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1.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4940, 2020 10 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33009411

RESUMO

The HUSH complex represses retroviruses, transposons and genes to maintain the integrity of vertebrate genomes. HUSH regulates deposition of the epigenetic mark H3K9me3, but how its three core subunits - TASOR, MPP8 and Periphilin - contribute to assembly and targeting of the complex remains unknown. Here, we define the biochemical basis of HUSH assembly and find that its modular architecture resembles the yeast RNA-induced transcriptional silencing complex. TASOR, the central HUSH subunit, associates with RNA processing components. TASOR is required for H3K9me3 deposition over LINE-1 repeats and repetitive exons in transcribed genes. In the context of previous studies, this suggests that an RNA intermediate is important for HUSH activity. We dissect the TASOR and MPP8 domains necessary for transgene repression. Structure-function analyses reveal TASOR bears a catalytically-inactive PARP domain necessary for targeted H3K9me3 deposition. We conclude that TASOR is a multifunctional pseudo-PARP that directs HUSH assembly and epigenetic regulation of repetitive genomic targets.


Assuntos
Elementos de DNA Transponíveis/genética , Epigênese Genética , Complexos Multiproteicos/metabolismo , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Antígenos de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Sítios de Ligação , Éxons/genética , Genoma , Células HEK293 , Células HeLa , Histonas/metabolismo , Humanos , Lisina/metabolismo , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Metilação , NAD/metabolismo , Proteínas Nucleares/química , Fosfoproteínas/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica , Domínios Proteicos , RNA/metabolismo , Processamento Pós-Transcricional do RNA , Transcrição Genética
2.
Hua Xi Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 38(5): 583-588, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33085246

RESUMO

Epigenetics refers to a steady change in the level of gene expression caused by non-DNA sequence changes. Microbes can modulate host inflammation through epigenetic pathways to evade or expend immune responses. As an important part of human microbes, oral bacteria also have various epigenetic regulation mechanisms to affect host inflammatory responses. This article reviews the common pathways of epigenetic regulation in microbe infection and the regulation of host epigenetics by using oral microbes to provide a reference for the study of epigenetic-related mechanisms in oral diseases.


Assuntos
Epigênese Genética , Doenças da Boca , Bactérias , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Inflamação/genética
3.
Ann Agric Environ Med ; 27(3): 335-342, 2020 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32955211

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE: Psoriasis isa quite common, chronic and immune-mediated skin disorder. The prevalence of psoriasis differs in various countries, but it is said to affect 2% of the world's population in general. Psoriasis has many different clinical features but all lesions have the same characteristic: erythema, thickening and scale, although other clinical features are also connected, such as psoriatic arthritis, obesity and metabolic syndrome. All of these may lead to conditions impairing the quality of life. This review is an attempt to summarize recent data regarding environmental factors, together with epigenetic markers and processes playing an important role in psoriasis. STATE OF KNOWLEDGE: Many different environmental factors play a role in genetically predisposed patients. This is causes epigenetic alternations which may be a linking part in the whole process. Many studies have indicated a connection between psoriasis and various genes and antigens. The presence of HLA-Cw6 is common as well a strong link between its presence and the onset of psoriasis being observed. The main alternations are DNA methylation, histone's modifications and the role of microRNA. Excessive reaction is usually not present without a triggering factor. Environmental factors are mostly rated, such as drugs, life style and habits (smoking, alcohol), diet, physical trauma (skin injury provoking Koebner phenomenon), stress, microorganism and infections. CONCLUSIONS: The correlation between pathogenesis of psoriasis and environmental risk factors, together with epigenetic alternations still require more investigation. Education about diet habits, nutrition, weight loss and healthy lifestyle seems to be important during the treatment of psoriasis.


Assuntos
Epigênese Genética , Psoríase/epidemiologia , Psoríase/genética , Meio Ambiente , Humanos , Fatores de Risco
4.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4782, 2020 09 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32963223

RESUMO

Polycomb and Trithorax group proteins maintain stable epigenetic memory of gene expression states for some genes, but many targets show highly dynamic regulation. Here we combine experiment and theory to examine the mechanistic basis of these different modes of regulation. We present a mathematical model comprising a Polycomb/Trithorax response element (PRE/TRE) coupled to a promoter and including Drosophila developmental timing. The model accurately recapitulates published studies of PRE/TRE mediated epigenetic memory of both silencing and activation. With minimal parameter changes, the same model can also recapitulate experimental data for a different PRE/TRE that allows dynamic regulation of its target gene. The model predicts that both cell cycle length and PRE/TRE identity are critical for determining whether the system gives stable memory or dynamic regulation. Our work provides a simple unifying framework for a rich repertoire of PRE/TRE functions, and thus provides insights into  genome-wide Polycomb/Trithorax regulation.


