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1.
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu ; 48(4): 545-559, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31601334

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction(real-time RT-PCR) assay based on Taqman and phylogenetic tree were developed for detecting hepatitis E virus in swine feces of pig farms from several provinces and city. METHODS: Designing prime and probe refering to HEV genotype sequences of Genbank, we developed a Taqman-based real-time RT-PCR assay and nested RT-PCR according to HEV conserved domain after optimizing reaction system, then detected the prevalence of HEV infection of pig farms. RESULTS: The sensitivity of the real-time RT-PCR assay established in this experiment was 19. 9 copies/µL, the amplification efficiency was 92. 9%-109. 1%, there was no cross reaction with Sapovirus, Norovirus and Hepatitis A. A total of 342 samples of swine feces were detected. There were two hundred and ten positive samples, and positive rate was 61. 4%. The positive rate of before-fattening was 56. 6%, and after-fattening was 66. 9%. The positive rate of before and after fattening samples had statistical difference(χ~2=24. 8, P<0. 05). The genotype identification system determined that the positive strains isolated in this study were HEV-4 type, and three subtypes of 4 b, 4 d and 4 h were detected. CONCLUSION: The pig farms of several provinces and city are contaminated by HEV extensively. The genotypes of the isolated strains are all HEV-4 type. The infection rate and infection subtype of pigs in different provinces and cities are different.


Assuntos
Fezes/virologia , Vírus da Hepatite E , Epidemiologia Molecular , Animais , Genótipo , Hepatite E , Filogenia , RNA Viral , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Transcrição Reversa , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(40): e17269, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31577718

RESUMO

This study examined the characteristics of norovirus (NoV) gastroenteritis associated with convulsions in children and its molecular epidemiology. From July 2006 through December 2015, NoV infection was confirmed by the genome detection using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Viral genotyping with strain validation was achieved using sequence analyses with Basic Local Alignment Search Tool genome identification. The patients' clinical features were assessed retrospectively, focusing on convulsive disorders. The diagnosis of encephalitis followed the International Encephalitis Consortium. Seizures occurred in 52 (20.9%) of 249 NoV infections. GII.4 Den_Haag_2006b (n = 22, 42.3%) and GII.4 Sydney 2012 (n = 10, 19.2%) were major variants correlated with convulsions. Patient with convulsions tend to have GII.4 genotype infection (P < .001), short vomiting (≤2 days) (P < .001), and no fever (P = .002). Compared to GII.4 Den_Haag_2006b, the GII.4 Sydney 2012-associated convulsions had similar manifestations except without significant winter preponderance (P = .049). The NoV infection with convulsions had less febrile course, specific genotype (GII.4) infections, and with shorter symptom of vomiting. Continuous surveillance is important for uncommon disease associated with emerging NoV strain infections. The prevention of NoV diseases requires the development of vaccines targeting highly virulent variants.


Assuntos
Infecções por Caliciviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Caliciviridae/genética , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Convulsões/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Encefalite/epidemiologia , Feminino , Febre/epidemiologia , Gastroenterite/virologia , Genótipo , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Epidemiologia Molecular , RNA Viral/genética , Estudos Retrospectivos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Estações do Ano , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Taiwan/epidemiologia
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31522664

