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1.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 409, 2021 01 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33462245

RESUMO

Insufficient eradication capacity and dysfunction are common occurrences in T cells that characterize cancer immunotherapy failure. De novo DNA methylation promotes T cell exhaustion, whereas methylation inhibition enhances T cell rejuvenation in vivo. Decitabine, a DNA methyltransferase inhibitor approved for clinical use, may provide a means of modifying exhaustion-associated DNA methylation programmes. Herein, anti-tumour activities, cytokine production, and proliferation are enhanced in decitabine-treated chimeric antigen receptor T (dCAR T) cells both in vitro and in vivo. Additionally, dCAR T cells can eradicate bulky tumours at a low-dose and establish effective recall responses upon tumour rechallenge. Antigen-expressing tumour cells trigger higher expression levels of memory-, proliferation- and cytokine production-associated genes in dCAR T cells. Tumour-infiltrating dCAR T cells retain a relatively high expression of memory-related genes and low expression of exhaustion-related genes in vivo. In vitro administration of decitabine may represent an option for the generation of CAR T cells with improved anti-tumour properties.


Assuntos
Decitabina/farmacologia , Imunoterapia Adotiva/métodos , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/imunologia , Neoplasias/terapia , Linfócitos T/transplante , Animais , Técnicas de Cultura de Células/métodos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/genética , Citocinas/genética , Citocinas/imunologia , Metilação de DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Epigênese Genética/efeitos dos fármacos , Epigênese Genética/imunologia , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Humanos , Camundongos , Neoplasias/sangue , Neoplasias/imunologia , Neoplasias/patologia , RNA-Seq , Receptores de Antígenos Quiméricos/imunologia , Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
2.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 135, 2021 01 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33420081

RESUMO

Since most variants that impact polygenic disease phenotypes localize to non-coding genomic regions, understanding the consequences of regulatory element variants will advance understanding of human disease mechanisms. Here, we report that the systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) risk variant rs2431697 as likely causal for SLE through disruption of a regulatory element, modulating miR-146a expression. Using epigenomic analysis, genome-editing and 3D chromatin structure analysis, we show that rs2431697 tags a cell-type dependent distal enhancer specific for miR-146a that physically interacts with the miR-146a promoter. NF-kB binds the disease protective allele in a sequence-specific manner, increasing expression of this immunoregulatory microRNA. Finally, CRISPR activation-based modulation of this enhancer in the PBMCs of SLE patients attenuates type I interferon pathway activation by increasing miR-146a expression. Our work provides a strategy to define non-coding RNA functional regulatory elements using disease-associated variants and provides mechanistic links between autoimmune disease risk genetic variation and disease etiology.


Assuntos
Epigênese Genética/imunologia , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , Sequências Reguladoras de Ácido Nucleico/genética , Animais , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Células HEK293 , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Interferon Tipo I/metabolismo , Leucócitos Mononucleares/transplante , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/sangue , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/imunologia , Camundongos , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Cultura Primária de Células , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , RNA-Seq , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia
3.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 537, 2021 01 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33483487

RESUMO

Targeting chromatin regulators to specific genomic locations for gene control is emerging as a powerful method in basic research and synthetic biology. However, many chromatin regulators are large, making them difficult to deliver and combine in mammalian cells. Here, we develop a strategy for gene control using small nanobodies that bind and recruit endogenous chromatin regulators to a gene. We show that an antiGFP nanobody can be used to simultaneously visualize GFP-tagged chromatin regulators and control gene expression, and that nanobodies against HP1 and DNMT1 can silence a reporter gene. Moreover, combining nanobodies together or with other regulators, such as DNMT3A or KRAB, can enhance silencing speed and epigenetic memory. Finally, we use the slow silencing speed and high memory of antiDNMT1 to build a signal duration timer and recorder. These results set the basis for using nanobodies against chromatin regulators for controlling gene expression and epigenetic memory.


