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1.
Gut ; 69(2): 343-354, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30926653

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to develop a novel therapeutic vaccine based on a unique B cell epitope and investigate its therapeutic potential against chronic hepatitis B (CHB) in animal models. METHODS: A series of peptides and carrier proteins were evaluated in HBV-tolerant mice to obtain an optimised therapeutic molecule. The immunogenicity, therapeutic efficacy and mechanism of the candidate were investigated systematically. RESULTS: Among the HBsAg-aa119-125-containing peptides evaluated in this study, HBsAg-aa113-135 (SEQ13) exhibited the most striking therapeutic effects. A novel immunoenhanced virus-like particle carrier (CR-T3) derived from the roundleaf bat HBV core antigen (RBHBcAg) was created and used to display SEQ13, forming candidate molecule CR-T3-SEQ13. Multiple copies of SEQ13 displayed on the surface of this particulate antigen promote the induction of a potent anti-HBs antibody response in mice, rabbits and cynomolgus monkeys. Sera and purified polyclonal IgG from the immunised animals neutralised HBV infection in vitro and mediated efficient HBV/hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) clearance in the mice. CR-T3-SEQ13-based vaccination induced long-term suppression of HBsAg and HBV DNA in HBV transgenic mice and eradicated the virus completely in hydrodynamic-based HBV carrier mice. The suppressive effects on HBsAg were strongly correlated with the anti-HBs level after vaccination, suggesting that the main mechanism of CR-T3-SEQ13 vaccination therapy was the induction of a SEQ13-specific antibody response that mediated HBV/HBsAg clearance. CONCLUSIONS: The novel particulate protein CR-T3-SEQ13 suppressed HBsAg effectively through induction of a humoural immune response in HBV-tolerant mice. This B cell epitope-based therapeutic vaccine may provide a novel immunotherapeutic agent against chronic HBV infection in humans.


Assuntos
Epitopos de Linfócito B/imunologia , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/sangue , Vacinas contra Hepatite B/imunologia , Hepatite B Crônica/imunologia , Adjuvantes Imunológicos , Animais , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Terapia Combinada , DNA Viral/sangue , Relação Dose-Resposta Imunológica , Feminino , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite B/biossíntese , Vacinas contra Hepatite B/uso terapêutico , Vírus da Hepatite B/genética , Hepatite B Crônica/terapia , Hepatite B Crônica/virologia , Imunidade Humoral/imunologia , Imunoterapia/métodos , Macaca fascicularis , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Transgênicos , Coelhos
2.
Mol Immunol ; 116: 106-116, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31634814

RESUMO

Shigellosis is a severe diarrheal disease with high mortality and morbidity rate. Until now, there is no approved vaccine against the disease. Therefore, the present study was planned to design a novel multi-epitope vaccine against Shigella spp., the causative agents of the disease based on the immunoinformatic tools. For this end, firstly seven conserved antigens of the bacteria, including IpaA, IpaB, IpaC, IpaD, OmpC, OmpF and VirG were selected. Then, linear B-cell epitope mapping of these proteins was carried out and top-ranked and shared epitopes were selected based on antigenicity, allergenicity, stability, toxicity and physicochemical properties for further analysis. In next step, B-cell derived T-cell epitopes were determined and appropriate epitopes were selected for incorporation into the final construct. Moreover, the selected epitopes and two mucosal adjuvants including ctxB and LT-IIc were joined using appropriate linkers. The three dimensional structure of the final construct was modeled and evaluated in term of structural quality and presence of conformational B-cell epitopes. Furthermore, binding affinity of the proposed vaccine to MHC I and II molecules were evaluated through molecular docking method using Hex 8.0. as well as the stability of the vaccine-MHC complexes was monitored by molecular dynamics method using the NAMD graphical user interface embedded in visual molecular dynamics. Finally, to evaluate the immunogenicity of the designed protein, the protein was administered to BALB/c mice and the serum IgG was determined by ELISA. The results indicated that the proposed vaccine has high structural quality and binding affinity to both MHC I and II molecules. Moreover, molecular dynamics studies confirmed that the vaccine-MHC docked complexes were stable during simulation time. Animal study showed that the proposed protein is able to evoke mice's humoral immune response. In sum, the results suggested that the proposed candidate vaccine could be considered as a promising anti-shigellosis vaccine.


