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1.
Molecules ; 26(19)2021 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34641538

RESUMO

Response surface methodology (RSM) with a Box-Behnken design (BBD) was used to optimize the extraction of bioactive compounds from Ephedra fragilis. The results suggested that extraction with 61.93% ethanol at 44.43 °C for 15.84 h was the best solution for this combination of variables. The crude ethanol extract (CEE) obtained under optimum extraction conditions was sequentially fractionated with solvents of increasing polarity. The content of total phenolic (TP) and total flavonoid (TF) as well as the antioxidant and antiglycation activities were measured. The phytochemical fingerprint profile of the fraction with the highest activity was characterized by using RP-HPLC. The ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) had the highest TP and TF contents and exhibited the most potent antioxidant and antiglycation activities. The Pearson correlation analysis results showed that TP and TF contents were highly significantly correlated with the antioxidant and antiglycation activities. Totally, six compounds were identified in the EAF of E. fragilis, including four phenolic acids and two flavonoids. Additionally, molecular docking analysis also showed the possible connection between identified bioactive compounds and their mechanisms of action. Our results suggest new evidence on the antioxidant and antiglycation activities of E. fragilis bioactive compounds that may be applied in the treatment and prevention of aging and glycation-associated complications.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Ephedra/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Animais , Bovinos , Fracionamento Químico/métodos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Flavonoides/análise , Flavonoides/isolamento & purificação , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/química , Ácido Linoleico/química , Reação de Maillard , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Fenóis/análise , Fenóis/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Fitoquímicos/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/química , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Soroalbumina Bovina/metabolismo , Espectrofotometria Ultravioleta , beta Caroteno/química
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371347

RESUMO

Ephedra herb extracts are being extensively investigated in terms of their antioxidative, antimicrobial and antiproliferative properties, with phenolic components being the general carriers of these bioactivities. Here we describe a comprehensive set of analytical methods employed to determine and characterize both the antioxidative activity and the qualitative profile of phenolic acids and flavonoids present in several Ephedra species of different geographical origin. Spectrophotometric methods were used to determine the total phenolic content, total flavonoid content and antioxidative activity. Multi-development HPTLC enabled chemical fingerprinting which can be used for species differentiation. Individual spots of the thin-layer chromatogram were subjected to GC-MS with injection port derivatization for identification, which was based on both the detected mass spectra and recorded retention indices. The results were compared and complemented with GC-MS using offline derivatization.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Cromatografia em Camada Delgada/métodos , Ephedra/química , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Fenóis , Antioxidantes/análise , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Flavonoides/análise , Flavonoides/química , Flavonoides/isolamento & purificação , Fenóis/análise , Fenóis/química , Fenóis/isolamento & purificação
3.
J Altern Complement Med ; 27(9): 796-802, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33979529

RESUMO

Objective: To characterize dietary supplements marketed online as "ephedra-containing or ephedra-like products" for weight management and to assess labeling/marketing compliance with the ban on the sale of ephedrine alkaloids. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study assessed websites selling ephedra-like supplements using the search term "buy ephedra." For each website, the first three featured products were characterized by evaluating the label for (1) Ephedra sp. or its alkaloid content, (2) serving size, (3) other ingredients, (4) directions, (5) side effects, (6) reported interactions, (7) recommendation to consult a health care provider, (8) recommendation to use with diet and exercise, and (9) Food and Drug Administration (FDA) disclaimer. Results: Thirty-six (71%) of the first 51 websites evaluated sold at least one weight loss product. A total of 105 products were assessed, 93 had labeling with 10 (11%) in possible violation of the ephedra ban. Five were labeled as containing ephedrine or ephedrine hydrochloride, two reported containing ephedrine alkaloids, and two reported containing unidentified Ephedra sp. not formulated as an extract; one reported containing Ma Huang. Sixty-seven (72%) products listed caffeine with a daily serving size averaging 400 mg. Other ingredients with stimulant properties include green tea, yohimbe, and phenylethylamine. Conclusions: Nearly 20% of websites sold weight loss products that potentially violated the 2004 ban of ephedra alkaloids. Ephedrine, unidentified Ephedra sp. not formulated as an extract, and Ma Huang were labeled as present in 11% of products evaluated. Incomplete reporting of adverse effects and drug interactions was common.


