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1.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 188: 109945, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31753309

RESUMO

Cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms dominated by Microcystis frequently produce microcystins, a family of toxins capable of inflicting harm to pelagic and benthic freshwater invertebrates. Research on the effect of microcystins on invertebrates is inconclusive; from one perspective, studies suggest invertebrates can coexist in toxic blooms; however, studies have also measured negative food-associated effects from microcystins. To test the latter perspective, we examined the reproduction, growth, and survival of laboratory-cultured Ceriodaphnia dubia, Daphnia magna, and Hexagenia spp. exposed to cell-bound microcystins through a series of life-cycle bioassays. Test organisms were exposed to a concentration gradient ranging from 0.5 µg L-1 to 300 µg L-1 microcystins, which corresponds to values typically found in freshwaters during bloom season. Lethal concentrations in C. dubia (LC50 = 5.53 µg L-1) and D. magna (LC50 = 85.72 µg L-1) exposed to microcystins were among the lowest recorded to date, and reproductive effects were observed at concentrations as low as 2.5 µg L-1. Length of D. magna was significantly impacted in microcystin treatments great than 2.5 µg L-1. No lethality or growth impairments were observed in Hexagenia. This information will improve our understanding of the risks posed by microcystins to food webs in freshwaters.


Assuntos
Daphnia/efeitos dos fármacos , Ephemeroptera/efeitos dos fármacos , Água Doce/química , Microcistinas/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Daphnia/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ephemeroptera/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cadeia Alimentar , Proliferação Nociva de Algas , Dose Letal Mediana , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida , Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos
2.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 91(4): e20181130, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31800701

RESUMO

The distribution of aquatic insects has been poorly explored in quantitative analyses aiming at the historical reconstruction of area relationships in the Neotropics. Ephemeroptera is an ancient group, characterized by its low vagility, and of high richness and endemicity in this region. Systematic knowledge of the group has enormously increased in the last decades, achieving a sufficient background to explore biogeographical historical patterns. Our aim is to reconstruct area history in the Neotropics using the rationale of Barrier biogeography (Hovenkamp protocol). We present eleven mayfly phylogenies, representing groups that evolved independently at least from the Jurassic (i.e., not a one-taxon history). With these groups, we conducted independent biogeographical analyses (using Vicariance Inference Program), and extracted the events that repeated in two or more clades. We found fifty-eight TVEs (Traceable Vicariant Events), from which four were found at least twice, thus constituting SVEs (Supported Vicariant Events).


Assuntos
Ephemeroptera/classificação , Filogeografia , Animais , Ephemeroptera/genética , Filogenia , Especificidade da Espécie
3.
Zoolog Sci ; 36(6): 479-489, 2019 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31833319

RESUMO

In the present study, we add genetic data of the mayfly Cloeon dipterum collected from the Japanese Islands to the established molecular phylogenetic knowledge in the mitochondrial COI gene of Cloeon mayflies. Cloeon dipterum is a typical cosmopolitan species that includes six intraspecific haplotype groups. The present phylogenetic analysis revealed that haplotypes of the Japanese C. dipterum constitute a seventh group together with a haplotype from Korea. This East Asian group forms a sister group with previously known European and North American haplotype groups (i.e., the clade CT1 to CT3). The present phylogenetic analysis further revealed the occurrence of two described species (C. dipterum and Cloeon ryogokuensis) and possibly three species (Cloeon sp. 1 to 3) in Japan. Consideration is given to the degree of genetic differentiation, divergence time, and differentiation process among these seven genetic groups.