RESUMO

From 1 January to 31 December 2017, 36 institutions around Australia participated in the Australian Enterococcal Sepsis Outcome Programme (AESOP). The aim of AESOP 2017 was to determine the proportion of enterococcal bacteraemia isolates in Australia that were antimicrobial resistant, and to characterise the molecular epidemiology of the E. faecium isolates. Of the 1,137 unique episodes of bacteraemia investigated, 95.2% were caused by either E. faecalis (52.9%) or E. faecium (42.3%). Ampicillin resistance was not detected in E. faecalis but in 89.6% of E. faecium. Vancomycin non-susceptibility was reported in 0.3% and 47.0% of E. faecalis and E. faecium respectively. Overall 50.9% of E. faecium harboured vanA or vanB genes. For the vanA/B positive E. faecium isolates, 49.6% harboured vanB genes and 49.2% vanA genes; 1.2% harboured vanA and vanB genes. The percentage of E. faecium bacteraemia isolates resistant to vancomycin in Australia is significantly higher than that seen in most European countries. E. faecium consisted of 76 multilocus sequence types (STs) of which 77% of isolates were classified into nine major STs containing ten or more isolates. All major STs belong to clonal cluster (CC) 17, a major hospital-adapted polyclonal E. faecium cluster. Seven of the nine predominant STs (ST80, ST1421, ST17, ST296, ST555, ST203 and ST18) were found across most regions of Australia. The most predominant clone was ST17 which was identified in all regions except the Australian Capital Territory, the Northern Territory and Tasmania. Overall 60.7% of isolates belonging to the nine predominant STs harboured vanA or vanB genes. The AESOP 2017 has shown enterococcal bacteraemias in Australia are frequently caused by polyclonal ampicillin-resistant high-level gentamicin resistant vanA or vanB E. faecium which have limited treatment options.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Bacteriemia/epidemiologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Enterococcus/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Austrália/epidemiologia , Bacteriemia/microbiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Enterococcus/classificação , Enterococcus/genética , Enterococcus faecalis/classificação , Enterococcus faecalis/efeitos dos fármacos , Enterococcus faecalis/genética , Enterococcus faecium/classificação , Enterococcus faecium/efeitos dos fármacos , Enterococcus faecium/genética , Feminino , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/microbiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Epidemiologia Molecular , Adulto Jovem
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31522665

RESUMO

From 1 January to 31 December 2017, 36 institutions around Australia participated in the Australian Staphylococcus aureus Sepsis Outcome Programme (ASSOP). The aim of ASSOP 2017 was to determine the proportion of Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia (SAB) isolates in Australia that are antimicrobial resistant, with particular emphasis on susceptibility to methicillin and to characterise the molecular epidemiology of the methicillin-resistant isolates. A total of 2,515 S. aureus bacteraemia episodes were reported, of which 77% were community-onset. Approximately one in five S. aureus (19.0%) were methicillin resistant. The 30-day all-cause mortality associated with methicillin-resistant SAB was 18.7% which was significantly higher than the 14.0% mortality associated with methicillin-susceptible SAB. With the exception of the ß-lactams and erythromycin, antimicrobial resistance in methicillin-susceptible S. aureus was rare. However in addition to the ß-lactams approximately 42% of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) were resistant to erythromycin and ciprofloxacin and approximately 14% resistant to co-trimoxazole, tetracycline and gentamicin. When applying the EUCAST breakpoints teicoplanin resistance was detected in five S. aureus isolates. Resistance was not detected for vancomycin and linezolid. Resistance to non-beta-lactam antimicrobials was largely attributable to two healthcare-associated MRSA clones: ST22-IV [2B] (EMRSA-15) and ST239-III [3A] (Aus-2/3 EMRSA). ST22-IV [2B] (EMRSA-15) is the predominant healthcare-associated clone in Australia. Seventy-five percent of methicillin-resistant SAB were due to community-associated clones. Although polyclonal approximately 74% of community-associated clones were characterised as ST93-IV [2B] (Queensland CA-MRSA), ST5-IV [2B], ST45-VT [5C2&5] and ST1-IV [2B]. CA-MRSA, in particular the ST45-VT [5C2&5] clone has acquired multiple antimicrobial resistance determinants including ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, clindamycin, gentamicin and tetracycline. ST45-VT [5C2&5] accounted for 12.8% of CA-MRSA. As CA-MRSA is well established in the Australian community it is important antimicrobial resistance patterns in community- and healthcare-associated SAB is monitored as this information will guide therapeutic practices in treating S. aureus sepsis.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Bacteriemia/epidemiologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Infecções Estafilocócicas/epidemiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Austrália/epidemiologia , Bacteriemia/microbiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/epidemiologia , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/microbiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/efeitos dos fármacos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Epidemiologia Molecular , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Adulto Jovem
5.
J Med Microbiol ; 68(10): 1540-1543, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31483245

RESUMO

Four group A streptococcus (GAS) bacteraemia occurred in a small burn unit within 2 weeks. The GAS patient isolates, characterized as emm89, shared the same PFGE pulsotype with two other strains isolated 2 months later. The outbreak investigation revealed that a nurse was the most likely source of GAS transmission, as she was confirmed to carry the same outbreak strain in her throat and had direct and regular contact with the six outbreak patients in the unit. The outbreak was controlled after the nurse had undergone eradication treatment. This report highlights the emergence of the emm89 clone and its capacity to elicit invasive GAS outbreaks.