Assuntos
Ephedra , Estudos Transversais , Suplementos Nutricionais , Humanos , Marketing , Estados Unidos , United States Food and Drug Administration , Perda de Peso
4.
Molecules ; 26(6)2021 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33805790

RESUMO

A highly specific and sensitive proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) method has been developed for the quantification of ephedrine alkaloid derivatives in Ephedra herbal commercial prescriptions. At the region of δ 4.0 to 5.0 ppm in the 1H NMR spectrum, the characteristic signals are separated well from each other, and six analogues in total, methylephedrine (ME), ephedrine (EP), norephedrine (NE), norpseudoephedrine (NP), pseudoephedrine (PE), and methylpseudoephedrine (MP) could be identified. The quantities of these compounds are calculated by the relative ratio of the integral values of the target peak for each compound to the known concentrations of the internal standard anthracene. The present method allows for a rapid and simple quantification of ephedrine alkaloid derivatives in Ephedra-related commercial prescriptions without any preliminary purification steps and standard compounds, and accordingly it can be a powerful tool to verify different Ephedra species. In comparison to conventional chromatographic methods, the advantages of this method include the fact that no standard compounds are required, the quantification can be directly performed on the crude extracts, a better selectivity for various ephedrine alkaloid derivatives, and the fact that a very significant time-gain may be achieved.


Assuntos
Alcaloides/análise , Ephedra/química , Efedrina/análogos & derivados , Efedrina/análise , Ephedra/classificação , Estudos de Viabilidade , Humanos , Limite de Detecção , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética/estatística & dados numéricos , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Fenilpropanolamina/análise , Preparações de Plantas/química , Pseudoefedrina/análise , Especificidade da Espécie
5.
J Nat Med ; 75(3): 612-622, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33813664

RESUMO

Pancreatic cancer is a lethal disease with a very poor prognosis. Recent reports indicate that hypoxia signaling mediated by hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) contributes to the progression of pancreatic cancer. Therefore, elucidating the inhibitor of hypoxia signaling may lead to the development of a candidate for new anticancer agents. During our screening program for HIF inhibitor from crude drug extracts, new acylated kaempferol glycosides, kaempferol 3-O-[4″-(E)-p-coumaroyl-3″-O-dihydroxypalmityl] rhamnoside (1) and kaempferol 3-O-[4″-(E)-p-coumaroyl-2″-O-dihydroxypalmityl] rhamnoside (2), were isolated from an acetone extract of Ephedrae Herba, together with eight known flavonol glycosides (3-10). The structures of novel compounds 1 and 2 were elucidated based on spectroscopic and chemical analyses. Using a cell-based HRE-driven luciferase reporter assay in a PANC-1 pancreatic cancer cell line, we found that these compounds demonstrated potent inhibitory activity on hypoxia signaling with IC50 values of 18.0 ± 0.6 and 13.3 ± 2.2 µM, respectively. Mechanistically, 2 reduced the amount of HIF-1α protein in the nuclear at 30 µM via the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway with no effect on the nuclear translocation of HIF proteins from cytosol and subsequently decreased Glut1 mRNA. These results indicate that 2 inhibits hypoxia signaling through a mechanism involving the reduction of HIF-1α protein levels and Glut1 mRNA and may have anti-pancreatic cancer effects.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Hipóxia Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Ephedra/química , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Transportador de Glucose Tipo 1/metabolismo , Glicosídeos/química , Humanos , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/metabolismo , Estrutura Molecular , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo
6.
Biomolecules ; 11(3)2021 03 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33809976