Assuntos
Vacinas Bacterianas/imunologia , Proteção Cruzada/imunologia , Shigella/imunologia , Adjuvantes Imunológicos , Animais , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Epitopos de Linfócito B/imunologia , Epitopos de Linfócito T/imunologia , Feminino , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe I/imunologia , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe II/imunologia , Humanos , Imunidade Humoral/imunologia , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular/métodos , Vacinologia/métodos
3.
Nature ; 574(7779): 565-570, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31645726

RESUMO

Co-inhibitory immune receptors can contribute to T cell dysfunction in patients with cancer1,2. Blocking antibodies against cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4) and programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) partially reverse this effect and are becoming standard of care in an increasing number of malignancies3. However, many of the other axes by which tumours become inhospitable to T cells are not fully understood. Here we report that V-domain immunoglobulin suppressor of T cell activation (VISTA) engages and suppresses T cells selectively at acidic pH such as that found in tumour microenvironments. Multiple histidine residues along the rim of the VISTA extracellular domain mediate binding to the adhesion and co-inhibitory receptor P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1). Antibodies engineered to selectively bind and block this interaction in acidic environments were sufficient to reverse VISTA-mediated immune suppression in vivo. These findings identify a mechanism by which VISTA may engender resistance to anti-tumour immune responses, as well as an unexpectedly determinative role for pH in immune co-receptor engagement.


Assuntos
Antígenos B7/química , Antígenos B7/metabolismo , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Animais , Anticorpos Bloqueadores/imunologia , Anticorpos Bloqueadores/farmacologia , Antígenos B7/antagonistas & inibidores , Antígenos B7/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/citologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/metabolismo , Cristalografia por Raios X , Epitopos de Linfócito B/química , Epitopos de Linfócito B/imunologia , Feminino , Histidina/metabolismo , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Ligantes , Masculino , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/imunologia , Camundongos , Modelos Moleculares , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/imunologia , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/imunologia , Ligação Proteica/efeitos dos fármacos , Domínios Proteicos , Linfócitos T/citologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia
4.
Mol Immunol ; 114: 643-650, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31546099

RESUMO

Peptide vaccines have many potential advantages over conventional ones including low cost, lack of need for cold-chain storage, safety and specificity. However, it is well known that approximately 90% of B-cell epitopes (BCEs) are discontinuous in nature making it difficult to mimic them for creating vaccines. In this study, the degree of discontinuity in B-cell epitopes and their conformational nature is examined. The discontinuity of B-cell epitopes is analyzed by defining 'regions' (consisting of at least three antibody-contacting residues each separated by ≤3 residues) and small fragments (antibody-contacting residues that do not satisfy the requirements for a region). Secondly, an algorithm has been developed that classifies each region's shape as straight, curved or folded on the basis that straight and folded regions are more likely to retain their native conformation as isolated peptides. We have investigated the structures of 488 B-cell epitopes from which 1282 regions and 1018 fragments have been identified. 90% of epitopes have five or fewer regions and five or fewer fragments with 14% containing only one region and 4% being truly linear (i.e. having one region and no fragments). Of the 1282 regions, 508 are straight in shape, 626 are curved and 148 are folded.


Assuntos
Epitopos de Linfócito B/química , Epitopos de Linfócito B/imunologia , Anticorpos/química , Anticorpos/imunologia , Mapeamento de Epitopos/métodos , Conformação Proteica
6.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 103(19): 8075-8086, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31463546