Assuntos
Cromatina/imunologia , Epigênese Genética/imunologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/imunologia , Anticorpos de Domínio Único/imunologia , Algoritmos , Animais , Cromatina/genética , Inativação Gênica/imunologia , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/genética , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/imunologia , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/metabolismo , Humanos , Modelos Genéticos , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Anticorpos de Domínio Único/metabolismo
4.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2198: 431-439, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32822048

RESUMO

Genome-wide profiling of DNA modifications has advanced our understanding of epigenetics in mammalian biology. Whereas several different methods for profiling DNA modifications have been developed over the last decade, DNA-immunoprecipitation coupled with high-throughput sequencing (DIP-seq) has proven a particularly adaptable and cost-effective approach. DIP-seq was especially valuable in initial studies of the more recently discovered DNA modifications, 5-hydroxymethylcytosine, 5-formylcytosine, and 5-carboxylcytosine. As an enrichment-based profiling method, analysis of DIP-seq data poses several unique, and often unappreciated bioinformatics challenges, which if unmet, can profoundly affect the results and conclusions drawn from the data. Here, we outline key considerations in both the design of DIP-seq assays and analysis of DIP-seq data to ensure the accuracy and reproducibility of DIP-seq based studies.


Assuntos
DNA/química , Imunoprecipitação/métodos , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , 5-Metilcitosina/análogos & derivados , 5-Metilcitosina/química , Animais , Biologia Computacional , Ilhas de CpG/genética , DNA/genética , Metilação de DNA/genética , Metilação de DNA/imunologia , Epigênese Genética/genética , Epigênese Genética/imunologia , Epigenômica/métodos , Genoma/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
5.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2198: 441-450, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32822049

RESUMO

DNA methylation plays an important role in the regulation of gene expression as one of the epigenetic modifications. The bisulfite sequencing is widely used to determine the patterns of genomic methylation as a gold standard technology allowing conversion of the unmethylated cytosines to uracils that are represented as Ts in the sequencing reads. This chapter introduces the methodology for analyzing bisulfite sequencing data using various bioinformatics tools.


Assuntos
Biologia Computacional/métodos , DNA/química , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Animais , Citosina/metabolismo , DNA/genética , Metilação de DNA/genética , Metilação de DNA/imunologia , Epigênese Genética/genética , Epigênese Genética/imunologia , Epigenômica/métodos , Genoma/genética , Genômica/métodos , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Humanos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Sulfitos/química
6.
Mol Med ; 26(1): 95, 2020 10 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33054759

RESUMO

Pulmonary fibrosis arises from the repeated epithelial mild injuries and insufficient repair lead to over activation of fibroblasts and excessive deposition of extracellular matrix, which result in a mechanical stretched niche. However, increasing mechanical stress likely exists before the establishment of fibrosis since early micro injuries increase local vascular permeability and prompt cytoskeletal remodeling which alter cellular mechanical forces. It is noteworthy that COVID-19 patients with severe hypoxemia will receive mechanical ventilation as supportive treatment and subsequent pathology studies indicate lung fibrosis pattern. At advanced stages, mechanical stress originates mainly from the stiff matrix since boundaries between stiff and compliant parts of the tissue could generate mechanical stress. Therefore, mechanical stress has a significant role in the whole development process of pulmonary fibrosis. The alveoli are covered by abundant capillaries and function as the main gas exchange unit. Constantly subject to variety of damages, the alveolar epithelium injuries were recently recognized to play a vital role in the onset and development of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. In this review, we summarize the literature regarding the effects of mechanical stress on the fundamental cells constituting the alveoli in the process of pulmonary fibrosis, particularly on epithelial cells, capillary endothelial cells, fibroblasts, mast cells, macrophages and stem cells. Finally, we briefly review this issue from a more comprehensive perspective: the metabolic and epigenetic regulation.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Epigênese Genética/imunologia , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/imunologia , Mecanotransdução Celular/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Embolia Pulmonar/imunologia , Insuficiência Respiratória/imunologia , Células Epiteliais Alveolares/imunologia , Células Epiteliais Alveolares/patologia , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Infecções por Coronavirus/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Citocinas/genética , Citocinas/imunologia , Células Endoteliais/imunologia , Células Endoteliais/patologia , Fibroblastos/imunologia , Fibroblastos/patologia , Humanos , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/genética , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/patologia , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/virologia , Pulmão/irrigação sanguínea , Pulmão/imunologia , Pulmão/patologia , Macrófagos/imunologia , Macrófagos/patologia , Mecanotransdução Celular/genética , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/genética , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Embolia Pulmonar/genética , Embolia Pulmonar/patologia , Embolia Pulmonar/virologia , Insuficiência Respiratória/genética , Insuficiência Respiratória/patologia , Insuficiência Respiratória/virologia , Estresse Mecânico
7.
Front Immunol ; 11: 1782, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32760409