RESUMO

The current work aimed to synthesize selenium and zinc nanoparticles using the aqueous extract of Ephedra aphylla as a valuable medicinal plant. The prepared nanoparticles were characterized by TEM, zeta potential, and changes in the phytochemical constituents. Hence, the phenolic, flavonoid, and tannin contents were reduced in the case of the prepared samples of nanoparticles than the original values in the aqueous extract. The prepared extract of Ephedra aphylla and its selenium and zinc nanoparticles showed high potency as antioxidant agents as a result of the DPPH• assay. The samples were assessed as anticancer agents against six tumor cells and a normal lung fibroblast (WI-38) cell line. The selenium nanoparticles of Ephedra aphylla extract revealed very strong cytotoxicity against HePG-2 cells (inhibitory concentration (IC50) = 7.56 ± 0.6 µg/mL), HCT-116 cells (IC50 = 10.02 ± 0.9 µg/mL), and HeLa cells (IC50 = 9.23 ± 0.8 µg/mL). The samples were evaluated as antimicrobial agents against bacterial and fungal strains. Thus, selenium nanoparticles showed potent activities against Gram-negative strains (Salmonella typhimurium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Escherichia coli), Gram-positive strains (Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, and Staphylococcus epidermidis), and the fungal strain Candida albicans. In conclusion, the preparation of nanoparticles of either selenium or zinc is crucial for improved biological characteristics.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Ephedra/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Zinco/química , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/síntese química , Antineoplásicos/química , Antioxidantes/síntese química , Candida albicans/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos
7.
Carbohydr Polym ; 261: 117831, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33766335

RESUMO

Arabinogalactan-proteins (AGPs), important signalling molecules of the plant cell wall, are structurally extensively investigated in angiosperms, but information on AGPs in gymnosperms is still limited. We characterized AGPs from the gymnosperms Ginkgo biloba, Ephedra distachya, Encephalartos longifolius and Cycas revoluta. The protein contents are comparable to that of angiosperm AGPs. Hydroxyproline is the site of linking the carbohydrate part and was detected in all AGPs with highest concentration in Cycas AGP (1.1 % of the AGP). Interestingly, with the exception of Cycas, all AGPs contained the monosaccharide 3-O-methylrhamnose not present in angiosperm polysaccharides. The carbohydrate moieties of Cycas and Ephredra showed the main components 1,3,6-linked galactose and terminal arabinose typical of angiosperm AGPs, whereas that of Ginkgo AGP was unique with 1,4-linked galactose as dominant structural element. Bioinformatic search for glycosyltransferases in Ginkgo genome also revealed a lower number of galactosyltransferases responsible for biosynthesis of the 1,3-Gal/1,6-Gal AGP backbone.


Assuntos
Parede Celular/química , Cycadopsida/química , Mucoproteínas/química , Evolução Biológica , Sequência de Carboidratos , Parede Celular/metabolismo , Biologia Computacional , Cycadopsida/classificação , Cycadopsida/metabolismo , Cycas/química , Cycas/metabolismo , Ephedra/química , Ephedra/metabolismo , Galactanos/química , Ginkgo biloba/química , Ginkgo biloba/metabolismo , Estrutura Molecular , Mucoproteínas/isolamento & purificação , Mucoproteínas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Proteínas de Plantas/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Conformação Proteica , Zamiaceae/química , Zamiaceae/metabolismo
8.
Pharm Res ; 38(4): 569-581, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33754256

