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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 750: 141702, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32861078

RESUMO

IMPORTANCE: Crisis text lines have proven to be an effective and low-cost means for delivering texting-based mental health support to youth. Yet there has been limited research examining the use of these services in capturing the psychological impact on youth affected by a weather-related disaster. OBJECTIVE: This ecologic study examined changes in help-seeking behavior for adolescents and young adults in North and South Carolina, USA, before and after Hurricane Florence (2018). DESIGN AND MAIN OUTCOMES: A retrospective, interrupted time-series design was used to examine pre- and post-hurricane changes in crisis text volume among youth help seekers in the Carolinas for the following outcomes: (1) text for any reason; (2) stress & anxiety; (3) depression; and (4) suicidal thoughts. RESULTS: Results showed an immediate and sustained increase in crisis texts for stress/anxiety and suicidal thoughts in the six weeks following Florence. Overall, an immediate 15% increase in crisis texts for anxiety/stress (SE = 0.05, p = .005) and a 17% increase in suicidal thoughts (SE = 0.07, p = .02) occurred during the week of the storm. Text volume for anxiety/stress increased 17% (SE = 0.08, p = .005) and 23% for suicidal ideation (SE = 0.08, p = .01) in the 6-week post-hurricane period. Finally, forecast models revealed observed text volume for all mental health outcomes was higher than expected in the 6 weeks post-Florence. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: A low-cost, crisis texting platform provided 24/7 mental health support available to young people in the Carolinas impacted by Hurricane Florence. These findings highlight a new application for text-based crisis support services to address the mental health consequences in youth following a weather-related disaster, as well as the potential for these types of crisis platforms to measure situational awareness in impacted communities.


Assuntos
Tempestades Ciclônicas , Desastres , Envio de Mensagens de Texto , Adolescente , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , South Carolina , Adulto Jovem
3.
BMC Med ; 18(1): 391, 2020 12 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33323098

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mobile health innovations are well adapted for ambulatory coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients who risk clinical deterioration at home during the second week of illness. METHODS: A short message service (SMS) communication program was implemented by French physicians to monitor COVID-19 patients after discharge from outpatient or emergency care. The aim of the SMS tracking is to advise patients about their need for medical reassessment if reporting worsening of COVID-19 symptoms. A follow-up via SMS to all confirmed positive patients in the Nîmes area (France) was established. Every morning, patients received four follow-up questions. Daily responses were converted to green, orange or red trees, analysed in real time by physicians. "Red" patients were called immediately to check their condition and organise transfer to hospital if needed. "Orange" patients were called within two hours to verify whether the specific instructions following the SMS had been followed. RESULTS: From March 21 to June 30, 2020, 1007 patients agreed to sign up to the SMS tracking, 62% were women and the mean age was 41.5 years (standard deviation (SD) 16.0). During follow-up, 649 (64%) became "orange" and 69 (7%) "red". Ten patients were directly admitted to the Infectious Diseases Department during their follow-up due to clinical worsening, all but one as a result of SMS alerts and subsequent telephone assessment by physicians. CONCLUSION: SMS tracking platforms could be useful as an early warning system to refer patients with worsening clinical status to hospital-based care or additional clinician advice.


Assuntos
Assistência ao Convalescente/métodos , Telemedicina/métodos , Envio de Mensagens de Texto , Adulto , Comunicação , Feminino , França , Humanos , Masculino
4.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(12): e22201, 2020 12 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33372894

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Older people are at increased risk of adverse health events because of reduced physical activity. There is concern that activity levels are further reduced in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, as many older people are practicing physical and social distancing to minimize transmission. Mobile health (mHealth) and eHealth technologies may offer a means by which older people can engage in physical activity while physically distancing. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess the evidence for mHealth or eHealth technology in the promotion of physical activity among older people aged 50 years or older. METHODS: We conducted a rapid review of reviews using PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines. We searched for systematic reviews published in the English language in 3 electronic databases: MEDLINE, CINAHL Plus, and Scopus. Two reviewers used predefined inclusion criteria to select relevant reviews and extracted data on review characteristics and intervention effectiveness. Two independent raters assessed review quality using the AMSTAR-2 tool. RESULTS: Titles and abstracts (n=472) were screened, and 14 full-text reviews were assessed for eligibility. Initially, we included 5 reviews but excluded 1 from the narrative as it was judged to be of critically low quality. Three reviews concluded that mHealth or eHealth interventions were effective in increasing physical activity. One review found that the evidence was inconclusive. CONCLUSIONS: There is low to moderate evidence that interventions delivered via mHealth or eHealth approaches may be effective in increasing physical activity in older adults in the short term. Components of successful interventions include self-monitoring, incorporation of theory and behavior change techniques, and social and professional support.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Telemedicina , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Humanos , Telemedicina/métodos , Envio de Mensagens de Texto
5.
Dental Press J Orthod ; 25(5): 30-37, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33206826