RESUMO

As the SARS-CoV-2 virus wreaks havoc on the populations, health care infrastructures and economies of nations around the world, finding ways to protect health care workers and bolster immune responses in the general population while we await an effective vaccine will be the difference between life and death for many people. Recent studies show that innate immune populations may possess a form of memory, termed Trained Immunity (TRIM), where innate immune cells undergo metabolic, mitochondrial, and epigenetic reprogramming following exposure to an initial stimulus that results in a memory phenotype of enhanced immune responses when exposed to a secondary, heterologous, stimulus. Throughout the literature, it has been shown that the induction of TRIM using such inducers as the BCG vaccine and ß-glucan can provide protection through altered immune responses against a range of viral infections. Here we hypothesize a potential role for ß-glucan in decreasing worldwide morbidity and mortality due to COVID-19, and posit several ideas as to how TRIM may actually shape the observed epidemiological phenomena related to COVID-19. We also evaluate the potential effects of ß-glucan in relation to the immune dysregulation and cytokine storm observed in COVID-19. Ultimately, we hypothesize that the use of oral ß-glucan in a prophylactic setting could be an effective way to boost immune responses and abrogate symptoms in COVID-19, though clinical trials are necessary to confirm the efficacy of this treatment and to further examine differential effects of ß-glucan's from various sources.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/dietoterapia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Fibras na Dieta/uso terapêutico , Memória Imunológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Pneumonia Viral/dietoterapia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , beta-Glucanas/uso terapêutico , Administração Oral , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Animais , Antivirais/administração & dosagem , Antivirais/imunologia , Antivirais/farmacologia , Vacina BCG/imunologia , Criança , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Citocinas/sangue , Fibras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Epigênese Genética/imunologia , Humanos , Imunidade Inata/efeitos dos fármacos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição , beta-Glucanas/administração & dosagem , beta-Glucanas/imunologia , beta-Glucanas/farmacologia
8.
Mol Immunol ; 126: 136-142, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32823238

RESUMO

Interleukin (IL)-1ß produced by macrophages plays an important role in inflammation development. However, the underlying mechanism in epigenetic regulation of IL-1ß production is not fully addressed. Though DNA methylcytosine dioxygenase ten-eleven translocation 2 (TET2) is known to be involved in the regulation of inflammatory factors by oxidizing 5-methylcytosine (5mC), the underlying molecular mechanism is largely unknown. In this study, we found that the expression of both IL-1ß and TET2 is upregulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated mononuclear macrophage. We then knocked down TET2 in mouse macrophagelike cell line (J774.1) and found that LPS-induced IL-1ß is also downregulated. In addition, LPS-stimulated phosphorylation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway and intracellular effectors of the toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling pathway were also suppressed in TET2-knockdown cells. The methylation status in the promoter regions of myeloid differentiation primary response gene (MyD)88 and TAK1 binding protein 2 (TAB2) were estimated by bisulfite polymerase chain reaction. Compared with that of the control, the 5mC level on the TAB2 promoter is downregulated in the LPS-stimulated cells which can be reversed by TET2-knockdown. These findings altogether suggest that LPS-upregulated TET2 enhances IL-1ß expression through demethylating the promoter region of TAB2, the key member of the TLR4/MAPK signaling pathway, a previously unreported molecular mechanism in TET2-regulated expression of inflammatory factors.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Epigênese Genética/imunologia , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/metabolismo , 5-Metilcitosina/metabolismo , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Desmetilação do DNA , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Lipopolissacarídeos/imunologia , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/genética , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/imunologia , Macrófagos , Camundongos , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/genética , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima/imunologia
9.
Nature ; 583(7815): 296-302, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32612232