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Ephedra herb (Mao) exerts potent anti-allergic effects. This study aimed to examine the underlying mechanisms of Mao on allergic inflammation using in vitro cultured mast cells (MCs) and an in vivo model of MC-dependent anaphylaxis. METHODS: Bone marrow-derived MCs (BMMCs) were presensitized with anti-2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP) immunoglobulin E (IgE) and challenged with antigens (Ag; DNP-human serum albumin). Degranulation responses and cell surface high-affinity receptor for IgE (FcεRI) expression were assessed with/without Mao treatment. Passive systemic anaphylaxis (PSA)-treated mice were administered Mao and the pathophysiological responses were evaluated. RESULTS: Mao inhibited Ag-induced BMMC degranulation, but not polyclonal activation with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) and ionomycin, indicating that Mao inhibits IgE-dependent activation of BMMCs. Mao-treated BMMCs exhibited significant reductions in expression of surface IgE and its receptor FcεRI. Analysis of subcellular localization revealed that Mao induces FcεRI internalization in BMMCs without degranulation. In the PSA mouse model, Mao administration prevented antigen-induced hypothermia. Mao administration significantly reduced cell surface expression of IgE-bound FcεRI on peritoneal MCs. CONCLUSIONS: Mao induced FcεRI internalization in MCs, thereby inhibiting Ag-induced IgE-dependent degranulation. The inhibitory effects of Mao on MC degranulation may offer a novel therapeutic approach for allergic diseases.


Assuntos
Anafilaxia/tratamento farmacológico , Antialérgicos/farmacologia , Ephedra/química , Mastócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Anafilaxia/imunologia , Animais , Antialérgicos/uso terapêutico , Degranulação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Degranulação Celular/imunologia , Células Cultivadas , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina E/metabolismo , Ionomicina/imunologia , Mastócitos/imunologia , Medicina Kampo/métodos , Camundongos , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Caules de Planta/química , Cultura Primária de Células , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Acetato de Tetradecanoilforbol/imunologia
9.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol ; 147(11): 3401-3407, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33748880

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is common among breast cancer patients, but less is known about whether CAM influences breast cancer survival. The primary aim of this study was to determine the impact of self-use of herbs on the overall survival. METHODS: This was a prospective study including 110 patients with breast cancer. All patients were questioned about the concept of taking herbs. We analyzed the demographic data and the overall survival. RESULTS: The average age was 51 years (30-80 years old). 37 had metastatic disease (33.6%). 48 patients had taken plants (43.6%). 19 patients consumed Graviola (39.6%) and 29 Alenda (60.4%). Overall survival at 3 years and at 5 years were, respectively, 96.2% and 82.4% in the absence of plant consumption versus 78.5% and 78.5% in case of plant consumption (p = 0.015). CONCLUSION: This study concluded that self-medication with Graviola or Alenda may be associated with an increase of death risk in patients with breast cancer. Further studies are needed to confirm these results.


Assuntos
Annona , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Terapias Complementares/métodos , Ephedra , Plantas Medicinais , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Terapias Complementares/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fitoterapia/efeitos adversos , Fitoterapia/métodos , Estudos Prospectivos , Automedicação
10.
J Nat Med ; 75(3): 707-716, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33599897

RESUMO

A discriminant LC/MS quantitative analysis of ephedrine (EP) and pseudoephedrine (PEP) in Ephedrae herba was performed. Aerial parts of three Ephedra species were separated into internodes and extracted using Finger Masher with minimum loss. The contents of EP and PEP were measured by LC/MS/MS using the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) method. Their contents in old-year branches were lower than those current-year branches and tended to be higher in the middle part than in the tip of each branch. The content ratio of EP and PEP was reversed in some branches depending on their extent of growth. In E. sinica, the contents were low at the first internode closest to the central main stem at each branch. The contents drastically increased from the second internode and were highest at the third internode. There was a strong correlation between the internode distance and alkaloid (EP + PEP) contents. The distribution of alkaloids in one internode was examined and the results showed that the part closest to the node had the lowest contents.


Assuntos
Ephedra/química , Efedrina/análise , Pseudoefedrina/análise , Alcaloides/análise , Cromatografia Líquida , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/análise , Ephedra/classificação , Caules de Planta/química , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
11.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 13(4): 4811-4830, 2021 02 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33581688

