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2.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 16(8): e1008105, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32817654

RESUMO

Epithelial sheets define organ architecture during development. Here, we employed an iterative multiscale computational modeling and quantitative experimental approach to decouple direct and indirect effects of actomyosin-generated forces, nuclear positioning, extracellular matrix, and cell-cell adhesion in shaping Drosophila wing imaginal discs. Basally generated actomyosin forces generate epithelial bending of the wing disc pouch. Surprisingly, acute pharmacological inhibition of ROCK-driven actomyosin contractility does not impact the maintenance of tissue height or curved shape. Computational simulations show that ECM tautness provides only a minor contribution to modulating tissue shape. Instead, passive ECM pre-strain serves to maintain the shape independent from actomyosin contractility. These results provide general insight into how the subcellular forces are generated and maintained within individual cells to induce tissue curvature. Thus, the results suggest an important design principle of separable contributions from ECM prestrain and actomyosin tension during epithelial organogenesis and homeostasis.


Assuntos
Actomiosina/metabolismo , Epitélio/anatomia & histologia , Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Animais , Drosophila/anatomia & histologia , Drosophila/embriologia , Drosophila/metabolismo , Epitélio/metabolismo , Fosforilação , Asas de Animais/anatomia & histologia , Asas de Animais/embriologia , Asas de Animais/metabolismo
3.
PLoS Genet ; 16(6): e1008885, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32559217

RESUMO

Regulation of cell junctions is crucial for the integrity of epithelial tissues and organs. Cell junctions also play roles in controlling cell proliferation for organ growth. Translationally controlled tumor protein (TCTP) is a conserved protein involved in growth control, but its role in cell junctions is unknown. Here we show that Drosophila Tctp directly interacts with the septate junction protein Coracle (Cora) to regulate epithelial integrity and organ growth. Tctp localizes together with Cora in the epidermis of the embryo. Loss of Cora reduces the level of Tctp in the epidermis but not vice versa. cora/+ or Tctp/+ single heterozygotes develop normally to adulthood. However, double heterozygotes for cora and Tctp mutations show severe disruption of epithelia causing synthetic lethality in the embryo. Double knockdown of Cora and Tctp in eye imaginal disc synergistically leads to disruption of the eye disc, resulting in a severe reduction or loss of eye and head. Conversely, double knockdown of Cora and Tctp in wing disc causes overgrowth as well as cell death. Inhibition of cell death under this condition causes hyperplastic growth of the wing disc. Tctp also shows direct and functional interaction with Cora-associated factors like Yurt and Na+/K+-ATPase. This study suggests that proper levels of Tctp and Cora are essential for the maintenance of the Cora complex and the integrity of epithelia. Our data also provide evidence that both Cora and Tctp are required to suppress overgrowth in developing wing.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Drosophila/metabolismo , Drosophila melanogaster/fisiologia , Epitélio/metabolismo , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Asas de Animais/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Proliferação de Células/genética , Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Embrião não Mamífero , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Discos Imaginais/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Junções Intercelulares/metabolismo , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/genética , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Morfogênese/genética , Mutações Sintéticas Letais , Asas de Animais/metabolismo
4.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2767, 2020 06 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32488095

RESUMO

The pathophysiological nature of the common ABCG2 gout and hyperuricemia associated variant Q141K (rs2231142) remains undefined. Here, we use a human interventional cohort study (ACTRN12615001302549) to understand the physiological role of ABCG2 and find that participants with the Q141K ABCG2 variant display elevated serum urate, unaltered FEUA, and significant evidence of reduced extra-renal urate excretion. We explore mechanisms by generating a mouse model of the orthologous Q140K Abcg2 variant and find male mice have significant hyperuricemia and metabolic alterations, but only subtle alterations of renal urate excretion and ABCG2 abundance. By contrast, these mice display a severe defect in ABCG2 abundance and function in the intestinal tract. These results suggest a tissue specific pathobiology of the Q141K variant, support an important role for ABCG2 in urate excretion in both the human kidney and intestinal tract, and provide insight into the importance of intestinal urate excretion for serum urate homeostasis.


