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1.
Vaccimonitor (La Habana, Print) ; 28(3)sept.-dic. 2019. graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1094629

RESUMO

El tétanos es causado por Clostridium tetani, bacteria Gram+ esporulada que produce una potente neurotoxina. Las vacunas parenterales producen IgG antitoxina tetánica (anti TT) protectores en múltiples dosis inductoras y de reactivación; vax-TET® es una vacuna cubana parenteral adsorbida en alúmina. La IgAS (secretora), principal anticuerpo protector mucoso, sólo es inducida por la vía mucosa. La vía oral, la inducción de IgA y su papel protector no han sido exploradas. SinTimVaS se aplica por vía mucosa y parenteral simultánea que induce IgG sistémica similares a la vía parenteral y adiciona de respuesta de IgA mucosa. Evaluamos el efecto de vax-TET® aplicado en SinTimVaS en ratones Balb/c y exploramos la influencia del adyuvante sobre la inducción de IgA anti TT. SinTimVaS indujo similares respuestas de IgG anti TT séricas que dos dosis de vax-TET® intramusculares; pero superiores a una dosis. Tres dosis de vax-TET® orales no indujeron IgG anti TT sérica, mientras que la adyuvación con el adyuvante Finlay Cocleato 1 (AFCo1) sí la indujeron. No se logró determinar la inducción de IgA anti TT mucosa con ninguna de las formulaciones adjuvadas con alúmina; pero si con la formulación AFCo1+TT. Podemos concluir que vax-TET® en SinTimVaS funcionó de forma similar a la inmunización parenteral establecida, por lo que sería posible reducir los esquemas multidosis con formulaciones de adyuvantes más potentes y se confirma que se requieren potentes adyuvantes para inducir IgA mucosa(AU)


Tetanus is caused by Clostridium tetani, a sporulated Gram+ bacterium that produces a potent neurotoxin. Parenteral vaccines produce protective tetanus antitoxin (anti TT) IgG in multiple induction and reactivation doses; vax-TET® is a Cuban parenteral vaccine adsorbed onto alumina. IgAS (secretory), the main mucosal protective antibody, is only induced by the mucous membrane. The oral route, the induction of IgA and its protective role have not been explored. SinTimVaS is applied by simultaneous mucosal and parenteral route that induces systemic IgG similar to the parenteral route and adds an IgA mucosal response. We evaluated the effect of vax-TET® applied in SinTimVaS in Balb/c mice and we explored the influence of adjuvant on the induction of anti-TT IgA. SinTimVaS induced similar serum anti TT IgG responses to two intramuscular doses of vax-TET®; but higher than one dose. Three doses of oral vax-TET® did not induce serum anti-TT IgG, whereas adjuvanted with adjuvant Finlay Cocleate 1 (AFCo1) did induce it. It was not possible to determine the IgA anti-TT mucous induction with any of the formulations adjuvanted with alumina; but with the formulation AFCo1 + TT it was induced. We can conclude that vax-TET® in SinTimVaS worked in a similar way to the established parenteral immunization, so it would be possible to reduce the multi-dose vaccination schemes with more potent adjuvant formulations and it is confirmed that powerful adjuvants are required to induce mucosal IgA(AU)


Assuntos
Vacinas contra Difteria, Tétano e Coqueluche Acelular/imunologia , Medicamentos de Referência , Vacinas , Epidemiologia Experimental , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Longitudinais , Cuba
2.
Prensa méd. argent ; 105(10): 710-719, oct 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1026043

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of group life sills training on the life expectancy and psychological well-being of female students under the auspices of Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz. The population of the present study consisted of all female students under the auspices of Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz in 2016-17. The sample included 50 students who obtained the lowest scores in the Snyder's Life Expectancy Scale and Ryff's Psychological Well-being Scale. They were randomly assigned to experimental group and control group. This semi-experimental design consisted of a pre-test, post-test and follow-up. Firstly, both groups responded to the research tools, and then the experimental group received 13 sessions life skills training, each session 90 minutes (one session per week), while the control group did not receive any intervention. Once the intervention was over, both groups responded to the research tools and the follow-up test was performed one month after the post-test on both groups. The findings were analyzed using MANCOVA. The results showed that life skills training increased life expectancy and psychological well-being in experimental group compared to control group. According to the results, life skills training could be used to increase the life expectancy and psychological well-being of girls


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Seguridade Social/psicologia , Efetividade , Grupos Controle , Epidemiologia Experimental , Análise Multivariada , Análise de Variância , Seguimentos , Expectativa de Vida/tendências , Tutoria
3.
Prensa méd. argent ; 105(10): 720-726, oct 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1026049

RESUMO

The present study aims to investigate the effect of teaching Problem Solving in groups on the procrastination of male high school students in the city Larestan. This experimental research has used pretest-posttest with a one-month follow-up and there has been a control group involved. The statistical population of this study includes all of the male high school freshmen of the city Lar. In total, a number of 455 male students filled out the procrastination questionnaire. Among the respondents, 30 students with the highest procrastination score were selected as the samples of this study. The experimental group participated in 8 90-minute sessions and they were taught how to solve problems. On the other hand, the control group was not taught anything in this regard. At the end of all of the eight sessions the pretest was performed. Then, after a month, the questionnaires were distributed among the selected students for a follow up. The statistical data was analyzed using descriptive statistic, analysis of covariance and a second measurement. The results showed that there is a significant difference between the procrastination scores in the posttest after eliminating the effect of the pretest. It can be concluded that teaching both time management and problem solving to students significantly affects their procrastination


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Resolução de Problemas , Estudantes , Efetividade , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Epidemiologia Experimental , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Interpretação Estatística de Dados , Seguimentos , Procrastinação
4.
Prensa méd. argent ; 105(10): 736-744, oct 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1026066

