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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(17)2021 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34502212

RESUMO

Age is a major risk factor for severe outcome of the 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19). In this study, we followed the hypothesis that particularly patients with accelerated epigenetic age are affected by severe outcomes of COVID-19. We investigated various DNA methylation datasets of blood samples with epigenetic aging signatures and performed targeted bisulfite amplicon sequencing. Overall, epigenetic clocks closely correlated with the chronological age of patients, either with or without acute respiratory distress syndrome. Furthermore, lymphocytes did not reveal significantly accelerated telomere attrition. Thus, these biomarkers cannot reliably predict higher risk for severe COVID-19 infection in elderly patients.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/genética , COVID-19/patologia , Epigênese Genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/virologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Ilhas de CpG , Metilação de DNA , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/etiologia , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Telômero/metabolismo , Encurtamento do Telômero
2.
J Med Food ; 24(9): 978-986, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34524028

RESUMO

Epigenetic regulation by histone acetyltransferase (HAT) is associated with various biological processes and the progression of diseases, including nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The objective of this study was to investigate whether the hypolipidemic properties of black mulberry (Morus atropurpurea Roxb.) fruit extract (BME) contribute toward protection against NAFLD by HAT inhibition. HepG2 cells were treated with oleic and palmitic acids to induce lipid accumulation, which was significantly attenuated by the treatment with BME at 50 and 100 µg/mL. BME also markedly reduced the expression of proteins associated with lipogenesis, which was attributed to the BME-mediated downregulation of lipogenic genes in HepG2 cells. BME significantly inhibited in vitro total HAT and p300 activities. In addition, BME suppressed total acetylated lysine as well as specific histone acetylation of proteins H3K14 and H3K27 in HepG2 cells. Mice were then fed with either a chow diet or western diet (WD), with or without BME (1%, w/w) supplementation, for 12 weeks to confirm hypolipidemic activity of BME. BME attenuated serum nonesterified fatty acids and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels, which was likely associated with the downregulation of hepatic lipogenic gene expression in WD-fed obese mice. Taken together, the hypolipidemic activity of BME was observed in HepG2 cells treated with fatty acids as well as in livers of obese mice, and the hepatoprotection of BME is likely associated with the inhibition of acetylation. Further investigation is warranted to determine whether BME can be developed into an efficacious dietary intervention to attenuate the progression of NAFLD by epigenetic regulation in clinical settings.


Assuntos
Morus , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Acetilação , Animais , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Epigênese Genética , Frutas/metabolismo , Células Hep G2 , Histonas/metabolismo , Humanos , Fígado/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/genética , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
3.
Ann Ital Chir ; 92: 397-405, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34524116

RESUMO

Morbid obesity (BMI>40 kg/m2) is a challenging health condition with an increasing incidence in the last decades. Conventional therapy which consists in diet and lifestyle interventions, along with pharmaceutical therapy, has a limited effect on morbidly obese patients. In this context, bariatric surgery is the most effective approach, leading to significant weight loss, along with other beneficial effects like type 2 diabetes resolution or improvement of cardiovascular status. The bariatric surgery outcomes can widely vary among individuals, with a significant percentage of patients having small benefits from the operation. These variations may be partially explained by the genetic background of each individual. During the last years, several studies have been conducted in order to determine the genetic and epigenetic factors involved in bariatric surgery outcomes. Many genes involved in different molecular pathways were found to be associated with weight loss after bariatric surgery. Epigenetic studies revealed that genes methylation may be influenced by weight loss interventions. All these findings suggest that there is an intimate connection between genetic and epigenetic factors and the bariatric surgery outcomes. Further studies are required in order to better understand if genetics can be used in order to predict the operation results. KEY WORDS: Bariatric surgery, Body-mass index, Epigenetic, Genetic.