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This prospective study aimed at assessing the effects of anxiety and a follow-up text message on pain perception after the installation of fixed orthodontic appliances and its impact on the patients' routine. METHODS: The sample of this study consisted of 103 orthodontic patients, 40 males and 63 females (mean age 20.5 years), distributed in two groups: G1 (n=51), including control patients that did not receive any post-procedure communication; and G2 (n=52), including patients that received a structured text message. In baseline phase, the patients completed a questionnaire to assess their level of anxiety prior to treatment. Pain was assessed by using 100-mm visual analog scale (VAS) in baseline and ten times prospectively in predetermined time points. VAS was also applied to assess the patient's routine alterations caused by the pain. All data were analyzed using ANOVA, Tukey, Mann-Whitney, t-test, chi-square and Spearman's correlation tests. All statistical tests were performed with significance level of 5%. RESULTS: Low-level and high-level anxiety was observed in 42.7% and 7.8% of the patients, respectively. Statistically significant correlation was observed between anxiety and pain (p< 0.05). Maximum mean pain intensity was detected in the second treatment day (G1=36.9mm and G2=26.2mm) and was significantly higher in G1. Nearly 53% of the patients in G1 reported alterations in the routine (18.8mm), while in G2 the percentage rate reached 28.8% (9.9mm) (p=0.013). CONCLUSIONS: Anxious patients report more pain after the installation of orthodontic appliances. Text messages were effective to reduce pain levels and to decrease the negative effects on patients' daily routine.


Assuntos
Envio de Mensagens de Texto , Adulto , Ansiedade/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Medição da Dor , Percepção da Dor , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem
6.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0240526, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33141833

RESUMO

In-person (face-to-face) data collection methods offer many advantages but can also be time-consuming and expensive, particularly in areas of difficult access. We take advantage of the increasing mobile phone penetration rate in rural areas to evaluate the feasibility of using cell phones to monitor the provision of key health and nutrition interventions linked to the first 1,000 days of life, a critical period of growth and development. We examine response rates to calendarized text messages (SMS) and phone calls sent to 1,542 households over a period of four months. These households have children under two years old and pregnant women and are located across randomly selected communities in Quiche, Guatemala. We find that the overall (valid) response rate to phone calls is over 5 times higher than to text messages (75.8% versus 14.4%). We also test whether simple SMS reminders improve the timely reception of health services but do not find any effects in this regard. Language, education, and age appear to be major barriers to respond to text messages as opposed to phone calls, and the rate of response is not correlated with a household's geographic location (accessibility). Moreover, response veracity is high, with an 84-91% match between household responses and administrative records. The costs per monitored intervention are around 1.12 US dollars using text messages and 85 cents making phone calls, with the costs per effective answer showing a starker contrast, at 7.76 and 1.12 US dollars, respectively. Our findings indicate that mobile phone calls can be an effective, low-cost tool to collect reliable information remotely and in real time. In the current context, where in-person contact with households is not possible due to the COVID-19 crisis, phone calls can be a valuable instrument for collecting information, monitoring development interventions, or implementing brief surveys.


Assuntos
Telefone Celular/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Monitorização Fisiológica/estatística & dados numéricos , Estado Nutricional/fisiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Telefone Celular/economia , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Guatemala/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Monitorização Fisiológica/economia , Gravidez , Sistemas de Alerta/economia , Sistemas de Alerta/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Telemedicina/economia , Telemedicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Envio de Mensagens de Texto/economia , Envio de Mensagens de Texto/estatística & dados numéricos
7.
BMJ ; 371: m3797, 2020 10 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055176