Assuntos
Ephemeroptera/genética , Distribuição Animal , Animais , DNA/genética , DNA/isolamento & purificação , Ecossistema , Variação Genética , Japão , Modelos Biológicos , Filogenia , Filogeografia , Especificidade da Espécie
4.
Zootaxa ; 4695(6): zootaxa.4695.6.1, 2019 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31719322

RESUMO

Sparsorythus is a genus of Tricorythidae from the Oriental Region. Sparsorythus multilabeculatus Sroka Soldán, 2008 was described based on a male imago from Vietnam. Unknown nymphs and female subimagines of Sparsorythus and male imagines of S. multilabeculatus were collected from Thap Lan National Park, Khon Buri District, Nakhon Ratchasima Province, Thailand. Nymphs and female subimagines of Sparsorythus were associated with male imagines of S. multilabeculatus by analyzing sequences from the DNA barcoding region of the mitochrondrial gene cytochrome oxidase I. Phylogenetic analysis based on Maximum Likelihood indicated that all unknown specimens are conspecific with male imagines of S. multilabeculatus (bootstrap 100% and genetic distance 0-0.004). Male and female nymphs, female subimago and egg are described for the first time. Nymphs each bear a medial emargination on the hypopharynx, one bristle-like process at the base of the left prostheca, and a bifurcate rudimentary gill on abdominal segment VII. The male usually has smudges and light blotches on its forewings; the penis extends to the basal segment of the forceps and reaches to approximately 1/3 of the second segment of the forceps. Forewings of the female subimago have dark colour over more than half of the basal area, and the distal portion of each wing is translucent. The egg has a rounded pole; the polar cap covers approximately 1/4 of the surface; and the surface is covered with hexagonal structures.


Assuntos
Ephemeroptera , Distribuição Animal , Estruturas Animais , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Feminino , Masculino , Filogenia , Tailândia , Vietnã
5.
Zootaxa ; 4695(3): zootaxa.4695.3.3, 2019 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31719350

RESUMO

Two new species of Miroculis Edmunds, 1963 (Ephemeroptera: Leptophlebiidae) are described, diagnosed and illustrated based on adults and/or nymphs collected in Brazil and Colombia. Both species share an uncommon genitalia morphology, which includes a long penis that is curved at base and a long styliger plate. In the case of the species from Brazil, which is also described based on nymphs, gills are devoid of the characteristic lateral lobes found in the other species of the genus.


Assuntos
Ephemeroptera , Animais , Brasil , Colômbia , Brânquias , Masculino , Ninfa
6.
Zootaxa ; 4638(1): zootaxa.4638.1.7, 2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31712488

RESUMO

A new mayfly species Thraulus thiagarajani sp. nov. is described and characterized by dorsal lamella of abdominal gill I lanceolate, lamella of gills II- VII subequal to or slightly larger than dorsal lamella; posterior margin of labrum not strongly convex. Imago of the species with patterned femora and tergum. Hind wings have no coloration at base, much smaller than forewing. Costal projection is present at 0.6 of hind wing.


Assuntos
Ephemeroptera , Animais , Brânquias , Índia
7.
Zootaxa ; 4683(2): zootaxa.4683.2.7, 2019 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31715930

RESUMO

Thraulodes Ulmer, 1920 is one of the most abundant and widespread genera of Leptophlebiidae represented by 66 species (Barber-James et al. 2013; Gonçalves et al. 2013; Lima et al. 2013; Souto et al. 2014; Zúñiga et al. 2015; Boldrini et al. 2018; Campos Mariano 2019). Its distribution extends from Central Argentina in the Neotropics to the Neartic Region. For Brazil, 23 species are known (Salles Boldrini 2019), but only seven species are known from both adult and nymphal stages: T. bonito Gonçalves, Da-Silva Nessimian; T. cochunaensis Domínguez; T. daidaleus Traver Edmunds; T. jones Gonçalves, Da-Silva Nessimian; T. itatiajanus Traver Edmunds; T. schlingeri Traver Edmunds and T. traverae Thew (Thew 1960; Traver Edmunds 1967; Domínguez 1987; Lopes et al. 2003; Gonçalves et al. 2010; Gonçalves et al. 2013).


Assuntos
Bivalves , Ephemeroptera , Animais , Argentina , Brasil , Ninfa
8.
Zootaxa ; 4679(2): zootaxa.4679.2.7, 2019 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31715962

RESUMO

A new species, Baetis pentaphyllus sp. nov., is described on the basis of larvae from the Far East of Russia (type locality Bolshoi Garmakan River). Larvae of Baetis pentaphyllus sp. nov. may be distinguished from other Baetis species by the presence of only five pairs of tergalii on segments III-VII. The mitochondrial COI sequence obtained from the described species was compared with the data present in GeneBank and BOLD. The DNA barcodes allowed discrimination of B. pentaphyllus sp. nov. from other species of Baetis with available sequence data. The average interspecific K2P distances were 10-15%, which are values well above those associated with intraspecific variation. COI sequences as well as 36 morphological larval characters were analysed using Bayesian inference to relate the described species to the recognized species-groups of the Baetis genus. B. pentaphyllus sp. nov formed a sister clade to B. vardarensis + B. lutheri which belong to the Baetis lutheri species-group.