Assuntos
Unidades de Queimados/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecção Hospitalar/microbiologia , Infecções Estreptocócicas/microbiologia , Streptococcus pyogenes/isolamento & purificação , Adulto , Bacteriemia/epidemiologia , Bacteriemia/microbiologia , Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa/genética , Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa/metabolismo , Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Epidemiologia Molecular , Infecções Estreptocócicas/epidemiologia , Streptococcus pyogenes/classificação , Streptococcus pyogenes/genética , Tunísia , Adulto Jovem
6.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 678, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31370804

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fecal colonization with carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) is a risk factor for bacterial translocation resulting in subsequent endogenous infections. The purpose of this study is to investigate the prevalence of CRE strains colonization in stool samples of outpatient in a tertiary pediatric hospital of Shanghai, China. METHODS: In a retrospective study, fecal samples were consecutively obtained from patients in 2016 and screening test for CRE was conducted by using home-made MacConkey agar. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined by the broth microdilution method and ß-lactamases were characterized by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays and DNA sequencing. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was performed for the genetic relationships of the isolates. RESULTS: A total of 880 fecal samples were included for this screening test and 32 CRE strains were identified in 32 non-duplicate fecal samples from 32 children (1.3 ± 1.5 years), with a carriage rate of 3.6%. These strains mainly distributed in Klebsiella pnuemoniae (37.5%) and Escherichia coli (37.5%). All CRE strains showed high resistance to most of the routinely used antibiotics (> 90%) except for polymyxin B and tigecycline. The blaNDM gene was the major carbapenemase gene harbored by gastrointestinal CRE strains, followed by blaKPC-2, blaIMP-26, and blaIMP-4. Other ß-Lactamase genes including blaCTX-M, blaSHV, blaTEM-1, and blaDHA-1 were also detected. MLST analysis revealed that various sequence types (STs) were detected in these strains, with ST11 and ST37 being more prevalent in K.pneumoniae and ST101 in E.coli. CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed the prevalence of CRE fecal carriage in children from outpatient and urgent implementation of infection control measure should be conducted to limit the spread of CRE strains.


Assuntos
Enterobacteriáceas Resistentes a Carbapenêmicos/genética , Enterobacteriáceas Resistentes a Carbapenêmicos/patogenicidade , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/epidemiologia , Fezes/microbiologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Enterobacteriáceas Resistentes a Carbapenêmicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/microbiologia , Escherichia coli/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Klebsiella pneumoniae/efeitos dos fármacos , Klebsiella pneumoniae/isolamento & purificação , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Epidemiologia Molecular , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , Pacientes Ambulatoriais/estatística & dados numéricos , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , beta-Lactamases/genética
8.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 736, 2019 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31438883

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Noroviruses (NoVs) are considered an important cause of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) across all age groups, especially in children under 5 years of age. We investigated the epidemiology of noroviruses in outpatient children from the Children's Hospital of Fudan University in Shanghai, China. METHODS: Stool specimens were collected between January 2012 and December 2017 from 1433 children under 5 years of age with acute gastroenteritis. All samples were analysed by conventional reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for genogroup II NoVs amplifying both the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) and partial capsid genes. The Norovirus Genotyping Tool v.2.0 ( https://www.rivm.nl/mpf/typingtool/norovirus/ ) was used for genotyping the strains, and phylogenetic analyses were conducted by MEGA 6.0. RESULTS: From 2012 to 2017, GII NoVs were detected in 15.4% (220/1433) of the samples, with the highest detection rate in children aged 7-12 months (19.2%, 143/746). The seasons with the highest prevalence of GII NoVs infection were autumn and winter. Based on genetic analysis of RdRp, GII.Pe (74.5%%, 137/184) was the most predominant RdRp genotype from 2013 to 2017, while GII.P4 played a dominant role in 2012 (55.6%, 21/36). Among the capsid genotypes, the most prevalent NoV genotype from 2012 to 2017 was GII.4 (74.1%, 163/220). On the basis of genetic analysis of RdRp and capsid sequences, the strains were clustered into - 19 RdRp/capsid genotypes, and 12 of them were discordant, such as GII.Pe/GII.4-Sydney_2012, GII.P12/GII.3, GII.P7/GII.6, GII.Pe/GII.3, and GII.P16/GII.2. Starting with 2013, GII.Pe/GII.4-Sydney_2012 had completely replaced the pandemic GII.P4-2006b/GII.4-2006b subtype and was detected in children across all age groups. CONCLUSIONS: The present study shows high detection rates and the genetic diversity of circulating NoV GII genotypes in paediatric AGE samples from Shanghai. The findings emphasize the importance of continuous molecular surveillance of emerging NoV strains.