RESUMO

Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) has led to serious losses in the farming industry worldwide, particularly in cattle and swine. In developing countries, the control and eradication of FMD rely upon vaccination, in which the inactivated vaccine is predominant. In the preparation of inactivated vaccine, a series of purification methods were used to remove non-structural proteins (NSPs). It is necessary to develop a quantitative detection method of residual NSP and confirm a threshold value for the evaluation of the vaccine. Meanwhile, it is also important to develop a sensitive and rapid diagnostic method to distinguish infected animals from vaccinated animals (DIVA). In this study, three monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against NSP 3ABC, designated 2G5, 9E2, and 1E10, were used. Subsequently, a series of overlapping peptides were expressed using a prokaryotic expression system to determine the minimal epitopes identified by the MAbs. Three linear B cell epitopes (BCEs), "92EYIEKA97" "23EGPYAGPLE31" and "209EPHH212", were identified by MAbs 2G5, 9E2, and 1E10, respectively. Alanine-scanning mutagenesis analysis confirmed the critical amino acid in these epitopes. The epitope "92EYIEKA97" is located in 3A, which is deleted in some natural deletion mutants that result in a change in virus tropism. MAb 9E2 that identified the epitope "23EGPYAGPLE31" reacted with 3B1 and 3B2, but did not react with 3B3. In combination with sequence alignment analysis, the epitope "23EGPYAGPLE31" is highly conserved among different FMDV isolates. Preliminary screening using the known positive and negative sera indicated the MAb 9E2 has the potential for the development of a diagnostic method for DIVA. The residual NSP in inactivated vaccines can be detected using 9E2-HRP, which indicated the MAb 9E2 is able to evaluate inactivated vaccines. The four-amino acid epitope is the first reported to date that is recognized by 1E10. These results provide valuable insight into the diagnosis of DIVA and the NSP residual evaluation in inactivated vaccines.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Mapeamento de Epitopos , Epitopos de Linfócito B/imunologia , Vírus da Febre Aftosa/imunologia , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/isolamento & purificação , Anticorpos Antivirais/isolamento & purificação , Camundongos
7.
Mol Immunol ; 114: 88-99, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31351414

RESUMO

Staphylococcus aureus infections are now one of the most common causes of surgical drainage, bacteremia, and hospital-acquired infections. The emergence of antibiotic resistance has increased mortality and costs of treatment. The design of a new vaccine against S. aureus would have a great beneficial impact on public health. In the current report, we design and introduce a novel epitope-based fusion protein (Hla, MntC and SACOL0723) and investigate its biological activities. Three known antigenic proteins from S. aureus were analyzed for the prediction of immunogenic B and T-cell epitopes and validated using bioinformatics tools. The affinity and the map of interactions between the receptor and ligand were evaluated via docking protocols. Functional activity of the recombinant protein was assessed by western blot and opsonophagocytosis tests and determining the bacterial burden from the infected tissues. To determine the type of induced immunity, cytokines profile and isotyping ELISA was performed. Based on in silico analysis, seven epitopes rich domain including highly scored T and B-cell epitopes were selected. The study results indicated that the high titer of specific antibodies raised against the vaccine candidate could opsonize the bacteria and decrease the viable bacterial cells. The fusion protein was able to elicit a mixture of Th1, Th2, and Th17 immune responses more towards Th1 and Th17. In conclusion, the fusion protein formulated with alum could be considered as a potential vaccine candidate for protection against S. aureus in the near future.


Assuntos
Epitopos de Linfócito B/imunologia , Epitopos de Linfócito T/imunologia , Proteínas Recombinantes/imunologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/imunologia , Vacinas Antiestafilocócicas/imunologia , Staphylococcus aureus/imunologia , Imunidade Adaptativa/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/imunologia , Citocinas/imunologia , Humanos , Células Th17/imunologia
8.
Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis ; 65: 238-245, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31300121