RESUMO

The mammalian immune system implements a remarkably effective set of mechanisms for fighting pathogens1. Its main components are haematopoietic immune cells, including myeloid cells that control innate immunity, and lymphoid cells that constitute adaptive immunity2. However, immune functions are not unique to haematopoietic cells, and many other cell types display basic mechanisms of pathogen defence3-5. To advance our understanding of immunology outside the haematopoietic system, here we systematically investigate the regulation of immune genes in the three major types of structural cells: epithelium, endothelium and fibroblasts. We characterize these cell types across twelve organs in mice, using cellular phenotyping, transcriptome sequencing, chromatin accessibility profiling and epigenome mapping. This comprehensive dataset revealed complex immune gene activity and regulation in structural cells. The observed patterns were highly organ-specific and seem to modulate the extensive interactions between structural cells and haematopoietic immune cells. Moreover, we identified an epigenetically encoded immune potential in structural cells under tissue homeostasis, which was triggered in response to systemic viral infection. This study highlights the prevalence and organ-specific complexity of immune gene activity in non-haematopoietic structural cells, and it provides a high-resolution, multi-omics atlas of the epigenetic and transcriptional networks that regulate structural cells in the mouse.


Assuntos
Endotélio/imunologia , Células Epiteliais/imunologia , Fibroblastos/imunologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Sistema Imunitário/citologia , Sistema Imunitário/imunologia , Especificidade de Órgãos/imunologia , Imunidade Adaptativa , Animais , Cromatina/genética , Cromatina/metabolismo , Endotélio/citologia , Epigênese Genética/imunologia , Epigenoma/genética , Células Epiteliais/citologia , Feminino , Fibroblastos/citologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Redes Reguladoras de Genes/genética , Redes Reguladoras de Genes/imunologia , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/citologia , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/imunologia , Sistema Imunitário/virologia , Imunidade Inata , Coriomeningite Linfocítica/imunologia , Coriomeningite Linfocítica/virologia , Vírus da Coriomeningite Linfocítica/imunologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Especificidade de Órgãos/genética , Transcrição Genética/imunologia , Transcriptoma/genética
10.
Nat Immunol ; 21(8): 950-961, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32572241

RESUMO

A contribution of epigenetic modifications to B cell tolerance has been proposed but not directly tested. Here we report that deficiency of ten-eleven translocation (Tet) DNA demethylase family members Tet2 and Tet3 in B cells led to hyperactivation of B and T cells, autoantibody production and lupus-like disease in mice. Mechanistically, in the absence of Tet2 and Tet3, downregulation of CD86, which normally occurs following chronic exposure of self-reactive B cells to self-antigen, did not take place. The importance of dysregulated CD86 expression in Tet2- and Tet3-deficient B cells was further demonstrated by the restriction, albeit not complete, on aberrant T and B cell activation following anti-CD86 blockade. Tet2- and Tet3-deficient B cells had decreased accumulation of histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) and HDAC2 at the Cd86 locus. Thus, our findings suggest that Tet2- and Tet3-mediated chromatin modification participates in repression of CD86 on chronically stimulated self-reactive B cells, which contributes, at least in part, to preventing autoimmunity.


Assuntos
Autoimunidade/imunologia , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Antígeno B7-2/imunologia , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/imunologia , Dioxigenases/imunologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/imunologia , Animais , Doenças Autoimunes/imunologia , Epigênese Genética/imunologia , Ativação Linfocitária/imunologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos
11.
Immunity ; 52(5): 825-841.e8, 2020 05 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32396847

