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1.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2806, 2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32483236

RESUMO

Given the ongoing SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, identification of immunogenic targets against the coronavirus spike glycoprotein will provide crucial advances towards the development of sensitive diagnostic tools and potential vaccine candidate targets. In this study, using pools of overlapping linear B-cell peptides, we report two IgG immunodominant regions on SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein that are recognised by sera from COVID-19 convalescent patients. Notably, one is specific to SARS-CoV-2, which is located in close proximity to the receptor binding domain. The other region, which is localised at the fusion peptide, could potentially function as a pan-SARS target. Functionally, antibody depletion assays demonstrate that antibodies targeting these immunodominant regions significantly alter virus neutralisation capacities. Taken together, identification and validation of these neutralising B-cell epitopes will provide insights towards the design of diagnostics and vaccine candidates against this high priority coronavirus.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Epitopos de Linfócito B , Humanos , Epitopos Imunodominantes , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/química
2.
Immunobiology ; 225(3): 151955, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32517882

RESUMO

SARS Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic has become a global issue which has raised the concern of scientific community to design and discover a counter-measure against this deadly virus. So far, the pandemic has caused the death of hundreds of thousands of people upon infection and spreading. To date, no effective vaccine is available which can combat the infection caused by this virus. Therefore, this study was conducted to design possible epitope-based subunit vaccines against the SARS-CoV-2 virus using the approaches of reverse vaccinology and immunoinformatics. Upon continual computational experimentation, three possible vaccine constructs were designed and one vaccine construct was selected as the best vaccine based on molecular docking study which is supposed to effectively act against the SARS-CoV-2. Thereafter, the molecular dynamics simulation and in silico codon adaptation experiments were carried out in order to check biological stability and find effective mass production strategy of the selected vaccine. This study should contribute to uphold the present efforts of the researches to secure a definitive preventative measure against this lethal disease.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas Virais/química , Vacinas Virais/biossíntese , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Progressão da Doença , Epitopos/química , Epitopos/imunologia , Epitopos de Linfócito B/genética , Epitopos de Linfócito B/imunologia , Epitopos de Linfócito T/genética , Epitopos de Linfócito T/imunologia , Antígenos HLA/genética , Antígenos HLA/imunologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Humanos , Imunogenicidade da Vacina , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Plasmídeos/química , Plasmídeos/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Conformação Proteica , Genética Reversa/métodos , Alinhamento de Sequência , Vacinas de Subunidades , Proteínas Virais/genética , Proteínas Virais/imunologia
3.
Microb Pathog ; 145: 104236, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32376359

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an emerging infectious disease that was first reported in Wuhan, China, and has subsequently spread worldwide. In the absence of any antiviral or immunomodulatory therapies, the disease is spreading at an alarming rate. A possibility of a resurgence of COVID-19 in places where lockdowns have already worked is also developing. Thus, for controlling COVID-19, vaccines may be a better option than drugs. An mRNA-based anti-COVID-19 candidate vaccine has entered a phase 1 clinical trial. However, its efficacy and potency have to be evaluated and validated. Since vaccines have high failure rates, as an alternative, we are presenting a new, designed multi-peptide subunit-based epitope vaccine against COVID-19. The recombinant vaccine construct comprises an adjuvant, cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL), helper T-lymphocyte (HTL), and B-cell epitopes joined by linkers. The computational data suggest that the vaccine is non-toxic, non-allergenic, thermostable, with the capability to elicit a humoral and cell-mediated immune response. The stabilization of the vaccine construct is validated with molecular dynamics simulation studies. This unique vaccine is made up of 33 highly antigenic epitopes from three proteins that have a prominent role in host-receptor recognition, viral entry, and pathogenicity. We advocate this vaccine must be synthesized and tested urgently as a public health priority.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Proteínas do Nucleocapsídeo/imunologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Vacinas de Subunidades/imunologia , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Antígenos Virais/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Epitopos de Linfócito B/imunologia , Epitopos de Linfócito T/imunologia , Humanos , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia
4.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2251, 2020 05 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32366817

RESUMO

The emergence of the novel human coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 in Wuhan, China has caused a worldwide epidemic of respiratory disease (COVID-19). Vaccines and targeted therapeutics for treatment of this disease are currently lacking. Here we report a human monoclonal antibody that neutralizes SARS-CoV-2 (and SARS-CoV) in cell culture. This cross-neutralizing antibody targets a communal epitope on these viruses and may offer potential for prevention and treatment of COVID-19.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/farmacologia , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/farmacologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/farmacologia , Afinidade de Anticorpos/imunologia , Betacoronavirus/química , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Chlorocebus aethiops , Sequência Conservada , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Reações Cruzadas/imunologia , Epitopos de Linfócito B/química , Epitopos de Linfócito B/imunologia , Humanos , Técnicas In Vitro , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Modelos Moleculares , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/química , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Ligação Proteica/efeitos dos fármacos , Domínios Proteicos/imunologia , Receptores Virais/química , Receptores Virais/metabolismo , Vírus da SARS/química , Vírus da SARS/efeitos dos fármacos , Vírus da SARS/imunologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/química , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Células Vero
5.
Indian J Med Res ; 151(2 & 3): 200-209, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32242873