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare several monetary incentive programmes for promoting smoking abstinence among employees who smoke at workplaces in a middle income country. DESIGN: Parallel group, open label, assessor blinded, cluster randomized controlled trial. SETTING: Large industrial workplaces in metropolitan Bangkok, Thailand. PARTICIPANTS: Employees who smoked cigarettes and planned to quit within six months recruited from 101 worksite clusters (84 different companies). INTERVENTIONS: Worksites were digitally cluster randomized by an independent investigator to usual care or usual care plus one of eight types of incentive programmes. Usual care consisted of one time group counseling and cessation support through a 28 day text messaging programme. The incentive programmes depended on abstinence at three months and varied on three intervention components: refundable deposits, assignment to a teammate, and bonus size ($20 (£15; €17) or $40). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome was biochemically verified seven day point prevalence smoking abstinence at 12 months. Secondary outcomes were programme acceptance at enrollment and smoking abstinence at three months (end of intervention) and at six months. All randomized participants who had complete baseline information were included in intention-to-treat analyses; participants with missing outcomes were coded as continuing smokers. RESULTS: Between April 2015 and August 2016, the trial enrolled 4190 participants. Eighteen were omitted because of missing baseline covariates and death before the primary endpoint, therefore 4172 participants were included in the intention-to-treat analyses. Programme acceptance was relatively high across all groups: 58.7% (2451/4172) overall and 61.3% (271/442) in the usual care group. Abstinence rates at 12 months did not differ among deposit programmes (336/2253, 14.9%) and non-deposit programmes (280/1919, 14.6%; adjusted difference 0.8 points, 95% confidence interval -2.7 to 4.3, P=0.65), but were somewhat lower for team based programmes (176/1348, 13.1%) than individual based programmes (440/2824, 15.6%; -3.2 points, -6.6 to -0.2, P=0.07), and higher for $40 bonus programmes (322/1954, 16.5%) than programmes with no bonus (148/1198, 12.4%; 5.9 points, 2.1 to 9.7, P=0.002). The $40 individual bonus was the most efficacious randomization group at all endpoints. Intervention components did not strongly interact with each other. CONCLUSIONS: Acceptance of monetary incentive programmes for promoting smoking abstinence was high across all groups. The $40 individual bonus programmes increased long term smoking abstinence compared with usual care, although several other incentive designs did not, such as team based programmes and deposit programmes. Incentive design in workplace wellness programmes might influence their effectiveness at reducing smoking rates in low resource settings. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT02421224).


Assuntos
Fumar Cigarros/terapia , Motivação , Serviços de Saúde do Trabalhador/métodos , Fumantes/psicologia , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Adulto , Fumar Cigarros/psicologia , Análise por Conglomerados , Aconselhamento , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Recompensa , Método Simples-Cego , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/psicologia , Envio de Mensagens de Texto , Tailândia , Resultado do Tratamento , Local de Trabalho/psicologia
8.
Anaesth Intensive Care ; 48(5): 373-380, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33104444

RESUMO

Many patients spend months waiting for elective procedures, and many have significant modifiable risk factors that could contribute to an increased risk of perioperative morbidity and mortality. The minimal direct contact that usually occurs with healthcare professionals during this period represents a missed opportunity to improve patient health and surgical outcomes. Patients with obesity comprise a large proportion of the surgical workload but are under-represented in prehabilitation studies. Our study piloted a mobile phone based, multidisciplinary, prehabilitation programme for patients with obesity awaiting elective surgery. A total of 22 participants were recruited via the Wollongong Hospital pre-admissions clinic in New South Wales, Australia, and 18 completed the study. All received the study intervention of four text messages per week for six months. Questionnaires addressing the self-reported outcome measures were performed at the start and completion of the study. Forty percent of participants lost weight and 40% of smokers decreased their cigarette intake over the study. Sixty percent reported an overall improved health score. Over 80% of patients found the programme effective for themselves, and all recommended that it be made available to other patients. The cost was A$1.20 per patient per month. Our study showed improvement in some of the risk factors for perioperative morbidity and mortality. With improved methods to increase enrolment, our overall impression is that text message-based mobile health prehabilitation may be a feasible, cost-effective and worthwhile intervention for patients with obesity.


