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1.
Rev Environ Health ; 35(3): 239-243, 2020 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32877367

RESUMO

Two types of analytical multi-level approach to analyse symptoms after exposure to poisons were performed using numerical data extracted from reports received by the JAPAN POISON INFORMATION CENTER on the number "Poisoning 110" during 1998-2017. In the first approach, data collected in 2017, 2012, 2007 and 2002 were used, while in the second approach, all data collected during 1999-2017 were used. In the first approach, according to the odds ratio, the order of causative agents was industrial drugs>home drugs>general drugs and in the second approach, it was industrial drugs>foods/natural poisoning>agricultural drugs. However, in the first approach, the order based on the 95% confidence interval (CI) and profile likelihood was general drugs>home drugs>industrial drugs and in the second approach, the order based on 95% CI, profile likelihood and Wald value was agricultural drugs>foods/natural poisoning>industrial drugs. These multi-prospects were developed using a multilevel approach and the most optimized model was selected from the number of numerical data and the adaptability of fit of the multi-level logistic regression models in this report.


Assuntos
Centros de Controle de Intoxicações/estatística & dados numéricos , Envenenamento/etiologia , Venenos/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Japão , Envenenamento/classificação
2.
Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract ; 36(3): 775-789, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32943303

RESUMO

Selenium (Se) is a metalloid that exists as a red amorphous powder, reddish crystal, silver-gray crystal, or brown-black solid. Its potency as a nutrient and a toxicant is such that few people have seen the pure element. It is easy to lose sight of the narrow margin between too little and too much. The most common cause of selenosis is accidental or intentional overuse of supplements. Many target organs and effects of Se toxicity are similar to those of Se deficiency, so laboratory confirmation is necessary. Prevention consists of minimizing exposure to seleniferous feedstuffs and optimizing dietary factors that might aggravate selenosis.


Assuntos
Envenenamento/veterinária , Ruminantes , Selênio/envenenamento , Ração Animal/análise , Ração Animal/envenenamento , Animais , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Suplementos Nutricionais/envenenamento , Envenenamento/etiologia
4.
Alcohol ; 88: 29-32, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32693023

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) spread rapidly worldwide and led to the deaths of thousands of people. To date, there is not any vaccine or specific antiviral medicine that can prevent or treat this virus. This caused panic among people who try their best to prevent being infected. In Iran, methanol poisoning was reported and led to the death of hundreds of people in several provinces. The incident occurred after a rumor circulated in the country that drinking alcohol (ethanol) can cure or prevent being infected by COVID-19.


Assuntos
Comunicação , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Etanol/uso terapêutico , Metanol/envenenamento , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Envenenamento/mortalidade , Solventes/envenenamento , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Bebidas Alcoólicas , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Contaminação de Medicamentos , Feminino , Contaminação de Alimentos , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Envenenamento/epidemiologia , Envenenamento/etiologia , Solventes/uso terapêutico , Adulto Jovem
5.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 51(2): 416-425, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32549573

RESUMO

Moxidectin is a commonly used lipophilic anthelmintic with activity against a wide range of nematodes. It is labeled for use in cattle by oral, topical, and subcutaneous routes. In semi-free ranging conditions, many anthelmintics are remotely administered intramuscularly due to an inability to administer by other routes without restraint. During 2015-2016, three animals including a roan (Hippotragus equinus), sable (Hippotragus niger), and Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx) treated with moxidectin developed clinical signs consistent with toxicosis. The primary sign was severe neurologic depression within 12 to 24 hr. Based on recommendations in domestic cases, animals were treated with intravenous lipid therapy and supportive care while diagnostic testing was performed. All three initially improved prior to succumbing to secondary problems associated with prolonged recumbency. Moxidectin has been administered remotely on 97 occasions in eight different exotic ruminant species at Fossil Rim, with only the above three cases showing clinical signs of toxicosis. Two potential causes in these cases include poor body condition leading to a smaller volume of distribution, thus allowing higher concentrations to overwhelm the blood-brain barrier, or a genetic defect similar to some herding dog breeds. Given that cases were seen in three different species at an overall low incidence within a given species, a genetic defect is considered unlikely. The animals affected did have significantly lower body condition score than conspecifics, and it is considered likely that this predisposed these animals to toxicosis. Therefore, caution should be used when administering moxidectin intramuscularly in animals in poor body condition.