Assuntos
Cirurgia Bariátrica , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Obesidade Mórbida , Índice de Massa Corporal , Epigênese Genética , Humanos , Obesidade Mórbida/genética , Obesidade Mórbida/cirurgia , Resultado do Tratamento , Perda de Peso/genética
4.
Anticancer Res ; 41(9): 4295-4304, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34475049

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the most common type of kidney cancer in adults. The aim of this study was to elucidate the molecular pathogenesis of sporadic RCC in Taiwan. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifteen patients with RCC were screened for mutations in the von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) gene by PCR and Sanger sequencing. The methylation status of promoters of 24 tumor suppressor genes by methylation sensitive multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification analysis was also determined. RESULTS: Inactivation of the VHL gene was observed in 5 cases: three missense somatic mutations, one promoter methylation, and one small deletion. In RCCs, methylation was most frequently observed in APC (100%), CDKN2B (92.9%), CASP8, MLH1_167, and KLLN (85.7.4%), but not in FHIT, MLH1_463, DAPK1, or HIC1 (0%). CONCLUSION: In addition to VHL inactivation, promoter methylation of APC may be a universal pathognomonic event in the tumorigenesis of RCC and a candidate diagnostic and therapeutic biomarker.


Assuntos
Proteína da Polipose Adenomatosa do Colo/genética , Carcinoma de Células Renais/diagnóstico , Metilação de DNA , Neoplasias Renais/diagnóstico , Proteína Supressora de Tumor Von Hippel-Lindau/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Carcinoma de Células Renais/genética , Carcinoma de Células Renais/patologia , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Renais/genética , Neoplasias Renais/patologia , Masculino , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Deleção de Sequência
5.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5240, 2021 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34475390

RESUMO

ß-actin is a crucial component of several chromatin remodeling complexes that control chromatin structure and accessibility. The mammalian Brahma-associated factor (BAF) is one such complex that plays essential roles in development and differentiation by regulating the chromatin state of critical genes and opposing the repressive activity of polycomb repressive complexes (PRCs). While previous work has shown that ß-actin loss can lead to extensive changes in gene expression and heterochromatin organization, it is not known if changes in ß-actin levels can directly influence chromatin remodeling activities of BAF and polycomb proteins. Here we conduct a comprehensive genomic analysis of ß-actin knockout mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) using ATAC-Seq, HiC-seq, RNA-Seq and ChIP-Seq of various epigenetic marks. We demonstrate that ß-actin levels can induce changes in chromatin structure by affecting the complex interplay between chromatin remodelers such as BAF/BRG1 and EZH2. Our results show that changes in ß-actin levels and associated chromatin remodeling activities can not only impact local chromatin accessibility but also induce reversible changes in 3D genome architecture. Our findings reveal that ß-actin-dependent chromatin remodeling plays a role in shaping the chromatin landscape and influences the regulation of genes involved in development and differentiation.


Assuntos
Actinas/metabolismo , Montagem e Desmontagem da Cromatina/fisiologia , Actinas/genética , Animais , Cromatina/metabolismo , DNA Helicases/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Proteína Potenciadora do Homólogo 2 de Zeste/metabolismo , Epigênese Genética , Fibroblastos , Dosagem de Genes , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes , Histonas/metabolismo , Camundongos , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Proteínas do Grupo Polycomb/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
6.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5251, 2021 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34475392

RESUMO

DNA methylation (DNAm) is an epigenetic regulator of gene expression and a hallmark of gene-environment interaction. Using whole-genome bisulfite sequencing, we have surveyed DNAm in 344 samples of human postmortem brain tissue from neurotypical subjects and individuals with schizophrenia. We identify genetic influence on local methylation levels throughout the genome, both at CpG sites and CpH sites, with 86% of SNPs and 55% of CpGs being part of methylation quantitative trait loci (meQTLs). These associations can further be clustered into regions that are differentially methylated by a given SNP, highlighting the genes and regions with which these loci are epigenetically associated. These findings can be used to better characterize schizophrenia GWAS-identified variants as epigenetic risk variants. Regions differentially methylated by schizophrenia risk-SNPs explain much of the heritability associated with risk loci, despite covering only a fraction of the genomic space. We provide a comprehensive, single base resolution view of association between genetic variation and genomic methylation, and implicate schizophrenia GWAS-associated variants as influencing the epigenetic plasticity of the brain.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Genoma Humano , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Esquizofrenia/genética , Fatores Etários , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Encéfalo/patologia , Ilhas de CpG/genética , Epigênese Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Variação Genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
7.
Se Pu ; 39(10): 1094-1101, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34505431