RESUMO

Background and objective: Occupational exposure makes healthcare provider at risk of a variety of infections such as AIDS, Hepatitis B, and Hepatitis C. This study investigated the effect of educational intervention on standardized precautionary behaviors in healthcare provider based on health belief model, in Jam city, Iran during 2016. Methods: This experimental study was carried out on Tohid hospital staff and health care provider of Jam`s health center. Random stratified sampling based on different occupation designated into two groups, intervention (n=50) and control (n=50). After confirming the validity and reliability of the data collection tool, the educational intervention was examined before and after the intervention. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistical methods, independent t-test and one-way ANOVA (SPSS 20). Results: The results revealed that the healthcare provider did not have any previous educational background on standardized precautionary (34.3%). Furthermore, the history of needle stick injuries (42.5%) and contact with patients' body fluids (17.5%) were reported. Educational intervention regarding to standardized precautions in the intervention group was significantly increased the mean score of knowledge constructs, perceived sensitivity, perceived severity, perceived benefits, perceived barriers and behaviors. However, no significant changes were observed in increasing the self-efficacy the score. Conclusion: The results indicate the effectiveness of educational intervention on standard precautionsamong healthcare provider based on health belief model. Educational program based on promotion behavioral pattern in relation to standard precautionsis recommended to the healthcare provider


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Efetividade , Amostragem Estratificada , Epidemiologia Experimental , Coleta de Dados/classificação , Análise de Variância , Pessoal de Saúde , Modelos Educacionais , Comunicação , Precaução
5.
Arch. Clin. Psychiatry (Impr.) ; 46(5): 115-119, Sept.-Oct. 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1054908

RESUMO

Abstract Background Contextual factors involving the physical and social environment, as well as personal factors, are closely related to functional status, and they can have positive or negative influences on the health conditions or status of an individual in society. Objectives The objective is to evaluate the effect of a mindfulness-based intervention program on functional status and mindfulness levels in primary health care (PHC) professionals in Ribeirão Preto, Brazil. Methods This is a quasi-experimental study, with 26 PHC professionals, using quantitative methods and an analytical before and after approach of an 8-week mindfulness program. Results There were significant differences in mindfulness facets after the intervention: Observe (p = 0.002); Describe - positive formulation (p = 0.01); Acting with awareness - automatic pilot (p = 0.01) and distraction (p = 0.05); Nonreactivity (p = 0.0005); Nonjudgement (p = 0.01); and in total mindfulness scores (p = 0.0000018). Regarding functional status, significant differences were found: change in health (p = 0.01), overall health (p = 0.007), quality of life (p = 0.04) and feelings (p = 0.01). Discussion The results in improving the functional status and mindfulness of PHC professionals show that mindfulness practices can improve the worker's quality of life and health.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Atenção Plena/métodos , Promoção da Saúde , Dor/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Meio Social , Apoio Social , Atividades Cotidianas/psicologia , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Aptidão Física/psicologia , Epidemiologia Experimental , Inquéritos e Questionários , Saúde do Trabalhador , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Emoções
6.
Prensa méd. argent ; 105(9 especial): 509-520, oct 2019. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1046361

RESUMO

This paper is devoted to the pressing issue of obtaining professional education by persons with disabilities and limited health capacities in the inclusive context, which is a factor in their successful socialization. Adaptation to studying at a higher education institution is a difficult task for many students with special educational needs. The purpose of the experimental study is to look into the characteristics of adaptation to the educational process of a pedagogical university in undergraduate students with disabilities and limited health capacities, to identify the reasons for their under-performance in educational activities and to develop recommendations for overcoming them in the process of educational and methodological support. The object of the study is the process of educational adaptation of students with disabilities and limited health capacities at university. The obtained data indicate the need for educational and methodological support for the education of students and the development of methodological recommendations for adaptation of educational material and teaching methods for students with disabilities and limited health capacities, which have, in turn, been performed by the authors. In view of the results of the analysis of scientific research on the problem of teaching people with disabilities and limited health capacities at higher education institutions, as well as the features of self-organization of students of this category that have been identified during the experiment, it is necessary to build educational and methodological support for the educational process that would take these features into account. The recommendations developed by the authors regarding the adaptation of educational material and teaching methods for students and their implementation in the development of appropriate teaching material by university teachers in collaboration with specialists of the university resource teaching and methodological center will contribute to the development of self-organization skills in people with disabilities and limited health capacities and will ensure the activation of academic activity among such students, which will create the necessary conditions for their successful education.


Assuntos
Humanos , Ensino de Recuperação , Estudantes , Materiais de Ensino , Epidemiologia Experimental , Pessoas com Deficiência/educação , Adaptação , Educação Superior , Instituições de Ensino Superior
7.
Rev. bras. ativ. fís. saúde ; 24: 1-7, out. 2019. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1047133

RESUMO

O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a influência da caminhada em variáveis cognitivas e antropométricas de mulheres idosas. Foram recrutadas 30 mulheres destreinadas, sem doenças neurodegenerativas, com média de idade de 64,40 ± 3,71 anos, divididas por conveniência em grupo de intervenção (n = 16) e controle (n = 14). O grupo de intervenção foi submetido à prática de jogos desportivos, caminhada e alongamento, em ambientes abertos, durante três meses, duas vezes por semana. O grupo controle não participou de nenhum programa de atividade física. Antes e após a intervenção, todas as idosas foram submetidas aos testes Códigos WAIS-III, Color Trail Test (CTT-A e CTT-B), e medidas de massa corporal e estatura (determinação do índice de massa corporal ­ IMC), circunferência da cintura e do quadril (razão cintura-quadril ­ RCQ). O grupo de intervenção melhorou o desempenho no teste Códigos WAIS-III (Δ = 8,68; IC95%: 6,7; 10,7) e reduziu os tempos de execução dos testes CTT-A (Δ = -7,94; IC95%: -13,1; -2,8) e CTT-B (Δ = -18,59; IC95%: -31,4; -5,8). As modificações do grupo controle não foram estatisticamente significativas (p > 0,05). Conclui-se que a prática de caminhada pode melhorar habilidades cognitivas de mulheres idosas destreinadas