Assuntos
Antílopes , Antiparasitários/toxicidade , Macrolídeos/toxicidade , Envenenamento/veterinária , Animais , Animais de Zoológico , Evolução Fatal , Feminino , Masculino , Envenenamento/etiologia , Texas
7.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 23: e200016, 2020.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32159627

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In Brazil, drugs are the main causative agents of poisonings, and children under age five are the group with the highest number of cases. The objective of the present study was to describe hospitalizations due to drug poisoning in this population regarding demographics, deaths and worsening indicators in hospitalizations. METHODS: The frequency of hospitalizations for drug poisoning between 2003 and 2012 was verified using data from the Hospital Information System. The study variables were year, gender, age, place of residence and hospitalization, patient follow-up, main diagnosis, secondary diagnosis, nature of the health establishment and amount related to Intensive Care Unit expenses. RESULTS: There were 17,725 hospitalizations due to drug poisoning in children under five, predominantly two-year-old male children. The hospitalizations outside the city of residence occurred in 25% of the cases, with predominance in the Northeastern region. The proportion of deaths in hospitalizations was 0.4%, with a higher number of deaths in the Southeastern region. CONCLUSION: Despite the decrease in the number of hospitalizations in the period, regional disparities remained, which could be attenuated with the provision of specialized attention to drug poisonings in municipalities, expanding the access to a more complex care.


Assuntos
Tratamento Farmacológico/mortalidade , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/mortalidade , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Preparações Farmacêuticas/administração & dosagem , Envenenamento/mortalidade , Distribuição por Idade , Brasil/epidemiologia , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Sistemas de Informação Hospitalar/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Envenenamento/etiologia , Distribuição por Sexo
8.
Rev Esp Salud Publica ; 942020 01 16.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31942868

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: There are few epidemiological studies on acute poisonings from pesticides, industrials and household products in Spain. The objective of this work is to describe the epidemiological and clinical profile of acute poisonings by chemical products in our country, and analyze their annual evolution. METHODS: The Spanish Toxicovigilance System (SETv) is a prospective registry that includes 32 Emergency Departments and Intensive Care Units in Spain. An observational descriptive study of acute poisoning by chemical agents (excluding pharmacological products and illicit drugs) was carried out, within 1999-2014. Statistical analysis was performed using Chi-square or exact Fisher's tests. Non-parametric continuous variables were compared using the Mann-Whitney U test. P-value less than 0.05 were considered significant. RESULTS: The 10,548 cases studied had a mean age of 38.41 (±22.07) years, being significantly higher in women (p=0.0001). 67.7% of the poisonings occurred at home, and the most frequent routes of exposure were respiratory (48.3%), digestive (35.3%) and ocular (13.1%). The most frequent toxic groups were toxic gases (31%), caustics (25.6%) and irritant gases (12.1%). Of the patients that required treatment (76.2%), antidotes were used in 27.2%. 20.6% of the patients were admitted at Hospital, with a median stay of 32 (±151.94) days, with significant differences for pesticides and solvents (p=0.02). Sequelae were presented at discharge in 2.1% of patients. Mortality was 1.4% (146 patients) with a mean age of 62.08 years (±19.58) (p=0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: The reduction of chemical poisonings should be prevented in the domestic environment, taking into account the sources of exposure to carbon monoxide and the handling of household cleaning products, both caustic liquids and the generation of irritating gases when mixed.


Assuntos
Produtos Domésticos/envenenamento , Praguicidas/envenenamento , Envenenamento/epidemiologia , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Envenenamento/diagnóstico , Envenenamento/etiologia , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Sistema de Registros , Espanha/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
9.
Rev. bras. epidemiol ; 23: e200016, 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1092609