Assuntos
Membro 2 da Subfamília G de Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Gota/metabolismo , Hiperuricemia/metabolismo , Ácido Úrico/metabolismo , Membro 2 da Subfamília G de Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Alelos , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Epitélio/metabolismo , Epitélio/patologia , Proteínas Facilitadoras de Transporte de Glucose/genética , Proteínas Facilitadoras de Transporte de Glucose/metabolismo , Gota/genética , Gota/patologia , Homeostase , Humanos , Intestinos/patologia , Rim/metabolismo , Rim/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Proteínas de Neoplasias , Fenótipo , Ácido Úrico/sangue
5.
Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol ; 319(1): L115-L120, 2020 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32493030

RESUMO

COVID-19 can be divided into three clinical stages, and one can speculate that these stages correlate with where the infection resides. For the asymptomatic phase, the infection mostly resides in the nose, where it elicits a minimal innate immune response. For the mildly symptomatic phase, the infection is mostly in the pseudostratified epithelium of the larger airways and is accompanied by a more vigorous innate immune response. In the conducting airways, the epithelium can recover from the infection, because the keratin 5 basal cells are spared and they are the progenitor cells for the bronchial epithelium. There may be more severe disease in the bronchioles, where the club cells are likely infected. The devastating third phase is in the gas exchange units of the lung, where ACE2-expressing alveolar type II cells and perhaps type I cells are infected. The loss of type II cells results in respiratory insufficiency due to the loss of pulmonary surfactant, alveolar flooding, and possible loss of normal repair, since type II cells are the progenitors of type I cells. The loss of type I and type II cells will also block normal active resorption of alveolar fluid. Subsequent endothelial damage leads to transudation of plasma proteins, formation of hyaline membranes, and an inflammatory exudate, characteristic of ARDS. Repair might be normal, but if the type II cells are severely damaged alternative pathways for epithelial repair may be activated, which would result in some residual lung disease.


Assuntos
Células Epiteliais Alveolares/virologia , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Células Epiteliais/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Células Epiteliais Alveolares/metabolismo , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Epitélio/metabolismo , Epitélio/virologia , Humanos , Pulmão/metabolismo , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Mucosa Respiratória/metabolismo , Mucosa Respiratória/virologia
6.
Prostate ; 80(12): 938-949, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32542667

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The clinical manifestation of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is causally linked to the inflammatory microenvironment and proliferation of epithelial and stromal cells in the prostate transitional zone. The CXC-chemokine interleukin-8 (IL-8) contributes to inflammation. We evaluated the expression of inflammatory cytokines in clinical specimens, primary cultures, and prostatic lineage cell lines. We investigated whether IL-8 via its receptor system (IL-8 axis) promotes BPH. METHODS: The messenger RNA and protein expression of chemokines, including components of the IL-8 axis, were measured in normal prostate (NP; n = 7) and BPH (n = 21), urine (n = 24) specimens, primary cultures, prostatic lineage epithelial cell lines (NHPrE1, BHPrE1, BPH-1), and normal prostate cells (RWPE-1). The functional role of the IL-8 axis in prostate epithelial cell growth was evaluated by CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing. The effect of a combination with two natural compounds, oleanolic acid (OA) and ursolic acid (UA), was evaluated on the expression of the IL-8 axis and epithelial cell growth. RESULTS: Among the 19 inflammatory chemokines and chemokine receptors we analyzed, levels of IL-8 and its receptors (CXCR1, CXCR2), as well as, of CXCR7, a receptor for CXCL12, were 5- to 25-fold elevated in BPH tissues when compared to NP tissues (P ≤ .001). Urinary IL-8 levels were threefold to sixfold elevated in BPH patients, but not in asymptomatic males and females with lower urinary tract symptoms (P ≤ .004). The expression of the IL-8 axis components was confined to the prostate luminal epithelial cells in both normal and BPH tissues. However, these components were elevated in BPH-1 and primary explant cultures as compared to RWPE-1, NHPrE1, and BHPrE1 cells. Knockout of CXCR7 reduced IL-8, and CXCR1 expression by 4- to 10-fold and caused greater than or equal to 50% growth inhibition in BPH-1 cells. Low-dose OA + UA combination synergistically inhibited the growth of BPH-1 and BPH primary cultures. In the combination, the drug reduction indices for UA and OA were 16.4 and 7852, respectively, demonstrating that the combination was effective in inhibiting BPH-1 growth at significantly reduced doses of UA or OA alone. CONCLUSION: The IL-8 axis is a promotor of BPH pathogenesis. Low-dose OA + UA combination inhibits BPH cell growth by inducing autophagy and reducing IL-8 axis expression in BPH-epithelial cells.