The aim of this study wastoverify the influence of walking on cognitive and anthropometric variables of older women. Thirty untrained women without neurodegenerative diseases were recruited, with mean age of 64.40 ± 3.71 years, divided for convenience in intervention (n = 16) and control (n = 14) groups. The intervention group played outdoor activities, such as sports, walking, and stretching for three months, twice a week. The control group was not engaged in any physical activity program. All volunteers were submitted to the Codes WAIS-III, Color Trail Test (CTT-A and CTT-B), Body Mass, Body Mass Index (BMI) and Waist-Hip Ratio (WHR) tests at baseline and after the study period. The intervention group improved performance of the Codes WAIS-III (Δ = 8.68; CI95%: 6.7; 10.7) and reduced the execution time of CTT-A (Δ = -7.94; CI95%: - 13.1; -2.8) and CTT-B (Δ = -18.59; CI95%: 31.4; -5.8). Changes in the control group were not statistically significant (p > 0,05). We showed that walking improves cognitive abilities of untrained elderly women


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Adulto , Envelhecimento , Epidemiologia Experimental , Cognição , Psicologia do Esporte , Atividade Motora
8.
Rev. Soc. Cardiol. Estado de Säo Paulo ; 29(3 Supl): 297-301, jul.-set. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1023096

RESUMO

A endocardite infecciosa (EI) corresponde a uma infecção microbiana do endocárdio com presença de coágulo de plaquetas e fibrina em seu interior. Quando é de origem periodontal, a Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (Aa) é a bactéria mais relacionada com a ocorrência dessa doença. Foi avaliada a presença de Aa em gengivites e periodontites de pacientes hospitalizados e sua associação na predisposição à EI. Métodos: Realizou-se a sondagem periodontal em 15 pacientes de um hospital de Itajaí, SC com gengivites e periodontites, entre 18 a 75 anos de idade, de ambos os sexos, considerados em risco de EI. Usou-se um dente de cada paciente como amostra, coletado em cones de papel esterilizado, transferência em recipientes e processamento no laboratório. As amostras foram homogeneizadas e alíquotas de 0,1 ml foram semeadas em duplicata em placas de ágar sangue, incubadas por cinco dias em microaerofilia a 37 O C. Depois da visualização das colônias bacterianas características, foram realizadas provas bioquímicas e reação de catalase. O diagnóstico de EI foi realizado seguindo os critérios de Duke modificado. Conclusão: Não houve incidência de pacientes com risco de EI relacionada com presença da Aa nos participantes avaliados


Objective: Infective endocarditis (IE) corresponds to a microbial infection of the endocardium with the presence of platelet and fibrin clotting in its interior. When it is of periodontal origin, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (Aa) is the bacterium most often related to the occurrence of this disease. The presence of Aa in the gingivitis and periodontitis of hospitalized patients and its association with predisposition to IE were evaluated. Methods: Periodontal probing was performed in 15 patients with gingivitis and periodontitis, aged 18 and 75 years, of both genders, and considered at risk for IE at a hospital in Itajaí ­ SC. One tooth of each patient was used for the sample, which was collected in cones of sterilized paper, transferred in containers, and processed in the laboratory. The samples were homogenized and aliquots of 0.1 ml were seeded in duplicate in blood agar plates, incubated for five days in microaerophylia at 37ºC. Following visualization of characteristic bacterial colonies, biochemical and catalase reaction tests were conducted. The diagnosis of IE was performed following the modified Duke criteria. Conclusion: There was no incidence of patients at risk of IE related to the presence of Aa in the participants evaluated


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans , Endocardite , Infecções , Doenças Periodontais , Periodontite/diagnóstico , Streptococcus , Bactérias , Fatores Sexuais , Epidemiologia Experimental , Fatores Etários , Gengivite/diagnóstico , Microbiologia
9.
Rev. chil. nutr ; 46(3): 303-307, jun. 2019. graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1003708

RESUMO

RESUMEN El objetivo del estudio fue determinar el efecto nefroprotector del extracto de camu camu en un modelo de nefrotoxicidad inducida por la gentamicina. Estudio de tipo experimental formado por 50 ratas Sprague Dawley que se dividieron aleatoriamente en cinco grupos de estudio: Al grupo control se le administró la solución salina, al grupo gentamicina se le indujo la nefrotoxicidad y a los grupos experimentales 1, 2 y 3 se les protegió con el extracto alcohólico de camu camu a diferentes dosis. La actividad nefroprotectora se evaluó por la cuantificación de la creatinina sérica, el peso y análisis histopatológico de los riñones. Los resultados evidenciaron una disminución significativa del nivel de creatinina en los grupos protegidos con el extracto alcohólico de camu camu con respecto al grupo gentamicina (p<0,05). Los grupos que recibieron camu camu presentaron un aumento gradual del peso de los riñones en una relación directa a la dosis del extracto (p<0,05). El análisis histológico evidenció pérdida epitelial, infiltrado inflamatorio intenso y congestión vascular en el grupo gentamicina, mientras que los grupos que recibieron camu camu con el extracto disminuyeron la gravedad del daño. Se concluye que el extracto de camu camu presentó una actividad nefroprotectora significativa en un modelo de nefrotoxicidad inducida por gentamicina.