Assuntos
Ephemeroptera , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Extremo Oriente , Larva , Federação Russa
9.
Zootaxa ; 4674(3): zootaxa.4674.3.4, 2019 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716003

RESUMO

There are seven genera and eight species of mayflies recorded for Tocantins state, Brazil, but only three belonging to the family Leptophlebiidae. Based on male imagoes, Simothraulopsis primus sp. nov. is described from Tocantins state, Northern Brazil. The species is characterized by the male genitalia being short, lanceolate, with a straight spine and by the "U" shape between the penis lobes. Other distinguishing features are the brown thorax and yellowish brown abdomen.


Assuntos
Ephemeroptera , Animais , Brasil , Masculino
10.
Zootaxa ; 4674(3): zootaxa.4674.3.6, 2019 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716005

RESUMO

Four of the 43 genera of South American Leptophlebiidae are dipterous. A previous phylogenetic hypothesis supported that clade Askola+Hagenulopsis, and that Bessierus+Perissophlebiodes, are sister groups of the Farrodes complex. Adults of Bessierus and Perissophlebiodes were not known but posteriorly Perissophlebiodes male imago was described. Here, we describe the male imago of Bessierus for the first time. Both genera share, besides the absence of the hind wings, the asymmetrical fork of MA, symmetrical fork of MP, dissimilar tarsal claws, and forceps sockets fused. Along with the description of the imago, a new diagnosis for the genus Bessierus is presented, also updating the identification key with this new information. A new cladistics analysis is performed to test the stability of the proposed relationships of these four genera within Leptophlebiidae. We obtained a single cladistic hypothesis where the addition of Bessierus adult characters resulted in new synapomorphies for the (Bessierus, Perissophlebiodes) clade, and improved its clade statistical support. The fused forceps sockets resulted in a synapomorphy uniting Bessierus, Perissophlebiodes and Simothraulopsis. As a result of this new analysis, the hypothesis of independent losses of the hind wings in the two dipterous groups studied is supported. The Farrodes lineage is not supported as proposed in previous studies, being restricted only to (Farrodes (Simothraulopsis, Homothraulus)) while the identity of "Perissophlebiodes lineage" is supported. The sister group relationship of Rondophlebia is not clearly defined.


Assuntos
Ephemeroptera , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Insetos , Masculino , Filogenia
11.
Zootaxa ; 4671(3): zootaxa.4671.3.7, 2019 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716046

RESUMO

A new species of sand-burrowing mayfly (Ephemeroptera: Behningiidae), Behningia nujiangensis Zhou Bisset, is described based on more than 50 nymphs collected from the Nujiang River in Yunnan Province, P.R. China. This is the first species of the family Behningiidae discovered in China. It is also the second species of genus Behningia, and the third species of the family Behningiidae collected from the Oriental biogeographic region. The shapes of the labrum and the labium in B. nujiangensis are markedly different from those found in other species of Behningia. Differences in the mandibles, the galea-lacina of maxillae, and both the prothoracic and metathoracic legs differentiate B. nujiangensis from both B. baei and B. ulmeri. The biology of and conservation challenges for B. nujiangensis are also briefly discussed.


Assuntos
Ephemeroptera , Animais , China , Ninfa , Rios
12.
Zootaxa ; 4586(3): zootaxa.4586.3.12, 2019 Apr 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716125

RESUMO

Six species of Bungona Harker, including three species of the subgenus Centroptella Braasch Soldán and three species of subgenus of Chopralla Waltz McCafferty, are reported from China. Of which, three new species, Bungona (Centroptella) ovata sp. nov., Bungona (Centroptella) quadrata sp. nov. and Bungona (Chopralla) bifida sp. nov., are described based on nymphal materials. In addition, Bungona (Chopralla) liebenauae (Soldán, Braasch Muu, 1987) that was previously known only from Vietnam is newly recorded in China. An identification key to Bungona species known from Oriental Region is presented.


