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1.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2767, 2020 06 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32488095

RESUMO

The pathophysiological nature of the common ABCG2 gout and hyperuricemia associated variant Q141K (rs2231142) remains undefined. Here, we use a human interventional cohort study (ACTRN12615001302549) to understand the physiological role of ABCG2 and find that participants with the Q141K ABCG2 variant display elevated serum urate, unaltered FEUA, and significant evidence of reduced extra-renal urate excretion. We explore mechanisms by generating a mouse model of the orthologous Q140K Abcg2 variant and find male mice have significant hyperuricemia and metabolic alterations, but only subtle alterations of renal urate excretion and ABCG2 abundance. By contrast, these mice display a severe defect in ABCG2 abundance and function in the intestinal tract. These results suggest a tissue specific pathobiology of the Q141K variant, support an important role for ABCG2 in urate excretion in both the human kidney and intestinal tract, and provide insight into the importance of intestinal urate excretion for serum urate homeostasis.


Assuntos
Membro 2 da Subfamília G de Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Gota/metabolismo , Hiperuricemia/metabolismo , Ácido Úrico/metabolismo , Membro 2 da Subfamília G de Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Alelos , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Epitélio/metabolismo , Epitélio/patologia , Proteínas Facilitadoras de Transporte de Glucose/genética , Proteínas Facilitadoras de Transporte de Glucose/metabolismo , Gota/genética , Gota/patologia , Homeostase , Humanos , Intestinos/patologia , Rim/metabolismo , Rim/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Proteínas de Neoplasias , Fenótipo , Ácido Úrico/sangue
2.
Prostate ; 80(12): 938-949, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32542667

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The clinical manifestation of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is causally linked to the inflammatory microenvironment and proliferation of epithelial and stromal cells in the prostate transitional zone. The CXC-chemokine interleukin-8 (IL-8) contributes to inflammation. We evaluated the expression of inflammatory cytokines in clinical specimens, primary cultures, and prostatic lineage cell lines. We investigated whether IL-8 via its receptor system (IL-8 axis) promotes BPH. METHODS: The messenger RNA and protein expression of chemokines, including components of the IL-8 axis, were measured in normal prostate (NP; n = 7) and BPH (n = 21), urine (n = 24) specimens, primary cultures, prostatic lineage epithelial cell lines (NHPrE1, BHPrE1, BPH-1), and normal prostate cells (RWPE-1). The functional role of the IL-8 axis in prostate epithelial cell growth was evaluated by CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing. The effect of a combination with two natural compounds, oleanolic acid (OA) and ursolic acid (UA), was evaluated on the expression of the IL-8 axis and epithelial cell growth. RESULTS: Among the 19 inflammatory chemokines and chemokine receptors we analyzed, levels of IL-8 and its receptors (CXCR1, CXCR2), as well as, of CXCR7, a receptor for CXCL12, were 5- to 25-fold elevated in BPH tissues when compared to NP tissues (P ≤ .001). Urinary IL-8 levels were threefold to sixfold elevated in BPH patients, but not in asymptomatic males and females with lower urinary tract symptoms (P ≤ .004). The expression of the IL-8 axis components was confined to the prostate luminal epithelial cells in both normal and BPH tissues. However, these components were elevated in BPH-1 and primary explant cultures as compared to RWPE-1, NHPrE1, and BHPrE1 cells. Knockout of CXCR7 reduced IL-8, and CXCR1 expression by 4- to 10-fold and caused greater than or equal to 50% growth inhibition in BPH-1 cells. Low-dose OA + UA combination synergistically inhibited the growth of BPH-1 and BPH primary cultures. In the combination, the drug reduction indices for UA and OA were 16.4 and 7852, respectively, demonstrating that the combination was effective in inhibiting BPH-1 growth at significantly reduced doses of UA or OA alone. CONCLUSION: The IL-8 axis is a promotor of BPH pathogenesis. Low-dose OA + UA combination inhibits BPH cell growth by inducing autophagy and reducing IL-8 axis expression in BPH-epithelial cells.