ABSTRACT The aim of the study was to determine the nephroprotective effect of camu camu extract on a gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity model. The study design was experimental using 50 Sprague Dawley rats randomly allocated into 1 of 5 five groups: a control group that was administered a saline solution, a gentamicin group in which nephrotoxicity was induced and experimental groups 1, 2 and 3 that were provided different doses of Camu Camu alcoholic extract. Nephroprotective activity was evaluated via quantification of seric creatinine, histopathological analysis and weighing of the kidneys. Results showed a significant decrease in creatinine levels between the group administered camu camu alcoholic extract and the gentamicin group (p<0.05). Groups who received camu camu presented a gradual increase in kidneys weight which corresponded directly to the extract dose (p<0.05). The histopathological analysis showed epithelial loss, intense inflammatory infiltrate and vascular congestion in the gentamicin group, while the groups who received the extract had a lower level of damage. Camu Camu extract provided a significant nephroprotective activity on a gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity model.


Assuntos
Animais , Ácido Ascórbico , Ratos , Extratos Vegetais , Gentamicinas , Nefrologia , Epidemiologia Experimental
10.
Prensa méd. argent ; 105(5): 309-316, jun 2019. tab, fig
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1024643

RESUMO

Ulcerative colitis is an idiopathic chronic inflammatory disease of the colon for which a lot of treatment modalities are present. However, significant side effects are associated with them, and there is a need for a search for other tretment options. This study was aimed to assess the contribution of niclosamide in experimentally established colitis in rats. Animals were categorized into 5 groups; the control group undergoes no induction of UC, colitis group in which UC was induced, and animals receive no treatment, the niclosamide group that received niclosamide and sulfasalazine group that received sulfasalazine. Each group was composed of 10 animals. After the completion of a one-month period of the experiment animals were sacrificed and the following meausres were done: the weight of the colon, determination of the area of mucosal damage by mm2, histological scoring after hematoxylin and eosin stain together with MAC score and immunohistochemistry of IL-6, TNF-alpha, MPO, MDA, CD62, and ICAM1. The results of the current study revealed that Nicosamide was able to reduce the area of mucosal damage, colon weight, histological and Mac scores and immunohistochemical scores of inflammatory and oxidative markers, significantly when contrasted to a group of colitis (P< 0.05). It has been concluded that Niclosamide was proved to have a significant effect as an adjuvant mode of therapy for colitis through its, anti-inflamatory and anti-oxidant effects (AU)


Assuntos
Ratos , Sulfassalazina/uso terapêutico , Colite Ulcerativa/terapia , Efeito Secundário , Avaliação de Resultado de Intervenções Terapêuticas , Epidemiologia Experimental , Tempo para o Tratamento , Abate de Animais , Niclosamida/uso terapêutico
11.
J. Health NPEPS ; 4(1): 123-131, jan.-jun. 2019. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-999651

RESUMO

Objetivo: comparar a avaliação antropométrica e fatores motivacionais de praticantes de hidroginástica e caminhada. Método: pesquisa quase experimental, sem grupo controle e de cunho quantitativo, realizada em Guarapuava, Paraná. Analisou-se o IMC, porcentagem de gordura, circunferências, relação cintura quadril, teste de força com preensão manual e teste de flexibilidade com o banco de wells. Aplicou-se também, o questionário de motivação (IMPRAF-54). Após a coleta de dados, foi realizada a análise estatística através do teste T, comparando as medidas entre os grupos. Resultados: foi observado que a motivação mais prevalente para praticar as atividades físicas foi o fator saúde. Na avaliação antropométrica, as praticantes de hidroginástica possuíam índices superiores. Nos testes de força e flexibilidade as praticantes de hidroginástica apresentaram maior força em membros superiores, enquanto que as praticantes de caminhada maios flexibilidade em membros inferiores. Conclusão: a hidroginástica possui benefícios extras em comparação à caminhada e a motivação das participantes para praticar essas atividades físicas indica sua preocupação com a condição e qualidade de vida.(AU)


Objective: to compare the anthropometric evaluation and motivational factors of water aerobics and walking practitioners. Method: almost experimental research, with no control group and quantitative, performed in Guarapuava, Paraná. The BMI, fat percentage, circumference, waist hip ratio, strength test with manual grip and flexibility test with the wells bench were analyzed. The motivation questionnaire (IMPRAF-54) was also applied. After the data collection, the statistical analysis was performed through the T test, comparing the measurements between the groups. Results: it was observed that the most prevalent motivation to practice physical activities was the health factor. In the anthropometric evaluation, the hydrogymnastics practitioners had higher indices. In the tests of strength and flexibility, water aerobics practitioners showed greater strength in the upper limbs, whereas those who practice walking have greater flexibility in the lower limbs. Conclusion: water aerobics has extra benefits compared to walking and the motivation of the participants to practice these physical activities indicates their concern with the condition and quality of life.(AU)


Objetivo: comparar la evaluación antropométrica y factores motivacionales de practicantes de hidroginástica y caminar. Método: investigación casi experimental, sin grupo control y de cuño cuantitativo, realizada en Guarapuava, Paraná. Se analizó el IMC, porcentaje de grasa, circunferencias, relación cintura cadera, prueba de fuerza con asimiento manual y prueba de flexibilidad con el banco de wells. Se aplicó también el cuestionario de motivación (IMPRAF-54). Después de la recolección de datos, se realizó el análisis estadístico a través de la prueba T, comparando las medidas entre los grupos. Después de la recolección de datos, se realizó el análisis estadístico a través de la prueba T, comparando las medidas entre los grupos. Resultados: se observó que la motivación más prevalente para practicar las actividades físicas fue el factor salud. En la evaluación antropométrica, las practicantes de hidroginástica poseían índices superiores. En las pruebas de fuerza y flexibilidad las practicantes de hidroginástica presentaron mayor fuerza en miembros superiores, mientras que las practicantes de caminata maios flexibilidad en miembros inferiores. Conclusión: la hidroginástica posee beneficios extras en comparación con la caminata y la motivación de las participantes para practicar esas actividades físicas indica la preocupación por la condición y calidad de vida.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Antropometria/instrumentação , Caminhada/psicologia , Motivação , Estudos de Avaliação como Assunto , Epidemiologia Experimental
12.
J. Health NPEPS ; 4(1): 31-46, jan.-jun. 2019. graf, ilus
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-999641