RESUMO

Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) had demonstrated effectiveness in the prevention and control of COVID-19. Statistics showed that Ephedra and Glycyrrhiza were frequently used in the treatment of COVID-19. We hypothesized that the Ephedra-Glycyrrhiza drug pair is a potential choice for the treatment of COVID-19. Here, 112 active compounds were identified from Ephedra-Glycyrrhiza via network pharmacology approach. Ephedra-Glycyrrhiza pair enrichment analysis demonstrated that these compounds might participate in the cAMP, PI3K-Akt, JAK-STAT and chemokine signaling pathways, which had a high correlation with respiratory, nervous, blood circulation and digestive system-related diseases. Pathway analysis between Ephedra-Glycyrrhiza and COVID-19 showed that the key targets were TNF-α, IL2, FOS, ALB, and PTGS2. They might control PI3K-Akt signaling pathway to exert immune regulation, organ protection and antiviral effects. Molecular docking results showed that the active compounds from the Ephedra-Glycyrrhiza pair bound well to COVID-19 related targets, including the main protease (Mpro, also called 3CLpro), the spike protein (S protein), and the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). The Molecular dynamics simulation was analyzed for the stability and flexibility of the complex. In conclusion, our study elucidated the potential pharmacological mechanism of Ephedra-Glycyrrhiza in the treatment of COVID-19 through multiple targets and pathways.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Ephedra/química , Glycyrrhiza/química , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/metabolismo , Antivirais/química , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/metabolismo , Combinação de Medicamentos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas/efeitos dos fármacos , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo
12.
Biomolecules ; 11(2)2021 01 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33499067

RESUMO

Endophytic fungi are widely present in internal plant tissues and provide different benefits to their host. Medicinal plants have unexplored diversity of functional fungal association; therefore, this study aimed to isolate endophytic fungi associated with leaves of medicinal plants Ephedra pachyclada and evaluate their plant growth-promoting properties. Fifteen isolated fungal endophytes belonging to Ascomycota, with three different genera, Penicillium, Alternaria, and Aspergillus, were obtained from healthy leaves of E. pachyclada. These fungal endophytes have varied antimicrobial activity against human pathogenic microbes and produce ammonia and indole acetic acid (IAA), in addition to their enzymatic activity. The results showed that Penicillium commune EP-5 had a maximum IAA productivity of 192.1 ± 4.04 µg mL-1 in the presence of 5 µg mL-1 tryptophan. The fungal isolates of Penicillium crustosum EP-2, Penicillium chrysogenum EP-3, and Aspergillus flavus EP-14 exhibited variable efficiency for solubilizing phosphate salts. Five representative fungal endophytes of Penicillium crustosum EP-2, Penicillium commune EP-5, Penicillium caseifulvum EP-11, Alternaria tenuissima EP-13, and Aspergillus flavus EP-14 and their consortium were selected and applied as bioinoculant to maize plants. The results showed that Penicillium commune EP-5 increased root lengths from 15.8 ± 0.8 to 22.1 ± 0.6. Moreover, the vegetative growth features of inoculated maize plants improved more than the uninoculated ones.


Assuntos
Endófitos/metabolismo , Fungos/metabolismo , Plantas Medicinais/metabolismo , Alternaria , Amônia/química , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Ascomicetos/metabolismo , Aspergillus , Ephedra , Fermentação , Ácidos Indolacéticos/química , Penicillium , Fosfatos/química , Filogenia , Solo
13.
Molecules ; 26(3)2021 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33499348

RESUMO

Mass spectrometry-based molecular imaging has been utilized to map the spatial distribution of target metabolites in various matrixes. Among the diverse mass spectrometry techniques, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) is the most popular for molecular imaging due to its powerful spatial resolution. This unparalleled high resolution, however, can paradoxically act as a bottleneck when the bio-imaging of large areas, such as a whole plant, is required. To address this issue and provide a more versatile tool for large scale bio-imaging, direct analysis in real-time-time of flight-mass spectrometry (DART-TOF-MS), an ambient ionization MS, was applied to whole plant bio-imaging of a medicinal plant, Ephedrae Herba. The whole aerial part of the plant was cut into 10-20 cm long pieces, and each part was further cut longitudinally to compare the contents of major ephedra alkaloids between the outer surface and inner part of the stem. Using optimized DART-TOF-MS conditions, molecular imaging of major ephedra alkaloids of the whole aerial part of a single plant was successfully achieved. The concentration of alkaloids analyzed in this study was found to be higher on the inner section than the outer surface of stems. Moreover, side branches, which are used in traditional medicine, represented a far higher concentration of alkaloids than the main stem. In terms of the spatial metabolic distribution, the contents of alkaloids gradually decreased towards the end of branch tips. In this study, a fast and simple macro-scale MS imaging of the whole plant was successfully developed using DART-TOF-MS. This application on the localization of secondary metabolites in whole plants can provide an area of new research using ambient ionization mass spectroscopy and an unprecedented macro-scale view of the biosynthesis and distribution of active components in medicinal plants.