Assuntos
Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona/genética , Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Epigenômica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/genética , Modelos Teóricos , Complexo Repressor Polycomb 1/genética , Animais , Divisão Celular , Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Proteínas de Drosophila/metabolismo , Drosophila melanogaster/fisiologia , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Inativação Gênica , Complexo Repressor Polycomb 1/metabolismo , Proteínas do Grupo Polycomb/metabolismo , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Elementos de Resposta
5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(39): e22389, 2020 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32991460

RESUMO

To investigate the molecular mechanisms of later metabolic health changes in large for gestational age (LGA) newborns by analyzing deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) methylation patterns in the placenta of LGA and appropriate for gestational age (AGA) newborns.A total of 6 placentas of LGA and 6 placentas of AGA newborns were enrolled as LGA group and AGA group. DNA methylation was analyzed using the Illumina Infinium Human MethylationEPIC BeadChip microarrays and verified via pyrosequencing and reverse transcription-quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Functional enrichment analysis were constructed by gene ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway analysis based on the differentially methylated regions between LGA and AGA groups.Clinical investigation showed that LGA newborns had significantly lower hemoglobin and blood glucose compared to AGA newborns. Birth weight was negatively correlated to hemoglobin and blood glucose. Genome-wide DNA methylation analysis identified 17 244 methylation variable positions achieving genome-wide significance (adjusted P < .05). 34% methylation variable positions were located in the gene promoter region. A total of 117 differentially methylated regions were revealed by bump hunting analysis, which mapped to 107 genes. Function analysis showed 13 genes enriched in "adhesion and infection process, endocrine and other factor-regulated calcium reabsorption, calcium signaling pathway and transmembrane transport". Four genes linked to type II diabetes mellitus. Among the 13 genes, we selected GNAS and calcium voltage-gated channel subunit alpha1 G for independent verification of pyrosequencing, and the messenger ribonucleic acid levels of guanine nucleotide binding protein, calcium voltage-gated channel subunit alpha1 G, DECR1, and FK506 binding protein 11 were verified by reverse transcription-quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction.DNA methylation variation and gene expression differences in placental samples were associated with LGA newborns, which linking the effect of intrauterine environment to regulation of the offspring's gene expression. Furthermore, pathway analysis suggested that intrauterine environment affecting fetal growth might had a functional impact on multiple signaling pathways involved in fetal growth, metabolism, and inflammation. Further studies were required to understand the differences of methylation patterns.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Epigênese Genética , Desenvolvimento Fetal , Síndrome Metabólica/etiologia , Placenta/metabolismo , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Gravidez , Adulto Jovem
6.
Psychiatr Danub ; 32(Suppl 1): 158-163, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32890382

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Some behaviors or psychiatric conditions seem to be inherited from parents or explain by family environment. We hypothesized interactions between epigenetic processes, inflammatory response and gut microbiota with family surroundings or environmental characteristics. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We searched in literature interactions between epigenetic processes and psychiatric disorders with a special interest for environmental factors such as traumatic or stress events, family relationships and also gut microbiota. We searched on Pubmed, PsycINFO, PsycARTICLES and Sciencedirect articles with the keywords psychiatric disorders, epigenome, microbiome and family relationships. RESULTS: Some gene polymorphisms interact with negative environment and lead to psychiatric disorders. Negative environment is correlated with different epigenetic modifications in genes implicated in mental health. Gut microbiota diversity affect host epigenetic. Animal studies showed evidences for a transgenerational transmission of epigenetic characteristics. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings support the hypothesis that epigenetic mediate gene-environment interactions and psychiatric disorders. Several environmental characteristics such as traumatic life events, family adversity, psychological stress or internal environment such as gut microbiota diversity and diet showed an impact on epigenetic. These epigenetic modifications are also correlated with neurophysiological, inflammatory or hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis dysregulations.