RESUMO

Objetivo: avaliar os efeitos do canto na função respiratória, cardíaca e qualidade de vida em idosos institucionalizados. Método: pesquisa quase experimental e sem grupo controle, com a avaliação de 11 idosos institucionalizados no tempo 0 (pré aplicação) e no tempo 1 (pós aplicação) entre maio a agosto de 2017. As variáveis analisadas foram: função respiratória (capacidade inspiratória, obstrução das vias aéreas, expansibilidade torácica e saturação periférica de oxigênio), função cardíaca (pressão arterial e frequência cardíaca), função neurológica (mini exame do estado mental) e a qualidade de vida (escala de qualidade de vida de Flanagan). Resultados: houve melhora significativa na capacidade inspiratória (p= 0,001) e nos valores de obstrução das vias aéreas (p = 0,008). Conclusão: o canto é uma atividade coadjuvante no tratamento fisioterapêutico para mobilizar volumes, capacidades pulmonares e diminuir obstrução do fluxo aéreo atenuando os efeitos da senescência em idosos institucionalizados.(AU)


Objective: to evaluate the effects of singing in respiratory and cardiac functions and quality of life in institutionalized elderly. Method: almost experimental and non-control group, with the evaluation of 11 institutionalized elderly at time 0 (pre-application) and at time 1 (post application) between May and August 2017. The variables analyzed were respiratory function (inspiratory capacity, airway obstruction, thoracic expandability and peripheral oxygen saturation), cardiac function (blood pressure and heart rate), neurological function (mini mental status examination), and quality of life (quality of life scale of Flanagan). Results: there was a significant improvement in the respiratory capacity (p= 0,001) and airways obstruction values (p= 0,008). Conclusion: singing is a supporting activity in the physiotherapy treatment to mobilize volumes, pulmonary capacities and decrease airflow obstruction attenuating senescence's effects in institutionalized elderly.(AU)


Objetivo: evaluar los efectos del canto en la función respiratoria, cardiaca y calidad de vida en ancianos institucionalizados. Método: investigación casi experimental y sin grupo control, con la evaluación de 11 ancianos institucionalizados en el tiempo 0 (pre-aplicación) y en el tiempo 1 (post aplicación) entre mayo a agosto de 2017. Las variables analizadas fueron: función respiratoria (capacidad inspiratoria, obstrucción de las mismas las vías aéreas, la expansibilidad torácica y la saturación periférica de oxígeno), la función cardiaca (presión arterial y frecuencia cardíaca), la función neurológica (mini examen del estado mental) y la calidad de vida (escala de calidad de vida de Flanagan). Resultados: hubo una mejora significativa en la capacidad inspiratoria (p = 0,001) y en los valores de obstrucción de las vías aéreas (p = 0,008). Conclusión: el canto es una actividad coadyuvante en el tratamiento fisioterapéutico para movilizar volúmenes y capacidades pulmonares y disminuir obstrucción del flujo aéreo atenuando los efectos de la senescencia en ancianos institucionalizados.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Qualidade de Vida , Modalidades de Fisioterapia/instrumentação , Taxa Respiratória , Canto , Frequência Cardíaca , Instituição de Longa Permanência para Idosos , Epidemiologia Experimental
13.
Prensa méd. argent ; 105(4): 177-184, jun 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1026806

RESUMO

Recently, the problem of neurodegenerative diseases in the medical community has become increasingly relevant. This is due to many factors: from insufficiently studied mechanisms of development of some nosological units to low awareness of medical workers. Among neurodegenerative diseases in humans, prions constitute a very specific group, which are infectious protein particles with a unique morphological structure and capable of causing a number of incurable diseases. Despite years of research, no optimal remedy has yet been found to treat them. This review examines the already studied aspects of prion diseases as a class, including small historical background, features of ethiology, pathogenesis, course and outcome of the most common of them, as well as existing research on experimental methods of diagnostics, treatment and prevention of prion infections.


Assuntos
Humanos , Epidemiologia Experimental , Doença de Gerstmann-Straussler-Scheinker/terapia , Síndrome de Creutzfeldt-Jakob/terapia , Doenças Priônicas/prevenção & controle , Doenças Priônicas/terapia , Insônia Familiar Fatal/terapia , Kuru/terapia
14.
Prensa méd. argent ; 105(4): 235-245, jun 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1046188

RESUMO

The medical social significance of the arterial hypertension (AH) in the world is determined by its high prevalence, which allows to call it a non-infectious pandemic of today. The AH still remains the most common chronic disease that triggers the cardiovascular continuum, significantly reduces the body's adaptive capacity, worsens the living standards for people of socially minded age, and represents the leading global risk of increased cardiovascular mortality. The purpose of the study was comparison of informative value of various methods for measuring the arterial blood pressure (ABP) (office-based, home-based using electronic apps, and daily) in order to improve the risk assessment of the condition and monitoring the treatment efficiency for the AH patients. The method of qualitative and quantitative analysis of scientific literature and public online sources was used in the study. It has been established that the ABP analysis is an important tool to prevent the negative consequences of the AH. The results of the experimental study have revealed that hourly home-based ABP monitoring using a mobile electronic app is more informative than monitoring at long intervals, and provides information which is close to the average daily indicators obtained in the daily ABP monitoring.