RESUMO

Background & objectives: Since December 2019, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has globally affected 195 countries. In India, suspected cases were screened for SARS-CoV-2 as per the advisory of the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare. The objective of this study was to characterize SARS-CoV-2 sequences from three identified positive cases as on February 29, 2020. Methods: Throat swab/nasal swab specimens for a total of 881 suspected cases were screened by E gene and confirmed by RdRp (1), RdRp (2) and N gene real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reactions and next-generation sequencing. Phylogenetic analysis, molecular characterization and prediction of B- and T-cell epitopes for Indian SARS-CoV-2 sequences were undertaken. Results: Three cases with a travel history from Wuhan, China, were confirmed positive for SARS-CoV-2. Almost complete (29,851 nucleotides) genomes of case 1, case 3 and a fragmented genome for case 2 were obtained. The sequences of Indian SARS-CoV-2 though not identical showed high (~99.98%) identity with Wuhan seafood market pneumonia virus (accession number: NC 045512). Phylogenetic analysis showed that the Indian sequences belonged to different clusters. Predicted linear B-cell epitopes were found to be concentrated in the S1 domain of spike protein, and a conformational epitope was identified in the receptor-binding domain. The predicted T-cell epitopes showed broad human leucocyte antigen allele coverage of A and B supertypes predominant in the Indian population. Interpretation & conclusions: The two SARS-CoV-2 sequences obtained from India represent two different introductions into the country. The genetic heterogeneity is as noted globally. The identified B- and T-cell epitopes may be considered suitable for future experiments towards the design of vaccines and diagnostics. Continuous monitoring and analysis of the sequences of new cases from India and the other affected countries would be vital to understand the genetic evolution and rates of substitution of the SARS-CoV-2.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/genética , Genoma Viral , Infecções por Coronavirus , Epitopos de Linfócito B/genética , Epitopos de Linfócito T/genética , Humanos , Índia , Modelos Moleculares , Pandemias , Filogenia , Pneumonia Viral , Estrutura Terciária de Proteína , RNA Viral/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética
6.
Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 36(1): 26-32, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32314721

RESUMO

Objective To study B cell epitopes of the influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA) by computer simulation and ELISA blocking experiment, and to establish a new method for pathogen microbial epitope detection. Methods The 2009 H1N1 influenza virus inactivated vaccine was used as the immunogen, and the monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) were prepared by conventional hybridoma fusion and screening techniques. The characteristics of mAbs were identified by ELISA, hemagglutination inhibition (HI) and Western blot analysis. The obtained mAbs were used as a tool to predict the epitope of H1N1 influenza virus by ELISA blocking experiment combined with computer simulation method. Results Four mAbs against the HA antigen on H1N1 influenza virus were obtained, and HA epitopes were classified into two types by ELISA blocking experiment. The computer simulation revealed that the four antibodies could bind to two epitopes on HA. Conclusion The results of computer simulation and ELISA blocking experiment are consistent, and a new method for predicting the epitopes of other pathogenic microorganisms had been established.


Assuntos
Simulação por Computador , Epitopos de Linfócito B/imunologia , Glicoproteínas de Hemaglutininação de Vírus da Influenza/imunologia , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/imunologia , Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática
7.
Mol Immunol ; 120: 146-163, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32126449