Assuntos
Interleucina-8/metabolismo , Próstata/metabolismo , Próstata/patologia , Hiperplasia Prostática/metabolismo , Hiperplasia Prostática/patologia , Receptores CXCR/metabolismo , Processos de Crescimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Células Cultivadas , Epitélio/efeitos dos fármacos , Epitélio/metabolismo , Epitélio/patologia , Humanos , Interleucina-8/biossíntese , Interleucina-8/genética , Masculino , Ácido Oleanólico/farmacologia , Próstata/efeitos dos fármacos , Hiperplasia Prostática/tratamento farmacológico , Hiperplasia Prostática/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Receptores CXCR/biossíntese , Receptores CXCR/genética , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Triterpenos/farmacologia
7.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3068, 2020 06 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32555155

RESUMO

Surgical adhesions are bands of scar tissues that abnormally conjoin organ surfaces. Adhesions are a major cause of post-operative and dialysis-related complications, yet their patho-mechanism remains elusive, and prevention agents in clinical trials have thus far failed to achieve efficacy. Here, we uncover the adhesion initiation mechanism by coating beads with human mesothelial cells that normally line organ surfaces, and viewing them under adhesion stimuli. We document expansive membrane protrusions from mesothelia that tether beads with massive accompanying adherence forces. Membrane protrusions precede matrix deposition, and can transmit adhesion stimuli to healthy surfaces. We identify cytoskeletal effectors and calcium signaling as molecular triggers that initiate surgical adhesions. A single, localized dose targeting these early germinal events completely prevented adhesions in a preclinical mouse model, and in human assays. Our findings classifies the adhesion pathology as originating from mesothelial membrane bridges and offer a radically new therapeutic approach to treat adhesions.


Assuntos
Cálcio/química , Epitélio/metabolismo , Aderências Teciduais/metabolismo , Animais , Sinalização do Cálcio , Adesão Celular , Linhagem Celular , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Biologia Computacional , Citoesqueleto/metabolismo , Citosol/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento Tridimensional , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Análise de Componente Principal , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Análise de Célula Única
8.
Anticancer Res ; 40(5): 2627-2635, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32366407

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is an aggressive head and neck malignancy. The aim of this study was to elucidate the role of periostin (POSTN) in the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) process mediating the acquisition of radioresistance in HNSCC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The expression levels of EMT hallmark genes including POSTN and Erk/Akt signaling pathways were compared between radiosensitive and radioresistant HNSCC cells. RESULTS: POSTN mRNA expression was higher in radioresistant HNSCC cells, and silencing POSTN significantly impaired their invasiveness under the effect of EMT process represented by up-regulation of mesenchymal markers and down-regulation of an epithelial marker. Expression levels of Erk and Akt were higher in radioresistant cells. CONCLUSION: POSTN in association with the Erk and Akt signaling pathways was up-regulated during the EMT process, leading to the conversion of radiosensitive to radioresistant HNSCC cells. POSTN may be a key marker for predicting the radioresistance and therapeutic target of HNSCC.