Assuntos
Humanos , Estudos de Avaliação como Assunto/prevenção & controle , Estudos de Avaliação como Assunto/prevenção & controle , Doença Crônica/mortalidade , Epidemiologia Experimental , Resultado do Tratamento , Monitorização Ambulatorial da Pressão Arterial/métodos , Hipertensão/prevenção & controle , Hipertensão/terapia
15.
Rev. cienc. med. Pinar Rio ; 23(2): 212-223, mar.-abr. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1003757

RESUMO

Introducción: el etanol es un agente teratógeno cuyo consumo excesivo representa un importante problema de salud a nivel mundial. Objetivo: demostrar el papel protector del ácido fólico sobre el Sistema Nervioso Central y las dimensiones craneofaciales, en un biomodelo de intoxicación alcohólica prenatal en ratas Wistar. Métodos: estudio experimental con crías de tres grupos de ratas gestantes: sin intoxicación alcohólica; con 5 ml de etanol al 40 por ciento durante la gestación y con 5 ml de etanol al 40 por ciento más 200 µg/día de ácido fólico. Se evaluó en las crías la presencia de meningocele, encefalocele y microcefalia, y se midieron las dimensiones craneofaciales. Se utilizó la comparación de proporciones para muestras independientes, la prueba de Kruskal-Wallis y se estimó una asociación de riesgo estadísticamente significativa para un intervalo de confianza del Odds-Ratio que no contenga la unidad. Resultados: la suplementación con ácido fólico en ratas gestantes con intoxicación alcohólica, evitó en las crías la aparición de encefalocele, redujo la microcefalia, la disminución del diámetro biparietal y de la distancia entre los globos oculares, sin embargo, no logró evitar totalmente los daños en el Sistema Nervioso Central, ni impedir la disminución del diámetro anteroposterior ni de la distancia poro nasal-oreja. Conclusión: el biomodelo demostró el efecto tóxico del etanol y la protección del ácido fólico sobre el Sistema Nervioso Central y algunas dimensiones craneofaciales de las crías. Una dosis superior de ácido fólico a la utilizada en el experimento, pudiera ser recomendada para lograr una mayor protección de la descendencia(AU)


Introduction: ethanol is a teratogenic agent and its excessive consumption represents a major worldwide health problem. Objective: to demonstrate the protective role of folic acid on the Central Nervous System and craniofacial dimensions in a biomodel of prenatal alcohol intoxication in Wistar rats. Methods: an experimental study with offspring of three groups of pregnant rats: without alcohol intoxication; with 5 ml of 40 percent ethanol during gestation and with 5 ml of 40 percent ethanol plus 200 µg/day of folic acid. The presence of meningocele, encephalocele and microcephaly was evaluated in the offspring and the craniofacial dimensions were measured. The comparison of proportions for independent samples, the Kruskal-Wallis test and a statistically significant risk association was estimated for an Odds-Ratio confidence interval not containing the unit. Results: supplementation with folic acid in pregnant rats with alcohol intoxication prevented the onset of encephalocele of the offspring, reduce the microcephaly, diminution of the biparietal diameter and the distance between the eyeballs, however the damage of the Central Nervous System could not completely avoided, and not prevent the reduction of the anteroposterior diameter or the nasal-ear pore distance. Conclusion: the biomodel demonstrated the toxic effect of ethanol and the protection of folic acid on the Central Nervous System and some craniofacial dimensions of the offspring. A higher dose of folic acid, than the one used in the research, could be recommended to achieve a better protection of the offspring(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Gravidez , Ratos , Ácido Fólico/administração & dosagem , Epidemiologia Experimental , Ratos Wistar , Intoxicação Alcoólica/epidemiologia
16.
Rev. salud pública ; 21(2): 232-235, ene.-abr. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1094395

RESUMO

RESUMEN Objetivos Determinar efecto del consumo del extracto de quinua en anemia ferropénica inducida, en ratones. Material y Métodos Se utilizaron treinta ratones albinos M. musculus de la cepa Bal-b/c, machos de peso promedio 24±32,7 g. Se formó tres grupos de diez ratones cada uno: a) grupo control negativo hierro suficiente(HS),recibió 40g/d de alimento balanceado durante siete semanas; b)grupo control positivo hierro deficiente (HD), recibió 40g/d de dieta ferropénica durante siete semanas; y, c) grupo experimental hierro defi-ciente(HD), recibió 40g/d de dieta ferropénica durante siete semanas y a partir de la semana cinco se agregó 20g/d de extracto de quinua(EQ). Se midió el nivel de hemoglobina. Resultados Al finalizar el tratamiento, se observó diferencia significativa en los niveles de hemoglobina entre los grupos control positivo (8,9±1,1g/dL) HD y experimental (11,4±0,5 g/dL.) HD+EQ (t student, p<0,05). No se encontró diferencia significativa en los niveles de hemoglobina, al término del periodo de inducción entre los grupos control positivo (9,1±1,1) HD y experimental (9,3±0,7) HD (t student, p>0,05). Conclusiones En condiciones experimentales, la quinua presenta efecto antianémico, sustentado en los resultados de los niveles de hemoglobina.(AU)