Assuntos
Interleucina-8/metabolismo , Próstata/metabolismo , Próstata/patologia , Hiperplasia Prostática/metabolismo , Hiperplasia Prostática/patologia , Receptores CXCR/metabolismo , Processos de Crescimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Células Cultivadas , Epitélio/efeitos dos fármacos , Epitélio/metabolismo , Epitélio/patologia , Humanos , Interleucina-8/biossíntese , Interleucina-8/genética , Masculino , Ácido Oleanólico/farmacologia , Próstata/efeitos dos fármacos , Hiperplasia Prostática/tratamento farmacológico , Hiperplasia Prostática/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Receptores CXCR/biossíntese , Receptores CXCR/genética , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Triterpenos/farmacologia
3.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2660, 2020 05 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32461556

RESUMO

High-grade serous ovarian cancer (HG-SOC)-often referred to as a "silent killer"-is the most lethal gynecological malignancy. The fallopian tube (murine oviduct) and ovarian surface epithelium (OSE) are considered the main candidate tissues of origin of this cancer. However, the relative contribution of each tissue to HG-SOC is not yet clear. Here, we establish organoid-based tumor progression models of HG-SOC from murine oviductal and OSE tissues. We use CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing to introduce mutations into genes commonly found mutated in HG-SOC, such as Trp53, Brca1, Nf1 and Pten. Our results support the dual origin hypothesis of HG-SOC, as we demonstrate that both epithelia can give rise to ovarian tumors with high-grade pathology. However, the mutated oviductal organoids expand much faster in vitro and more readily form malignant tumors upon transplantation. Furthermore, in vitro drug testing reveals distinct lineage-dependent sensitivities to the common drugs used to treat HG-SOC in patients.


Assuntos
Sistemas CRISPR-Cas/genética , Organoides , Neoplasias Ovarianas/etiologia , Animais , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína 9 Associada à CRISPR , Epitélio/patologia , Tubas Uterinas/patologia , Feminino , Edição de Genes/métodos , Camundongos , Mutação , Neurofibromatose 1/genética , Técnicas de Cultura de Órgãos/métodos , Organoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Organoides/fisiopatologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Ovário/patologia , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase/genética , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética
4.
Anticancer Res ; 40(5): 2627-2635, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32366407

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is an aggressive head and neck malignancy. The aim of this study was to elucidate the role of periostin (POSTN) in the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) process mediating the acquisition of radioresistance in HNSCC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The expression levels of EMT hallmark genes including POSTN and Erk/Akt signaling pathways were compared between radiosensitive and radioresistant HNSCC cells. RESULTS: POSTN mRNA expression was higher in radioresistant HNSCC cells, and silencing POSTN significantly impaired their invasiveness under the effect of EMT process represented by up-regulation of mesenchymal markers and down-regulation of an epithelial marker. Expression levels of Erk and Akt were higher in radioresistant cells. CONCLUSION: POSTN in association with the Erk and Akt signaling pathways was up-regulated during the EMT process, leading to the conversion of radiosensitive to radioresistant HNSCC cells. POSTN may be a key marker for predicting the radioresistance and therapeutic target of HNSCC.


Assuntos
Moléculas de Adesão Celular/metabolismo , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/metabolismo , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/patologia , Tolerância a Radiação , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Regulação para Baixo , Epitélio/metabolismo , Epitélio/patologia , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/genética , Humanos , Mesoderma/patologia , Invasividade Neoplásica , Tolerância a Radiação/genética , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/patologia
5.
Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol ; 319(1): L82-L90, 2020 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32401676

RESUMO

Goblet cell metaplasia (GCM) and mucin overproduction are a hallmark of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In the airways, cigarette smoke (CS) induces activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) leading to GCM and overexpression of the gel-forming mucin MUC5AC. Although previous studies have demonstrated that a membrane-bound mucin, MUC1, modulates the activation of CS-induced EGFR, the role of MUC1 in CS-induced GCM and mucin overproduction has not been explored. In response to CS exposure, wild-type (WT) rats displayed Muc1 translocation from the apical surface of airway epithelium to the intracellular compartment of hyperplastic intermediate cells, EGFR phosphorylation, GCM, and Muc5ac overproduction. Similarly, human CRS sinonasal tissues demonstrated hyperplasia of intermediate cells enriched with MUC1 in the intracellular compartment, which was accompanied by GCM and increased MUC5AC expression. To further evaluate the role of Muc1 in vivo, a Muc1 knockout (KO) rat (MUC in humans and Muc in animals) was developed. In contrast to WT littermates, Muc1-KO rats exhibited no activation of EGFR, and were protected from GCM and Muc5ac overproduction. Genetic knockdown of MUC1 in human lung or Muc1 knockout in primary rat airway epithelial cells led to significantly diminished EGF-induced MUC5AC production. Together, these findings suggest that MUC1-dependent EGFR activation mediates CS-induced GCM and mucin overproduction. Strategies designed to suppress MUC1-dependent EGFR activation may provide a novel therapeutic approach for treating mucin hypersecretion in CRS and COPD.