Assuntos
Tutoria , Telemedicina , Envio de Mensagens de Texto , Austrália , Humanos , New South Wales , Obesidade , Projetos Piloto
9.
BMC Neurol ; 20(1): 387, 2020 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33096984

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Globally, there is a growing use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), including mobile phones, tablets and computers, which are being integrated into people's daily activities. An ICT-based intervention called F@ce was developed in order to provide a structure for the process in stroke rehabilitation and facilitate change by integrating a global problem-solving strategy using SMS alerts. The aim of the study was to evaluate the feasibility of i) F@ce within in-patient and primary care rehabilitation after stroke, ii) the study design and outcome measures used, and iii) the fidelity, adherence and acceptability of the intervention. METHODS: Three teams comprising occupational therapists and physiotherapists who work in neurological rehabilitation participated in a preparatory workshop on F@ce and then enrolled 10 persons with stroke to participate in the intervention. Goals were set using the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM) and the participants with stroke rated their performance and satisfaction with the activities associated with the three goals every day for 8 weeks. Data were collected at inclusion, at four and 8 weeks, using the COPM, Stroke Impact Scale, Frenchay Activities Index, Life Satisfaction Checklist, Self-Efficacy Scale, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Fatigue Severity Scale, follow-up survey, daily ratings on the web platform and logbooks. RESULTS: All of the participants showed increased scores in the primary outcome (COPM) and a clinically meaningful improvement of ≥2 points was found in four participants regarding performance and in six participants regarding satisfaction. Overall fidelity to the components of F@ce was good. The response rates to the F@ce web platform were 44-100% (mean 78%). All of the participants stated that F@ce had supported their rehabilitation. CONCLUSION: The results indicate that the most beneficial part of F@ce was the person-centred, goal-setting process and SMS alerts. All participants were satisfied with F@ce and highlighted the benefits of receiving daily alerts about their goals. This encouraged them to be more active. The only downside mentioned was that they felt under an obligation to practice, although this was described as "a positive obligation".


Assuntos
Intervenção Baseada em Internet , Cooperação do Paciente , Reabilitação do Acidente Vascular Cerebral/métodos , Envio de Mensagens de Texto , Atividades Cotidianas , Idoso , Canadá , Telefone Celular , Estudos de Viabilidade , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Autoeficácia , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
Pediatrics ; 146(5)2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33097658

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies on the association between breastfeeding and infections in children beyond the first year of life reveal conflicting results. In a population-based birth cohort, we investigated whether the duration of breastfeeding was associated with the number of hospitalizations due to infection and symptoms of infection at home. METHODS: In the Odense Child Cohort, text message questionnaires were used to register information on breastfeeding (weekly until end of weaning) and symptoms of infection (biweekly; 12-36 months of age). Hospitalization data were obtained from the Danish National Patient Registry. RESULTS: Of the 1087 invited, 815 mother-infant pairs were included. The median duration of any breastfeeding was 7.6 (interquartile range: 3.5-10.4) months and of exclusive breastfeeding was 2.1 (interquartile range: 0.7-4.4) months. Hospitalization due to infection was seen in 207 (25.4%) infants during the first 3 years of life. The adjusted incidence rate ratio (IRR) for hospitalization due to any infection decreased with a longer duration of any breastfeeding (adjusted IRR: 0.96; 95% confidence interval 0.93-0.99; P < .001). The strongest associations between the duration of any breastfeeding and hospitalizations due to infection were found within the first year of life, for lower respiratory tract infections, and other infections (P ≤ .05). For infants exclusively breastfed, the adjusted IRR for hospitalization was 0.88 (95% confidence interval: 0.80-0.96; P = .006). No protective associations were present between breastfeeding and infection symptoms registered at home from ages 12 to 36 months. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that increased duration of breastfeeding, especially exclusive breastfeeding, protects against infections requiring hospitalization in the first year of life but not hospitalizations or symptoms of infection at home beyond the first year.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções/epidemiologia , Fatores Etários , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Intervalos de Confiança , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Análise de Regressão , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/prevenção & controle , Envio de Mensagens de Texto/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Tempo , Desmame
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33114546