Assuntos
Infecções por Caliciviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Caliciviridae/virologia , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Gastroenterite/virologia , Variação Genética , Norovirus/classificação , Norovirus/genética , Doença Aguda , Proteínas do Capsídeo/genética , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Gastroenterite/patologia , Genótipo , Hospitais Pediátricos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Epidemiologia Molecular , Norovirus/isolamento & purificação , Filogenia , Prevalência , Estações do Ano
9.
Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz ; 114: e190074, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31460570

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) infections in hepatitis B virus (HBV) carriers are the most severe form of viral hepatitis. HDV prevalence is high in the Brazilian Amazon, but studies in other regions of the country are still scarce and often underestimated its prevalence by including a small numbers of individuals. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine the serological prevalence of hepatitis D, the genotypes circulating and to evaluate the associated risk factors for acquisition of HDV in Minas Gerais state, Brazil. METHODS: We screened plasma samples (n = 498) from HBV chronic carriers for anti-HD antibodies using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit. For those samples that were positive for anti-HD antibodies, we performed a reverse transcriptase (RT) nested-polymerase chain reaction (nested-PCR) in order to detect the viral genome and identify the viral genotypes circulating in the state. FINDINGS: The prevalence was 6.22% (31/498). Blood transfusion was the only risk factor associated with HDV infection [risk ratio: 3.73; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.44 to 9.65]. For 26 anti-HD positive patients, HDAg gene sequences were determined and in all patients HDV genotype 1 was found. CONCLUSIONS: This study confirmed the circulation of HDV in Minas Gerais, an area previously considered non-endemic for hepatitis D in Brazil. The prevalence found in this study is much higher when compared to other studies performed in Brazil, probably because the population in our study was selected with minimal bias. Furthermore, in 26 anti-HD positive plasma samples, we were also able to detect the viral genome, indicating that these patients were experienced an active infection at the time of sample collection. These findings emphasise the importance of anti-HD testing in HBV infected individuals, which may contribute to this disease control in Brazil.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite/sangue , Hepatite B Crônica/epidemiologia , Hepatite D/epidemiologia , Vírus Delta da Hepatite , RNA Viral/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Genótipo , Hepatite B Crônica/complicações , Hepatite D/complicações , Hepatite D/diagnóstico , Vírus Delta da Hepatite/genética , Vírus Delta da Hepatite/imunologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Epidemiologia Molecular , Filogenia , Prevalência , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
10.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 52: e20190095, 2019 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31340369

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Staphylococcus aureus is a major nosocomial pathogen that is associated with high virulence and the rapid development of drug resistance. METHODS: We analyzed and compared the antimicrobial resistance, virulence profiles, and molecular epidemiology of 67 S. aureus strains, including 36 methicillin-sensitive (MSSA) and 31 methicillin-resistant (MRSA) strains recovered from a public hospital located in south-eastern Brazil. RESULTS: The clones circulating in this hospital presented a great diversity, and the majority of the strains were related to clones responsible for causing worldwide epidemics: these included USA100 (New York/Japan clone), USA300, and USA600. The 31 MRSA (22 SCCmecII and 9 SCCmecIV) and 36 MSSA strains exhibited low resistance against gentamicin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. No MRSA strain showed resistance to tetracycline. Virulence gene carriage was more diverse and abundant in MSSA than in MRSA. Of the evaluated adhesion-related genes, ebpS was the most prevalent in both MSSA and MRSA strains. The genes bbp and cna showed a strong association with MSSA strains. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings reinforce the idea that MSSA and MRSA strains should be carefully monitored, owing to their high pathogenic potential.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Resistência a Meticilina , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/genética , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus/genética , Fatores de Virulência/genética , Brasil/epidemiologia , Hospitais Públicos , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Epidemiologia Molecular , Infecções Estafilocócicas/epidemiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/classificação , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Virulência/genética
11.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1140: 743-751, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31347082