ABSTRACT Objectives To determine the effect of quinoa extract consumption on iron deficiency-induced anemia in mice. Materials and Methods Thirty male M. musculus albino mice of the Balb/c strain, with an average weight of 24±32.7 g, were used. Three groups of ten mice each were formed: 1) a negative control group of iron-sufficient (IS) mice that received 40g/d of balanced feed for 7 weeks; 2) a positive control group of iron-deficient (ID) mice that received 40g/d of feed rich in iron for 7 weeks; and 3) an experimental group of ID mice that received 40 g/d of feed rich in iron for 7 weeks and 20 g/d of quinoa extract (QE) from week 5. Hemoglobin levels were measured. Results At the end of the treatment, a significant difference was found in hemoglobin levels between the positive (ID mice: 8.9±1.1 g/dL) and experimental (ID+QU mice: 11.4±0.5 g/dL) groups (student's t, p<0.05). No significant difference was found in hemoglobin levels at the end of the induction period between the positive (IS mice: 9.1±1.1) and experimental (ID mice: 9.3±0.7) groups (student's t, p>0.05). Conclusions Under experimental conditions, quinoa has an antianemic effect based on the results of hemoglobin levels.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Ratos , Hemoglobinas/análise , Anemia Ferropriva/induzido quimicamente , Chenopodium quinoa/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos Endogâmicos , Epidemiologia Experimental
18.
Vaccimonitor (La Habana, Print) ; 28(1)ene.-abr. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1094617

RESUMO

La meningitis meningocóccica continua siendo un problema de salud en diferentes países y para la prevención de esta enfermedad se han obtenido diferentes vacunas. La vacuna VA-MENGOC-BC® ha constituido ser eficaz y segura en la prevención de la meningitis meningocóccica contra los serogrupos B y C. Esta ha demostrado buena estabilidad en el tiempo sin cambiar su calidad como producto; fue conservada a estante durante 24 y 36 meses a temperaturas de 4 a 8 °C. Se evaluó su posible potencial toxicológico a través de un estudio de tolerancia local en ratas Sprague Dawley para extender su vida útil. Los animales inmunizados se observaron diariamente para evaluar síntomas locales y sistémicos de toxicidad. Se realizaron evaluaciones del peso corporal, consumo de agua y alimento, termometría, musculometría e irritabilidad dérmica por el método de Draize. Se realizaron estudios anatomopatológicos periódicos para observar posibles efectos adversos. No se observaron síntomas de toxicidad ni muertes. No se encontraron diferencias entre los grupos experimentales en cuanto al peso corporal, el consumo de agua y de alimentos, no se evidenció fiebre, ni irritabilidad local. Anatomopatológicamente a nivel del punto de inoculación se observaron procesos granulomatosos de tipo macrofágicos característicos en las vacunas que contienen hidróxido de aluminio. Estos resultados permitieron concluir que la vacuna VA-MENGOC-BC® que permaneció en estante durante 24 y 36 meses no evidenció efectos adversos locales, ni sistémicos en las ratas(AU)


Meningococcal meningitis continues to be a health problem in different countries and different vaccines have been obtained for the prevention of this disease. VA-MENGOC-BC® vaccine has been effective and safe in the prevention of meningococcal meningitis against serogroups B and C. This has shown good stability over time without changing its quality as a product; it was stored on a shelf for 24 and 36 months at temperatures of 4 to 8 °C. Their possible toxicological potential was evaluated through a local tolerance study in Sprague Dawley rats. Immunized animals were observed daily to evaluate local and systemic toxicity symptoms. Body weight, water and feed intake, thermometry, musculometry were performed and dermal irritability by the Draize method. Anatomopathological studies to observe possible adverse effects were made. No symptoms of toxicity or deaths were observed. No differences were found between the experimental groups in terms of body weight, water and food consumption, no fever or local irritability was evident. Anatomopathologically no lesions of diagnostic value were observed, at the site of inoculation, granulomatous processes of macrophagic type characteristic in vaccines containing aluminum hydroxide were observed. These results allowed us to conclude that the VA-MENGOC-BC® vaccine that remained on the shelf for 24 and 36 months did not show any local or systemic effects in rats(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Ratos , Vacinas Meningocócicas/uso terapêutico , Medicamentos de Referência , Meningite Meningocócica/prevenção & controle , Epidemiologia Experimental
19.
Rev. salud pública ; 21(2): 195-201, ene.-abr. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1094390

RESUMO

RESUMEN Objetivo Verificar los niveles de atenuación de dos tipos de protectores auditivos de copa bajo condiciones reales de operación. Métodos Se realizó un diseño experimental de medidas repetidas de los niveles de presión sonora al interior y exterior de los protectores auditivos, realizando mediciones de ruido bajo circunstancias habituales de trabajo para operadores de una planta de hidrocarburos. Posteriormente, se determinaron las diferencias entre los niveles de atenuación establecidos por el fabricante, los niveles de atenuación ajustados bajo el método recomendado por NIOSH y los niveles de atenuación obtenidos experimentalmente. Resultados Los valores de atenuación ofrecidos por los fabricantes difieren de los obtenidos experimentalmente, siendo estos últimos, menores en todos los casos del estudio. Los valores de atenuación de los protectores auditivos ajustados bajo el método NIOSH alcanzaron valores más cercanos a los experimentales. Conclusiones La variabilidad entre los valores de atenuación teóricos y experimentales, permiten establecer que las estimaciones de los niveles de atenuación obtenidos en condiciones controladas no consideran aspectos que en condiciones reales de uso afectan la eficiencia del protector auditivo. Este estudio plantea la necesidad de implementar programas integrales de protección auditiva, que permitan considerar variables asociadas a la eficacia del dispositivo en condiciones de uso, a través de la aplicación de pruebas de ajuste o en su defecto a través de la aplicación de los factores de ajuste sugeridos por NIOSH, con el fin de realizar una adecuada selección que permita alcanzar un control efectivo para el ruido.