RESUMO

CD8+ T cell exhaustion is a major barrier to current anti-cancer immunotherapies. Despite this, the developmental biology of exhausted CD8+ T cells (Tex) remains poorly defined, restraining improvement of strategies aimed at "re-invigorating" Tex cells. Here, we defined a four-cell-stage developmental framework for Tex cells. Two TCF1+ progenitor subsets were identified, one tissue restricted and quiescent and one more blood accessible, that gradually lost TCF1 as it divided and converted to a third intermediate Tex subset. This intermediate subset re-engaged some effector biology and increased upon PD-L1 blockade but ultimately converted into a fourth, terminally exhausted subset. By using transcriptional and epigenetic analyses, we identified the control mechanisms underlying subset transitions and defined a key interplay between TCF1, T-bet, and Tox in the process. These data reveal a four-stage developmental hierarchy for Tex cells and define the molecular, transcriptional, and epigenetic mechanisms that could provide opportunities to improve cancer immunotherapy.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Epigênese Genética/imunologia , Neoplasias/imunologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Transcrição Genética/imunologia , Animais , Antígeno B7-H1/genética , Antígeno B7-H1/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/citologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Epigênese Genética/genética , Fator 1-alfa Nuclear de Hepatócito/genética , Fator 1-alfa Nuclear de Hepatócito/imunologia , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/imunologia , Humanos , Imunoterapia/métodos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/terapia , Proteínas com Domínio T/genética , Proteínas com Domínio T/imunologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Transcrição Genética/genética
12.
Cancer Res ; 80(12): 2612-2627, 2020 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32265226

RESUMO

Current cancer treatments are largely based on the genetic characterization of primary tumors and are ineffective for metastatic disease. Here we report that DNA methyltransferase 3B (DNMT3B) is induced at distant metastatic sites and mediates epigenetic reprogramming of metastatic tumor cells. Multiomics analysis and spontaneous metastatic mouse models revealed that DNMT3B alters multiple pathways including STAT3, NFκB, PI3K/Akt, ß-catenin, and Notch signaling, which are critical for cancer cell survival, apoptosis, proliferation, invasion, and colonization. PGE2 and IL6 were identified as critical inflammatory mediators in DNMT3B induction. DNMT3B expression levels positively correlated with human metastatic progression. Targeting IL6 or COX-2 reduced DNMT3B induction and improved chemo or PD1 therapy. We propose a novel mechanism linking the metastatic microenvironment with epigenetic alterations that occur at distant sites. These results caution against the "Achilles heel" in cancer therapies based on primary tumor characterization and suggests targeting DNMT3B induction as new option for treating metastatic disease. SIGNIFICANCE: These findings reveal that DNMT3B epigenetically regulates multiple pro-oncogenic signaling pathways via the inflammatory microenvironment at distant sites, cautioning the clinical approach basing current therapies on genetic characterization of primary tumors.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , DNA (Citosina-5-)-Metiltransferases/metabolismo , Dinoprostona/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/secundário , Animais , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacologia , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Mama/patologia , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral/transplante , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Inibidores de Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/farmacologia , Inibidores de Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/uso terapêutico , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Progressão da Doença , Epigênese Genética/efeitos dos fármacos , Epigênese Genética/imunologia , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Humanos , Interleucina-6/antagonistas & inibidores , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Camundongos , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/imunologia , Estudo de Prova de Conceito , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Microambiente Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Microambiente Tumoral/genética , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia
13.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 1512, 2020 03 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32251296

RESUMO

Studies of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have been inconclusive in relating microbiota with distribution of inflammation. We report microbiota, host transcriptomics, epigenomics and genetics from matched inflamed and non-inflamed colonic mucosa [50 Crohn's disease (CD); 80 ulcerative colitis (UC); 31 controls]. Changes in community-wide and within-patient microbiota are linked with inflammation, but we find no evidence for a distinct microbial diagnostic signature, probably due to heterogeneous host-microbe interactions, and show only marginal microbiota associations with habitual diet. Epithelial DNA methylation improves disease classification and is associated with both inflammation and microbiota composition. Microbiota sub-groups are driven by dominant Enterbacteriaceae and Bacteroides species, representative strains of which are pro-inflammatory in vitro, are also associated with immune-related epigenetic markers. In conclusion, inflamed and non-inflamed colonic segments in both CD and UC differ in microbiota composition and epigenetic profiles.