RESUMO

The formation of DNA adducts is considered essential for tumor initiation. Quantification of DNA adducts may be achieved by various techniques of which LC-MS/MS-based multiple reaction monitoring has become the most prominent in the past decade. Adducts of single nucleosides are analyzed following enzymatic break-down of a DNA sample following adduct enrichment usually by solid-phase extraction. LC-MS/MS quantification is carried out using stable isotope-labeled internal reference substances. An upcoming challenge is the use of DNA adducts as biomarkers either for internal exposure to electrophilic genotoxins or for the approximation of cancer risk. Here we review recent studies in which DNA adducts were quantified by LC-MS/MS in DNA samples from human matrices. We outline a possible way for future research to aim at the development of an 'adductome' approach for the characterization of DNA adduct spectra in human tissues. The DNA adduct spectrum reflects the inner exposure of an individual's tissue to electrophilic metabolites and, therefore, should replace the conventional and inaccurate external exposure in epidemiological studies in the future.


Assuntos
Adutos de DNA , Neoplasias/genética , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Cromatografia Líquida , Humanos , Epidemiologia Molecular
12.
Prev Vet Med ; 169: 104696, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31311632

RESUMO

Canine babesiosis is a serious disease among tick-borne haemoprotozoan diseases, globally. The present study was envisaged for carrying out thorough investigation of the disease among working dogs of organised kennels situated in different agro-climatic zones of India as comprehensive understanding of the disease from this country was pertinently lacking. During the study period of three years (2012-2014), 330 dogs suspected for babesiosis were examined for clinicopathology by their physical examination, haematological and biochemical parameters estimation, while the detection of apicomplexan parasites was confirmed by using various diagnostic techniques i.e. by conventional microscopy, by two different Babesia specific 18S rRNA based PCR protocols (conventional/simple PCR and nested PCR assays) followed by sequencing of obtained PCR amplicons for Babsesia spp. identification. Out of 330 clinical cases screened 5.15% (17/330), 9.09% (30/330) and 15.45% (51/330) were found to be positive in microscopic examination, simple- and nested- PCR assay, respectively. Comparative statistical analyses of these diagnostic assay results revealed that significant difference exists among the three diagnostic methodologies and thus it is recommended that the nested PCR technique be relied upon as a screening molecular assay and also for epidemiological studies of the disease in this country. Phylogenetic analysis based on 18S rRNA depicted the monophyletic nature and clonal expansion among all the B. gibsoni, under study. Sequencing results of PCR amplicons revealed that B. gibsoni has predominantly established itself over B. vogeli as former was incriminated in 47 cases while latter was confirmed in only four animals. Based on the clinical severity, these 51 affected animals were classified into three main groups' of 17 animals each viz., apparently healthy-, simple or uncomplicated babesiosis- and atypical or complicated babesiosis- group. Haematological and biochemical profiling of these dogs confirmed the characteristics findings of infection by both the Babesia spp. It was observed that the infection by small form of Babesia (B. gibsoni) is posing a significant therapeutic challenge and chemosterilization by commonly prescribed anti-protozoal drugs was not achieved as clinical relapses were often observed. The clinical signs, sequence based confirmation and severity of the infection suggested that there is a positive selection of B. gibsoni (smaller form) over B. vogeli (larger form) in this country and raises serious concerns as prognosis in former is considered to be poor compared to latter. Thus, these findings have opened new paradigms for planning of pragmatic control strategies against this emerging canine health problem.


Assuntos
Babesia/genética , Babesiose/epidemiologia , Babesiose/genética , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/genética , Animais , Babesia/isolamento & purificação , Babesiose/sangue , Babesiose/patologia , Doenças do Cão/sangue , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , Feminino , Abrigo para Animais , Índia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Epidemiologia Molecular , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico/veterinária , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
13.
J Med Microbiol ; 68(9): 1373-1382, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31329097

RESUMO

Introduction. Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is dysbiosis associated with an increased risk of several sexually transmitted infections. It is primarily diagnosed via Gram staining, although molecular analyses have presented higher diagnostic accuracy.Aim. This study aimed to evaluate the molecular epidemiology of BV in asymptomatic women to determine its association with several commensal and pathogenic micro-organisms of the genitalia.Methodology. The prevalence of BV was investigated through semiquantitative assessment of 201 women recruited during their routine gynaecological inspection at an outpatient clinic in Tabasco, Mexico.Results. Women with BV showed an increased prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis (P=0.021) and Mycoplasma hominis (P=0.001). Of the BV-associated micro-organisms, Gardnerella vaginalis was significantly associated with C. trachomatis (P=0.005) and/or Ureaplasma parvum (P=0.003), whereas Atopobium vaginae and Megasphaera type 1 correlated significantly with Mycoplasma hominis (P=0.001). No significant association was observed between human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and BV, although there was increased prevalence of HPV59, HPV73, HPV52 and HPV58 in women displaying cervical cytological abnormalities.Conclusion. Identification of BV-associated micro-organisms via molecular analysis may help to distinguish recurrent cases from new infections and identify micro-organisms potentially associated with pharmacological resistance.