Assuntos
Epigênese Genética , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Transtornos Mentais , Animais , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário , Transtornos Mentais/genética , Transtornos Mentais/microbiologia , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal
7.
Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi ; 49(10): 1041-1045, 2020 Oct 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32992420

RESUMO

Objective: To observe the expression level of histone demethyltransferase Jmjd3 in patients with pre-eclampsia (PE), and to investigate the possible mechanism of its epigenetic modification in regulating Th1/Th2 imbalance in PE patients. Methods: The mRNA levels of histone demethyltransferase Jmjd3 from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of PE patients and normal pregnant women were detected by RT-PCR. Peripheral serum IFN-γ and IL-4  were detected by ELISA. RT-PCR was used to detect the mRNA levels of Jmjd3, Tbx21 and Cxcr3 in the spleen of PE and control mice. Immunomagnetic beads were used to sort out the initial CD4+ T cells in the spleen of control and PE mice. Western blot was used to detect H3K27me1 and H3K27me3 levels. ChIP analysis was used for H3K27me3 demethylation modification in spleens of PE mice. Results: Compared with normal pregnant women, the mRNA level of Jmjd3 in PBMC of PE patients was significantly increased, the level of IFN-γ in serum was significantly increased, and the level of IL-4 was significantly reduced (P<0.01). Compared with normal control mice, the mRNA level of Jmjd3 in the spleen of PE mice was significantly increased, and the expression of Tbx21 and Cxcr3 was significantly increased in PE mice (P<0.01); the H3K27me3 level of CD4+ T cells in PE mice was significantly reduced (P<0.05), but H3K27me1 was not changed. ChIP analysis showed that CD4+ T cells H3K27me3 in PE group mice were in the Ifng promoter region, compared with control mice. Recruitment was significantly reduced, while recruitment in the promoter region of Il4 was significantly increased (P<0.01). Conclusions: In both PE patients and mice with PE model, the relative expression level of histone demethyltransferase Jmjd3 is significantly up-regulated, which further induces the demethylation of H3K27me3 in the Ifng promoter region and promotes the initial CD4+ T cells to Th1 cell differentiation and development, leading to an imbalance of Th1/Th2, which may be one of the important reasons for the development of preeclampsia.


Assuntos
Histonas , Histona Desmetilases com o Domínio Jumonji/fisiologia , Pré-Eclâmpsia/genética , Animais , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Humanos , Histona Desmetilases com o Domínio Jumonji/genética , Leucócitos Mononucleares , Camundongos , Gravidez
8.
Mol Cell ; 79(6): 874-875, 2020 09 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32946760

RESUMO

PARP enzymes are increasingly taking on important roles beyond DNA repair. Huang et al. (2020b) report how the NAD+-dependent ADP-ribosylation of histone H2B by PARP-1 in complex with a metabolic enzyme suppresses the phosphorylation of an adjacent residue, impacting adipogenesis.


Assuntos
Histonas , Inibidores de Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases , ADP-Ribosilação , Adipogenia , Epigênese Genética , Humanos , Obesidade , Fosforilação , Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases
9.
Nature ; 585(7824): 277-282, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32879489

RESUMO

Abnormal epigenetic patterns correlate with effector T cell malfunction in tumours1-4, but the cause of this link is unknown. Here we show that tumour cells disrupt methionine metabolism in CD8+ T cells, thereby lowering intracellular levels of methionine and the methyl donor S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) and resulting in loss of dimethylation at lysine 79 of histone H3 (H3K79me2). Loss of H3K79me2 led to low expression of STAT5 and impaired T cell immunity. Mechanistically, tumour cells avidly consumed methionine and outcompeted T cells for methionine by expressing high levels of the methionine transporter SLC43A2. Genetic and biochemical inhibition of tumour SLC43A2 restored H3K79me2 in T cells, thereby boosting spontaneous and checkpoint-induced tumour immunity. Moreover, methionine supplementation improved the expression of H3K79me2 and STAT5 in T cells, and this was accompanied by increased T cell immunity in tumour-bearing mice and patients with colon cancer. Clinically, tumour SLC43A2 correlated negatively with T cell histone methylation and functional gene signatures. Our results identify a mechanistic connection between methionine metabolism, histone patterns, and T cell immunity in the tumour microenvironment. Thus, cancer methionine consumption is an immune evasion mechanism, and targeting cancer methionine signalling may provide an immunotherapeutic approach.