Assuntos
Células Caliciformes/metabolismo , Mucina-5AC/metabolismo , Mucina-1/metabolismo , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Polaridade Celular , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Epitélio/metabolismo , Epitélio/patologia , Receptores ErbB/metabolismo , Células Caliciformes/patologia , Metaplasia , Fosforilação , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
6.
Nat Genet ; 52(6): 604-614, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32424351

RESUMO

During aging, progenitor cells acquire mutations, which may generate clones that colonize the surrounding tissue. By middle age, normal human tissues, including the esophageal epithelium (EE), become a patchwork of mutant clones. Despite their relevance for understanding aging and cancer, the processes that underpin mutational selection in normal tissues remain poorly understood. Here, we investigated this issue in the esophageal epithelium of mutagen-treated mice. Deep sequencing identified numerous mutant clones with multiple genes under positive selection, including Notch1, Notch2 and Trp53, which are also selected in human esophageal epithelium. Transgenic lineage tracing revealed strong clonal competition that evolved over time. Clone dynamics were consistent with a simple model in which the proliferative advantage conferred by positively selected mutations depends on the nature of the neighboring cells. When clones with similar competitive fitness collide, mutant cell fate reverts towards homeostasis, a constraint that explains how selection operates in normal-appearing epithelium.


Assuntos
Esôfago/citologia , Mutação , Proteína ADAM10/genética , Secretases da Proteína Precursora do Amiloide/genética , Animais , Linhagem da Célula , Dietilnitrosamina/toxicidade , Epitélio/efeitos dos fármacos , Epitélio/patologia , Epitélio/fisiologia , Esôfago/fisiologia , Feminino , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos , Receptor Notch1/genética , Receptor Notch2/genética , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética
7.
BMC Surg ; 20(1): 111, 2020 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32448270

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Laparoscopy induces adhesion due to ischemia-reperfusion injury. However, the detail pathomechanism is poorly understood. This study aimed to investigate the impact of laparoscopy on mast cell and mesothelium morphological changes in the rat. METHODS: Forty-nine males of Sprague-Dawley Rattus norvegicus were divided into four groups: a) control and b) intervention groups P1, P2, and P3 that underwent 60 min laparoscopic using carbon dioxide (CO2) insufflation at 8, 10, and 12 mmHg groups, respectively. Serum hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), and oxidative stress index (OSI) levels were determined 24 h after laparoscopy. Histopathological analyses of mast cell infiltration and degranulation and mesothelium thickness in the liver, greater omentum, mesenterium, small intestine, and peritoneum were performed 7 days after the procedure. RESULTS: H2O2, MDA, and OSI levels were significantly increased in the intervention groups compared with the control (p<0.05), while the SOD and CAT levels were decreased in the intervention groups compared with the control (p<0.05). Mast cell infiltration and degranulation were higher in the intervention groups than in control (p<0.05), while the mesothelium thickness was significantly lower in the laparoscopic groups than in control (p<0.05). Interestingly, the decrease in mesothelium thickness was strongly associated with the increase in mast cell infiltration and degranulation (p<0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Our study shows that laparoscopy in rats increases mast cell infiltration and degranulation, which also results in and correlates with a decrease in mesothelial thickness.


Assuntos
Degranulação Celular/fisiologia , Laparoscopia/efeitos adversos , Mastócitos/patologia , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/etiologia , Animais , Epitélio/patologia , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/sangue , Intestino Delgado/patologia , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
8.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(15): 8515-8523, 2020 04 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32238563