Assuntos
Ephemeroptera , Animais , China , Ninfa , Vietnã
13.
Zootaxa ; 4586(1): zootaxa.4586.1.9, 2019 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716148

RESUMO

A new species belonging to the subgenus Isonychia, of the genus Isonychia Eaton, 1871, is described based on larvae and imagoes collected from Moyar River, Nilgiri District, Tamil Nadu, India. The imagoes of I. moyarensis n. sp. can be distinguished from other described Oriental species of Isonychia (Isonychia) by the combination of characters: (i) forewing with rusty brown maculae in the costal, subcostal, and median areas; (ii) femur and tibia brown, fore leg pale, apices of tarsal segments brownish; (iii) males with distal angles of penes rounded, without serrations; (iv) second segment of gonostylus uniformly convex; and (v) sterna of tenth abdominal segment in female deeply cleft. Isonychia (Isonychia) moyarensis n. sp. can be distinguished in the larval stage from other known Oriental species by the following combination of characters: (i) abdominal terga II-IX with median dark brown maculae progressively larger with dark brown slanting streaks in lateral margins; (ii) trachea of abdominal gills I-VII unbranched; (iii) posterolateral projections on abdominal segments I-VII blunt and progressively longer than those of segments VIII-IX, sharp and distinct; and (iv) abdominal terga X pale yellow in anterior ⅓, and dark brown in the posterior ⅔. A key to the known larvae of Oriental species of Isonychia is also provided.


Assuntos
Ephemeroptera , Animais , Feminino , Brânquias , Índia , Insetos , Larva , Masculino
14.
Zootaxa ; 4585(2): zootaxa.4585.2.13, 2019 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716178

RESUMO

The nymphal stages of Tricorythodes pemonensis n. comb. and T. zagaia n.comb. are firstly described. The nymphal characters as well as the characteristic swelling at the base of second forceps segment in male imago justify moving them from Macunahyphes to Tricorythodes. Additionally, other three species described in Macunahyphes are also transferred to Tricorythodes: Tricorythodes araca (Souto Salles) new comb., Tricorythodes eduardoi (Almeida Mariano) new comb., and Tricorythodes incognitus (Molineri et al.) new comb. Macunahyphes australis is the only species that remains in the genus.


Assuntos
Ephemeroptera , Heterópteros , Animais , Colômbia , Masculino , Ninfa
15.
Zootaxa ; 4623(1): zootaxa.4623.1.8, 2019 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716278

RESUMO

The detailed morphology and phylogenetic positon of Parafronurus youi Zhou Braasch, 2003 have not been discussed especially so far. In this study, we re-describe and illustrate all stages in more detail. Compared to other genera in the subfamily Ecdyonurinae, the nymph of P. youi is characterized by rounded supracoxal spurs, rounded rectangular head capsule, dense setae on dorsal side of labrum, simple proximal and distal dentisetae, primarily swimming setae of caudal filaments. Upon the latter two characters, this genus seems closer to Asian Rhithrogeniella Ulmer, 1939.


Assuntos
Ephemeroptera , Animais , Ninfa , Filogenia , Natação
16.
Zootaxa ; 4619(1): zootaxa.4619.1.12, 2019 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716324

RESUMO

A new species of Traverella Edmunds (Ephemeroptera: Leptophlebiidae) is described based on male imagoes from the state of Maranhão, northeastern Brazil. The main characteristics that distinguish the new species from the other species are: 1) subgenital plate forming two lateral, broad projections with two fine, long spines dorsally recurved; 2) penis lobe triangular and apically rounded, with a small ventral projection at apex and a ventral longspine slightly curved and directed to midline.