Assuntos
Alcaloides/metabolismo , Ephedra/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Plantas Medicinais/metabolismo , Efedrina/análogos & derivados , Efedrina/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas/instrumentação , Imagem Molecular/instrumentação , Imagem Molecular/métodos , Componentes Aéreos da Planta/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz
14.
J Nat Med ; 75(1): 246-258, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33090362

RESUMO

In Uzbekistan, Ephedra distachya L., E. equisetina Bunge, E. foliata Boiss. ex C. A. Mey., E. lomatolepis Schrenk, and E. strobilacea Bunge show species specificity for habitat environments and physical and chemical characteristics of habitat soils. Furthermore, the relationship between soil characteristics and ephedrine and pseudoephedrine contents was examined. E. distachya was found growing from 80 to 200 m above sea level (a.s.l) in the Plateau Ustyurt on the desert steppe of cliffs on soil having relatively higher loss on ignition (19.8-33.8%) and water-soluble cations (Ca2+, 5.14-133.13; Mg2+, 0.85-3.18; and Na+, 2.27-8.33 mmol/100 g dry soil weight) than for other Ephedra habitats. E. strobilacea was found growing on the flat sandy Kyzylkum desert at 94 m a.s.l. and had habitat soil that was the driest with the lowest loss on ignition (2.9%) and highest Na+ (9.05 mmol/100 g dry soil weight) of all the Ephedra habitat soils. On dry steppe from 1054 to 1819 m a.s.l., E. foliata, E. lomatolepis, and E. equisetina formed not only a single community but also a complex community on constantly collapsing sandy gravel slope with relatively higher Ca2+ (3.40-17.44 mmol/100 g dry soil weight) soil content. Notably, E. equisetina grew on the dry steppe of constantly collapsing sandy gravel slopes, in rocky areas, on sandy gravel floodplains of rivers, and on stable humus soil at the base of coniferous trees in a wide range of habitats from dry steppe to coniferous forest zones at altitudes ranging from 1392 to 1819 m a.s.l., as reflected in the greater variability than for other Ephedra habitats in the parameters of loss on ignition (1.4-34.8%), pH (7.1-9.6), NO3- (0.08-35.17 mmol/100 g dry soil weight), Ca2+ (0.24-17.44 mmol/100 g dry soil weight), Mg2+ (not detected-1.25 mmol/100 g dry soil weight), and Na+ (0.13-5.19 mmol/100 g dry soil weight). Ephedrine alkaloids were not detectable in E. strobilacea, E. foliata, and E. lomatolepis. Almost all E. distachya contained only pseudoephedrine (1.25-1.59% of dry weight, %DW), while E. equisetina contained from 1.31 to 2.05%DW ephedrine and from 1.29 to 2.80%DW pseudoephedrine. Ephedrine and pseudoephedrine in E. equisetina showed a statistically significant negative correlation with soil Cl- and Mg2+, respectively.