Assuntos
Moléculas de Adesão Celular/metabolismo , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/metabolismo , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/patologia , Tolerância a Radiação , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Regulação para Baixo , Epitélio/metabolismo , Epitélio/patologia , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/genética , Humanos , Mesoderma/patologia , Invasividade Neoplásica , Tolerância a Radiação/genética , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/patologia
9.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(24): 13541-13551, 2020 06 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32467168

RESUMO

Within developing embryos, tissues flow and reorganize dramatically on timescales as short as minutes. This includes epithelial tissues, which often narrow and elongate in convergent extension movements due to anisotropies in external forces or in internal cell-generated forces. However, the mechanisms that allow or prevent tissue reorganization, especially in the presence of strongly anisotropic forces, remain unclear. We study this question in the converging and extending Drosophila germband epithelium, which displays planar-polarized myosin II and experiences anisotropic forces from neighboring tissues. We show that, in contrast to isotropic tissues, cell shape alone is not sufficient to predict the onset of rapid cell rearrangement. From theoretical considerations and vertex model simulations, we predict that in anisotropic tissues, two experimentally accessible metrics of cell patterns-the cell shape index and a cell alignment index-are required to determine whether an anisotropic tissue is in a solid-like or fluid-like state. We show that changes in cell shape and alignment over time in the Drosophila germband predict the onset of rapid cell rearrangement in both wild-type and snail twist mutant embryos, where our theoretical prediction is further improved when we also account for cell packing disorder. These findings suggest that convergent extension is associated with a transition to more fluid-like tissue behavior, which may help accommodate tissue-shape changes during rapid developmental events.


Assuntos
Forma Celular , Drosophila/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Anisotropia , Drosophila/citologia , Drosophila/genética , Drosophila/metabolismo , Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Proteínas de Drosophila/metabolismo , Epitélio/metabolismo , Miosina Tipo II/genética , Miosina Tipo II/metabolismo
10.
Nanotoxicology ; 14(6): 740-756, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32401081

RESUMO

Despite numerous studies on the environmental health and safety (EHS) of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), most studies looked into their gross toxicities with rather limited understanding on their labyrinthine implicit effects on the target sites, such as the endocrine system. Burgeoning evidence documents the disrupting effects of AgNPs on endocrine functions; however, little research has been invested to recognize the potential impacts on the mammary gland, a susceptible estrogen-responsive organ. Under this setting, we here aimed to scrutinize AgNP-induced effects on the development of pubertal mammary glands at various concentrations that bear significant EHS relevance. We unearthed that AgNPs could accumulate in mouse mammary glands and result in a decrease in the percentage of ducts and terminal ducts in the adult mice after chronic exposure. Strikingly, smaller sized AgNPs showed greater capability to alter the pubertal mammary development than larger sized particles. Intriguingly, mechanistic investigation revealed that the reduction of epithelial proliferation in response to AgNPs was ascribed to reduced ERα expression, which, at least partially, accounted for diseased epithelial morphology in mammary glands. Meanwhile, the decline in fibrous collagen deposition around the epithelium was found to contribute to the compromised development of mammary glands under the exposure of AgNPs. Moreover, as an extension of the mechanism, AgNPs diminished serum levels of estradiol in exposed animals. Together, these results uncovered a novel toxicity feature of AgNPs: compromised development of mouse pubertal mammary glands through the endocrine-disrupting actions. This study would open a new avenue to unveil the EHS impacts of AgNPs.


Assuntos
Disruptores Endócrinos/toxicidade , Estrogênios/metabolismo , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/toxicidade , Prata/toxicidade , Animais , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Disruptores Endócrinos/farmacocinética , Epitélio/efeitos dos fármacos , Epitélio/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Epitélio/metabolismo , Receptor alfa de Estrogênio/metabolismo , Estrogênios/farmacologia , Feminino , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Tamanho da Partícula , Transdução de Sinais , Prata/farmacocinética , Propriedades de Superfície , Distribuição Tecidual
11.
Cancer Sci ; 111(7): 2336-2348, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32437590

