± 2.0% (n = 10) mortality, respectively. Comparable mortality was observed in females. In contrast, under the same conditions, mortality was less than 5% for all male and female groups exposed to sevoflurane, except 10- to 13-day-old male ND23 flies with 9.6 ± 8.9% (n = 16) mortality. The mortality of 10- to 13-day-old ND23 flies exposed to isoflurane was rescued by neuron- or glia-specific expression of wild-type ND23. Isoflurane and sevoflurane differentially affected expression of antioxidant genes in 10- to 13-day-old ND23 flies. ND23 flies had elevated mortality from paraquat-induced oxidative stress compared with wild-type flies. The mortality of heterozygous ND23 flies exposed to isoflurane in 75% oxygen increased with age, resulting in 54.0 ± 19.6% (n = 4) mortality at 33 to 39 days old, and the percent mortality varied in different genetic backgrounds. CONCLUSIONS: Mutations in the mitochondrial complex I subunit ND23 increase susceptibility to isoflurane-induced toxicity and to oxidative stress in Drosophila. Asymptomatic flies that carry ND23 mutations are sensitized to hyperoxic isoflurane toxicity by age and genetic background.


Assuntos
Anestésicos Inalatórios/toxicidade , Complexo I de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Isoflurano/toxicidade , Mitocôndrias/genética , Mutação/genética , Envelhecimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Envelhecimento/genética , Envelhecimento/patologia , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Drosophila , Masculino , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/patologia , Mutação/efeitos dos fármacos , Sevoflurano/toxicidade
14.
J Interferon Cytokine Res ; 40(9): 433-437, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32790488

RESUMO

The essential scope of the coronavirus infectious disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is focused on developing effective treatments and vaccines for acute SARS-CoV-2 infection. There is also a critical need to develop interventions to prevent the complications of COVID-19, which occur with an alarming frequency in older adults. Since severe pathologic effects of infection occur with increasing age, COVID-19 falls under the geroscience concept that all diseases in older adults have a common and major underlying cause of declining function and resilience. Geroscience posits that manipulation of aging will simultaneously delay the appearance or severity of major diseases because they share the same risk factor: aging and the multiple processes involved in aging. Drug combinations that target multiple aging processes and the cytokine networks associated with them would not necessarily limit SARS-CoV-2 infection rates but would prevent severe pathologic consequences of the disease in older adults by maintaining a more youthful-like resilience to infection-related complications. A drug cocktail aimed at controlling cytokine actions would complement current clinical treatments and vaccine effectiveness for COVID-19 and serve as a prototype for future age-related infectious disease pandemics wherein the elderly population is especially vulnerable.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Betacoronavirus , Citocinas/sangue , Humanos , Pandemias , Aptidão Física/fisiologia
15.
Arch Biochem Biophys ; 692: 108511, 2020 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32710883

RESUMO

(-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the most abundant catechin component in green tea, has been reported to attenuate age-associated insulin resistance, lipogenesis and loss of muscle mass through restoring Akt activity in skeletal muscle in our previous and present studies. Accumulated data has suggested that polyphenols regulate signaling pathways involved in aging process such as inflammation and oxidative stress via modulation of miRNA expression. Here we found that miRNA-486-5p was significantly decreased in both aged senescence accelerated mouse-prone 8 (SAMP8) mice and late passage C2C12 cells. Thus, we further investigated the regulatory effect of EGCG on miRNA-486-5p expression in age-regulated muscle loss. SAMP8 mice were fed with chow diet containing without or with 0.32% EGCG from aged 32 weeks for 8 weeks. Early passage (<12 passages) and late passage (>30 passages) of C2C12 cells were treated without or with EGCG at concentrations of 50 µM for 24h. Our data showed that EGCG supplementation increased miRNA-486-5p expression in both aged SAMP8 mice and late passage C2C12 cells. EGCG stimulated AKT phosphorylation and inhibited FoxO1a-mediated MuRF1 and Atrogin-1 transcription via up-regulating the expression of miR-486 in skeletal muscle of 40-wk-old SAMP8 mice as well as late passage C2C12 cells. In addition, myostatin expression was increased in late passage C2C12 cells and anti-myostatin treatment upregulated the expression of miR-486-5p. Our results identify a unique mechanism of a dietary constituent of green tea and suggest that use of EGCG or compounds derived from it attenuates age-associated muscle loss via myostatin/miRNAs/ubiquitin-proteasome signaling.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/metabolismo , Catequina/análogos & derivados , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Proteínas Musculares/biossíntese , Atrofia Muscular/metabolismo , Miostatina/biossíntese , Envelhecimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Envelhecimento/genética , Envelhecimento/patologia , Animais , Catequina/química , Catequina/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , MicroRNAs/genética , Proteínas Musculares/genética , Atrofia Muscular/genética , Atrofia Muscular/patologia , Miostatina/genética , Chá/química
16.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1207: 681-688, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32671785