RESUMO

RESUMO: Introdução: No Brasil, os medicamentos são os principais agentes causadores de intoxicação, e o maior número de casos desse problema envolve menores de 5 anos. Assim, o objetivo deste estudo foi descrever as internações por intoxicação medicamentosa nessa população quanto a sua demografia, óbitos e indicadores de agravamento. Métodos: Verificou-se a frequência das internações por intoxicação medicamentosa entre 2003 e 2012, utilizando os dados do Sistema de Informação Hospitalar. As variáveis utilizadas foram ano, sexo, idade, município de residência e de internação, evolução do paciente, diagnóstico principal, diagnóstico secundário, natureza do estabelecimento de saúde e valor referente aos gastos de unidade de terapia intensiva. Resultados: Ocorreram 17.725 internações por intoxicação medicamentosa em menores de 5 anos de idade, com o predomínio do sexo masculino e de crianças de 2 anos. As internações fora do município de residência deram-se em 25% dos casos, com predomínio da Região Nordeste. A proporção de óbitos nas internações foi de 0,4%, com maior número de óbitos na Região Sudeste. Conclusão: Apesar da diminuição do número de internações no período, permaneceram disparidades regionais que podem ser atenuadas com a oferta de atenção especializada às intoxicações medicamentosas nos municípios, ampliando o acesso a cuidados de maior complexidade.


ABSTRACT: Introduction: In Brazil, drugs are the main causative agents of poisonings, and children under age five are the group with the highest number of cases. The objective of the present study was to describe hospitalizations due to drug poisoning in this population regarding demographics, deaths and worsening indicators in hospitalizations. Methods: The frequency of hospitalizations for drug poisoning between 2003 and 2012 was verified using data from the Hospital Information System. The study variables were year, gender, age, place of residence and hospitalization, patient follow-up, main diagnosis, secondary diagnosis, nature of the health establishment and amount related to Intensive Care Unit expenses. Results: There were 17,725 hospitalizations due to drug poisoning in children under five, predominantly two-year-old male children. The hospitalizations outside the city of residence occurred in 25% of the cases, with predominance in the Northeastern region. The proportion of deaths in hospitalizations was 0.4%, with a higher number of deaths in the Southeastern region. Conclusion: Despite the decrease in the number of hospitalizations in the period, regional disparities remained, which could be attenuated with the provision of specialized attention to drug poisonings in municipalities, expanding the access to a more complex care.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Recém-Nascido , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Envenenamento/mortalidade , Preparações Farmacêuticas/administração & dosagem , Tratamento Farmacológico/mortalidade , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/mortalidade , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Envenenamento/etiologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Sistemas de Informação Hospitalar/estatística & dados numéricos , Distribuição por Sexo , Distribuição por Idade
10.
Rev. argent. microbiol ; 51(4): 354-358, dic. 2019. graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057400

RESUMO

Resumen El 27 de noviembre de 2008 ocurrió un brote de intoxicación alimentaria asociado al consumo de salpicón de ave en un jardín de infantes de Hurlingham, provincia de Buenos Aires. Treinta y siete niños y 10 adultos presentaron síntomas gastrointestinales. Cinco niños fueron internados con signos de deshidratación, y uno de ellos requirió cuidados intensivos. Se aisló Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus del alimento involucrado, de 4/5 muestras de materia fecal de pacientes y de 3/5 manipuladores (nariz del manipulador 1, manos de manipuladores 2 y 3). Las cepas aisladas portaban los genes que codifican las enterotoxinas SEA y SED. Por electroforesis de campo pulsado con la enzima SmaI, los patrones de macrorrestricción presentaron 100% de similitud. La investigación oportuna del brote permitió identificar al agente causal de la intoxicación, determinar las fallas en la elaboración del alimento e implementar las medidas correctivas correspondientes.


Abstract On November 27, 2008, a foodborne disease outbreak associated with the consumption of chicken salad occurred in a kindergarten in the District of Hurlingham, Province of Buenos Aires. Thirty-seven children and 10 adults with gastrointestinal symptoms were affected. Five children were hospitalized with signs of dehydration, one of them requiring intensive care. Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus was isolated from the mentioned food in 4 out of 5 stool specimens from the patients, and in 3 out of 5 food handlers (nose of food handler #1, hands of food handlers #2 and 3). The isolates carried the genes coding for enterotoxins SEA and SED. The macrorestriction patterns showed 100% similarity by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis using the SmaI enzyme. A timely outbreak investigation allowed us to identify the causative agent of the food poisoning as well as the failures in food processing and to implement corrective measures.