RESUMO

Background: HIV poses a threat to global health. With effective treatment options available, education and testing strategies are essential in preventing transmission. Text messaging is an effective tool for health promotion and can be used to target higher risk populations. This study reports on the design, delivery and testing of a mobile text messaging SMS intervention for HIV prevention and awareness, aimed at adults in the construction industry and delivered during the COVID-19 pandemic. Method: Participants were recruited at Test@Work workplace health promotion events (21 sites, n = 464 employees), including health checks with HIV testing. Message development was based on a participatory design and included a focus group (n = 9) and message fidelity testing (n = 291) with assessment of intervention uptake, reach, acceptability, and engagement. Barriers to HIV testing were identified and mapped to the COM-B behavioural model. 23 one-way push SMS messages (19 included short web links) were generated and fidelity tested, then sent via automated SMS to two employee cohorts over a 10-week period during the COVID-19 pandemic. Engagement metrics measured were: opt-outs, SMS delivered/read, number of clicks per web link, four two-way pull messages exploring repeat HIV testing, learning new information, perceived usefulness and behaviour change. Results: 291 people participated (68.3% of eligible attendees). A total of 7726 messages were sent between March and June 2020, with 91.6% successfully delivered (100% read). 12.4% of participants opted out over 10 weeks. Of delivered messages, links were clicked an average of 14.4% times, max 24.1% for HIV related links. The number of clicks on web links declined over time (r = -6.24, p = 0.01). Response rate for two-way pull messages was 13.7% of participants. Since the workplace HIV test offer at recruitment, 21.6% reported having taken a further HIV test. Qualitative replies indicated behavioural influence of messaging on exercise, lifestyle behaviours and intention to HIV test. Conclusions: SMS messaging for HIV prevention and awareness is acceptable to adults in the construction industry, has high uptake, low attrition and good engagement with message content, when delivered during a global pandemic. Data collection methods may need refinement for audience, and effect of COVID-19 on results is yet to be understood.


Assuntos
Telefone Celular , Infecções por Coronavirus , Infecções por HIV , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Envio de Mensagens de Texto , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Indústria da Construção , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Reino Unido
12.
Rev Lat Am Enfermagem ; 28: e3365, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33027403

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: to evaluate the cost-effectiveness ratio and the budget impact of sending text messages associated with medical consultations in order to reduce the viral load of patients infected with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus. METHOD: a randomized clinical trial, basis for the development of a dynamic cohort model with Markov states in order to compare medical appointments for adults infected with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus versus the alternative strategy that associated medical consultations to sending text messages through telephone. RESULTS: 156 adults participated in the study. As for the viral load, it was verified that in the control group there was an increase, in the intervention group A (weekly messages) there was a reduction (p = 0.002) and in group B (biweekly messages) there was no statistically significant difference. Sending text messages would prevent 286,538 new infections by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus and 282 deaths in the 20-year period, compared to the standard treatment. The alternative strategy would result in saving R$ 14 billion in treatment costs. CONCLUSION: weekly sending messages in association with the standard treatment can reduce the circulating viral load due to its effect in decreasing new infections, in addition to reducing health costs.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Envio de Mensagens de Texto , Adulto , Análise Custo-Benefício , HIV , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/terapia , Humanos , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde
13.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 5490-5493, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33019222

RESUMO

Depression is both debilitating and prevalent. While treatable, it is often undiagnosed. Passive depression screening is crucial, but leveraging data from Smartphones and social media has privacy concerns. Inspired by the known relationship between depression and slower information processing speed, we hypothesize the latency of texting replies will contain useful information in screening for depression. Specifically, we extract nine reply latency related features from crowd-sourced text message conversation meta-data. By considering text metadata instead of content, we mitigate the privacy concerns. To predict binary screening survey scores, we explore a variety of machine learning methods built on principal components of the latency features. Our findings demonstrate that an XGBoost model built with one principal component achieves an F1 score of 0.67, AUC of 0.72, and Accuracy of 0.69. Thus, we confirm that reply latency of texting has promise as a modality for depression screening.


Assuntos
Smartphone , Mídias Sociais , Envio de Mensagens de Texto , Depressão/diagnóstico , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
PLoS Med ; 17(10): e1003358, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33001967