Assuntos
Ephemeroptera , Animais , Brasil , Masculino
17.
Zootaxa ; 4565(4): zootaxa.4565.4.8, 2019 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716456

RESUMO

A new mayfly species, Choroterpes (Euthraulus) kalladaensis sp. n. is described based on nymphs and subimagoes from South India. The nymph of Choroterpes (Euthraulus) kalladaensis sp. n. is characterized by a labrum with antero-median emargination well broad and 'V' shaped, femora with two black spots on median and basal region, claw with 2 sections of 13 denticles with 3 smaller serrations, posteriolateral spines present on segment 2-9, paraprocts smooth with pores and their inner margin with small triangular spines and outer margin with long setae and in the subimago the fore wing has four intercalary veins between costa and subcosta, penis lobes are short, membranous, separated apically and covered with minute setae. Taxonomic notes are given to distinguish this new species from closely related species.


Assuntos
Ephemeroptera , Animais , Índia , Masculino , Ninfa , Coluna Vertebral
18.
Zootaxa ; 4565(2): zootaxa.4565.2.5, 2019 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716478

RESUMO

Two new species of the genus Thraulodes Ulmer are described from the Brazilian Atlantic rainforest and Caatinga biomes from the state of Bahia, northeastern Brazil. Thraulodes catoles sp. nov. is described based on the male imago and can be distinguished from all other congeners by possessing the forewings with three cross veins basal to bullae; a reddish band on the apex of the foreleg femora; styliger plate with digitiform dorsal extension and penes with an apicolateral "ear", long spines, lapel on inner margin and lateral pouch present. Thraulodes calori sp. nov. is described based on male and female imagos and can be diagnosed by the three weak cross veins basal to bullae on forewings; the apex of styliger plate rounded without medial projection with lateral margins acuminated; and the penes short, wide and without lateral pouch. The key to Thraulodes from Brazil was updated to include the new species described for the genus.


Assuntos
Ephemeroptera , Animais , Brasil , Ecossistema , Feminino , Membro Anterior , Masculino , Floresta Úmida
19.
Zootaxa ; 4564(2): zootaxa.4564.2.11, 2019 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716510

RESUMO

Larva, subimago, imago and eggs of Guajirolus ektrapeloglossa Flowers 1985 are described based on reared males and females from the type locality in Panama and a reared female from Peru. Structure and development of male genitals testify that the Neotropical taxon Guajirolus/g1 (incl. Chane) does not belong to Labiobaetini Kluge Novikova 2016 and, therefore, is not related to the Afrotropical genus Pseudopannota Waltz McCafferty 1987. At the same time, larvae of Guajirolus have striking similarity with that of Pseudopannota. The existent descriptions of Guajirolus nanus Lugo-Ortiz McCafferty 1995, G. queremba Nieto 2003 and G. flowersi Thomas Dominique (in Thomas, Dominique Orth) 2005 do not contain characters allowing to distinguish them from G. ektrapeloglossa. Thus, new synonymy is proposed: G. ektrapeloglossa (= G. nanus syn. n.; G. queremba syn. n.; G. flowersi syn. n.). Among the characters described as species-specific for Guajirolus rondoni Salles 2007, only the shape of labial palps allows to distinguish it from G. ektrapeloglossa.


Assuntos
Ephemeroptera , Distribuição Animal , Estruturas Animais , Animais , Feminino , Flores , Masculino , Óvulo , Panamá , Peru
20.
Zootaxa ; 4668(1): zootaxa.4668.1.2, 2019 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716637

RESUMO

A new genus of Leptophlebiidae has been established to accommodate two morphospecies, previously known only from nymphs and assigned to the Australian genus Nousia (subgenus Australonousia).  The genus Deanophlebia is established for the species: Deanophlebia kala (Harker) (comb nov.) and Deanophlebia radsjoshi (sp. nov.), both of which were first found in the alpine regions of New South Wales but with a range which extends into East Gippsland in Victoria. The genus can be distinguished from Nousia by the consistently larger size of both the imagos and nymphs. Furthermore, fore and hind wing venation and genitalia morphology are characteristic in the imago as is mouthpart morphology in the nymph. Differences between Deanophlebia and Nousia are defined and discussed and differences between the subgenera of Nousia are re-defined.


Assuntos
Ephemeroptera , Animais , Austrália , Genitália , New South Wales , Ninfa
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