Assuntos
Envenenamento/etiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação , Enterotoxinas/análise , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/diagnóstico , Eletroforese em Gel de Campo Pulsado/métodos
11.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31578622

RESUMO

Exotic poisonous animals such as snakes, marine animals, spiders, and scorpions are a rarity in Central Europe, but are kept as pets by some people. Poisoning caused by these animals is a particular challenge in medical care.Over a period of six years (2001-2006), a total of 202 cases of poisoning with exotic animals were registered and evaluated at four poison information centers in Germany and France. Of the accidents, 91% happened in the home environment; the rest in pet stores. The poisonings were caused by snakes (38%), marine animals (31%), arthropods (spiders and scorpions, 27%), and other poisonous animals (4%). Severe poisoning was involved in 8% of the cases, all caused by snake bites. The severe poisonings were in the form of coagulopathies, severe local symptoms, and a respiratory insufficiency requiring intubation. In six cases of severe poisoning, an immune serum (antivenom) was administered and in three cases a surgical procedure was needed. Deaths did not occur.After the bite of a poisonous animal, the affected limb should usually be immobilized and disinfected, but not tied, cut, or sucked. The exact biological name of the species should be identified. In addition to hospitalization, it is recommended to consult a poison information center.


Assuntos
Animais Exóticos , Envenenamento , Escorpiões , Mordeduras de Serpentes , Animais , Europa (Continente) , Alemanha , Humanos , Envenenamento/etiologia
13.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(32): 33135-33145, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31520378

RESUMO

Aluminum phosphide (AlP) is considered now one of the most common causes of poisoning among agricultural pesticides. Poisoning with AlP is extremely toxic to humans with high mortality rate. The aim of this work was to evaluate the prognostic factors and outcome of acute aluminum phosphide poisoning in Alexandria Main University Hospital during a period of 6 months from 1 November 2017 until the end of April 2018, highlighting the role of SOFA score and echocardiography in predicting the mortality. The prospective study was conducted on all patients admitted with acute AlP poisoning to Alexandria Main University Hospital for those 6 months. Patients' data were collected in a special sheet and included biosocial data, medical history, poisoning history, complete medical examination, investigations, duration of hospital stay, and the outcome. All patients were assessed according to SOFA score on admission. Thirty patients were admitted during the period of the current study. Females outnumbered males in all age groups with a sex ratio of 2.75:1. The mean age of patients was 22.77 ± 12.79 years. 96.6% of patients came from rural areas. 93.3% of the cases were exposed to poisoning at home, where suicidal poisoning accounted for (86.7%) of cases. 43.3% of patients died (n = 13), and the median value of SOFA score among non-survivors was 10, versus 1 among survivors. The median value of ejection fraction among non-survivors (25%) was half its value in survivors (50%). Although there were many predictors of severity of AlP poisoning, SOFA score was the most predictive factor of mortality detected by multivariate analysis.


Assuntos
Compostos de Alumínio/envenenamento , Praguicidas/envenenamento , Fosfinas/envenenamento , Envenenamento/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Ecocardiografia , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Escores de Disfunção Orgânica , Envenenamento/epidemiologia , Envenenamento/etiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem
14.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 108, 2019.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31489086

RESUMO

Home accidents are a serious public health problem in Pediatrics. They are responsible for heavy morbidity and mortality in the paediatric population. We conducted a retrospective study of 231 cases of domestic accidents in childhood in the Division of General Pediatrics at the Hedi Chaker Hospital, Sfax over a period of 5 years (2008-2012). During the study period, we collected data from 231 domestic accidents. The study involved 124 boys (53.7 %) and 107 girls (46.3%). The average age of patients was 2 years, ranging from 1 day to 14 years; children under 4 years were the most exposed to home accidents (88.7%). Accidental poisonings were the most common accidents (105 cases). Caustics were the most common toxic agents (33 cases), followed by drugs (28 cases) and hydrocarbons (16 cases). Foreign body accidents were the second most common mechanism of injury (64 cases). They included 43 cases of inhalation of foreign bodies and 21 cases of foreign body ingestion. We recorded 28 cases of trauma, 25 cases were caused by a fall from a certain height. We noted 26 cases of scorpion envenomation, 5 cases of drowning, 2 cases of burn and a single case of electric shock. Accidental poisonings and foreign body accidents were the main home accidents noted during our study and the age group 1 -4 years was the most exposed to home accidents.