Assuntos
Alcaloides/química , Ephedra/química , Ecossistema , Solo , Uzbequistão
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32991999

RESUMO

The main purpose of the present study was to investigate the ability of ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) from Ephedra fragilis to function as a protective agent against hydrogen peroxide induced oxidative damage in Tetrahymena pyriformis. The cells were preincubated with EAF (50-200 µg/mL) or ascorbic acid (50 µg/mL) for 24 h, followed by incubation with 50% H2O2 inhibitory concentration for 48 h. Cell viability was assessed using trypan exclusion method. Cell morphology and mobility, antioxidant enzymes activities (catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione reductase (GR)), malondialdehyde (MDA) and protein carbonyl (PCO) levels, DNA fragmentation and metabolic enzymes activities (succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) and NADPH-cytochrome c reductase (NCCR)) were investigated. Our results indicate that, pretreatment of T. pyriformis cells with EAF improved the cell viability, restored normal cell mobility and morphology, decreased the levels of both MDA and PCO level, prevent DNA fragmentation and enhanced the activity of antioxidant (CAT, SOD and GR) and metabolic (SDH and NCCR) enzymes in H2O2 damaged cells. In conclusion, these results suggest for the first time that E. fragilis is a promising source of natural antioxidants, that could offer protection against oxidative stress and should be further exploited for its use in clinical medicine.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Ephedra/química , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Tetrahymena pyriformis/efeitos dos fármacos , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/toxicidade , Proteínas de Protozoários/metabolismo
16.
Bioengineered ; 11(1): 1159-1169, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33084492

RESUMO

Tan sheep is an indigenous ovine breed of China known for its high meat quality and pleasing taste. Seven herbs of traditional Chinese medicine, namely, Ephedra sinica, Glycyrrhiza uralensis, Caragana korshinskii, Allium mongolicum, Thymus vulgaris, Astragalus membranaceus, and Lespedeza bicolor are commonly grazed by Tan sheep. It has been widely believed that these herbs are of high nutritive value, which may significantly contribute to the high meat quality and distinct flavor of Tan sheep. However, the nutritive values of these herbs have not been evaluated to date. In this study, samples of the seven herbs were collected from the steppe of Yanchi County of Ningxia Autonomous Region of China. The dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), ether extract (EE), ash (Ash), calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), and acid detergent fiber (ADF) of these herbs were measured using locally cultivated alfalfa as the standard forage. Digestion of the dry matter, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, and crude protein in the rumen of Tan sheep was examined using the nylon bag method, in order to evaluate their feeding nutritional value. Our results show that all the seven herbs meet the nutritional needs of ruminants based on the standard forage alfalfa. However, Ephedra, Glycyrrhiza, Caragana, Allium, Astragalus, and Lespedeza have higher nutritive value than Thymus (P < 0.05). According to the ruminal degradation rates of dry matter, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, and crude protein, the nutritive value of Caragana, Allium, and Lespedeza is higher than that of Ephedra, Glycyrrhiza, Astragalus, and Thymus (P < 0.05). The overall nutritive value of Allium is the highest among the seven herbs and therefore Allium is recommended to better meet the nutritional needs of Tan sheep.


Assuntos
Valor Nutritivo , Allium/metabolismo , Animais , Cálcio/metabolismo , Caragana/metabolismo , Ephedra/metabolismo , Glycyrrhiza/metabolismo , Lespedeza/metabolismo , Ovinos
17.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 15077, 2020 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32934288

RESUMO

Mineral nutrients play important roles in the growth and metabolism of Ephedra intermedia, and are affected by soil factors. Fifteen elements were measured from wild E. intermedia as well as their growing soils using inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy to investigate the influences and characteristics of herb elements. The pH, cation exchange capacity, humus and soil mechanical composition were also determined in rhizosphere soils. Results showed that E. intermedia stems contained high N, low P concentrations in macronutrients and high Fe in micronutrients, and enriched N, S, Cl, P and Sr from soils. The 15 herb elements were affected by one or more soil factors, and K, P, Zn, Fe and Mn were important soil elements that influenced the mineral accumulation of E. intermedia. This study was useful for the artificial cultivation of wild E. intermedia.