Assuntos
Sistema L de Transporte de Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Histonas/metabolismo , Metionina/metabolismo , Metilação , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Sistema L de Transporte de Aminoácidos/deficiência , Animais , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/citologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Histonas/química , Humanos , Camundongos , Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/imunologia , Neoplasias/patologia , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição STAT5/metabolismo
10.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4505, 2020 09 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32908148

RESUMO

Evidence for transgenerational inheritance of epigenetic information in vertebrates is scarce. Aberrant patterns of DNA methylation in gametes may set the stage for transmission into future generations. Here, we describe a viable hypomorphic allele of dnmt1 in zebrafish that causes widespread demethylation of CpG dinucleotides in sperm and somatic tissues. We find that homozygous mutants are essentially normal, with the exception of drastically impaired lymphopoiesis, affecting both larval and adult phases of T cell development. The phenotype of impaired larval (but not adult) T cell development is transmitted to subsequent generations by genotypically wildtype fish. We further find that about 200 differentially methylated regions in sperm DNA of transmitting and non-transmitting males, including hypermethylated sites associated with runx3 and rptor genes, whose reduced activities are associated with impaired larval T cell development. Our results indicate a particular sensitivity of larval T cell development to transgenerationally inherited epimutations.


Assuntos
Diferenciação Celular/genética , Genes Recessivos , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Linfopoese/genética , Linfócitos T/fisiologia , Alelos , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Subunidade alfa 3 de Fator de Ligação ao Core/genética , DNA (Citosina-5-)-Metiltransferase 1/genética , DNA (Citosina-5-)-Metiltransferase 1/metabolismo , Metilação de DNA , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Genética , Larva/citologia , Masculino , Mutação , Proteína Regulatória Associada a mTOR/genética , Espermatozoides/metabolismo , Peixe-Zebra/genética , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/genética , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo
11.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4529, 2020 09 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32913184

RESUMO

Although Huntington's disease (HD) is a well studied Mendelian genetic disorder, less is known about its associated epigenetic changes. Here, we characterize DNA methylation levels in six different tissues from 3 species: a mouse huntingtin (Htt) gene knock-in model, a transgenic HTT sheep model, and humans. Our epigenome-wide association study (EWAS) of human blood reveals that HD mutation status is significantly (p < 10-7) associated with 33 CpG sites, including the HTT gene (p = 6.5 × 10-26). These Htt/HTT associations were replicated in the Q175 Htt knock-in mouse model (p = 6.0 × 10-8) and in the transgenic sheep model (p = 2.4 × 10-88). We define a measure of HD motor score progression among manifest HD cases based on multiple clinical assessments. EWAS of motor progression in manifest HD cases exhibits significant (p < 10-7) associations with methylation levels at three loci: near PEX14 (p = 9.3 × 10-9), GRIK4 (p = 3.0 × 10-8), and COX4I2 (p = 6.5 × 10-8). We conclude that HD is accompanied by profound changes of DNA methylation levels in three mammalian species.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Epigênese Genética , Proteína Huntingtina/genética , Doença de Huntington/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Comportamento Animal , Ilhas de CpG/genética , Estudos Transversais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Seguimentos , Técnicas de Introdução de Genes , Loci Gênicos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Carga Global da Doença , Humanos , Doença de Huntington/sangue , Doença de Huntington/diagnóstico , Doença de Huntington/epidemiologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Camundongos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Estudos Prospectivos , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Ovinos , Adulto Jovem
12.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4642, 2020 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32934200

RESUMO

Epigenetic regulation plays an important role in governing stem cell fate and tumorigenesis. Lost expression of a key DNA demethylation enzyme TET2 is associated with human cancers and has been linked to stem cell traits in vitro; however, whether and how TET2 regulates mammary stem cell fate and mammary tumorigenesis in vivo remains to be determined. Here, using our recently established mammary specific Tet2 deletion mouse model, the data reveals that TET2 plays a pivotal role in mammary gland development and luminal lineage commitment. We show that TET2 and FOXP1 form a chromatin complex that mediates demethylation of ESR1, GATA3, and FOXA1, three key genes that are known to coordinately orchestrate mammary luminal lineage specification and endocrine response, and also are often silenced by DNA methylation in aggressive breast cancers. Furthermore, Tet2 deletion-PyMT breast cancer mouse model exhibits enhanced mammary tumor development with deficient ERα expression that confers tamoxifen resistance in vivo. As a result, this study elucidates a role for TET2 in governing luminal cell differentiation and endocrine response that underlies breast cancer resistance to anti-estrogen treatments.