RESUMO

Senescence is a progressive process of degeneration that occurs when cells and organisms mature. Many studies have shown that autophagy is closely related to senescence. Autophagy gradually decreases with the senescence activity of cells, and vice versa. Therefore, moderate autophagy can protect the body and inhibit cell senescence. The inactivation of genes encoding nematode insulin-like tyrosine kinase receptor (daf-2) inhibited the activity of type I PI3K (age-1), Akt molecules (akt1, akt2), PDK (pdk-1), and TOR, and increased the lifespan and autophagy of Caenorhabditis elegans.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Caenorhabditis elegans/efeitos dos fármacos , Caenorhabditis elegans/fisiologia , Humanos , Longevidade/efeitos dos fármacos
17.
Adv Gerontol ; 33(2): 367-372, 2020.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32593254

RESUMO

Currently, the actual problem is the correction of motor, cognitive and psychoemotional disorders in physiological aging, as well as in various pathological processes that accompany aging and accelerate it. In this regard, it became necessary to search for drugs that can restore age-related disorders of the brain. The aim of the study was to evaluate the possibility of Cytoflavin as a pharmacological corrector of age-dependent disorders of the functions of the cerebral cortex during physiological and pathological, accelerated aging. The mouse sensorimotor cortex of the brain was the material for study. The transgenic male mice with HER2/neu overexpression at the age of 2 and 10 months were used as an experimental model, male wild-type FBV/N mice at the age of 2 and 18 months served as a control. We studied locomotor activity, orientational research behavior and the psychoemotional status of animals using the «open field¼ test and the Suok test. It was found that in old FBV/N mice, after the cytoflavin treatment, recovery of locomotor functions and orientational-research behavior is observed. Under conditions of HER2/neu overexpression after the Cytoflavin treatment, an improvement in motor functions occurs. It was also shown that the studied drug has an anxiolytic effect on both wild-type FBV/N mice and transgenic HER2/neu mice during aging. Thus, the positive effect of Cytoflavin on the dynamics of the behavior of experimental mice during physiological and pathological accelerated aging allow to suggest that in the late stages of ontogenesis, Cytoflavin restores the cerebral cortex functions and prevents neurodegeneration.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Envelhecimento/psicologia , Emoções/efeitos dos fármacos , Mononucleotídeo de Flavina/farmacologia , Inosina Difosfato/farmacologia , Locomoção/efeitos dos fármacos , Niacinamida/farmacologia , Succinatos/farmacologia , Animais , Combinação de Medicamentos , Masculino , Camundongos
18.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(22): 12029-12040, 2020 06 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32404427

RESUMO

Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) is a uniformly fatal condition that is especially prevalent in skin, cardiovascular, and musculoskeletal systems. A wide gap exists between our knowledge of the disease and a promising treatment or cure. The aim of this study was to first characterize the musculoskeletal phenotype of the homozygous G608G BAC-transgenic progeria mouse model, and to determine the phenotype changes of HGPS mice after a five-arm preclinical trial of different treatment combinations with lonafarnib, pravastatin, and zoledronic acid. Microcomputed tomography and CT-based rigidity analyses were performed to assess cortical and trabecular bone structure, density, and rigidity. Bones were loaded to failure with three-point bending to assess strength. Contrast-enhanced µCT imaging of mouse femurs was performed to measure glycosaminoglycan content, thickness, and volume of the femoral head articular cartilage. Advanced glycation end products were assessed with a fluorometric assay. The changes demonstrated in the cortical bone structure, rigidity, stiffness, and modulus of the HGPS G608G mouse model may increase the risk for bending and deformation, which could result in the skeletal dysplasia characteristic of HGPS. Cartilage abnormalities seen in this HGPS model resemble changes observed in the age-matched WT controls, including early loss of glycosaminoglycans, and decreased cartilage thickness and volume. Such changes might mimic prevalent degenerative joint diseases in the elderly. Lonafarnib monotherapy did not improve bone or cartilage parameters, but treatment combinations with pravastatin and zoledronic acid significantly improved bone structure and mechanical properties and cartilage structural parameters, which ameliorate the musculoskeletal phenotype of the disease.