Assuntos
Acidentes por Quedas/estatística & dados numéricos , Acidentes Domésticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Corpos Estranhos/epidemiologia , Envenenamento/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Queimaduras/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Envenenamento/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Picadas de Escorpião/epidemiologia , Tunísia/epidemiologia
15.
Toxicol Ind Health ; 35(8): 558-566, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31462195

RESUMO

The absence of studies that investigate the causes and risk factors of nonfatal occupational injury in Tunisia inhibits the development of effective preventive strategies. The objective of this study was to identify the causes and risk factors of nonfatal occupational injury in the private sector in Tunisia. We used retrospective data derived from the occupational injury reporting forms submitted to the Caisse Nationale d'Assurance Maladie. A sample of 42,293 workers in the private sector for 2014 contains information on sociodemographic variables. Multivariable Poisson regression was used to investigate the association of cause-specific injury with demographic variables. The leading causes of nonfatal occupational injury were "falls" (employee fall and falling objects; 36%) and "struck by objects" (23%). Male employees were at higher risk of "exposure to extreme temperatures" (PR = 12 [7-45]), "asphyxia and poisoning" (PR = 4 [2.4-12]), "transport and handling" (PR = 2.4 [1.9-5]), "falling objects" (PR = 2.3 [1.4-3.7]), and "employee fall" (PR = 1.2 [1.1-1.5]). Although, rural areas were at higher risk to "asphyxia and poisoning" (PR = 3.6 [1.1-11.4]), "transport and handling" (PR = 2.5 [1.3-5.4]), and "burns" (PR = 1.3 [1.1-3]). It is important that effective interventions be developed to minimize the impact of falls and "struck by objects." The most vulnerable categories to occupational injury are less educated men, rural residents aged between 15 years and 24 years, and elderly employees (55 years and over). Thus, our findings can contribute to the planning of prevention intervention programs that should expand to the most vulnerable categories.


Assuntos
Traumatismos Ocupacionais/etiologia , Acidentes por Quedas/estatística & dados numéricos , Acidentes de Trabalho/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Asfixia/epidemiologia , Asfixia/etiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Golpe de Calor/epidemiologia , Golpe de Calor/etiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Traumatismos Ocupacionais/epidemiologia , Envenenamento/epidemiologia , Envenenamento/etiologia , Distribuição de Poisson , Setor Privado/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Tunísia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
16.
Ann Glob Health ; 85(1)2019 07 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31298824

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The dearth of information on the economic cost of childhood poisoning in sub-Saharan Africa necessitated this study. OBJECTIVE: This study has investigated the prevalence of childhood drug and non-drug poisoning, treatment modalities and economic costs in Nigeria. METHOD: A retrospective study of childhood drug and non-drug poisoning cases from January 2007 to June 2014 in the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital (UPTH), Port Harcourt, Nigeria was carried out. Medical records were analysed for demographic and aetiological characteristics of poisoned children (0-14 years of age), as well as fiscal impact of poisoning cases. FINDINGS: Of the 100 poisoned patients, 46% were male and 54% female, with female/male ratio of 1.17:1. Most of the children were under five years of age. Paracetamol, amitriptyline, chlorpromazine, ferrous sulphate, kerosene, organophosphates, carbon monoxide, snake bite, alcohol and rodenticides were involved in the poisoning. The average cost of poison management per patient was about $168, which is high given the economic status of Nigeria. CONCLUSION: Childhood poisoning is still a significant cause of morbidity among children in Nigeria and accounts for an appreciable amount of health spending, therefore preventive strategies should be considered.


Assuntos
Etanol/envenenamento , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Envenenamento/economia , Envenenamento/epidemiologia , Mordeduras de Serpentes/epidemiologia , Acetaminofen/envenenamento , Adolescente , Distribuição por Idade , Amitriptilina/envenenamento , Analgésicos não Entorpecentes/envenenamento , Antipsicóticos/envenenamento , Intoxicação por Monóxido de Carbono/economia , Intoxicação por Monóxido de Carbono/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Clorpromazina/envenenamento , Feminino , Compostos Ferrosos/envenenamento , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Querosene/envenenamento , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Intoxicação por Organofosfatos/economia , Intoxicação por Organofosfatos/epidemiologia , Envenenamento/etiologia , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Rodenticidas/envenenamento , Distribuição por Sexo , Mordeduras de Serpentes/economia
17.
Mar Drugs ; 17(7)2019 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31330850