Assuntos
Diferenciação Celular , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Estradiol/metabolismo , Estrogênios/metabolismo , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/metabolismo , Animais , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/fisiopatologia , Linhagem da Célula , Metilação de DNA , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Sistema Endócrino/metabolismo , Epigênese Genética , Receptor alfa de Estrogênio/genética , Receptor alfa de Estrogênio/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/fisiopatologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/genética
13.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4673, 2020 09 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32938917

RESUMO

RAS-MAPK signaling mediates processes critical to normal development including cell proliferation, survival, and differentiation. Germline mutation of RAS-MAPK genes lead to the Noonan-spectrum of syndromes. Here, we present a patient affected by a 6p-interstitial microdeletion with unknown underlying molecular etiology. Examination of 6p-interstitial microdeletion cases reveals shared clinical features consistent with Noonan-spectrum disorders including short stature, facial dysmorphia and cardiovascular abnormalities. We find the RAS-responsive element binding protein-1 (RREB1) is the common deleted gene in multiple 6p-interstitial microdeletion cases. Rreb1 hemizygous mice display orbital hypertelorism and cardiac hypertrophy phenocopying the human syndrome. Rreb1 haploinsufficiency leads to sensitization of MAPK signaling. Rreb1 recruits Sin3a and Kdm1a to control H3K4 methylation at MAPK pathway gene promoters. Haploinsufficiency of SIN3A and mutations in KDM1A cause syndromes similar to RREB1 haploinsufficiency suggesting genetic perturbation of the RREB1-SIN3A-KDM1A complex represents a new category of RASopathy-like syndromes arising through epigenetic reprogramming of MAPK pathway genes.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Haploinsuficiência , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/genética , Síndrome de Noonan/etiologia , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Proteínas ras/metabolismo , Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Animais , Deleção Cromossômica , Cromossomos Humanos Par 6 , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/genética , Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Histona Desmetilases/genética , Histona Desmetilases/metabolismo , Histonas/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Metilação , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Complexo Correpressor Histona Desacetilase e Sin3/genética , Complexo Correpressor Histona Desacetilase e Sin3/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Proteínas ras/genética
14.
Elife ; 92020 09 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32936074

RESUMO

Three independent studies show that a protein called ZCWPW1 is able to recognize the histone modifications that initiate the recombination of genetic information during meiosis.


Assuntos
Quebras de DNA de Cadeia Dupla , Histonas , Animais , DNA , Reparo do DNA , Epigênese Genética , Masculino , Meiose , Camundongos , Leitura
15.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 203: 111001, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32888585

RESUMO

Environmental nanomaterials contamination is a great concern for organisms including human. Copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs) are widely used in a huge range of applications which might pose potential risk to organisms. This study investigated the in vivo transgenerational toxicity on development and reproduction with parental CuO NPs exposure in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. The results showed that CuO NPs (150 mg/L) significantly reduced the body length of parental C. elegans (P0). Only about 1 mg/L Cu2+ (~0.73%) were detected from 150 mg/L CuO NPs in 0.5X K-medium after 48 h. In transgenerational assays, CuO NPs (150 mg/L) parental exposure significantly induced developmental and reproductive toxicity in non-exposed C. elegans progeny (CuO NPs free) on body length (F1) and brood size (F1 and F2), respectively. In contrast, parental exposure to Cu2+ (1 mg/L) did not cause transgenerational toxicity on growth and reproduction. This suggests that the transgenerational toxicity was mostly attributed to the particulate form of CuO NPs. Moreover, qRT-PCR results showed that the mRNA levels of met-2 and spr-5 genes were significantly decreased at P0 and F1 upon only maternal exposure to CuO NPs (150 mg/L), suggesting the observed transgenerational toxicity was associated with possible epigenetic regulation in C. elegans.