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Loss of smell and taste are commonly reported symptoms associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19); however, the seroprevalence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) antibodies in people with acute loss of smell and/or taste is unknown. The study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in a community-based population with acute loss of smell and/or taste and to compare the frequency of COVID-19 associated symptoms in participants with and without SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. It also evaluated whether smell or taste loss are indicative of COVID-19 infection. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Text messages, sent via primary care centers in London, United Kingdom, invited people with loss of smell and/or taste in the preceding month, to participate. Recruitment took place between 23 April 2020 and 14 May 2020. A total of 590 participants enrolled via a web-based platform and responded to questions about loss of smell and taste and other COVID-19-related symptoms. Mean age was 39.4 years (SD ± 12.0) and 69.1% (n = 392) of participants were female. A total of 567 (96.1%) had a telemedicine consultation during which their COVID-19-related symptoms were verified and a lateral flow immunoassay test that detected SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin G (IgG) and immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies was undertaken under medical supervision. A total of 77.6% of 567 participants with acute smell and/or taste loss had SARS-CoV-2 antibodies; of these, 39.8% (n = 175) had neither cough nor fever. New loss of smell was more prevalent in participants with SARS-CoV-2 antibodies, compared with those without antibodies (93.4% versus 78.7%, p < 0.001), whereas taste loss was equally prevalent (90.2% versus 89.0%, p = 0.738). Seropositivity for SARS-CoV-2 was 3 times more likely in participants with smell loss (OR 2.86; 95% CI 1.27-6.36; p < 0.001) compared with those with taste loss. The limitations of this study are the lack of a general population control group, the self-reported nature of the smell and taste changes, and the fact our methodology does not take into account the possibility that a population subset may not seroconvert to develop SARS-CoV-2 antibodies post-COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that recent loss of smell is a highly specific COVID-19 symptom and should be considered more generally in guiding case isolation, testing, and treatment of COVID-19. TRIALS REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04377815.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Transtornos do Olfato/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Distúrbios do Paladar/virologia , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Londres , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Testes Imediatos , Soroconversão , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Envio de Mensagens de Texto
15.
Crit Care Resusc ; 22(3): 221-226, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32900328

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Regularly informing families of the condition of their relative can be difficult. Text messaging via mobile telephones may achieve such communication effectively. OBJECTIVE: To test the hypotheses that we could efficiently deliver real-time short message service (SMS) updates to families and that these SMS updates would be accepted and welcomed. DESIGN: Prospective observational study. PARTICIPANTS: Cohort of 91 cardiac surgery patients and 156 family participants. INTERVENTION: At five distinct landmark events, we sent pre-written SMS updates to designated mobile numbers. We used the sendQuick (TalariaX) mobile messaging platform via the internet in our hospital. To alleviate privacy concerns, all patients were referred to as "your loved one". The message confirmed the passing of each landmark and directed the families towards the next one. After the patient's discharge, families were followed up with a telephone call and a five-point Likert scale questionnaire. RESULTS: We successfully sent all five SMS messages for 72 patients to 114 participants (73%). Among 114 participants, all agreed the SMS service was reassuring and that the SMS messages were easy to follow and kept participants informed. Almost all felt the SMS service did not increase anxiety and all disagreed with the SMS service being intrusive. All surveyed participants stated that they would recommend the service to other families. CONCLUSION: We successfully instituted real-time SMS updates. All surveyed participants agreed that these messages were reassuring, informative and easy to follow and that they would recommend the SMS service to other families.


Assuntos
Telefone Celular , Comunicação , Cuidados Críticos/métodos , Família/psicologia , Envio de Mensagens de Texto , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos
16.
Rev Lat Am Enfermagem ; 28: e3301, 2020 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês, Português, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32901765

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: to develop and test an SMS monitoring software application for patients with acute decompensated heart failure. METHOD: the waterfall model was used for software development. All expected functionalities were defined, program modules were codified and tests were done so as to ensure good performance by the software application. Ten patients participated in the prototype test. RESULTS: the system sends two types of messages: questions that should be answered by patients and unilateral educational reinforcements. In addition, the system generates alarms in case of no response or according to a flow chart to detect congestion in the patient previously created by the team. Of the 264 SMS texts sent, 247 were answered. The alarm was triggered seven times: three patients woke up with shortness of breath for two consecutive nights, and four patients felt more fatigued for two consecutive days. All patients took the prescribed medications during follow-up. The study nurse guided the patients who generated alarms in the system. CONCLUSION: the SMS software application was successfully developed and a high response rate and preliminary evidence of improvements in self-management of HF were observed. With this regard, telehealth is a promising alternative in the treatment of chronic diseases.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Telemedicina , Envio de Mensagens de Texto , Humanos , Software
17.
J Am Med Inform Assoc ; 27(11): 1727-1731, 2020 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32984890

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The objective was to understand how people respond to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) screening chatbots. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted an online experiment with 371 participants who viewed a COVID-19 screening session between a hotline agent (chatbot or human) and a user with mild or severe symptoms. RESULTS: The primary factor driving user response to screening hotlines (human or chatbot) is perceptions of the agent's ability. When ability is the same, users view chatbots no differently or more positively than human agents. The primary factor driving perceptions of ability is the user's trust in the hotline provider, with a slight negative bias against chatbots' ability. Asian individuals perceived higher ability and benevolence than did White individuals. CONCLUSIONS: Ensuring that COVID-19 screening chatbots provide high-quality service is critical but not sufficient for widespread adoption. The key is to emphasize the chatbot's ability and assure users that it delivers the same quality as human agents.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Aplicações da Informática Médica , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Telemedicina , Confiança , Comunicação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Envio de Mensagens de Texto
18.
Sante Publique ; 32(2): 253-262, 2020 09 15.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32989955