RESUMO

Histone post-translational modifications (HPTMs) have been believed to play crucial roles in the regulation of gene transcription. Thus, aberrant modification of histone can contribute to the occurrence and development of diseases such as tumors. To date, formalin fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) clinical tissues are believed to be one of the most valuable sample resources in the study of human diseases. Therefore, it is of great significance to reveal the molecular mechanism of cancer and discover the markers of tumor. Proteomics, based on high performance liquid chromatograph-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS), has become a powerful tool for HPTM identification. However, HPTM analysis of FFPE samples is yet to be explored; it has not been reported in China to our best knowledge. In this study, a new method based on HPLC-MS/MS was developed for the extraction and separation of histone proteins and analysis and quantification of HPTMs in FFPE tissues. First, the strategy for the extraction and separation of histone proteins from FFPE samples were optimized. After comparing the extraction efficiency of two different methods, which include the acid extraction of histone and extraction of total protein, a novel method was developed for histone extraction, separation, and HPTMs analysis by integrating dewaxed hydration treatment of FFPE tissues with protein extraction and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) separation. Furthermore, the effects of operation parameters on histone extraction and HPTM identification were investigated, including number of paraffin embedded sections and chemical derivation of histone proteins. Thereafter, the identification and quantification of HPTMs were performed using reversed-phase HPLC-MS/MS in data independent acquisition (DIA) mode. Finally, the optimized methods were applied to quantitative analysis of HPTMs in FFPE tissues. A variety of HPTMs were identified; they included lysine methylation, acetylation, crotonylation, etc. Therefore, the spectrum of HPTMs on global level was set for human breast cancer and paracancerous tissues from two cases of FFPE clinical tissues. The sites holding differential HPTM level in cancer and paracancerous tissues were further obtained by quantifying the individual HPTMs. Thus, the relationship between HPTM level and tumor was discussed. Abnormal HPTM sites were characterized using cluster analysis, thus their similar tendency was found. For example, abnormal HPTM sites such as H3K9me3, H3K9ac, and H3K27me3 in cancers are associated with epigenetic regulation. It indicated that different epigenetic events might occur in cancer and paracancerous tissues. Interestingly, we found that the level of H4K20me3 were both significantly down-regulated in the two cancer tissues. HPTM had been thought to be a potential biomarker in breast cancer; therefore, these positive results indicated that our method is effective for HPTMs of clinical FFPE samples. Our study provides a useful tool for the isolation and analysis of HPTMs in clinical FFPE samples, showing the potential for the detection of epigenetic biomarker in cancer.


Assuntos
Histonas , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Epigênese Genética , Formaldeído , Histonas/metabolismo , Humanos , Inclusão em Parafina , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional
8.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1325: 173-186, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495535

RESUMO

Expression of glycosylation-related genes (or glycogenes) is strictly regulated by transcription factors and epigenetic processes, both in normal and in pathological conditions. In fact, glycosylation is an essential mechanism through which proteins and lipids are modified to perform a variety of biological events, to adapt to environment, and to interact with microorganisms.Many glycogenes with a role in normal development are epigenetically regulated. Essential studies were performed in the brain, where expression of glycogenes like MGAT5B, B4GALNT1, and ST8Sia1 are under the control of histone modifications, and in the immune system, where expression of FUT7 is regulated by both DNA methylation and histone modifications. At present, epigenetic regulation of glycosylation is still poorly described under physiological conditions, since the majority of the studies were focused on cancer. In fact, virtually all types of cancers display aberrant glycosylation, because of both genetic and epigenetic modifications on glycogenes. This is also true for many other diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease, diabetes, systemic lupus erythematosus, IgA nephropathy, multiple sclerosis, and cardiovascular diseases.A deeper knowledge in epigenetic regulation of glycogenes is essential, since research in this field could be helpful in finding novel and personalized therapeutics.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Epigênese Genética , Glicosilação , Código das Histonas , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional
10.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(36): e27094, 2021 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34516499