Assuntos
Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Genitália Feminina/microbiologia , Epidemiologia Molecular , Vaginose Bacteriana/epidemiologia , Vaginose Bacteriana/microbiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Doenças Assintomáticas , Bactérias/genética , Feminino , Genitália Feminina/virologia , Humanos , México/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Papillomaviridae/classificação , Papillomaviridae/isolamento & purificação , Prevalência , Adulto Jovem
14.
J Med Microbiol ; 68(9): 1383-1390, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31347997

RESUMO

Introduction. In 2016-2017, there was an increase in the number of paediatric invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) cases caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 12F in Chiba Prefecture, Japan. Serotype 12F is one of the major causative serotypes of IPD following the introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine 13 (PCV13), and outbreaks of IPD caused by serotype 12F have recently been reported in several countries.Aim. Our goal here was to clarify the relationship among local outbreak strains and the outbreak strains in other countries, and for this we analysed clinical isolates of S. pneumoniae serotype 12F using several genetic identification methods.Methodology. All reported IPD cases caused by serotype 12F were reviewed and bacterial strains were collected and analysed. We also analysed S. pneumoniae serotype 12F strains isolated from other time periods, geographical areas, cases of adult IPD and respiratory specimens as control strains. Multi-locus sequence typing, PFGE and multi-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) were conducted on all isolates.Results. All 26 S. pneumoniae serotype 12F isolates, including control strains, belonged to a single sequence type (ST4846) that was the specific ST in Japan. All tested strains demonstrated five MLVA patterns and two PFGE patterns.Conclusion. We determined that the 2016-2017 outbreak of IPD in Chiba Prefecture was caused by clonally related isolates of serotype 12F. The continuous monitoring of IPD caused by serotype 12F is important for evaluating the impact of re-emerging pneumococcal serotypes following the PCV13 introduction era, and MLVA could be a useful tool for identification of outbreak strains.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças , Infecções Pneumocócicas/epidemiologia , Infecções Pneumocócicas/microbiologia , Sorogrupo , Streptococcus pneumoniae/classificação , Streptococcus pneumoniae/isolamento & purificação , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Eletroforese em Gel de Campo Pulsado , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Repetições Minissatélites , Epidemiologia Molecular , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , Streptococcus pneumoniae/genética
15.
Arch Virol ; 164(10): 2565-2571, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31321585

RESUMO

Enteroviruses (EVs) are the major cause of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) and herpangina in children. In this study, we conducted a molecular investigation of EVs in throat swab samples from children in Hangzhou, China with a diagnosis of HFMD or herpangina. EVs were detected using one-step real-time RT-PCR, and their serotypes were determined based on partial VP1 gene sequences. The molecular typing results revealed the presence of six different EV serotypes in HFMD cases, including coxsackievirus (CV) A16 (20/30, 66.7%), CVA4 (3/30, 10.0%), CVA6 (3/30, 10.0%), EVA71 (2/30, 6.7%), CVB4 (1/30, 3.3%), and CVB5 (1/30, 3.3%). Eleven different EV serotypes were detected in herpangina cases, among which CVA4 was the most frequently detected serotype (105/170, 61.8%), followed by CVA16 (30/170, 17.6%), CVB4 (9/170, 5.3%), CVA6 (6/170, 3.5%), CVB3 (5/170, 2.9%), CVA10 (3/170, 1.8%), EVA71 (4/170, 2.4%), Echo9 (3/170, 1.8%), CVA9 (2/170, 1.2%), CVB1 (3/170, 1.8%) and CVA5 (1/170, 0.6%). The nucleotide sequence identity of EV strains from the same subtype ranged from 80.7% to 100%, and most of the EVs were closely related to virus strains found in Australia and mainland China. In conclusion, CVA 16 and CVA 4 were the main serotypes causing HFMD and herpangina, respectively, in children in Hangzhou in 2016. Most of these EVs were closely related to virus strains from Australia and mainland China.