RESUMO

Dietary fat consumption during accelerated stages of mammary gland development, such as peripubertal maturation or pregnancy, is known to increase the risk for breast cancer. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are not fully understood. Here we examined the gene expression profile of mouse mammary epithelial cells (MMECs) on exposure to a high-fat diet (HFD) or control diet (CD). Trp53-/- female mice were fed with the experimental diets for 5 weeks during the peripubertal period (3-8 weeks of age). The treatment showed no significant difference in body weight between the HFD-fed mice and CD-fed mice. However, gene set enrichment analysis predicted a significant enrichment of c-Myc target genes in animals fed HFD. Furthermore, we detected enhanced activity and stabilization of c-Myc protein in MMECs exposed to a HFD. This was accompanied by augmented c-Myc phosphorylation at S62 with a concomitant increase in ERK phosphorylation. Moreover, MMECs derived from HFD-fed Trp53-/- mouse showed increased colony- and sphere-forming potential that was dependent on c-Myc. Further, oleic acid, a major fatty acid constituent of the HFD, and TAK-875, an agonist to G protein-coupled receptor 40 (a receptor for oleic acid), enhanced c-Myc stabilization and MMEC proliferation. Overall, our data indicate that HFD influences MMECs by stabilizing an oncoprotein, pointing to a novel mechanism underlying dietary fat-mediated mammary carcinogenesis.


Assuntos
Dieta Hiperlipídica , Epitélio/metabolismo , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/metabolismo , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/patologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-myc/metabolismo , Maturidade Sexual , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Feminino , Genes p53 , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Obesidade/etiologia , Obesidade/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-myc/genética , Puberdade , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
12.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 28(9): 1586-1589, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32428380

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Mortality from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is increased in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Furthermore, higher BMI is related to severe disease. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 utilizes angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) to gain cellular entry. METHODS: Whether ACE2 bronchial epithelial expression is increased in COPD patients who have overweight compared with those who do not was investigated by RNA sequencing. RESULTS: Increased ACE2 expression was observed in patients with COPD with overweight (mean BMI, 29 kg/m2 ) compared with those without overweight (mean BMI, 21 kg/m2 ) (P = 0.004). CONCLUSIONS: Increased ACE2 expression may cause increased severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection of the respiratory tract. Overweight COPD patients may be at greater risk for developing severe COVID-19.


Assuntos
Brônquios , Epitélio/metabolismo , Sobrepeso/complicações , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/genética , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/genética , Idoso , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/complicações
13.
Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol ; 319(1): L82-L90, 2020 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32401676

RESUMO

Goblet cell metaplasia (GCM) and mucin overproduction are a hallmark of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In the airways, cigarette smoke (CS) induces activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) leading to GCM and overexpression of the gel-forming mucin MUC5AC. Although previous studies have demonstrated that a membrane-bound mucin, MUC1, modulates the activation of CS-induced EGFR, the role of MUC1 in CS-induced GCM and mucin overproduction has not been explored. In response to CS exposure, wild-type (WT) rats displayed Muc1 translocation from the apical surface of airway epithelium to the intracellular compartment of hyperplastic intermediate cells, EGFR phosphorylation, GCM, and Muc5ac overproduction. Similarly, human CRS sinonasal tissues demonstrated hyperplasia of intermediate cells enriched with MUC1 in the intracellular compartment, which was accompanied by GCM and increased MUC5AC expression. To further evaluate the role of Muc1 in vivo, a Muc1 knockout (KO) rat (MUC in humans and Muc in animals) was developed. In contrast to WT littermates, Muc1-KO rats exhibited no activation of EGFR, and were protected from GCM and Muc5ac overproduction. Genetic knockdown of MUC1 in human lung or Muc1 knockout in primary rat airway epithelial cells led to significantly diminished EGF-induced MUC5AC production. Together, these findings suggest that MUC1-dependent EGFR activation mediates CS-induced GCM and mucin overproduction. Strategies designed to suppress MUC1-dependent EGFR activation may provide a novel therapeutic approach for treating mucin hypersecretion in CRS and COPD.