Assuntos
Ephedra/química , Solo/química , Oligoelementos/química , Minerais/química , Nutrientes/química , Rizosfera
18.
Zhonghua Yi Shi Za Zhi ; 50(3): 131-137, 2020 May 28.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32660190

RESUMO

The prevailing sandstorm environment of Lop Nur is a high-risk factor which can induce respiratory diseases. Ephedra can cure the patients or relieve the symptom. These may make ancient Lop Nur peoples worship ephedra. Therefore, viewed it as burial objects. From the point of view of some eastern and western religions, ephedra was the elixir of life. Since ephedrine ephedra contains can excite the sympathetic nerves of human body, it makes people have an illusion.Ephedra can restore their youth. Ancient people of Lop Nur viewed ephedra as a holy item. Both the functions of therapy and "youth restoration" from exciting the nerves, meant guarantee for life. For ancient Lop Nur peoples, ephedra has the value of both medicine and religion.


Assuntos
Sepultamento , Ephedra/química , Efedrina/farmacologia , Plantas Medicinais/química , Religião , China , Humanos
19.
Biomed Res Int ; 2020: 3837693, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32695811

RESUMO

Medicinal plants are potential sources for a wide range of complex compounds with probable anticancer activity. Ephedra foeminea Forssk. (E. foeminea), a medicinal plant found in the Eastern Mediterranean, has recently been gaining popularity as a cancer remedy; there is, however, a paucity of empirical evidence supporting this claim. In this study, the effect of E. foeminea ethyl acetate, ethanol, and water crude extracts on viability, migratory ability, and the steady-state mRNA levels of genes involved in these processes was, respectively, examined using MTT assay, wound healing assay, and reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR). The study concludes that all extracts significantly reduce human osteosarcoma U2OS percentage viability in a dose- and time-dependent manner, with varying potencies. The least half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) was observed in the water extract after 48 h incubation (30.761 ± 1.4 µg/mL) followed by the ethyl acetate extract after 72 h incubation (80.35 ± 1.233 µg/mL) and finally the ethanol extract after 48 h incubation (97.499 ± 1.188 µg/mL). Ethanol extract significantly reduced U2OS percentage wound closure. On the other hand, both ethanol and water extracts considerably reduced the steady-state mRNA expression of beta-catenin, promoting both cell proliferation and migration in osteosarcoma by regulating target genes. Additionally, E. foeminea showed no hemolytic activity. These effects suggest that E. foeminea decreases U2OS cell viability and migratory ability by modulating the expression of critical genes involved in regulating these processes and is likely cytocompatible with human erythrocytes.


Assuntos
Acetatos/química , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Ephedra/química , Etanol/química , Osteossarcoma/patologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Água/química , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Forma Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Misturas Complexas , Dimetil Sulfóxido/farmacologia , Doxorrubicina/farmacologia , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Imidazóis/farmacologia , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Osteossarcoma/genética , Piperazinas/farmacologia , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Cicatrização/efeitos dos fármacos
20.
Meat Sci ; 170: 108246, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32731034

RESUMO

The biopreservative effect of Ephedra alata aqueous extract (EAE), used at 0.156, 0.312 and 0.624%, on minced beef meat was evaluated by microbiological, physicochemical and sensory analyses during storage at 4 °C for 14 days. The results showed that EAE significantly (P < .05) delayed the formation of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances and carbonyls and reduced the sulfhydryl loss in a dose-dependent manner, indicating that EAE had a protective effect against lipids and protein oxidation. Concomitantly, an increase of redness and loss of lightness and yellowness was observed. Furthermore, two multivariate exploratory techniques, namely Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA) were applied to all obtained data describing the main characteristics attributed to refrigerated meat samples. During storage time, the used chemometric approaches were useful in discriminating meat samples, and therefore offers an approach to underlay connections between meat quality features. The obtained findings demonstrated the strong potential of EAE as a natural preservative in meat and meat products.


Assuntos
Ephedra/química , Conservação de Alimentos/métodos , Produtos da Carne/análise , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Bovinos , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Cor , Produtos da Carne/microbiologia , Oxirredução/efeitos dos fármacos , Substâncias Reativas com Ácido Tiobarbitúrico/análise
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