Assuntos
Caenorhabditis elegans/efeitos dos fármacos , Cobre/toxicidade , Epigênese Genética/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanopartículas/toxicidade , Animais , Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Caenorhabditis elegans/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Caenorhabditis elegans/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos , Reprodução/genética
16.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1255: 63-72, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32949390

RESUMO

This chapter overviews roles of DNA methylation in inflammatory cell biology with the focuses on lymphocytes and macrophages/monocytes in lung diseases, although the molecular mechanisms by which target genes are methylated and regulated in lung diseases remain unclear. Most of epigenetic studies on DNA methylation of target genes in lung diseases mainly demonstrated the correlation of DNA methylation of target genes with the levels of other corresponding factors, with the specificity of clinical phenomes, and with the severity of lung diseases. There is an urgent need to identify and validate the specificity and regulatory mechanisms of inflammatory cell epigenetics in depth. The epigenetic heterogeneity among different subsets of T cells and among promoters or non-promoters of target genes should be furthermore clarified in acute or chronic lung diseases and cancers. The hyper/hypo-methylation and modifications of chromosol and extrachromosomal DNA may result in alternations in proteins within inflammatory cells, which can be identified as disease-specific biomarkers and therapeutic targets.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Inflamação/genética , Pneumopatias/genética , Pneumopatias/patologia , Epigênese Genética , Epigenômica , Humanos
17.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1255: 73-81, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32949391

RESUMO

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic complex lung disease with no specific treatment and poor prognosis, characterized by the pulmonary progressive fibrosis and dysfunctions that lead to respiratory failure. Several factors may impact the progress of IPF, including age, cigarette smoking, and dusts, of which genetic and epigenetic factors mainly contribute to lung tissue fibrosis. DNA methylation is one of epigenetic processes that occur in many diseases and regulate chromosomal and extrachromosomal DNA functions in response to environmental exposures. The methylation plays pivotal roles in regulation of gene expression to facilitate the formation of fibroblastic foci and lung fibrosis. This chapter will describe alterations and effects of the DNA methylation on gene expression, the potential application of DNA methylation as a biomarker, and significance as therapeutic targets. Those understanding will provide us new insight into the treatment and prognosis of IPF.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/genética , Epigênese Genética , Epigenômica , Expressão Gênica , Humanos
18.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1255: 83-98, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32949392

RESUMO

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a lung disease affected by both genetic and environmental factors. Therefore, the role of epigenetics in the pathogenesis of COPD has attracted much attention. As one of the three epigenetic mechanisms, DNA methylation has been extensively studied in COPD. The present review aims at overviewing the effect of DNA methylation on etiology, pathogenesis, pathophysiological changes, and complications of COPD. The clarification of aberrant methylation of target genes, which play important roles in the initiation and progression of COPD, will provide new disease-specific biomarker and targets for early diagnosis and therapy.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/genética , Epigênese Genética , Epigenômica , Humanos
20.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4055, 2020 08 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32792504

RESUMO

Although metastasis is the most common cause of cancer deaths, metastasis-intrinsic dependencies remain largely uncharacterized. We previously reported that metastatic pancreatic cancers were dependent on the glucose-metabolizing enzyme phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (PGD). Surprisingly, PGD catalysis was constitutively elevated without activating mutations, suggesting a non-genetic basis for enhanced activity. Here we report a metabolic adaptation that stably activates PGD to reprogram metastatic chromatin. High PGD catalysis prevents transcriptional up-regulation of thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP), a gene that negatively regulates glucose import. This allows glucose consumption rates to rise in support of PGD, while simultaneously facilitating epigenetic reprogramming through a glucose-fueled histone hyperacetylation pathway. Restoring TXNIP normalizes glucose consumption, lowers PGD catalysis, reverses hyperacetylation, represses malignant transcripts, and impairs metastatic tumorigenesis. We propose that PGD-driven suppression of TXNIP allows pancreatic cancers to avidly consume glucose. This renders PGD constitutively activated and enables metaboloepigenetic selection of additional traits that increase fitness along glucose-replete metastatic routes.


Assuntos
Cromatina/metabolismo , Glucose/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Animais , Transporte Biológico/genética , Transporte Biológico/fisiologia , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Reprogramação Celular/genética , Reprogramação Celular/fisiologia , Imunoprecipitação da Cromatina , Epigênese Genética/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Fosfogluconato Desidrogenase/genética , Fosfogluconato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Tiorredoxinas/genética , Tiorredoxinas/metabolismo
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