RESUMO

Stromal-epithelial interactions dictate cancer progression and therapeutic response. Prostate cancer (PCa) cells were identified to secrete greater concentration of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) compared to noncancer epithelia. Based on the recognized coevolution of cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAF) with tumor progression, we tested the role of cancer-derived mtDNA in a mechanism of paracrine signaling. We found that prostatic CAF expressed DEC205, which was not expressed by normal tissue-associated fibroblasts. DEC205 is a transmembrane protein that bound mtDNA and contributed to pattern recognition by Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9). Complement C3 was the dominant gene targeted by TLR9-induced NF-κB signaling in CAF. The subsequent maturation complement C3 maturation to anaphylatoxin C3a was dependent on PCa epithelial inhibition of catalase in CAF. In a syngeneic tissue recombination model of PCa and associated fibroblast, the antagonism of the C3a receptor and the fibroblastic knockout of TLR9 similarly resulted in immune suppression with a significant reduction in tumor progression, compared to saline-treated tumors associated with wild-type prostatic fibroblasts. Interestingly, docetaxel, a common therapy for advanced PCa, further promoted mtDNA secretion in cultured epithelia, mice, and PCa patients. The antiapoptotic signaling downstream of anaphylatoxin C3a signaling in tumor cells contributed to docetaxel resistance. The inhibition of C3a receptor sensitized PCa epithelia to docetaxel in a synergistic manner. Tumor models of human PCa epithelia with CAF expanded similarly in mice in the presence or absence of docetaxel. The combination therapy of docetaxel and C3 receptor antagonist disrupted the mtDNA/C3a paracrine loop and restored docetaxel sensitivity.


Assuntos
Anafilatoxinas/metabolismo , Fibroblastos Associados a Câncer/patologia , DNA Mitocondrial/metabolismo , Docetaxel/farmacologia , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Epitélio/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Animais , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Apoptose , Fibroblastos Associados a Câncer/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibroblastos Associados a Câncer/metabolismo , Epitélio/efeitos dos fármacos , Epitélio/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Nus , Comunicação Parácrina , Neoplasias da Próstata/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Próstata/metabolismo , Receptor Toll-Like 9/metabolismo , Células Tumorais Cultivadas , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
9.
Arch Oral Biol ; 113: 104688, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32146149

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: investigate the T102C polymorphism of 5HT2A receptor in dysplasia in oral potentially malignant lesions and its association with smoking and alcohol habits. METHODS: case-control study that included patients with oral potentially malignant lesions (OPML) histopathologically diagnosed with dysplasia and healthy controls, and within these group patients with and without smoking and alcohol consumption habits. Cell samples from the oral lesions were collected with the patients previously anesthetized using disposable cytological brushes. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) extraction was performed and the T102C polymorphism (rs6313) was genotyped in a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) allelic discrimination assays. RESULTS: 110 individuals were included in this study (38 with dysplasia and 72 controls). The genotype (p = 0.016), allele (p = 0.020) and smoking habits (<0.001) distribution differed significantly between dysplasia and control group, where the CT and TT (C - cytosine/ T - thymine) genotype and the T allele showed a higher frequency in dysplasia (65.6, 18.8 and 84.4 %, respectively) than in controls (55.7, 4.9 and 60.7). Concerning smoking habits, the higher frequency was in the dysplasia group. The multivariate logistic regression analysis, associating variables of interest and the presence of dysplasia, showed that individuals with smoking habits present 7.58 increase risk to develop dysplasia than non-smokers; and individuals carrying the T allele for the T102C polymorphism have a 4.6 increased risk to develop oral dysplasia in OPML. CONCLUSIONS: the T102C polymorphism is associated with oral dysplasia in OPML, however, failed to show association with smoking and alcohol habits in OPML dysplasia.


Assuntos
Mucosa Bucal/patologia , Polimorfismo Genético , Receptor 5-HT2A de Serotonina/genética , Alelos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Epitélio/patologia , Genótipo , Humanos , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/genética , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/patologia
10.
Infect Immun ; 88(4)2020 03 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32094253

RESUMO

Bacterial vaginosis (BV), a disorder of the female reproductive tract (FRT) in which a healthy Lactobacillus-dominant microflora is replaced by BV-associated bacteria (BVAB), can significantly increase the incidence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) acquisition. Discerning the effect of BV on the mucosal epithelium of the FRT may yield novel preventatives and therapeutics for HIV infection. Here, we investigated barrier dysfunction of the endocervix by host-derived factors, secreted in response to BV, as a potential cause of HIV infection. Using a polarized endocervical cell culture system, we determined that conditioned media (CM) from endocervical cells cocultured with BVAB (endocervical+BVAB CM), as well as cervicovaginal fluid (CVF) from women with BV, disrupted epithelial polarization. We assessed host matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) as the BV-associated secreted factors which disrupt the endocervical epithelium. MMPs were overexpressed in endocervical+BVAB CM and CVF from women with BV and were capable of disrupting endocervical epithelial polarization. When we cocultured polarized endocervical cells with HIV-1-infected lymphocyte-derived cells, we discovered endocervical+BVAB CM and MMPs significantly increased the transmigration of virus through the epithelium, and treatment with an MMP inhibitor decreased these effects. When we examined the effect of CVF on HIV-1 transmigration through endocervical epithelium, we demonstrated that CVF samples with greater concentrations of BV-associated MMPs increased viral transmigration. Our results suggest MMPs increase HIV-1 infection by disrupting the endocervical epithelium, permitting transmigration of virus through the epithelium to infect underlying target cells.