RESUMO

Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) and West Nile virus (WNV) are two major mosquito borne flaviviruses belonging to same serocomplex. JEV is transmitted by Culex mosquitoes and the reservoir host for the virus is pigs and/or water birds. WNV is also transmitted by Culex mosquitoes and reservoir host in this case is birds. It can also be transmitted through contact with other infected animals, their blood, or other tissues. The envelope protein of these viruses is the major source of epitopes and provides protective immunity. Bioinformatics tools were used to identify conserved epitopes in the envelope protein of these viruses. A conserved peptide "TPVGRLVTVNPFV" present in both the viruses containing predicted T and B cell epitopes was found. The model of one of the predicted epitope was generated and upon docking it bound in the groove of HLA-A0201 Class I MHC molecule. Further, it was amenable to proteasomal cleavage enhancing its chances of processing by cytosolic pathway. The peptide was found to be non toxic, non allergenic and stable in mammalian cells based on database search. The population coverage was pan world and nearly 70% identity of the peptide was found in the Zika virus envelope protein. The peptide was located in the domain III of envelope protein which is the exposed domain therefore B cell receptors may recognize this peptide easily. The conserved peptide containing T and B cell epitopes can have future application for designing epitope based vaccines for both JEV and WNV.


Assuntos
Vírus da Encefalite Japonesa (Espécie) , Mapeamento de Epitopos , Epitopos de Linfócito B/imunologia , Epitopos de Linfócito T/imunologia , Proteínas do Envelope Viral/imunologia , Vírus do Nilo Ocidental , Biologia Computacional , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe I/imunologia , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe II/imunologia , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Peptídeos/imunologia , Ligação Proteica , Proteínas do Envelope Viral/genética , Vacinas Virais/imunologia
9.
Vet Microbiol ; 235: 86-92, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31282383

RESUMO

Although PCV2 infections generally cause mild disease in pigs, concurrent co-infections with other pathogens can damage the immune system and cause more severe diseases, collectively termed porcine circovirus associated diseases (PCVAD). Involvement of porcine parvovirus (PPV, a common cause of reproductive failure in naïve dams) in PCVAD caused by PCV2, has been reported. As this co-infection can be difficult to eliminate, there is a critical need to develop an effective vaccine to protect against PPV or synergistic effects of PCV2 and PPV under field conditions. In this study, we designed chimeric PCV2 virus-like particles (cVLPs) displaying a B-cell epitope derived from PPV1 structural protein around the surface of the 2-fold axes of PCV2 VLPs, based on 3D-structure analysis of the PCV2 capsid. The cVLPs were successfully prepared, verified by transmission electron microscopy and chromatography, with robust antibody titers against PCV2 and PPV1 produced in mice and guinea pigs. In addition, in guinea pigs challenged with 106 TCID50 PCV2, cVLPs conferred more effective immune protection (based on viral load) than a commercial PCV2 vaccine. Finally, antibody responses and immune protection against PPV were also evaluated. In guinea pigs vaccinated with cVLPs, although PPV antibodies detected by a hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay appeared later after vaccination in the PCV2 cVLPs group than in the commercial PPV vaccine group, there were fewer PPV genomic DNA copies in the PCV2 cVLPs group than in a PBS group. In conclusion, guinea pigs vaccinated with cVLPs developed effective protective immunity against PCV2 challenge, with some protective immunity against PPV. This study provided valuable research data to pursue molecular design of chimeric epitopes PCV2 VLPs.


Assuntos
Infecções por Circoviridae/veterinária , Coinfecção/veterinária , Epitopos de Linfócito B/imunologia , Imunidade Humoral , Infecções por Parvoviridae/veterinária , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Infecções por Circoviridae/imunologia , Infecções por Circoviridae/prevenção & controle , Circovirus/imunologia , Coinfecção/virologia , Feminino , Cobaias , Camundongos , Infecções por Parvoviridae/imunologia , Infecções por Parvoviridae/prevenção & controle , Parvovirus Suíno/imunologia , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/prevenção & controle , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia , Vacinas Atenuadas/imunologia , Vacinas de Partículas Semelhantes a Vírus/imunologia
10.
Vet Microbiol ; 234: 83-91, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31213277