Assuntos
Células Caliciformes/metabolismo , Mucina-5AC/metabolismo , Mucina-1/metabolismo , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Polaridade Celular , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Epitélio/metabolismo , Epitélio/patologia , Receptores ErbB/metabolismo , Células Caliciformes/patologia , Metaplasia , Fosforilação , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
14.
Nature ; 580(7805): 640-646, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32350471

RESUMO

All normal somatic cells are thought to acquire mutations, but understanding of the rates, patterns, causes and consequences of somatic mutations in normal cells is limited. The uterine endometrium adopts multiple physiological states over a lifetime and is lined by a gland-forming epithelium1,2. Here, using whole-genome sequencing, we show that normal human endometrial glands are clonal cell populations with total mutation burdens that increase at about 29 base substitutions per year and that are many-fold lower than those of endometrial cancers. Normal endometrial glands frequently carry 'driver' mutations in cancer genes, the burden of which increases with age and decreases with parity. Cell clones with drivers often originate during the first decades of life and subsequently progressively colonize the epithelial lining of the endometrium. Our results show that mutational landscapes differ markedly between normal tissues-perhaps shaped by differences in their structure and physiology-and indicate that the procession of neoplastic change that leads to endometrial cancer is initiated early in life.


Assuntos
Análise Mutacional de DNA , Endométrio/citologia , Endométrio/metabolismo , Epitélio/metabolismo , Saúde , Mutação , Adulto , Idade de Início , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Envelhecimento/genética , Carcinogênese/genética , Células Clonais/citologia , Neoplasias do Endométrio/genética , Endométrio/patologia , Células Epiteliais/citologia , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/patologia , Epitélio/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paridade/genética , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
15.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231473, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32315325

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to determine the effect of autologous serum (AS) eye drops on the density of human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-DR-positive epithelial cells and Langerhans cells on the ocular surface of patients with bilateral severe dry eye disease (DED) due to graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) or Sjögren's syndrome (SS). The study was conducted on 24 patients (48 eyes). AS was applied 6-10 times daily for 3 months together with regular artificial tear therapy. HLA-DR-positive cells were detected by direct immunocytochemistry on upper bulbar conjunctiva imprints obtained before and after treatment. The application of AS drops led to a statistically significant increase in the mean density of aberrant HLA-DR-positive conjunctival epithelial cells (p < 0.05) and HLA-DR-positive Langerhans cells (p < 0.05) in the GvHD group. Aberrant HLA-DR-positive epithelial cells in the SS group were decreased non-significantly. All patients reported a significant decrease in the Ocular Surface Disease Index (p < 0.01), which indicates improvement of the patient's subjective feelings after therapy. There was an expected but non-significant decrease of aberrant HLA-DR-positive conjunctival epithelial cells in the SS group only. However, the increased density of HLA-DR-positive cells, indicating slight subclinical inflammation, does not outweigh the positive effect of AS in patients with DED from GvHD.


Assuntos
Túnica Conjuntiva/metabolismo , Epitélio/metabolismo , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/tratamento farmacológico , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/metabolismo , Antígenos HLA-DR/metabolismo , Soro/metabolismo , Síndrome de Sjogren/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Contagem de Células/métodos , Túnica Conjuntiva/efeitos dos fármacos , Síndromes do Olho Seco/tratamento farmacológico , Síndromes do Olho Seco/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Soluções Oftálmicas/uso terapêutico , Síndrome de Sjogren/tratamento farmacológico
17.
Clinics (Sao Paulo) ; 75: e1643, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32267395