Assuntos
Conservadores da Densidade Óssea/uso terapêutico , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Lamina Tipo A/genética , Progéria , Envelhecimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Envelhecimento/patologia , Animais , Osso e Ossos/efeitos dos fármacos , Osso e Ossos/patologia , Cartilagem/efeitos dos fármacos , Cartilagem/patologia , Fêmur/efeitos dos fármacos , Fêmur/patologia , Glicosaminoglicanos/análise , Articulações/efeitos dos fármacos , Articulações/patologia , Lamina Tipo A/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Mutação , Osteoartrite/tratamento farmacológico , Osteoartrite/patologia , Fenótipo , Piperidinas/uso terapêutico , Pravastatina/uso terapêutico , Progéria/tratamento farmacológico , Progéria/genética , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional/efeitos dos fármacos , Piridinas/uso terapêutico , Microtomografia por Raio-X , Ácido Zoledrônico/uso terapêutico
19.
Nat Rev Drug Discov ; 19(8): 513-532, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32467649

RESUMO

Although death is inevitable, individuals have long sought to alter the course of the ageing process. Indeed, ageing has proved to be modifiable; by intervening in biological systems, such as nutrient sensing, cellular senescence, the systemic environment and the gut microbiome, phenotypes of ageing can be slowed sufficiently to mitigate age-related functional decline. These interventions can also delay the onset of many disabling, chronic diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disease and neurodegeneration, in animal models. Here, we examine the most promising interventions to slow ageing and group them into two tiers based on the robustness of the preclinical, and some clinical, results, in which the top tier includes rapamycin, senolytics, metformin, acarbose, spermidine, NAD+ enhancers and lithium. We then focus on the potential of the interventions and the feasibility of conducting clinical trials with these agents, with the overall aim of maintaining health for longer before the end of life.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Descoberta de Drogas , Animais , Humanos
20.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0233468, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32469975

RESUMO

Transcription disequilibria are characteristic of many neurodegenerative diseases. The activity-evoked transcription of immediate early genes (IEGs), important for neuronal plasticity, memory and behavior, is altered in CNS diseases and governed by epigenetic modulation. KDM1A, a histone 3 lysine 4 demethylase that forms part of transcription regulation complexes, has been implicated in the control of IEG transcription. Here we report the development of vafidemstat (ORY-2001), a brain penetrant inhibitor of KDM1A and MAOB. ORY-2001 efficiently inhibits brain KDM1A at doses suitable for long term treatment, and corrects memory deficit as assessed in the novel object recognition testing in the Senescence Accelerated Mouse Prone 8 (SAMP8) model for accelerated aging and Alzheimer's disease. Comparison with a selective KDM1A or MAOB inhibitor reveals that KDM1A inhibition is key for efficacy. ORY-2001 further corrects behavior alterations including aggression and social interaction deficits in SAMP8 mice and social avoidance in the rat rearing isolation model. ORY-2001 increases the responsiveness of IEGs, induces genes required for cognitive function and reduces a neuroinflammatory signature in SAMP8 mice. Multiple genes modulated by ORY-2001 are differentially expressed in Late Onset Alzheimer's Disease. Most strikingly, the amplifier of inflammation S100A9 is highly expressed in LOAD and in the hippocampus of SAMP8 mice, and down-regulated by ORY-2001. ORY-2001 is currently in multiple Phase IIa studies.


Assuntos
Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Histona Desmetilases/antagonistas & inibidores , Transtornos da Memória/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores da Monoaminoxidase/farmacologia , Oxidiazóis/farmacologia , Envelhecimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Envelhecimento/psicologia , Doença de Alzheimer/tratamento farmacológico , Doença de Alzheimer/psicologia , Animais , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacocinética , Epigênese Genética/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipocampo/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Mutantes , Inibidores da Monoaminoxidase/química , Inibidores da Monoaminoxidase/farmacocinética , Oxidiazóis/química , Oxidiazóis/farmacocinética , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
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