Assuntos
Colite Ulcerativa/imunologia , Doença de Crohn/imunologia , Epigênese Genética/imunologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/imunologia , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Bacteroides/genética , Bacteroides/imunologia , Bacteroides/isolamento & purificação , Biópsia , Células CACO-2 , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Colite Ulcerativa/genética , Colite Ulcerativa/microbiologia , Colite Ulcerativa/patologia , Colo/diagnóstico por imagem , Colo/imunologia , Colo/microbiologia , Colo/patologia , Colonoscopia , Doença de Crohn/genética , Doença de Crohn/microbiologia , Doença de Crohn/patologia , DNA Bacteriano/isolamento & purificação , Enterobacteriaceae/genética , Enterobacteriaceae/imunologia , Enterobacteriaceae/isolamento & purificação , Epigenômica , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos/genética , Humanos , Mucosa Intestinal/diagnóstico por imagem , Mucosa Intestinal/imunologia , Mucosa Intestinal/microbiologia , Mucosa Intestinal/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , RNA-Seq , Adulto Jovem
14.
Nat Rev Immunol ; 20(6): 375-388, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32132681

RESUMO

Immune memory is a defining feature of the acquired immune system, but activation of the innate immune system can also result in enhanced responsiveness to subsequent triggers. This process has been termed 'trained immunity', a de facto innate immune memory. Research in the past decade has pointed to the broad benefits of trained immunity for host defence but has also suggested potentially detrimental outcomes in immune-mediated and chronic inflammatory diseases. Here we define 'trained immunity' as a biological process and discuss the innate stimuli and the epigenetic and metabolic reprogramming events that shape the induction of trained immunity.


Assuntos
Imunidade Adaptativa/imunologia , Epigênese Genética/imunologia , Doenças do Sistema Imunitário/imunologia , Sistema Imunitário/imunologia , Imunidade Inata/imunologia , Memória Imunológica/imunologia , Imunidade Adaptativa/genética , Animais , Humanos , Sistema Imunitário/metabolismo , Doenças do Sistema Imunitário/genética , Tolerância Imunológica/genética , Tolerância Imunológica/imunologia , Imunidade Inata/genética , Memória Imunológica/genética , Inflamação/genética , Inflamação/imunologia
15.
Br J Haematol ; 189(1): 54-66, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32064593

RESUMO

Peripheral T-cell lymphomas (PTCL) comprise a heterogeneous group of aggressive lymphoproliferative disorders almost all of which are associated with poor clinical outcomes. Angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (AITL) and some peripheral T-cell lymphoma, not otherwise specified (PTCL-NOS) have similarities to normal CD4+ T-cell subsets in their gene expression profiles. A cell of origin model is, therefore, emerging and is likely to be refined in the future. Follicular helper (Tfh) T cells are now established as the cell of origin of AITL and about 20% of PTCL-NOS. Sequencing studies have identified recurrent genetic alterations in epigenetic modifiers, T-cell receptor signalling pathway intermediates or RHOA, most commonly a specific mutation leading to RHOA G17V. While PTCL-NOS remains a diagnosis of exclusion, advances in genomics have identified subgroups expressing transcription factors TBX 21 (Th1-like origin) and GATA3 (Th2-like origin). These findings suggest new biomarkers and new therapeutic avenues including the hypomethylating agent azacytidine, or inhibitors of proximal T-cell receptor (TCR) signalling and potentially certain monoclonal antibodies. The advances over the past few years, therefore, prompt stratified medicine approaches to test biologically based treatments and determine the clinical utility of the new disease classifications.


Assuntos
Epigênese Genética/imunologia , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Linfoma de Células T Periférico , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Proteínas de Neoplasias , Linfócitos T Auxiliares-Indutores/imunologia , Proteína rhoA de Ligação ao GTP , Humanos , Linfoma de Células T Periférico/classificação , Linfoma de Células T Periférico/genética , Linfoma de Células T Periférico/imunologia , Linfoma de Células T Periférico/terapia , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Proteínas de Neoplasias/imunologia , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T/genética , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Proteína rhoA de Ligação ao GTP/genética , Proteína rhoA de Ligação ao GTP/imunologia
16.
J Clin Invest ; 130(3): 1252-1270, 2020 03 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32039918