RESUMO

Buruli ulcer is an emerging tissue-necrosis infectious disease, caused by the pathogen Mycobacterium ulcerans, leading to permanent deformity if untreated. Despite this debilitating condition, no specific disease-modifying therapeutics or vaccination is available to date. Therefore, we aimed to design an effective multi-epitope vaccine against M. ulcerans using vaccinomics approach. Briefly, the highest antigenic PE-PGRS protein was selected from which the promiscuous T- and B-cell epitopes were predicted. After rigorous assessment, 15 promising T- and B-cell epitopes were selected. The identified T-cell epitopes showed marked interactions towards their HLA-binding alleles and provided 99.8 % world population coverage. Consequently, a vaccine chimera was designed by connecting these epitopes with suitable linkers and LprG adjuvant. The vaccine construct was highly antigenic, immunogenic and non-allergenic; hence, subjected to homology modelling. The molecular docking and dynamics simulation revealed a strong and stable interaction between vaccine and toll-like receptor 2. The binding energy and dissociation constant were -15.3 kcal/mol and 5.9 × 10-12 M, respectively. The computer-simulated immune responses showed abundance of immunoglobulins, increased interferon-γ production, and macrophages activation which are crucial for immune response against M. ulcerans. Furthermore, disulfide bridging and in silico cloning were also performed. These results suggest that the vaccine, if validated experimentally, will be a promising candidate against M. ulcerans and prevent Buruli ulcer disease.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Bactérias/química , Antígenos de Bactérias/imunologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Proteínas de Bactérias/imunologia , Vacinas Bacterianas/química , Vacinas Bacterianas/imunologia , Proteínas de Membrana/química , Proteínas de Membrana/imunologia , Mycobacterium ulcerans/imunologia , Antígenos de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Vacinas Bacterianas/genética , Úlcera de Buruli/imunologia , Úlcera de Buruli/prevenção & controle , Simulação por Computador , Desenho de Fármacos , Epitopos de Linfócito B/química , Epitopos de Linfócito B/genética , Epitopos de Linfócito B/imunologia , Epitopos de Linfócito T/química , Epitopos de Linfócito T/genética , Epitopos de Linfócito T/imunologia , Antígenos HLA/química , Antígenos HLA/imunologia , Humanos , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Mycobacterium ulcerans/química , Mycobacterium ulcerans/genética , Engenharia de Proteínas , Vacinas de Subunidades/química , Vacinas de Subunidades/genética , Vacinas de Subunidades/imunologia , Vacinas Sintéticas/química , Vacinas Sintéticas/genética , Vacinas Sintéticas/imunologia
8.
Cell Host Microbe ; 27(4): 671-680.e2, 2020 04 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32183941

RESUMO

Effective countermeasures against the recent emergence and rapid expansion of the 2019 novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) require the development of data and tools to understand and monitor its spread and immune responses to it. However, little information is available about the targets of immune responses to SARS-CoV-2. We used the Immune Epitope Database and Analysis Resource (IEDB) to catalog available data related to other coronaviruses. This includes SARS-CoV, which has high sequence similarity to SARS-CoV-2 and is the best-characterized coronavirus in terms of epitope responses. We identified multiple specific regions in SARS-CoV-2 that have high homology to the SARS-CoV virus. Parallel bioinformatic predictions identified a priori potential B and T cell epitopes for SARS-CoV-2. The independent identification of the same regions using two approaches reflects the high probability that these regions are promising targets for immune recognition of SARS-CoV-2. These predictions can facilitate effective vaccine design against this virus of high priority.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/genética , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Biologia Computacional , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Bases de Dados de Proteínas , Epitopos de Linfócito B/genética , Epitopos de Linfócito B/imunologia , Epitopos de Linfócito T/genética , Epitopos de Linfócito T/imunologia , Humanos , Pandemias , Homologia de Sequência
9.
J Med Virol ; 92(5): 495-500, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32022276

RESUMO

The 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) outbreak has caused a large number of deaths with thousands of confirmed cases worldwide, especially in East Asia. This study took an immunoinformatics approach to identify significant cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) and B cell epitopes in the 2019-nCoV surface glycoprotein. Also, interactions between identified CTL epitopes and their corresponding major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I supertype representatives prevalent in China were studied by molecular dynamics simulations. We identified five CTL epitopes, three sequential B cell epitopes and five discontinuous B cell epitopes in the viral surface glycoprotein. Also, during simulations, the CTL epitopes were observed to be binding MHC class I peptide-binding grooves via multiple contacts, with continuous hydrogen bonds and salt bridge anchors, indicating their potential in generating immune responses. Some of these identified epitopes can be potential candidates for the development of 2019-nCoV vaccines.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Biologia Computacional , Epitopos de Linfócito B/imunologia , Epitopos de Linfócito T/imunologia , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe I/imunologia , Proteínas do Envelope Viral/imunologia , China , Infecções por Coronavirus , Humanos , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Pneumonia Viral , Estrutura Terciária de Proteína
10.
Viruses ; 12(3)2020 02 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32106567

RESUMO

The beginning of 2020 has seen the emergence of COVID-19 outbreak caused by a novel coronavirus, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). There is an imminent need to better understand this new virus and to develop ways to control its spread. In this study, we sought to gain insights for vaccine design against SARS-CoV-2 by considering the high genetic similarity between SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV, which caused the outbreak in 2003, and leveraging existing immunological studies of SARS-CoV. By screening the experimentally-determined SARS-CoV-derived B cell and T cell epitopes in the immunogenic structural proteins of SARS-CoV, we identified a set of B cell and T cell epitopes derived from the spike (S) and nucleocapsid (N) proteins that map identically to SARS-CoV-2 proteins. As no mutation has been observed in these identified epitopes among the 120 available SARS-CoV-2 sequences (as of 21 February 2020), immune targeting of these epitopes may potentially offer protection against this novel virus. For the T cell epitopes, we performed a population coverage analysis of the associated MHC alleles and proposed a set of epitopes that is estimated to provide broad coverage globally, as well as in China. Our findings provide a screened set of epitopes that can help guide experimental efforts towards the development of vaccines against SARS-CoV-2.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Proteínas do Nucleocapsídeo/imunologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Betacoronavirus/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Mapeamento de Epitopos , Epitopos de Linfócito B/genética , Epitopos de Linfócito B/imunologia , Epitopos de Linfócito T/genética , Epitopos de Linfócito T/imunologia , Genoma Viral , Humanos , Proteínas do Nucleocapsídeo/genética , Filogenia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Estrutura Terciária de Proteína , Vírus da SARS/genética , Vírus da SARS/imunologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética
11.
Mol Immunol ; 119: 106-122, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32007753