Assuntos
Enterovirus/classificação , Enterovirus/isolamento & purificação , Doença de Mão, Pé e Boca/epidemiologia , Doença de Mão, Pé e Boca/virologia , Herpangina/epidemiologia , Herpangina/virologia , Sorogrupo , Proteínas do Capsídeo/genética , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Enterovirus/genética , Enterovirus/imunologia , Feminino , Variação Genética , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Epidemiologia Molecular , Tipagem Molecular , Faringe/virologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Análise de Sequência de DNA
16.
Pol J Microbiol ; 68(2): 165-171, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31257789

RESUMO

Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is caused by various serotypes of Enterovirus genus. Coxsackievirus A16 (CV-A16) and enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) were known to be the only responsible agents for these epidemics; however, this opinion was challenged after the detection that coxsackievirus A6 (CV-A6) was the responsible species for the outbreak in Finland in 2008. HFMD is frequently seen in Turkey, and no detailed study on its clinical and microbiological epidemiology has previously been reported. The present study addresses this question. Twenty-seven patient samples collected between 2015 and 2017 were included in the study. Typing was conducted by RT-PCR and the sequencing applied directly to patient's samples and as well as to the viral cultures with pan-enterovirus and serotype-specific primers. The presence of Enterovirus in 12 of 27 HFMD samples was shown with RT-PCR. The causative agent for three of these 12 samples was CV-A16, one of the most frequent two serotypes around the world, and the remaining nine samples was CV-A6. The findings of the study are relevant since it pertains to the molecular epidemiology of HFMD in Turkey, a gateway country where different serotypes might be circulating and transmitted. The findings also support the notion that CV-A6 cases are rising in number, which has caused more severe clinical features and widespread rashes in recent outbreaks.Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is caused by various serotypes of Enterovirus genus. Coxsackievirus A16 (CV-A16) and enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) were known to be the only responsible agents for these epidemics; however, this opinion was challenged after the detection that coxsackievirus A6 (CV-A6) was the responsible species for the outbreak in Finland in 2008. HFMD is frequently seen in Turkey, and no detailed study on its clinical and microbiological epidemiology has previously been reported. The present study addresses this question. Twenty-seven patient samples collected between 2015 and 2017 were included in the study. Typing was conducted by RT-PCR and the sequencing applied directly to patient's samples and as well as to the viral cultures with pan-enterovirus and serotype-specific primers. The presence of Enterovirus in 12 of 27 HFMD samples was shown with RT-PCR. The causative agent for three of these 12 samples was CV-A16, one of the most frequent two serotypes around the world, and the remaining nine samples was CV-A6. The findings of the study are relevant since it pertains to the molecular epidemiology of HFMD in Turkey, a gateway country where different serotypes might be circulating and transmitted. The findings also support the notion that CV-A6 cases are rising in number, which has caused more severe clinical features and widespread rashes in recent outbreaks.


Assuntos
Enterovirus Humano B/isolamento & purificação , Doença de Mão, Pé e Boca/epidemiologia , Doença de Mão, Pé e Boca/virologia , Epidemiologia Molecular/métodos , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Cercopithecus aethiops , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Enterovirus Humano B/classificação , Enterovirus Humano B/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Tipagem Molecular , Turquia/epidemiologia , Células Vero
17.
Arch Virol ; 164(10): 2515-2518, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31270608

RESUMO

Data on natural HEV infection of infection in monkeys are limited. We report a case of hepatitis E virus genotype 4 infection in captive non-human primates (cynomolgus monkeys) imported from Vietnam. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that HEV infection was not the result of spillover from single source of infection, but rather the persistent circulation of HEV-4 among cynomolgus monkeys or multiple infections by related strains from a human or swine reservoir.