RESUMO

Current antiangiogenic therapy is limited by its cytostatic property, scarce drug delivery to the tumor, and side toxicity. To address these limitations, we unveiled the role of ZEB1, a tumor endothelium-enriched zinc-finger transcription factor, during tumor progression. We discovered that the patients who had lung adenocarcinomas with high ZEB1 expression in tumor endothelium had increased prevalence of metastases and markedly reduced overall survival after the diagnosis of lung cancer. Endothelial ZEB1 deletion in tumor-bearing mice diminished tumor angiogenesis while eliciting persistent tumor vascular normalization by epigenetically repressing TGF-ß signaling. This consequently led to improved blood and oxygen perfusion, enhanced chemotherapy delivery and immune effector cell infiltration, and reduced tumor growth and metastasis. Moreover, targeting vascular ZEB1 remarkably potentiated the anticancer activity of nontoxic low-dose cisplatin. Treatment with low-dose anti-programmed cell death protein 1 (anti-PD-1) antibody elicited tumor regression and markedly extended survival in ZEB1-deleted mice, conferring long-term protective anticancer immunity. Collectively, we demonstrated that inactivation of endothelial ZEB1 may offer alternative opportunities for cancer therapy with minimal side effects. Targeting endothelium-derived ZEB1 in combination with conventional chemotherapy or immune checkpoint blockade therapy may yield a potent and superior anticancer effect.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacologia , Homeobox 1 de Ligação a E-box em Dedo de Zinco/deficiência , Animais , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/farmacologia , Cisplatino/farmacologia , Endotélio/imunologia , Epigênese Genética/efeitos dos fármacos , Epigênese Genética/imunologia , Deleção de Genes , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Neoplasias Experimentais/irrigação sanguínea , Neoplasias Experimentais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Experimentais/genética , Neoplasias Experimentais/imunologia , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/genética , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/imunologia , Homeobox 1 de Ligação a E-box em Dedo de Zinco/imunologia
17.
Immunology ; 160(1): 38-51, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32027025

RESUMO

First discovered on the natural killer (NK) cell, the cell surface inhibitory receptor sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectin-7 (Siglec-7) is known for regulating many important biological activities. However, the detail regulatory mechanism for Siglec-7 expression in NK cells currently remains unclear. In this study, we aimed to investigate how cell surface Siglec-7 expression is regulated and found that, in both NK cell lines and peripheral NK cells, transcription was the main regulatory step. Furthermore, when NK-92MI and peripheral NK cells were treated with DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) inhibitor, the CpG island, with 9 CpG sites, in 5' Siglec-7 promoter became noticeably hypomethylated, and Siglec-7 expression increased in both RNA transcript and surface protein. Within this CpG island, we identified both CpG 8 and CpG 9 as two key regulators responsible for Siglec-7 expression. Additionally, by using histone deacetylases (HDAC) inhibitor, butyric acid, we showed that Siglec-7 expression was also subjected to the histone modification. And a combined treatment with both 5-azacytidine and butyric acid showed an additive effect on Siglec-7 transcript expression in peripheral NK cells.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Diferenciação Mielomonocítica/genética , Epigênese Genética/imunologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Lectinas/genética , Antígenos de Diferenciação Mielomonocítica/metabolismo , Azacitidina/farmacologia , Ácido Butírico/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular , Ilhas de CpG/genética , Metilação de DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Metilação de DNA/imunologia , Epigênese Genética/efeitos dos fármacos , Código das Histonas/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores de Histona Desacetilases/farmacologia , Histona Desacetilases/metabolismo , Humanos , Células Matadoras Naturais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Matadoras Naturais/metabolismo , Lectinas/metabolismo , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , RNA-Seq , Transcrição Genética/efeitos dos fármacos , Transcrição Genética/imunologia
18.
J Leukoc Biol ; 107(6): 1009-1022, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32034803