RESUMO

A licensed vaccine against human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) infection has not become available up to now. Hence, it is more rational to use immune-informatics tools for prediction of T cell epitopes (in silico study) and development of an effective epitope-driven vaccine against hypervariable pathogens. Multiepitope vaccines were considered as the next generation of an effective vaccine against HIV-1 infection. In the current study, we developed two different constructs encoding T cell epitopes derived from Nef, Vif, Vpu, Gp160 and P24 proteins in BALB/c mice. To overcome their poor immunogenicity, four different cell penetrating peptides (MPG and HR9 for DNA delivery, and CyLoP-1 and LDP-NLS for protein delivery), Montanide adjuvant, and heterologous prime-boost immunization strategy were utilized. The generation of cytokines, Granzyme B, and total IgG and its subclasses was determined using ELISA. Our data indicated that the levels of IFN-γ and Granzyme B in mice injected with Nef-Vif-Gp160-P24 multiepitope constructs were higher than those immunized with Nef-Vpu-Gp160-P24 multiepitope constructs. Moreover, the heterologous DNA priming/ multiepitope peptide boosting in both Nef-Vif-Gp160-P24 and Nef-Vpu-Gp160-P24 regimens induced significantly high antigen-specific IgG2a and IgG2b responses in comparison with other groups. There was no significant difference between MPG and HR9 as well as CyLoP-1 and LDP-NLS as a delivery system for enhancement of immune responses. Generally, the heterologous DNA prime/ multiepitope peptide boost modalities for both constructs could significantly enhance the levels of IgG2a, IgG2b, IFN-γ, and Granzyme B directed toward Th1 immune responses as compared to homologous prime/ boost with DNA or polypeptide constructs.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra a AIDS/imunologia , Epitopos de Linfócito T/imunologia , HIV-1/imunologia , Proteínas do Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana/imunologia , Animais , Citocinas/sangue , Epitopos de Linfócito B/imunologia , Feminino , Granzimas/metabolismo , Anticorpos Anti-HIV/sangue , Anticorpos Anti-HIV/imunologia , Imunogenicidade da Vacina , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Modelos Moleculares
12.
Malar J ; 19(1): 6, 2020 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31906953

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vaccines are the most reliable alternative to elicit sterile immunity against malaria but their development has been hindered by polymorphisms and strain-specificity in previously studied antigens. New vaccine candidates are therefore urgently needed. Highly conserved Plasmodium falciparum reticulocyte-binding protein homologue-5 (PfRH5) has been identified as a potential candidate for anti-disease vaccine development. PfRH5 is essential for erythrocyte invasion by merozoites and crucial for parasite survival. However, there is paucity of data on the extent of genetic variations on PfRH5 in field isolates of Plasmodium falciparum. This study described genetic polymorphisms at the high affinity binding polypeptides (HABPs) 36718, 36727, 36728 of PfRH5 in Nigerian isolates of P. falciparum. This study tested the hypothesis that only specific conserved B and T cell epitopes on PfRH5 HABPs are crucial for vaccine development. METHODS: One hundred and ninety-five microscopically confirmed P. falciparum samples collected in a prospective cross-sectional study of three different populations in Lagos, Nigeria. Genetic diversity and haplotype construct of Pfrh5 gene were determined using bi-directional sequencing approach. Tajima's D and the ratio of nonsynonymous vs synonymous mutations were utilized to estimate the extent of balancing and directional selection in the pfrh5 gene. RESULTS: Sequence analysis revealed three haplotypes of PfRH5 with negative Tajima's D and dN/dS value of - 1.717 and 0.011 ± 0.020, respectively. A single nucleotide polymorphism, SNP (G → A) at position 608 was observed, which resulted in a change of the amino acid cysteine at position 203 to tyrosine. Haplotype and nucleotide diversities were 0.318 ± 0.016 and 0.0046 ± 0.0001 while inter-population genetic differentiation ranged from 0.007 to 0.037. Five polypeptide variants were identified, the most frequent being KTKYH with a frequency of 51.3%. One B-cell epitope, 151 major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II T-cell epitopes, four intrinsically unstructured regions (IURs) and six MHC class I T-cell epitopes were observed in the study. Phylogenetic analysis of the sequences showed clustering and evidence of evolutionary relationship with 3D7, PAS-2 and FCB-2 RH5 sequences. CONCLUSIONS: This study has revealed low level of genetic polymorphisms in PfRH5 antigen with B- and T-cell epitopes in intrinsically unstructured regions along the PfRH5 gene in Lagos, Nigeria. A broader investigation is however required in other parts of the country to support the possible inclusion of PfRH5 in a cross-protective multi-component vaccine.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Proteínas de Transporte/imunologia , Vacinas Antimaláricas/genética , Vacinas Antimaláricas/imunologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/imunologia , Antígenos de Protozoários/genética , Antígenos de Protozoários/imunologia , Estudos Transversais , Epitopos de Linfócito B , Epitopos de Linfócito T , Eritrócitos/parasitologia , Fluxo Gênico , Haplótipos , Histocompatibilidade , Malária Falciparum/imunologia , Malária Falciparum/parasitologia , Malária Falciparum/prevenção & controle , Merozoítos/imunologia , Nigéria , Filogenia , Plasmodium falciparum/genética , Plasmodium falciparum/isolamento & purificação , Estudos Prospectivos , Análise de Sequência
13.
Gut ; 69(2): 343-354, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30926653