Assuntos
Vírus da Hepatite E/isolamento & purificação , Hepatite E/veterinária , Macaca fascicularis , Doenças dos Macacos/virologia , Animais , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa , Genótipo , Hepatite E/transmissão , Hepatite E/virologia , Vírus da Hepatite E/classificação , Vírus da Hepatite E/genética , Epidemiologia Molecular , Doenças dos Macacos/transmissão , Filogenia , Vietnã
18.
Arch Virol ; 164(10): 2435-2449, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31273470

RESUMO

A total of 472 samples from domestic pigs collected in China from 2015 to 2018 were tested for the presence of porcine circovirus types 2 and 3 (PCV2 and PCV3, respectively) by conventional polymerase chain reaction analysis. The prevalence of PCV2, PCV3, and PCV2/3 co-infection was 50.0%, 13.3%, and 6.78%, respectively. The complete genomic sequences of 66 PCV2 isolates and four PCV3 isolates were determined. Based phylogenetic analysis, the PCV2 isolates were assigned to three genotypes, PCV2a, PCV2b, and PCV2d, representing 13.6% (9/66), 25.8% (17/66), and 60.6% (40/66) of the total, respectively. All four PCV3 isolates shared a high degree of similarity in their complete nucleotide sequences (98.8-99.8% identity) and ORF2 amino acid sequences (98.6-99.5% identity). These results indicate that all three PCV2 genotypes (PCV2a, PCV2b, and PCV2d) are present on pig farms and that PCV2d has become the predominant genotype. The predicted amino acid sequences of the four PCV3 isolates indicated that PCV3-CN-JL53/PCV3-CN-LN56, PCV3-CN-HLJ3, and PCV3-CN-0710, belonged to the genotypes PCV3a, PCV3b, and PCV3a-IM, respectively. In view of the great harm that PCV2 causes to the pig industry, the epidemic trend of PCV3 should continue to be closely monitored. This study provides information about the prevalence, genetic diversity, and molecular epidemiology of PCV2 and PCV3 in China from 2015 to 2018.


Assuntos
Infecções por Circoviridae/veterinária , Circovirus/classificação , Circovirus/isolamento & purificação , Variação Genética , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Infecções por Circoviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Circoviridae/virologia , Circovirus/genética , Fazendas , Genótipo , Epidemiologia Molecular , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Prevalência , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Homologia de Sequência do Ácido Nucleico , Sus scrofa , Suínos
19.
Arch Virol ; 164(10): 2531-2536, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31300890

RESUMO

Whilst bovine leukemia virus (BLV) causes considerable economic losses to the dairy industry worldwide, information on its molecular epidemiology and economic impact in beef cattle is limited. Here, blood from 880 animals from Zambia's major cattle-rearing provinces was screened for BLV by nested PCR. Positive pools were sequenced and phylogenetically analyzed. The estimated pooled prevalence was 2.1%. All strains belonged to genotype 1 and formed a distinct phylogenetic cluster. The study suggests circulation of genotype 1 BLV in beef cattle in these regions. This is the first report on molecular detection and characterization of BLV from beef cattle in Africa.


Assuntos
Leucose Enzoótica Bovina/epidemiologia , Leucose Enzoótica Bovina/virologia , Genótipo , Vírus da Leucemia Bovina/genética , Vírus da Leucemia Bovina/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Bovinos , Vírus da Leucemia Bovina/classificação , Epidemiologia Molecular , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Prevalência , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Zâmbia/epidemiologia
20.
J Med Microbiol ; 68(9): 1320-1323, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31329091

RESUMO

The recent increase in pertussis cases observed in some countries may have several causes, including the evolution of Bordetella pertussis populations towards escape of vaccine-induced immunity. Most genomic studies of B. pertussis isolates performed so far are from countries that use acellular vaccines. The objective was to analyse genomic sequences of isolates collected during the 2014 whooping cough epidemic in Tunisia, a country where whole-cell vaccines are used. Ten Tunisian isolates and four vaccine strains were sequenced and compared to 169 isolates from countries where acellular vaccines are used. Phylogenetic analysis showed that Tunisian isolates are diverse, demonstrating a multi-strain 2014 epidemic peak, and are intermixed with those circulating in other world regions, showing inter-country transmission. Consistently, Tunisian isolates have antigen variant composition observed in other world regions. No pertactin-deficient strain was observed. The Tunisian B. pertussis population appears to be largely connected with populations from other countries.


Assuntos
Bordetella pertussis/genética , Variação Genética , Genoma Bacteriano/genética , Filogenia , Coqueluche/microbiologia , Antígenos de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa/genética , Bordetella pertussis/classificação , Bordetella pertussis/imunologia , Bordetella pertussis/isolamento & purificação , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Epidemiologia Molecular , Vacina contra Coqueluche/administração & dosagem , Vacina contra Coqueluche/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Tunísia/epidemiologia , Virulência/genética , Fatores de Virulência de Bordetella/genética , Coqueluche/epidemiologia , Coqueluche/transmissão
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