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Epigenetic changes are implicated in prostate cancer (PCa) progression and resistance to therapy. Arginine residue methylation is an understudied histone post-translational modification that is increasingly associated with cancer progression and is catalyzed by enzymes called protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs). The molecular consequences of aberrant expression of PRMTs in PCa and the relationship between PRMTs and PCa progression are largely unknown. Using immunohistochemistry, we examined the expression of PRMT1 and CARM1, two of the best-studied PRMTs, in 288 patients across the spectrum of PCa and correlated them with markers of androgen receptor (AR) signaling, and milestones of carcinogenesis. Our findings indicate that PRMT1 and CARM1 are upregulated early in PCa progression, and that CARM1 is further upregulated after therapy. In addition, a correlation of CARM1 with AR post-translational modifications was noted in the setting of therapy resistance, highlighting CARM1 as one of the adaptation mechanisms of PCa cells in an androgen-depleted environment. Finally, CARM1 correlated with markers of cell cycle regulation, and both CARM1 and PRMT1 correlated with markers of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition signaling. Taken together these findings indicate that an epigenetic network drives PCa progression through enhancement of milestone pathways including AR signaling, the cell cycle, and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Próstata/metabolismo , Proteína-Arginina N-Metiltransferases/metabolismo , Adulto , Epigênese Genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Masculino , Metástase Neoplásica , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Regulação para Cima
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360904

RESUMO

Remarkable progress has been made in the treatment and control of hepatitis B and C viral infections. However, fundamental treatments for diseases in which liver fibrosis is a key factor, such as cirrhosis, alcoholic/nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, autoimmune hepatitis, primary biliary cholangitis, and primary sclerosing cholangitis, are still under development and remain an unmet medical need. To solve this problem, it is essential to elucidate the pathogenesis of liver fibrosis in detail from a molecular and cellular perspective and to develop targeted therapeutic agents based on this information. Recently, microRNAs (miRNAs), functional RNAs of 22 nucleotides, have been shown to be involved in the pathogenesis of liver fibrosis. In addition, extracellular vesicles called "exosomes" have been attracting attention, and research is being conducted to establish noninvasive and extremely sensitive biomarkers using miRNAs in exosomes. In this review, we summarize miRNAs directly involved in liver fibrosis, miRNAs associated with diseases leading to liver fibrosis, and miRNAs related to complications of cirrhosis. We will also discuss the efficacy of each miRNA as a biomarker of liver fibrosis and pathology, and its potential application as a therapeutic agent.


Assuntos
MicroRNA Circulante/sangue , MicroRNA Circulante/genética , Cirrose Hepática/sangue , Cirrose Hepática/genética , Animais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Colangite Esclerosante/sangue , Colangite Esclerosante/complicações , Epigênese Genética , Exossomos/metabolismo , Fígado Gorduroso Alcoólico/sangue , Fígado Gorduroso Alcoólico/complicações , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Hepatite Autoimune/sangue , Hepatite Autoimune/complicações , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática/etiologia , Cirrose Hepática/patologia , Cirrose Hepática Biliar/sangue , Cirrose Hepática Biliar/complicações , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/sangue , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/complicações
12.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444938