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to develop a novel therapeutic vaccine based on a unique B cell epitope and investigate its therapeutic potential against chronic hepatitis B (CHB) in animal models. METHODS: A series of peptides and carrier proteins were evaluated in HBV-tolerant mice to obtain an optimised therapeutic molecule. The immunogenicity, therapeutic efficacy and mechanism of the candidate were investigated systematically. RESULTS: Among the HBsAg-aa119-125-containing peptides evaluated in this study, HBsAg-aa113-135 (SEQ13) exhibited the most striking therapeutic effects. A novel immunoenhanced virus-like particle carrier (CR-T3) derived from the roundleaf bat HBV core antigen (RBHBcAg) was created and used to display SEQ13, forming candidate molecule CR-T3-SEQ13. Multiple copies of SEQ13 displayed on the surface of this particulate antigen promote the induction of a potent anti-HBs antibody response in mice, rabbits and cynomolgus monkeys. Sera and purified polyclonal IgG from the immunised animals neutralised HBV infection in vitro and mediated efficient HBV/hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) clearance in the mice. CR-T3-SEQ13-based vaccination induced long-term suppression of HBsAg and HBV DNA in HBV transgenic mice and eradicated the virus completely in hydrodynamic-based HBV carrier mice. The suppressive effects on HBsAg were strongly correlated with the anti-HBs level after vaccination, suggesting that the main mechanism of CR-T3-SEQ13 vaccination therapy was the induction of a SEQ13-specific antibody response that mediated HBV/HBsAg clearance. CONCLUSIONS: The novel particulate protein CR-T3-SEQ13 suppressed HBsAg effectively through induction of a humoural immune response in HBV-tolerant mice. This B cell epitope-based therapeutic vaccine may provide a novel immunotherapeutic agent against chronic HBV infection in humans.


Assuntos
Epitopos de Linfócito B/imunologia , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/sangue , Vacinas contra Hepatite B/imunologia , Hepatite B Crônica/imunologia , Adjuvantes Imunológicos , Animais , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Terapia Combinada , DNA Viral/sangue , Relação Dose-Resposta Imunológica , Feminino , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite B/biossíntese , Vacinas contra Hepatite B/uso terapêutico , Vírus da Hepatite B/genética , Hepatite B Crônica/terapia , Hepatite B Crônica/virologia , Imunidade Humoral/imunologia , Imunoterapia/métodos , Macaca fascicularis , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Transgênicos , Coelhos
14.
Microbiol Immunol ; 64(2): 153-161, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31710119

RESUMO

Development of a serotyping-capable dengue detection test is hampered by the absence of an identified unique marker that can detect specific dengue virus (DENV) serotype. In the current commercially available antibody-capture diagnostic methods, immobilized nonstructural 1 (NS1) antigen indiscriminately binds and detects immunoglobulin M or immunoglobulin G against any serotype, thus limiting its capability to distinguish existing serotypes of dengue. Identification of dengue serotype is important because certain serotypes are associated with severe forms of dengue as well as dengue hemorrhagic fever. In this study, we aimed to identify an immunogenic epitope unique to DENV2 NS1 antigen and determine the binding specificity of its synthetic peptide mimotope to antibodies raised in animal models. Selection of a putative B-cell epitope from the reported DENV2 NS1 antigen was done using Kolaskar and Tongaonkar Antigenicity prediction, Emini surface accessibility prediction, and Parker hydrophilicity prediction available at the immune epitope database and analysis resource. Uniqueness of the B-cell epitope to DENV2 was analyzed by BLASTp. Immunogenicity of the synthetic peptide analog of the predicted immunogenic epitope was tested in rabbits. The binding specificity of the antibodies raised in animals and the synthetic peptide mimotope was tested by indirect ELISA. A synthetic peptide analog comprising the unique epitope of DENV2 located at the 170th-183rd position of DENV2 NS1 was found to be immunogenic in animal models. The antipeptide antibody produced in rabbits showed specific binding to the synthetic peptide mimotope of the predicted unique DENV2 NS1 immunogenic epitope.