RESUMO

Pinnatoxins (PnTXs) are emerging neurotoxins that were discovered about 30 years ago. They are solely produced by the marine dinoflagellate Vulcanodinium rugosum, and may be transferred into the food chain, as they have been found in various marine invertebrates, including bivalves. No human intoxication has been reported to date although acute toxicity was induced by PnTxs in rodents. LD50 values have been estimated for the different PnTXs through the oral route. At sublethal doses, all symptoms are reversible, and no neurological sequelae are visible. These symptoms are consistent with impairment of central and peripheral cholinergic network functions. In fact, PnTXs are high-affinity competitive antagonists of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Moreover, their lethal effects are consistent with the inhibition of muscle nAChRs, inducing respiratory distress and paralysis. Human intoxication by ingestion of PnTXs could result in various symptoms observed in episodes of poisoning with natural nAChR antagonists. This review updates the available data on PnTX toxicity with a focus on their mode of action on cholinergic networks and suggests the effects that could be extrapolated on human physiology.


Assuntos
Dinoflagelados/química , Toxinas Marinhas/toxicidade , Antagonistas Nicotínicos/toxicidade , Paralisia/induzido quimicamente , Envenenamento/etiologia , Acetilcolina/metabolismo , Alcaloides/química , Alcaloides/toxicidade , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Dose Letal Mediana , Toxinas Marinhas/química , Músculos/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculos/inervação , Músculos/metabolismo , Antagonistas Nicotínicos/química , Receptores Nicotínicos/metabolismo , Compostos de Espiro/química , Compostos de Espiro/toxicidade , Transmissão Sináptica/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Toxicidade Aguda
19.
Pediatr Ann ; 48(5): e205-e207, 2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31067337

RESUMO

Toxin ingestion is a significant public health issue for children, accounting for hundreds of visits per day to emergency departments. The most common substances are household cleaning products, personal care products, and medications. This article describes an ingestion of a rare substance called strychnine, which is a plant-based odorless powder that was previously used as a nonspecific stimulant. This toxicity can mimic other ingestions, thus delaying diagnosis, so an increased awareness of the common symptoms and laboratory findings may lead to a more targeted management of strychnine poisoning. [Pediatr Ann. 2019;48(5):e205-e207.].


Assuntos
Envenenamento , Venenos/toxicidade , Estricnina/envenenamento , Adolescente , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Humanos , Masculino , Envenenamento/diagnóstico , Envenenamento/etiologia , Envenenamento/terapia
20.
Toxicol Mech Methods ; 29(7): 518-530, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31099292

RESUMO

In this study, an analytical strategy to identify brucine, strychnine, methomyl, carbofuran (alkaline compounds), phenobarbital, and warfarin (acid compounds) using thin-layer chromatography (TLC) screening with ultraviolet (UV) detection at 254 nm in stomach content is shown. The optimum mobile phase was found to be a chloroform: ethyl acetate: diethylamine (0.5:8.5:1) mixture for alkaline substances while a mixture of chloroform: acetone (9:1) has given better results for acidic substances. As for extraction, an equal proportion between distillated water and crude material (1:1) is required. For alkaline compounds, a filtration system was created in order to avoid any interferences from the biological matrix while for acidic compounds only centrifugation (4000 rpm/10 minutes) was required to obtain an appropriate sample. After the respective pretreatments, a one-step liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) has been employed for alkaline substances using a 3 mL of chloroform: ethyl ether (2:1) mixture for 2 min while acidic analytes used 3 mL of chloroform only during 5 min. For both methodologies described, the respective organic layers were dried down and re-suspended with 50 µL of methanol for further TLC plate application. The methodologies have been developed, successfully validated and applied to gastric contents from real case samples of suspected animal poisoning. Positive results from TLC/UV screening were confronted with HPLC-UV and confirmed by GC-MS.


Assuntos
Alcaloides/análise , Carbamatos/análise , Conteúdo Gastrointestinal/química , Fenobarbital/análise , Envenenamento/veterinária , Varfarina/análise , Alcaloides/envenenamento , Animais , Carbamatos/envenenamento , Doenças do Gato/induzido quimicamente , Gatos , Cromatografia em Camada Delgada/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/induzido quimicamente , Cães , Fenobarbital/envenenamento , Envenenamento/etiologia , Varfarina/envenenamento
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