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe the acceptability and factors associated with the use of mobile telephones in the care of people living with HIV (PLHIV) in Lomé, Togo. METHOD: A cross-sectional study was conducted from January 5th to March 31st, 2018 in Lomé. PLHIV were recruited from the Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases of the teaching hospital “CHU Sylvanus Olympio” and the NGO “Espoir Vie Togo”. Socio-demographic and clinical data, mobile phone possession and acceptability of communication with health professionals using a mobile phone were collected with a standardized questionnaire during a face-to-face interview. RESULTS: A total of 259 PLHIV (79.6% women) were recruited. The mean age (± standard deviation) of PLHIV was 43.7 ± 9.8 years and the majority (95.4%) had a mobile phone. Almost all (98.1%) of respondents declared that mobile phone could be a means to maintain contact with a health professional. Phone calls (43.0%), text messages (SMS) (35.1%), and voice messages (20.0%) were the preferred means of communication with health professionals. Factors associated with the acceptability of receiving SMS from a health professional were age < 44 years and having at least a secondary level of education. CONCLUSION: PLHIV are receptive to the integration of mobile technology into the management of their condition. M-health could be an opportunity to improve the management of HIV infection in Togo.


Assuntos
Telefone Celular , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Telemedicina , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Envio de Mensagens de Texto , Togo
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32947935

RESUMO

Road traffic plays a vital role in countries' economic growth and future development. However, traffic accidents are considered a major public health issue affecting humankind. Despite efforts by governments to improve traffic safety, the misalignment between the policy efforts and on-ground infringements, distractions and breaches reflect the regulatory failure. This paper uses the Bayesian network method to investigate unsafe behaviors and traffic accidents involving unlicensed drivers as a perspective for the regulatory alignment assessment. The findings suggest that: (1) unlicensed drivers are more likely to have unsafe driving behaviors; (2) the probability of being involved in a severe traffic accident increases when the drivers are unlicensed and decreases in the case of licensed drivers; (3) young drivers are noticeably more likely to engage in unsafe behaviors, usually leading to serious injuries and deaths, when their driving licenses are invalid; (4) women are more likely to engage in right-of-way violations and to have collisions with no serious injuries, contrary to unlicensed men drivers, who are involved in other types of traffic accidents resulting in serious injuries.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito , Condução de Veículo , Envio de Mensagens de Texto , Adulto , Idoso , Teorema de Bayes , Feminino , Humanos , Licenciamento , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Saúde Pública , Adulto Jovem
20.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0237846, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32941439

RESUMO

Nowadays, smartphone-Mediated Communication (SMC) has become a popular form of social interactions. The present experimental study manipulated three aspects of messaging in a WhatsApp chat as a form of SMC: synchronicity (immediate vs. time-lagged response), modality (with or without emojis), and valence (empathic accurate vs. empathic inaccurate response). The aim of this study was to investigate whether these three aspects had an impact on perceived social support, interpersonal trust, and personality attribution of the communication partner. The partial mediation of perceived social presence (the evaluation of the communication partner's accessibility) and subjective social presence (the perception of being concordant with him/her) was also examined. Participants were 160 young adults, balanced in gender. They were randomly assigned to different the experimental conditions where they engaged in a manipulated WhatsApp chat with a fictitious same-gender communication partner. Post-questionnaire data were analyzed using Structural Equation Modeling. Message valence (empathic accurate response) and modality (with emojis) significantly predicted higher levels of both forms of social presence. Synchronicity (immediate response) predicted higher levels of perceived but not subjective social presence. Social presence, in turn, was positively associated with social support, while subjective, but not perceived social presence, was positively associated with personality attribution. Neither perceived nor subjective social presence were related to interpersonal trust. Our results show that both what is said and how it is said impact the experience of interpersonal relations in SMC.


Assuntos
Comunicação , Smartphone , Envio de Mensagens de Texto , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Masculino , Modelos Teóricos , Personalidade , Apoio Social , Confiança
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