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Aromatase inhibitors are the first-choice drugs for the treatment of hormone sensitive breast cancer. However, in addition to the scarcity of studies, there are controversies about their effects on vaginal epithelial cell proliferation in rats, especially those in persistent estrus. METHODS: To investigate vaginal epithelial cell proliferation by Ki-67 antigen expression, persistent estrus was induced in 42 randomly selected rats. These rats were randomly divided into 2 groups: group I (control, n=21), which received 0.1 mL of propylene glycol (vehicle) daily, and group II (experimental, n=21), which received 0.5 mg/kg or 0.125 mg/day of anastrozole diluted with 0.1 mL of propylene glycol. RESULTS: Light microscopy showed a higher concentration of cells with brown Ki-67 stained nuclei in the control compared to the experimental group. The mean percentage of Ki-67 stained nuclei per 500 cells in the vaginal epithelium was 68.64±2.64 and 30.46±2.00 [mean±standard error of the mean (SEM)] in the control and experimental groups, respectively (p<0.003). CONCLUSION: This study showed that anastrozole, at the dose and treatment duration selected, significantly decreased cell proliferation in the vaginal mucosa of the rats in persistent estrus.


Assuntos
Anastrozol/farmacologia , Epitélio/efeitos dos fármacos , Estro/metabolismo , Antígeno Ki-67/metabolismo , Vagina/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Epitélio/metabolismo , Feminino , Antígeno Ki-67/efeitos dos fármacos , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Vagina/metabolismo
18.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 1921, 2020 04 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32317641

RESUMO

Actomyosin supracellular networks emerge during development and tissue repair. These cytoskeletal structures are able to generate large scale forces that can extensively remodel epithelia driving tissue buckling, closure and extension. How supracellular networks emerge, are controlled and mechanically work still remain elusive. During Drosophila oogenesis, the egg chamber elongates along the anterior-posterior axis. Here we show that a dorsal-ventral polarized supracellular F-actin network, running around the egg chamber on the basal side of follicle cells, emerges from polarized intercellular filopodia that radiate from basal stress fibers and extend penetrating neighboring cell cortexes. Filopodia can be mechanosensitive and function as cell-cell anchoring sites. The small GTPase Cdc42 governs the formation and distribution of intercellular filopodia and stress fibers in follicle cells. Finally, our study shows that a Cdc42-dependent supracellular cytoskeletal network provides a scaffold integrating local oscillatory actomyosin contractions at the tissue scale to drive global polarized forces and tissue elongation.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Drosophila/metabolismo , Drosophila/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação ao GTP/metabolismo , Oogênese , Actinas/metabolismo , Actomiosina/metabolismo , Animais , Anisotropia , Adesão Celular , Polaridade Celular , Citoesqueleto/metabolismo , Epitélio/metabolismo , Feminino , Glutationa Transferase/metabolismo , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/metabolismo , Miosina Tipo II/metabolismo , Optogenética , Pseudópodes/metabolismo , Interferência de RNA
19.
J Anim Sci ; 98(4)2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32227169