RESUMO

Vitamin C (VitC) is an essential vitamin that needs to be provided through exogenous sources. It is a potent anti-oxidant, and an essential cofactor for many enzymes including a group of enzymes that modulate epigenetic regulation of gene expression. Moreover, VitC has a significant influence on T-cell differentiation, and can directly interfere with T-cell signaling. Conventional CD4 and CD8 T cells express the αß TCR and recognize peptide antigens in the context of MHC presentation. The numerically small population of γδ T cells recognizes antigens in an MHC-independent manner. γδ T cells kill a broad variety of malignant cells, and because of their unique features, are interesting candidates for cancer immunotherapy. In this review, we summarize what is known about the influence of VitC on T-cell activation and differentiation with a special focus on γδ T cells. The known mechanisms of action of VitC on αß T cells are discussed and extrapolated to the effects observed on γδ T-cell activation and differentiation. Overall, VitC enhances proliferation and effector functions of γδ T cells and thus may help to increase the efficacy of γδ T cells applied as cancer immunotherapy in adoptive cell transfer.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Ácido Ascórbico/farmacologia , Epigênese Genética/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T alfa-beta/genética , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T gama-delta/genética , Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem da Célula/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem da Célula/genética , Linhagem da Célula/imunologia , Epigênese Genética/imunologia , Humanos , Imunoterapia/métodos , Ativação Linfocitária/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T alfa-beta/imunologia , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T gama-delta/imunologia , Transdução de Sinais , Linfócitos T/classificação , Linfócitos T/citologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Timo/citologia , Timo/imunologia
19.
Immunology ; 160(1): 24-37, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32022254

RESUMO

The transcription factor Foxp3 controls the differentiation and function of regulatory T-cells (Treg). Studies in the past decades identified numerous Foxp3-interacting protein partners. However, it is still not clear how Foxp3 produces the Treg-type transcriptomic landscape through cooperating with its partners. Here I show the current understanding of how Foxp3 transcription factor complexes regulate the differentiation, maintenance and functional maturation of Treg. Importantly, T-cell receptor (TCR) signalling plays central roles in Treg differentiation and Foxp3-mediated gene regulation. Differentiating Treg will have recognized their cognate antigens and received TCR signals before initiating Foxp3 transcription, which is triggered by TCR-induced transcription factors including NFAT, AP-1 and NF-κB. Once expressed, Foxp3 seizes TCR signal-induced transcriptional and epigenetic mechanisms through interacting with AML1/Runx1 and NFAT. Thus, Foxp3 modifies gene expression dynamics of TCR-induced genes, which constitute cardinal mechanisms for Treg-mediated immune suppression. Next, I discuss the following key topics, proposing new mechanistic models for Foxp3-mediated gene regulation: (i) how Foxp3 transcription is induced and maintained by the Foxp3-inducing enhanceosome and the Foxp3 autoregulatory transcription factor complex; (ii) molecular mechanisms for effector Treg differentiation (i.e. Treg maturation); (iii) how Foxp3 activates or represses its target genes through recruiting coactivators and corepressors; (iv) the 'decision-making' Foxp3-containing transcription factor complex for Th17 and Treg differentiation; and (v) the roles of post-translational modification in Foxp3 regulation. Thus, this article provides cutting-edge understanding of molecular biology of Foxp3 and Treg, integrating findings by biochemical and genomic studies.


Assuntos
Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/metabolismo , Modelos Biológicos , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Animais , Diferenciação Celular/imunologia , Linhagem da Célula/imunologia , Epigênese Genética/imunologia , Humanos , Ativação Linfocitária , Camundongos , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional/imunologia , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/metabolismo , Células Th17/imunologia , Células Th17/metabolismo , Transcrição Genética/imunologia
20.
Nat Immunol ; 21(2): 221-231, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31959980

RESUMO

The lung is inhabited by resident alveolar and interstitial macrophages as well as monocytic cells that survey lung tissues. Each cell type plays distinct functional roles under homeostatic and inflammatory conditions, but mechanisms establishing their molecular identities and functional potential remain poorly understood. In the present study, systematic evaluation of transcriptomes and open chromatin of alveolar macrophages (AMs), interstitial macrophages (IMs) and lung monocytes from two mouse strains enabled inference of common and cell-specific transcriptional regulators. We provide evidence that these factors drive selection of regulatory landscapes that specify distinct phenotypes of AMs and IMs and entrain qualitatively different responses to toll-like receptor 4 signaling in vivo. These studies reveal a striking divergence in a fundamental innate immune response pathway in AMs and establish a framework for further understanding macrophage diversity in the lung.


Assuntos
Imunidade Inata/imunologia , Pulmão/imunologia , Macrófagos/imunologia , Monócitos/imunologia , Animais , Epigênese Genética/imunologia , Macrófagos/citologia , Camundongos , Monócitos/citologia , Transcriptoma/imunologia
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