RESUMO

l-Arginine is an important nutrient in the infant diet that significantly regulates the maturation of the immune system in neonates, including the maturation of CD4+ T cells. The biological activities of CD4+ T cells differ substantially between neonates and adults, and these differences may be governed by epigenetic processes. Investigating these differences and the causative processes may help understand neonatal and developmental immunity. In this study, we compared the functional DNA methylation profiles in CD4+ T cells of neonates and adults, focusing on the role of l-arginine supplementation. Umbilical cord blood and adult CD4+ T cells were cultured with/without l-arginine treatment. By comparing DNA methylation in samples without l-arginine treatment, we found that CD4+ T cells of neonatal cord blood generally showed higher DNA methylation than those of adults (average CpG methylation percentage 0.6305 for neonate and 0.6254 for adult, t-test p-value < 0.0001), suggesting gene silencing in neonates. By examining DNA methylation patterns of CpG dinucleotides induced by l-arginine treatment, we found that more CpG dinucleotides were hypomethylated and more genes appeared to be activated in neonatal T-cells as compared with adult. Genes activated by l-arginine stimulation of cord blood samples were more enriched regarding immune-related pathways. CpG dinucleotides at IL-13 promoter regions were hypomethylated after l-arginine stimulation. Hypomethylated CpG dinucleotides corresponded to higher IL-13 gene expression and cytokine production. Thus, DNA methylation partially accounts for the mechanism underlying differential immune function in neonates. Modulatory effects of l-arginine on DNA methylation are gene-specific. Nutritional intervention is a potential strategy to modulate immune function of neonates.


Assuntos
Arginina/administração & dosagem , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/efeitos dos fármacos , Metilação de DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Imunidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Ilhas de CpG , Suplementos Nutricionais , Epigênese Genética , Sangue Fetal/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Imunidade/genética , Recém-Nascido , Interferon gama/genética , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Interleucina-13/genética , Interleucina-13/metabolismo , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas
13.
Science ; 373(6558)2021 08 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34446580

RESUMO

The immune system has evolved in the face of microbial exposure. How maternal infection experienced at distinct developmental stages shapes the offspring immune system remains poorly understood. Here, we show that during pregnancy, maternally restricted infection can have permanent and tissue-specific impacts on offspring immunity. Mechanistically, maternal interleukin-6 produced in response to infection can directly impose epigenetic changes on fetal intestinal epithelial stem cells, leading to long-lasting impacts on intestinal immune homeostasis. As a result, offspring of previously infected dams develop enhanced protective immunity to gut infection and increased inflammation in the context of colitis. Thus, maternal infection can be coopted by the fetus to promote long-term, tissue-specific fitness, a phenomenon that may come at the cost of predisposition to inflammatory disorders.


Assuntos
Colite/imunologia , Imunidade , Interleucina-6/imunologia , Intestinos/imunologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/imunologia , Células Th17/imunologia , Infecções por Yersinia pseudotuberculosis/imunologia , Animais , Candidíase/imunologia , Cromatina/metabolismo , Epigênese Genética , Epigenoma , Feminino , Desenvolvimento Fetal , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/imunologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Interleucina-6/sangue , Interleucina-6/farmacologia , Mucosa Intestinal/citologia , Mucosa Intestinal/embriologia , Mucosa Intestinal/imunologia , Intestinos/embriologia , Intestinos/microbiologia , Camundongos , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Salmonelose Animal/imunologia , Células-Tronco/imunologia , Células-Tronco/fisiologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/imunologia
14.
FASEB J ; 35(9): e21847, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34405464