Assuntos
Vírus da Dengue/imunologia , Dengue/diagnóstico , Vacinas Sintéticas/virologia , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Formação de Anticorpos , Antígenos Virais/imunologia , Simulação por Computador , Dengue/imunologia , Mapeamento de Epitopos , Epitopos de Linfócito B/imunologia , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G , Coelhos , Sorogrupo , Vacinas Sintéticas/imunologia , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/genética , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/imunologia
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(24)2019 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31817065

RESUMO

Cross-reactivity between allergens and human proteins could have a clinical impact in allergic diseases. Blo t 13 is an allergen from the mite Blomia tropicalis, which belongs to the fatty acid binding protein (FABP) family and has structural homology with human FABPs. This work aimed to map B cell epitopes on Blo t 13 and to identify epitopes involved in cross-reactivity with human heart FABP (FABP3) and adipocyte FABP (FABP4). Sera from 25 patients with house dust mite (HDM) allergy that were sensitized to Blo t 13 were used for testing the reactivity of immunoglobulin E (IgE) and IgG to FABP. The epitope mapping of Blo t 13 was performed using overlapping peptides, and cross-reactivity between Blo t 13 and human FABP was analyzed using human sera and anti-Blo t 13 monoclonal antibodies. IgE antibodies to all FABPs were detected in 14/25 serum samples, and IgG was detected in 25/25 serum samples. The cross-reactivity of Blo t 13 was 42% with FABP3 and 48% with FABP4. Two IgE-binding regions were identified in Blo t 13; one between residues 54 and 72 (the main cross-reacting region) and another between residues 111 to 129. Our results suggest that exposure to the Blo t 13 allergen could induce an auto-reactive response to endogenous FABP in allergic patients sensitized to Blo t 13.


Assuntos
Alérgenos/metabolismo , Epitopos de Linfócito B/imunologia , Proteína 3 Ligante de Ácido Graxo/imunologia , Proteínas de Ligação a Ácido Graxo/imunologia , Proteínas de Ligação a Ácido Graxo/metabolismo , Adipócitos/metabolismo , Alérgenos/genética , Alérgenos/imunologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Reações Cruzadas , Mapeamento de Epitopos , Proteína 3 Ligante de Ácido Graxo/química , Proteína 3 Ligante de Ácido Graxo/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a Ácido Graxo/química , Proteínas de Ligação a Ácido Graxo/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade/sangue , Hipersensibilidade/patologia , Imunoglobulina E/imunologia , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Masculino , Ácaros/metabolismo , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Estrutura Terciária de Proteína , Alinhamento de Sequência
16.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(12): e0007915, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31841521

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Orthohantavirus infection is a neglected global health problem affecting approximately 200,000 people/year, spread by rodent hosts and associated to fatal human diseases, such as hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) and orthohantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS). Circulation of HFRS-associated orthohantaviruses, such as Seoul, Gou, Amur, Dobrava and Hantaan, are supposed to be restricted to Eurasian countries even though their hosts can be a worldwide distribution. Few confirmed HFRS orthohantavirus infections in humans have been reported in American countries, but due to lower medical awareness of the symptoms of this zoonosis, it could be associated to viral underreporting or to misdiagnosis with several tropical hemorrhagic diseases. Serological evidence of orthohantavirus infections, using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the presence of immunoglobulin M and G against recombinant nucleoprotein protein, remains as an essential assay for viral surveillance. In this study, we aimed to identify in silico immunogenic B-cell linear epitopes present on orthohantavirus nucleoprotein that are exclusive to HFRS-related species. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In silico analysis were performed using Seoul orthohantavirus nucleoprotein (SHNP) sequence as a model. Linear B-cell-epitopes on SHNP and its immunogenicity were predicted by BepiPred-2.0 and Vaxijen algorithms, respectively. The conservancy of predicted epitopes was compared with the most clinically relevant HFRS or HCPS-associated orthohantavirus, aiming to identify specific sequences from HFRS-orthohantavirus. Peptide validation was carried out by ELISA using Balb/c mice sera immunized with purified recombinant rSHNP. Peptides cross-reactivity against HCPS orthohantavirus were evaluated using immunized sera from mice injected with recombinant Juquitiba orthohantavirus nucleoprotein (rJHNP). CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: In silico analysis revealed nine potential immunogenic linear B-cell epitopes from SHNP; among them, SHNP(G72-D110) and SHNP(P251-D264) showed a high degree of sequence conservation among HFRS-related orthohantavirus and were experimentally validated against rSHNP-IMS and negatively validated against rJHNP-IMS. Taken together, we identified and validated two potential antigenic B-cell epitopes on SHNP, which were conserved among HFRS-associated orthohantavirus and could be applied to the development of novel immunodiagnostic tools for orthohantavirus surveillance.