Assuntos
Movimento Celular , Endométrio/patologia , Epitélio/patologia , Linfócitos/fisiologia , Metaloproteinases da Matriz/metabolismo , Permeabilidade , Vaginose Bacteriana/patologia , Células Cultivadas , Feminino , HIV-1/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Humanos , Linfócitos/virologia , Modelos Teóricos
11.
Cancer Cell ; 37(2): 226-242.e7, 2020 02 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32049047

RESUMO

The inter-differentiation between cell states promotes cancer cell survival under stress and fosters non-genetic heterogeneity (NGH). NGH is, therefore, a surrogate of tumor resilience but its quantification is confounded by genetic heterogeneity. Here we show that NGH in serous ovarian cancer (SOC) can be accurately measured when informed by the molecular signatures of the normal fallopian tube epithelium (FTE) cells, the cells of origin of SOC. Surveying the transcriptomes of ∼6,000 FTE cells, predominantly from non-ovarian cancer patients, identified 6 FTE subtypes. We used subtype signatures to deconvolute SOC expression data and found substantial intra-tumor NGH. Importantly, NGH-based stratification of ∼1,700 tumors robustly correlated with survival. Our findings lay the foundation for accurate prognostic and therapeutic stratification of SOC.


Assuntos
Células Epiteliais/patologia , Neoplasias das Tubas Uterinas/metabolismo , Tubas Uterinas/patologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Cistadenocarcinoma Seroso/genética , Cistadenocarcinoma Seroso/metabolismo , Cistadenocarcinoma Seroso/patologia , Epitélio/metabolismo , Epitélio/patologia , Neoplasias das Tubas Uterinas/genética , Neoplasias das Tubas Uterinas/patologia , Tubas Uterinas/metabolismo , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/genética , Heterogeneidade Genética , Humanos , Neoplasias Ovarianas/metabolismo
12.
Cancer Res ; 80(4): 843-856, 2020 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31911549

RESUMO

Among malignant mesotheliomas (MM), the sarcomatoid subtype is associated with higher chemoresistance and worst survival. Due to its low incidence, there has been little progress in the knowledge of the molecular mechanisms associated with sarcomatoid MM, which might help to define novel therapeutic targets. In this work, we show that loss of PTEN expression is frequent in human sarcomatoid MM and PTEN expression levels are lower in sarcomatoid MM than in the biphasic and epithelioid subtypes. Combined Pten and Trp53 deletion in mouse mesothelium led to nonepithelioid MM development. In Pten;Trp53-null mice developing MM, the Gαi2-coupled receptor subunit activated MEK/ERK and PI3K, resulting in aggressive, immune-suppressed tumors. Combined inhibition of MEK and p110ß/PI3K reduced mouse tumor cell growth in vitro. Therapeutic inhibition of MEK and p110ß/PI3K using selumetinib (AZD6244, ARRY-142886) and AZD8186, two drugs that are currently in clinical trials, increased the survival of Pten;Trp53-null mice without major toxicity. This drug combination effectively reduced the proliferation of primary cultures of human pleural (Pl) MM, implicating nonepithelioid histology and high vimentin, AKT1/2, and Gαi2 expression levels as predictive markers of response to combined MEK and p110ß/PI3K inhibition. Our findings provide a rationale for the use of selumetinib and AZD8186 in patients with MM with sarcomatoid features. This constitutes a novel targeted therapy for a poor prognosis and frequently chemoresistant group of patients with MM, for whom therapeutic options are currently lacking. SIGNIFICANCE: Mesothelioma is highly aggressive; its sarcomatoid variants have worse prognosis. Building on a genetic mouse model, a novel combination therapy is uncovered that is relevant to human tumors.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacologia , Classe I de Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Mesotelioma/tratamento farmacológico , Quinases de Proteína Quinase Ativadas por Mitógeno/antagonistas & inibidores , Neoplasias Peritoneais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pleurais/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Compostos de Anilina/farmacologia , Compostos de Anilina/uso terapêutico , Animais , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Benzimidazóis/farmacologia , Benzimidazóis/uso terapêutico , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Cromonas/farmacologia , Cromonas/uso terapêutico , Classe I de Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Epitélio/patologia , Feminino , Técnicas de Introdução de Genes , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Mesotelioma/genética , Mesotelioma/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Quinases de Proteína Quinase Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Terapia de Alvo Molecular/métodos , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase/genética , Neoplasias Peritoneais/genética , Neoplasias Peritoneais/patologia , Peritônio/patologia , Pleura/patologia , Neoplasias Pleurais/genética , Neoplasias Pleurais/patologia , Cultura Primária de Células , Prognóstico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética
13.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 1378, 2020 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31992777