RESUMO

Mounting evidence demonstrates that paternal diet programs offspring metabolism. However, the contribution of a pre-conception paternal high protein (HP) diet to offspring metabolism, gut microbiota, and epigenetic changes remains unclear. Here we show that paternal HP intake in Sprague Dawley rats programs protective metabolic outcomes in offspring. Compared to paternal high fat/sucrose (HF/S), HP diet improved body composition and insulin sensitivity and improved circulating satiety hormones and cecal short-chain fatty acids compared to HF/S and control diet (P < .05). Further, using 16S rRNA gene sequencing to assess gut microbial composition, we observed increased alpha diversity, distinct bacterial clustering, and increased abundance of Bifidobacterium, Akkermansia, Bacteroides, and Marvinbryantia in HP fathers and/or male and female adult offspring. At the epigenetic level, DNMT1and 3b expression was altered intergenerationally. Our study identifies paternal HP diet as a modulator of gut microbial composition, epigenetic markers, and metabolic function intergenerationally.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal , Dieta Rica em Proteínas , Epigênese Genética , Pai , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Insulina/metabolismo , Exposição Paterna , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Adiposidade , Envelhecimento , Animais , Peso Corporal , DNA (Citosina-5-)-Metiltransferases/metabolismo , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Sacarose na Dieta , Ingestão de Energia , Metabolismo Energético , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Feminino , Fertilidade , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Hormônios/metabolismo , Resistência à Insulina , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Tamanho do Órgão , Gravidez , Pequeno RNA não Traduzido/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Resposta de Saciedade , Desmame
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444030

RESUMO

Humans on earth inhabit a wide range of environmental conditions and some environments are more challenging for human survival than others. However, many living beings, including humans, have developed adaptive mechanisms to live in such inhospitable, harsh environments. Among different difficult environments, high-altitude living is especially demanding because of diminished partial pressure of oxygen and resulting chronic hypobaric hypoxia. This results in poor blood oxygenation and reduces aerobic oxidative respiration in the mitochondria, leading to increased reactive oxygen species generation and activation of hypoxia-inducible gene expression. Genetic mechanisms in the adaptation to high altitude is well-studied, but there are only limited studies regarding the role of epigenetic mechanisms. The purpose of this review is to understand the epigenetic mechanisms behind high-altitude adaptive and maladaptive phenotypes. Hypobaric hypoxia is a form of cellular hypoxia, which is similar to the one suffered by critically-ill hypoxemia patients. Thus, understanding the adaptive epigenetic signals operating in in high-altitude adjusted indigenous populations may help in therapeutically modulating signaling pathways in hypoxemia patients by copying the most successful epigenotype. In addition, we have summarized the current information about exosomes in hypoxia research and prospects to use them as diagnostic tools to study the epigenome of high-altitude adapted healthy or maladapted individuals.


Assuntos
Exossomos , Expossoma , Adaptação Fisiológica/genética , Altitude , Epigênese Genética , Exossomos/genética , Humanos , Hipóxia/genética
16.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(33): 39003-39017, 2021 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34433253

RESUMO

Improving tumor immunogenicity is critical for increasing the responsiveness of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) to anti-PD-(L)1 treatment. Here, we verified that chidamide (CHI), an epigenetic modulator, could elicit immunogenic cell death within TNBC to enhance cancer immunogenicity and elicit an antitumor immune response. Additionally, CHI increased the expression level of PD-L1, MHC I, and MHC II on cancer cells, which contributed to T-cell recognition and PD-1/PD-L1 blockade therapy response. The synergistic antitumor efficacy of CHI and PD-L1 blockade therapy was further explored through liposomes co-delivering CHI and BMS-202 (a small-molecule PD-L1 inhibitor). The liposomes possessed good biocompatibility, security, and controllable drug release and endowed therapeutics drugs with favorable tumor accumulation. Furthermore, the drug-loaded liposomes could obviously boost the antitumor immunity of TNBC through CHI-enhanced tumor immunogenicity and BMS-202-mediated PD-L1 blockade, thereby effectively inhibiting the growth of primary and metastatic tumors with an inhibitory rate of metastasis of up to 96%. In summary, this work provided a referable and optional approach for clinical antitumor therapy based on the combination of an epigenetic modulator and PD-1/PD-L1 blockade therapy.