Assuntos
Mapeamento de Epitopos , Epitopos de Linfócito B/imunologia , Vírus Seoul/imunologia , Animais , Antígenos Virais/administração & dosagem , Antígenos Virais/imunologia , Biologia Computacional , Epitopos de Linfócito B/genética , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Vírus Seoul/genética
17.
Mol Med Rep ; 20(6): 5324-5334, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31702815

RESUMO

House dust mite (HDM) hypersensitivity increasingly affects millions of individuals worldwide. Although numerous major allergens produced by HDM species have been characterized, some of the less potent allergens remain to be studied. The present study aimed to obtain the recombinant allergen of Translation Elongation Factor 2 (TEF 2) from the HDM Dermatophagoides farinae by synthesizing, and then expressing the recombinant TEF 2 to identify its immunogenicity. In the present study, the D. farinae TEF 2 (Der f TEF 2) was synthesized, expressed and purified. The molecular characteristics of Der f TEF 2 were analyzed using bioinformatics approaches. The recombinant protein was purified via affinity chromatography, and the allergenicity was assessed using immunoblotting, ELISAs and skin prick tests. The gene for TEF 2 consists of 2,535 bp and encodes an 844­amino acid protein. A positive response to recombinant Der f TEF 2 was detected in 16.2% of 37 patients with HDM allergies using skin prick tests. In addition, the immunoblotting indicated that the protein showed a high ability to bind serum IgE from patients allergic to HDMs, and that the recombinant TEF 2 was highly immunogenic. Bioinformatics analysis predicted 17 peptides as B cell epitopes (amino acids 29­35, 55­64, 92­99, 173­200, 259­272, 311­318, 360­365, 388­395, 422­428, 496­502, 512­518, 567­572, 580­586, 602­617, 785­790, 811­817 and 827­836) and 14 peptides as T cell epitopes (amino acids 1­15, 65­79, 120­134, 144­159, 236­250, 275­289, 404­418, 426­440, 463­477, 510­524, 644­658, 684­698, 716­730 and 816­830). The software DNAStar predicted the secondary structure of TEF 2, and showed that 27 α­helices and five ß­sheets were found in the protein. In conclusion, the present study cloned and expressed the Der f TEF 2 gene, and the recombinant protein exhibited immunogenicity, providing a theoretical bases, and references, for the diagnosis and treatment of allergic disease.


Assuntos
Dermatophagoides farinae/genética , Dermatophagoides farinae/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Fator 2 de Elongação de Peptídeos/genética , Fator 2 de Elongação de Peptídeos/imunologia , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Alérgenos/genética , Alérgenos/imunologia , Animais , Antígenos de Dermatophagoides/química , Antígenos de Dermatophagoides/genética , Antígenos de Dermatophagoides/imunologia , Sequência de Bases , Criança , China , Epitopos de Linfócito B , Epitopos de Linfócito T , Feminino , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade , Immunoblotting , Imunoglobulina E/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fator 2 de Elongação de Peptídeos/química , Conformação Proteica em alfa-Hélice , Proteínas Recombinantes/química , Alinhamento de Sequência , Testes Cutâneos , Adulto Jovem
18.
BMC Immunol ; 20(1): 41, 2019 11 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31718534

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV23) is routinely used in Canada and some other countries to prevent pneumococcal infection in adults with chronic kidney disease (CKD), patients develop a suboptimal antibody response to PPV23 due to their immune dysfunction. The 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) has superior immunogenicity in some categories of immunocompromised adults; however, its effect on the immune response in CKD patients has only been addressed by two recent studies with conflicting results. The effect of PPV23 or PCV13 on B cells in these patients has not been previously studied. We studied the absolute numbers and proportions of B cells and subpopulations in two groups of adult patients with severe CKD pre- and 7 days post-immunization with PCV13: pneumococcal vaccine naïve and previously immunized with PPV23 (over one year ago). RESULTS: PPV23 immunized patients had significantly lower proportions and absolute numbers of class switched memory (CD19 + CD27 + IgM-), as well as lower absolute numbers of IgM memory (CD19 + CD27 + IgM+) and class switched B cells (CD19 + CD27-IgM-) compared to PPV23 naïve patients. Following PCV13 immunization, the differences in absolute numbers of B-cell subpopulations between groups remained significant. The PPV23 immunized group had higher proportions of CD5- B cells along with lower proportions and absolute numbers of CD5+ B cells compared to PPV23 naïve patients both pre- and post-immunization with PCV13. However, previous PPV23 immunization did not have a noticeable effect on the numbers of total IgG or serotype 6B and 14 specific antibody-secreting cells detected 7 days post-immunization with PCV13. Nevertheless, fold increase in anti-serotype 14 IgG concentrations 28 days post-PCV13 was greater in PPV23 naïve than in previously immunized patients. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that immunization with PPV23 may result in long-term changes in B-cell subpopulations such as increased prevalence of CD5- B cells and decreased prevalence of class switched memory B cells in the peripheral blood. Because previous immunization with PPV23 in patients with CKD is associated with a significant decrease in the total class switched memory B cells in response to subsequent immunization with PCV13, this may reduce PCV13 immunogenicity in the setting of PPV23 followed by PCV13. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Registered February 24, 2015 at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT02370069).