RESUMO

Previous work showed that the thymus can be infected by RNA viruses as HIV and HTLV-1. We thus hypothesized that the thymus might also be infected by the Zika virus (ZIKV). Herein we provide compelling evidence that ZIKV targets human thymic epithelial cells (TEC) in vivo and in vitro. ZIKV-infection enhances keratinization of TEC, with a decrease in proliferation and increase in cell death. Moreover, ZIKV modulates a high amount of coding RNAs with upregulation of genes related to cell adhesion and migration, as well as non-coding genes including miRNAs, circRNAs and lncRNAs. Moreover, we observed enhanced attachment of lymphoblastic T-cells to infected TEC, as well as virus transfer to those cells. Lastly, alterations in thymuses from babies congenitally infected were seen, with the presence of viral envelope protein in TEC. Taken together, our data reveals that the thymus, particularly the thymic epithelium, is a target for the ZIKV with changes in the expression of molecules that are relevant for interactions with developing thymocytes.


Assuntos
Células Epiteliais , Timócitos , Timo , Tropismo Viral , Infecção por Zika virus , Zika virus/fisiologia , Animais , Chlorocebus aethiops , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/patologia , Células Epiteliais/virologia , Epitélio/metabolismo , Epitélio/patologia , Epitélio/virologia , Humanos , Timócitos/metabolismo , Timócitos/patologia , Timócitos/virologia , Timo/metabolismo , Timo/patologia , Timo/virologia , Células Vero , Infecção por Zika virus/metabolismo , Infecção por Zika virus/patologia
14.
Biomarkers ; 25(2): 157-163, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31916460

RESUMO

Background: Previous studies have demonstrated the diagnostic value of glucose transporter 1 (GLUT-1) to distinguish malignant mesothelioma (MM) from reactive mesothelial cells (RMC), but the results are inconsistent. The purpose of this meta-analysis is to investigate the diagnostic accuracy of GLUT-1 in distinguishing MM from RMC.Methods: A systematical search was conducted until May 2019 in PubMed, Medline, Embase and the Cochrane Library. The revised tool for the quality assessment of diagnostic accuracy studies (QUADAS-2) was used to assess the quality of the eligible studies. The Stata15 and Review Manager5.3 software programmes were used to perform the meta-analysis.Results: A total of 24 studies, including 969 MM patients and 1080 RMC individuals were explored in the meta-analysis. The summary assessments revealed that the pooled sensitivity was 0.73 (95% CI, 0.62-0.81) and the pooled specificity was 0.95 (95% CI, 0.91-0.98). The area under the summary ROC curve (AUC) was 0.93 (95% CI: 0.91-0.95).Conclusions: GLUT-1 is highly accurate to distinguish MM from RMC.


Assuntos
Epitélio/patologia , Transportador de Glucose Tipo 1/análise , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico , Mesotelioma/diagnóstico , Biomarcadores Tumorais/análise , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Humanos , Curva ROC , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
15.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(2): 1931-1943, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31837780