ABSTRACT Objective To verify the attenuation levels of two types of earmuffs under real operating conditions. Materials and Methods A study with experimental design was carried out to obtain repeated measurements of the sound pressure levels inside and outside hearing protectors in a sample of workers of an oil and gas company working under normal process and exposure conditions. The results allowed determining differences between the attenuation levels established by the manufacturer, the adjusted attenuation levels under the NIOSH method, and the attenuation levels obtained experimentally. Results The attenuation values established by the manufacturers are lower than those ones obtained under actual use conditions in all cases evaluated. Likewise, the attenuation values of the hearing protectors, once adjusted under the NIOSH method, reached values much closer to those obtained experimentally. Conclusions The variability between theoretical attenuation values and experimental values allows concluding that the attenuation levels obtained under controlled laboratory conditions do not take into account certain characteristics that, based on their use, affect the efficiency of the hearing protection device. This study encourages the implementation of comprehensive hearing protection programs that consider variables such as hearing protection effectiveness, under real use conditions, by applying fit tests or other adjustment factors like the one suggested by NIOSH. This would ensure an adequate selection that aims at achieving an effective control of this risk factor.


RESUMO Objetivo Verifique os níveis de atenuação de dois tipos de protetores auriculares em condições reais de operação. Métodos Foi realizado um projeto experimental de medições repetidas dos níveis de pressão sonora dentro e fora dos protetores auditivos, fazendo medições de ruído em condições normais de trabalho para operadores de uma usina de hidrocarbonetos. Posteriormente, foram determinadas as diferenças entre os níveis de atenuação estabelecidos pelo fabricante, os níveis de atenuação ajustados pelo método recomendado pelo NIOSH e os níveis de atenuação obtidos experimentalmente. Resultados Os valores de atenuação oferecidos pelos fabricantes diferem daqueles obtidos experimentalmente, sendo este último menor em todos os casos do estudo. Os valores de atenuação dos protetores auditivos ajustados pelo método NIOSH atingiram valores mais próximos aos experimentais. Conclusões A variabilidade entre os valores de atenuação teórica e experimental permite estabelecer que as estimativas dos níveis de atenuação obtidos em condições controladas não consideram aspectos que, em condições reais de uso, afetam a eficiência do protetor auditivo. Este estudo levanta a necessidade de implementar programas abrangentes de proteção auditiva que permitam considerar variáveis associadas à efetividade do dispositivo em condições de uso, através da aplicação de testes de adaptação ou, na sua falta, através da aplicação de ajuste sugerido pelo NIOSH, a fim de fazer uma seleção adequada para obter um controle eficaz do ruído.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Exposição Ocupacional/normas , Dispositivos de Proteção das Orelhas/normas , Dosímetros de Radiação , Ruído Ocupacional/prevenção & controle , Epidemiologia Experimental , Medição de Ruído/métodos
20.
Mediciego ; 25(1)mar.2019.
Artigo em Espanhol | CUMED | ID: cum-72264

RESUMO

Introducción: debido a la práctica de relaciones homosexuales en los establecimientos penitenciarios, la sífilis se convierte en un problema de salud en estas instituciones.Objetivo: evaluar la utilidad de una intervención educativa para modificar el nivel de conocimientos sobre la sífilis en los internos del Establecimiento Penitenciario Provincial de Ciego de Ávila.Método: se realizó un estudio preexperimental de tipo antes y después, sin grupo control, entre enero y diciembre de 2017. El universo estuvo constituido por los 1 000 internos de la institución. De ellos, fueron seleccionados 39 mediante muestreo no probabilístico. En la primera etapa, según casos críticos, se eligieron 13 internos promotores de salud, uno de cada destacamento y estos, en una segunda etapa, en cascada, eligieron dos informantes clave. En el análisis de las variables sociodemográficas se utilizaron la media y la desviación estándar, y para medir la respuesta de la intervención, las pruebas estadísticas de McNemar y los rangos con signo de Wilcoxon.Resultados: más de la mitad de los internos tenían un nivel educacional medio superior (69,23 por ciento) con una media de edad de 38,40 años. El nivel de conocimientos global se incrementó desde 22,82 por ciento con un nivel adecuado antes de la intervención, hasta 66,67 por ciento luego de aplicada, con diferencias significativas. La totalidad de participantes manifestó que la intervención le resultó agradable e instructiva.Conclusiones: se demostró la utilidad de la intervención educativa al mejorar el nivel de conocimientos sobre la sífilis en los internos seleccionados(AU)


Introduction: due to the practice of homosexual relationships in penitentiary establishments, syphilis becomes a health problem in these institutions.Objective: to evaluate the usefulness of an educational intervention to modify the level of knowledge about syphilis in the inmates of the Provincial Penitentiary Establishment of Ciego de Ávila.Method: a pre-experimental study of the before and after type, without a control group, was carried out between January and December 2017. The universe consisted of the 1 000 inmates of the institution. Of these, 39 were selected by non-probabilistic sampling. In the first stage, according to critical cases, 13 internal health promoters were selected, one from each detachment and these, in a second stage, in cascade, chose two key informants. In the analysis of the sociodemographic variables, the mean and the standard deviation were used, and to measure the response of the intervention, the McNemar statistical tests and ranges with Wilcoxon sign.Results: more than half of the inmates had a higher educational level (69,23 percent) with an average age of 38,40 years. The level of global knowledge increased from 22,82 percent with an adequate level before the intervention, up to 66,67 percent after applied, with significant differences. All participants said that the intervention was pleasant and instructive.Conclusions: the usefulness of the educational intervention was demonstrated by improving the level of knowledge about syphilis in the selected inmates(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Promoção da Saúde , Prisões , Sífilis/prevenção & controle , Epidemiologia Experimental
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