Assuntos
Linfócitos B/imunologia , Epitopos de Linfócito B/imunologia , Infecções Pneumocócicas/etiologia , Infecções Pneumocócicas/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Pneumocócicas/imunologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/complicações , Streptococcus pneumoniae/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/imunologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos B/imunologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos B/metabolismo , Linfócitos B/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Imunização , Imunofenotipagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infecções Pneumocócicas/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/imunologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Vacinação , Adulto Jovem
19.
Mol Immunol ; 116: 106-116, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31634814

RESUMO

Shigellosis is a severe diarrheal disease with high mortality and morbidity rate. Until now, there is no approved vaccine against the disease. Therefore, the present study was planned to design a novel multi-epitope vaccine against Shigella spp., the causative agents of the disease based on the immunoinformatic tools. For this end, firstly seven conserved antigens of the bacteria, including IpaA, IpaB, IpaC, IpaD, OmpC, OmpF and VirG were selected. Then, linear B-cell epitope mapping of these proteins was carried out and top-ranked and shared epitopes were selected based on antigenicity, allergenicity, stability, toxicity and physicochemical properties for further analysis. In next step, B-cell derived T-cell epitopes were determined and appropriate epitopes were selected for incorporation into the final construct. Moreover, the selected epitopes and two mucosal adjuvants including ctxB and LT-IIc were joined using appropriate linkers. The three dimensional structure of the final construct was modeled and evaluated in term of structural quality and presence of conformational B-cell epitopes. Furthermore, binding affinity of the proposed vaccine to MHC I and II molecules were evaluated through molecular docking method using Hex 8.0. as well as the stability of the vaccine-MHC complexes was monitored by molecular dynamics method using the NAMD graphical user interface embedded in visual molecular dynamics. Finally, to evaluate the immunogenicity of the designed protein, the protein was administered to BALB/c mice and the serum IgG was determined by ELISA. The results indicated that the proposed vaccine has high structural quality and binding affinity to both MHC I and II molecules. Moreover, molecular dynamics studies confirmed that the vaccine-MHC docked complexes were stable during simulation time. Animal study showed that the proposed protein is able to evoke mice's humoral immune response. In sum, the results suggested that the proposed candidate vaccine could be considered as a promising anti-shigellosis vaccine.


Assuntos
Vacinas Bacterianas/imunologia , Proteção Cruzada/imunologia , Shigella/imunologia , Adjuvantes Imunológicos , Animais , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Epitopos de Linfócito B/imunologia , Epitopos de Linfócito T/imunologia , Feminino , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe I/imunologia , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe II/imunologia , Humanos , Imunidade Humoral/imunologia , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular/métodos , Vacinologia/métodos
20.
Nature ; 574(7779): 565-570, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31645726

RESUMO

Co-inhibitory immune receptors can contribute to T cell dysfunction in patients with cancer1,2. Blocking antibodies against cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4) and programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) partially reverse this effect and are becoming standard of care in an increasing number of malignancies3. However, many of the other axes by which tumours become inhospitable to T cells are not fully understood. Here we report that V-domain immunoglobulin suppressor of T cell activation (VISTA) engages and suppresses T cells selectively at acidic pH such as that found in tumour microenvironments. Multiple histidine residues along the rim of the VISTA extracellular domain mediate binding to the adhesion and co-inhibitory receptor P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1). Antibodies engineered to selectively bind and block this interaction in acidic environments were sufficient to reverse VISTA-mediated immune suppression in vivo. These findings identify a mechanism by which VISTA may engender resistance to anti-tumour immune responses, as well as an unexpectedly determinative role for pH in immune co-receptor engagement.


Assuntos
Antígenos B7/química , Antígenos B7/metabolismo , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Animais , Anticorpos Bloqueadores/imunologia , Anticorpos Bloqueadores/farmacologia , Antígenos B7/antagonistas & inibidores , Antígenos B7/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/citologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/metabolismo , Cristalografia por Raios X , Epitopos de Linfócito B/química , Epitopos de Linfócito B/imunologia , Feminino , Histidina/metabolismo , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Ligantes , Masculino , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/imunologia , Camundongos , Modelos Moleculares , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/imunologia , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/imunologia , Ligação Proteica/efeitos dos fármacos , Domínios Proteicos , Linfócitos T/citologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia
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