RESUMO

This study aimed to examine the role of thiamine in the local inflammation of ruminal epithelium caused by high-concentrate diets. Eighteen mid-lactating (148 ± 3 d in milk; milk yield = 0.71 ± 0.0300 kg/d) Saanen goats (body weight = 36.5 ± 1.99 kg; body condition score = 2.73 ± 0.16, where 0 = emaciated and 5 = obese) in parity 1 or 2 were selected. The goats were randomly divided into 3 groups (n = 6/group): (1) control diet (concentrate:forage 30:70), (2) high-concentrate diet (HC; concentrate:forage 70:30), and (3) high-concentrate diet with 200 mg of thiamine/kg of dry matter intake (THC; concentrate:forage 70:30). Goats remained on experimental diets for 8 wk. On the last day of 8 wk, ruminal and blood samples were collected to determine ruminal parameters, endotoxin lipopolysaccharide, and blood inflammatory cytokines. Goats were slaughtered to collect ruminal tissue to determine gene and protein expression of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling pathways. Thiamine supplementation increased ruminal pH (6.03 vs. 5.42) compared with the HC group. Propionate (21.08 vs. 31.61 mM), butyrate (12.08 vs. 19.39 mM), lactate (0.52 vs. 0.71 mM), and free lipopolysaccharide (42.16 vs. 55.87 × 103 endotoxin units/mL) concentrations in ruminal fluid were lower in THC goats compared with HC goats. Similar to plasma interleukin 1ß (IL-1ß) concentration (209.31 vs. 257.23 pg/mL), blood CD8+ percentage (27.57 vs. 34.07%) also decreased in response to thiamine. Compared with HC goats, THC goats had lower ruminal epithelium activity of the enzymes myeloperoxidase and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 2 and 9. In contrast to HC, THC had downregulated mRNA expression of nuclear factor-κB (NFKB), TLR4, IL1B, MMP2, and MMP9 in ruminal epithelium. Thiamine supplementation led to lower relative protein expression of IL-1ß, NF-κB unit p65, and phosphorylated NF-κB unit p65 in ruminal epithelium. Taken together, these results suggest that thiamine supplementation mitigates HC-induced local inflammation and ruminal epithelial disruption.


Assuntos
Acidose/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Inflamação/veterinária , Leite/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Tiamina/farmacologia , Acidose/tratamento farmacológico , Acidose/patologia , Animais , Citocinas/análise , Dieta/veterinária , Epitélio/metabolismo , Epitélio/patologia , Feminino , Cabras , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Lactação , Lipopolissacarídeos/análise , Distribuição Aleatória , Rúmen/metabolismo , Rúmen/patologia
16.
Am J Pathol ; 190(1): 93-107, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31669305

RESUMO

Fibrolamellar carcinoma (FLC) is characterized by in-frame fusion of DnaJ heat shock protein family (Hsp40) member B1 (DNAJB1) with protein kinase cAMP-activated catalytic subunit α (PRKACA) and by dense desmoplasia. Surgery is the only effective treatment because mechanisms supporting tumor survival are unknown. We used single-cell RNA sequencing to characterize a patient-derived FLC xenograft model and identify therapeutic targets. Human FLC cells segregated into four discrete clusters that all expressed the oncogene Yes-associated protein 1 (YAP1). The two communities most enriched with cells coexpressing FLC markers [CD68, A-kinase anchoring protein 12 (AKAP12), cytokeratin 7, epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EPCAM), and carbamoyl palmitate synthase-1] also had the most cells expressing YAP1 and its proproliferative target genes (AREG and CCND1), suggesting these were proliferative FLC cell clusters. The other two clusters were enriched with cells expressing profibrotic YAP1 target genes, ACTA2, ELN, and COL1A1, indicating these were fibrogenic FLC cells. All clusters expressed the YAP1 target gene and mesothelial progenitor marker mesothelin, and many mesothelin-positive cells coexpressed albumin. Trajectory analysis predicted that the four FLC communities were derived from a single cell type transitioning among phenotypic states. After establishing a novel FLC cell line that harbored the DNAJB1-PRKACA fusion, YAP1 was inhibited, which significantly reduced expression of known YAP1 target genes as well as cell growth and migration. Thus, both FLC epithelial and stromal cells appear to arise from DNAJB1-PRKACA fusion in a YAP1-dependent liver mesothelial progenitor, identifying YAP1 as a target for FLC therapy.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/metabolismo , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Epitélio/patologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Fígado/patologia , Análise de Célula Única/métodos , Células-Tronco/patologia , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Animais , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/genética , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Epitélio/metabolismo , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Fígado/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos SCID , Células-Tronco/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Células Tumorais Cultivadas , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
17.
J Oral Pathol Med ; 49(3): 219-226, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31782199