RESUMO

The objectives were to determine the effects of forage level and grain processing on whole-body urea kinetics, N balance, serosal-to-mucosal urea flux (Jsm-urea), and messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) abundance of urea transporter-B (UT-B; SLC14a1) and aquaporins (AQP) in ovine ruminal, duodenal, and cecal epithelia. Thirty-two wether lambs were blocked by body weight into groups of four and assigned to one of four diets (n = 8) in a 2 × 2 factorial design. Dietary factors were forage level (30% [LF] vs. 70% [HF]) and corn grain processing (whole-shelled [WS] vs. steam-flaked [SF]). Four blocks of lambs (n = 4) were used to determine urea kinetics and N balance using 4-d [15N15N]-urea infusions with concurrent fecal and urine collections. Lambs were killed after 23 d of dietary adaptation. Ruminal, duodenal, and cecal epithelia were collected to determine Jsm-urea and mRNA abundance of UT-B and AQP. Lambs fed LF had greater intakes of dry matter (DMI; 1.20 vs. 0.86 kg/d) and N (NI; 20.1 vs. 15.0 g/d) than those fed HF (P < 0.01). Lambs fed SF had greater DMI (1.20 vs. 0.86 kg/d) and NI (20.6 vs. 14.5 g/d) than those fed WS (P < 0.01). As a percentage of NI, total N excretion was greater in lambs fed HF compared with those fed LF (103% vs. 63.0%; P < 0.01) and was also greater in lambs fed WS compared with those fed SF (93.6% vs. 72.1%; P = 0.02). Retained N (% of NI) was greater in lambs fed LF compared with those fed HF (37.0% vs. -2.55%; P < 0.01). Lambs fed SF had a greater (P = 0.02) retained N (% of NI; 28.0% vs. 6.50%) compared with those fed WS. Endogenous urea production (UER) tended (P = 0.09) to be greater in lambs fed HF compared with those fed LF. As a proportion of UER, lambs fed HF had a greater urinary urea-N loss (0.38 vs. 0.22) and lower urea-N transferred to the gastrointestinal tract (GIT; 0.62 vs. 0.78) or urea-N used for anabolism (as a proportion of urea-N transferred to the GIT; 0.12 vs. 0.26) compared with lambs fed LF (P < 0.01). Ruminal Jsm-urea was unaffected by diet. Duodenal Jsm-urea was greater (P < 0.01) in lambs fed HF compared with LF (77.5 vs. 57.2 nmol/[cm2 × h]). Lambs fed LF had greater (P = 0.03) mRNA expression of AQP3 in ruminal epithelia and tended (P = 0.06) to have greater mRNA expression of AQP3 in duodenal epithelia compared with lambs fed HF. Expression of UT-B mRNA was unaffected by diet. Our results showed that feeding more ruminally available energy improved N utilization, partly through a greater proportion of UER being transferred to the GIT and being used for anabolic purposes.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Energia , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Ovinos/fisiologia , Ureia/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Aquaporinas/genética , Dieta/veterinária , Grão Comestível , Epitélio/metabolismo , Fezes/química , Fermentação , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Cinética , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/genética , Distribuição Aleatória , Ovinos/genética , Zea mays
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32293931

RESUMO

The porcine lens response to a hyperosmotic stimulus involves an increase in the activity of an ion cotransporter sodium-potassium/two-chloride cotransporter 1 (NKCC1). Recent studies with agonists and antagonists pointed to a mechanism that appears to depend on activation of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) ion channels. Here, we compare responses in lenses and cultured lens epithelium obtained from TRPV1-/- and wild type (WT) mice. Hydrostatic pressure (HP) in lens surface cells was determined using a manometer-coupled microelectrode approach. The TRPV1 agonist capsaicin (100 nM) caused a transient HP increase in WT lenses that peaked after ∼30 min and then returned toward baseline. Capsaicin did not cause a detectable change of HP in TRPV1-/- lenses. The NKCC inhibitor bumetanide prevented the HP response to capsaicin in WT lenses. Potassium transport was examined by measuring Rb+ uptake. Capsaicin increased Rb+ uptake in cultured WT lens epithelial cells but not in TRPV1-/- cells. Bumetanide, A889425, and the Akt inhibitor Akti prevented the Rb+ uptake response to capsaicin. The bumetanide-sensitive (NKCC-dependent) component of Rb+ uptake more than doubled in response to capsaicin. Capsaicin also elicited rapid (<2 min) NKCC1 phosphorylation in WT but not TRPV1-/- cells. HP recovery was shown to be absent in TRPV1-/- lenses exposed to hyperosmotic solution. Bumetanide and Akti prevented HP recovery in WT lenses exposed to hyperosmotic solution. Taken together, responses to capsaicin and hyperosmotic solution point to a functional role for TRPV1 channels in mouse lens. Lack of NKCC1 phosphorylation and Rb+ uptake responses in TRPV1-/- mouse epithelium reinforces the notion that a hyperosmotic challenge causes TRPV1-dependent NKCC1 activation. The results are consistent with a role for the TRPV1-activated signaling pathway leading to NKCC1 stimulation in lens osmotic homeostasis.


Assuntos
Cristalino/metabolismo , Membro 2 da Família 12 de Carreador de Soluto/genética , Canais de Cátion TRPV/genética , Animais , Bumetanida/farmacologia , Capsaicina/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular , Epitélio/efeitos dos fármacos , Epitélio/metabolismo , Humanos , Pressão Hidrostática/efeitos adversos , Cristalino/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Suínos
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