Assuntos
Acetamidas/química , Aminopiridinas/química , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Benzamidas/química , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/química , Piridinas/química , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/imunologia , Acetamidas/farmacologia , Aminopiridinas/farmacologia , Animais , Benzamidas/farmacologia , Materiais Biocompatíveis/química , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Terapia Combinada/métodos , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Epigênese Genética/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/farmacologia , Imunoterapia/métodos , Lipossomos/química , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Piridinas/farmacologia , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/química , Distribuição Tecidual , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Science ; 373(6558): 967-968, 2021 08 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34446596
18.
Transl Psychiatry ; 11(1): 416, 2021 08 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34341332

RESUMO

Depression is currently the leading cause of disability around the world. We conducted an epigenome-wide association study (EWAS) in a sample of 58 depression score-discordant monozygotic twin pairs, aiming to detect specific epigenetic variants potentially related to depression and further integrate with gene expression profile data. Association between the methylation level of each CpG site and depression score was tested by applying a linear mixed effect model. Weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) was performed for gene expression data. The association of DNA methylation levels of 66 CpG sites with depression score reached the level of P < 1 × 10-4. These top CpG sites were located at 34 genes, especially PTPRN2, HES5, GATA2, PRDM7, and KCNIP1. Many ontology enrichments were highlighted, including Notch signaling pathway, Huntington disease, p53 pathway by glucose deprivation, hedgehog signaling pathway, DNA binding, and nucleic acid metabolic process. We detected 19 differentially methylated regions (DMRs), some of which were located at GRIK2, DGKA, and NIPA2. While integrating with gene expression data, HELZ2, PTPRN2, GATA2, and ZNF624 were differentially expressed. In WGCNA, one specific module was positively correlated with depression score (r = 0.62, P = 0.002). Some common genes (including BMP2, PRDM7, KCNIP1, and GRIK2) and enrichment terms (including complement and coagulation cascades pathway, DNA binding, neuron fate specification, glial cell differentiation, and thyroid gland development) were both identified in methylation analysis and WGCNA. Our study identifies specific epigenetic variations which are significantly involved in regions, functional genes, biological function, and pathways that mediate depression disorder.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Gêmeos Monozigóticos , Biomarcadores , Ilhas de CpG/genética , DNA , Depressão , Epigênese Genética , Proteínas Hedgehog , Humanos , Transcriptoma , Gêmeos Monozigóticos/genética
19.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi ; 38(8): 818-821, 2021 Aug 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34365634

RESUMO

The progress of epigenetic research has led to the discovery and confirmation of age-related markers based on DNA methylation. These DNA methylation indices are called "epigenetic clock/age". The concept of "epigenetic clock/age" and the establishment of its evaluation system are helpful to solve some of the long-standing problems in the field of life and medicine. When facing the current global aging, it is of great significance to refer to the comprehensive health parameters to determine the biological age and life span of an individual, and thus to design a plan to slow down the process of life cycle. This paper has summarized the concept and development of "epigenetic clock/age" in recent years.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Epigênese Genética , Envelhecimento/genética , Biomarcadores , Humanos
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361090

RESUMO

Glioblastoma (GBM) is a highly lethal cancer that is universally refractory to the standard multimodal therapies of surgical resection, radiation, and chemotherapy treatment. Temozolomide (TMZ) is currently the best chemotherapy agent for GBM, but the durability of response is epigenetically dependent and often short-lived secondary to tumor resistance. Therapies that can provide synergy to chemoradiation are desperately needed in GBM. There is accumulating evidence that adaptive resistance evolution in GBM is facilitated through treatment-induced epigenetic modifications. Epigenetic alterations of DNA methylation, histone modifications, and chromatin remodeling have all been implicated as mechanisms that enhance accessibility for transcriptional activation of genes that play critical roles in GBM resistance and lethality. Hence, understanding and targeting epigenetic modifications associated with GBM resistance is of utmost priority. In this review, we summarize the latest updates on the impact of epigenetic modifications on adaptive resistance evolution in GBM to therapy.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Neoplasias Encefálicas/tratamento farmacológico , Metilação de DNA , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Epigênese Genética , Glioblastoma/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Neoplasias Encefálicas/genética , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Evolução Molecular , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Glioblastoma/genética , Glioblastoma/patologia , Humanos
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