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Analyze the clinical, demographic, histopathological, and immunohistochemical features of oral lymphoepithelial cyst (OLEC). METHODS: Samples were retrospectively retrieved from five oral pathology services. Clinical and demographic data were collected from patient charts. Histopathological and immunohistochemical (CD3 and CD20) features were evaluated. Data analysis involved descriptive statistics and bivariate analyses (P ≤ .05). RESULTS: Seventy-seven cases were found among a total of 146 150 specimens (0.05%). OLEC was predominantly diagnosed in females (70.1%). Mean patient age was 46.51 years. The lesions arose mainly on the lateral border of the tongue (40.3%), measured up to 1 cm (61.0%), and were asymptomatic (64.9%). Twenty-four lesions (31.2%) were white. Forty-one cases (53.2%) presented lymphocytic inflammatory infiltrate with no specific arrangement. The cystic lining was composed of a non-keratinized stratified epithelium (59.7%) presenting hyperplasia (39.0%). Connection with the surface, epithelium was found in 23 cases (29.9%) and 31 (40.3%) cases had two or more cystic cavities. The lumen content was predominantly desquamated cells (48.1%). Subgemmal neurogenous plaque was found in 11/42 (26.2%) cases involving the tongue. CD20+ cells predominated in 36/63 cases (57.2%), and lymphocytic inflammatory infiltrate was not always continuous around the cystic cavity (52.4%). CONCLUSION: Lymphoepithelial cyst is an uncommon lesion of the oral cavity. The present study offers the largest sample of OLEC for which clinical, demographic, histopathological, and immunohistochemical features were evaluated. The clinical and demographic findings were similar to those described in previous reports, but the microscopic analyses revealed interesting aspects of the cystic epithelium and the lymphocytic inflammatory infiltrate in OLEC.


Assuntos
Cistos/patologia , Epitélio/patologia , Doenças da Boca/patologia , Língua/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Brasil , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
18.
J Card Surg ; 35(3): 679-682, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31886917

RESUMO

Mesothelial/monocytic incidental cardiac excrescence (MICE) is a rare benign finding made of mesothelial cells, histiocytes, and fibrin, usually found during heart valve surgery. The clinical relevance resides in the potential misdiagnosis as metastatic carcinoma or arterial embolism. The pathogenesis remains uncertain, with artifactual and reactive hypotheses. Here we present a case of MICE with paradigmatic clinical, imaging, and histological features in a 28-year-old woman with undifferentiated connective tissue disease without previous cardiac catheterization with possible pathogenesis, highlighting the importance of awareness of the existence of this lesion in patients with autoimmune disease.


Assuntos
Doenças Autoimunes/complicações , Cardiomiopatias/patologia , Cardiomiopatias/cirurgia , Doenças do Tecido Conjuntivo/complicações , Epitélio/patologia , Achados Incidentais , Monócitos/patologia , Miocárdio/patologia , Adulto , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos , Cardiomiopatias/etiologia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Humanos
19.
Am J Clin Pathol ; 153(1): 88-93, 2020 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31600399

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: There is recently reported increased prevalence of Isospora organisms in cholecystectomy specimens from immunocompetent patients, especially in acalculous cholecystectomies. We performed an ultrastructural and molecular evaluation of these specimens. METHODS: From 28 gallbladders with intraepithelial inclusions, two specimens with diffuse involvement of the gallbladder epithelium were analyzed by electron microscopy. Polymerase chain reaction was performed on five samples for the ITS2 region of C belli and eukaryotic 18S region. The 18S products were sequenced by next-generation sequencing. RESULTS: Electron microscopic analysis showed cytoplasmic condensations leading to vacuole formation. In contrast with true C belli, there were no identifiable organelles or organization. None of these cases showed amplified products other than human on molecular analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Electron microscopic analysis demonstrates that the inclusions are condensed cytoplasmic material and not true organisms.


Assuntos
Doenças da Vesícula Biliar/diagnóstico , Corpos de Inclusão/ultraestrutura , Colecistectomia , Epitélio/patologia , Epitélio/ultraestrutura , Vesícula Biliar/patologia , Vesícula Biliar/ultraestrutura , Doenças da Vesícula Biliar/patologia , Humanos , Corpos de Inclusão/patologia , Isospora/ultraestrutura , Isosporíase/diagnóstico , Isosporíase/patologia , Microscopia Eletrônica , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Prevalência
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