RESUMO

Since 2011, there have been outbreaks of pseudorabies (PR) in several pig farms despite vaccination coverage, which causes substantial economic loss to the swine industry in China. The emergence of a pseudorabies virusvariant strain with high virulence and antigenic variation (e.g., PRV ZJ01), is considered to be the primary cause. In this study, truncated gB, gC, and gE of PRV ZJ01 was expressed and used to generate seven monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against gB, gC, or gE. An indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) revealed that these mAbs were specific against PRV. Subsequently we identified the B cell epitopes recognized by these mAbs by Western blot. The mAbs 5A2 and 6G5 against gB recognized the same B cell linear epitope at 576SAVATAA582, the mAb 5D10 against gC recognized the B cell linear epitope at 134GETFE138, mAb 7C5 against gC recognized the B cell linear epitope at 143RRGRFRSPDAD153, and mAbs 3E1, 3H8, and 4D2 against gE recognized the same B cell linear epitope at 151IGDYL155 of gE. Biological information analysis showed that these B cell linear epitopes are highly conserved among different PRV isolates and the epitope 143RRGRFRSPDAD153 with a high antigenic index and high hydrophilicity, fully exposed on the surface of the gC, is likely to be an important B cell epitope. These mAbs and their defined epitopes may provide useful tools for the study of the structure and function of the PRV protein, analysis of antigenic epitope characteristics, and establishment of antibody detection methods.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Epitopos de Linfócito B/imunologia , Pseudorraiva/imunologia , Proteínas do Envelope Viral/imunologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Feminino , Hibridomas , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Suínos
11.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 103(18): 7467-7480, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31253999

RESUMO

Bovine enterovirus (BEV) VP2 protein is a structural protein that plays an important role in inducing protective immunity in the host. The function of VP2 has been characterized, but there is little information on its B cell epitopes. Three monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) directed against BEV VP2 were generated and characterized from mice immunized with the recombinant VP2 protein. Three minimal linear epitopes 152FQEAFWLEDG161, 168LIYPHQ173, and 46DATSVD51 reactive to the three mAbs were identified using western blotting analysis. Three-dimensional model of the BEV-E virion and the VP2 monomer showed that epitope 152FQEAFWLEDG161 is exposed on surface of the virion and epitopes 46DATSVD51 and 168LIYPHQ173 are located inside the virion. Alignment of the amino acid sequences corresponding to the regions containing the three minimal linear epitopes in the VP2 proteins and their cross-reactivity with the three mAbs showed that epitope 168LIYPHQ173 is completely conserved in all BEV strains. Epitope 46DATSVD51 is highly conserved among BEV-E strains and partly conserved among BEV-F strains. However, epitope 152FQEAFWLEDG161 is not conserved among BEV-F strains. Using the mAbs of 3H4 and 1E10, we found that VP2 localized in the cytoplasm during viral replication and could be used to monitor the viral antigen in infected tissues using immunohistochemistry. A preliminary 3H4-epitope-based indirect ELISA allowed us to detect anti-BEV-strain-HY12 antibodies in mice. This study indicates that the three mAbs could be useful tools for investigating the structure and function of the viral VP2 protein and the development of serological diagnostic techniques for BEV infection.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Proteínas do Capsídeo/imunologia , Enterovirus Bovino/imunologia , Mapeamento de Epitopos , Epitopos de Linfócito B/imunologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Proteínas do Capsídeo/química , Bovinos , Epitopos de Linfócito B/química , Feminino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Homologia de Sequência
12.
Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis ; 95(2): 134-143, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31155395

RESUMO

The diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) presents problems due to the toxicity and/or high cost of drugs. In addition, no vaccine exists to protect against human disease. In this study, the antigenicity and immunogenicity of amastin protein were evaluated in L. infantum-infected dogs and humans. For the diagnosis, besides the recombinant protein, 1 linear B-cell epitope was synthetized and evaluated in serological assays. Results showed high sensitivity and specificity values to detect the disease when both antigens were employed against a canine and human serological panel. By contrast, when using rA2 and a soluble Leishmania antigenic preparation, sensitivity and specificity values proved to be lower. A preliminary immunogenicity study showed that the amastin protein induced high IFN-γ and low IL-10 production in stimulated PBMC derived from treated VL patients and healthy subjects, thus suggesting a potential use of this protein as an immunogen to protect against human disease.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Protozoários/imunologia , Leishmania infantum/isolamento & purificação , Leishmaniose Visceral/diagnóstico , Leishmaniose Visceral/veterinária , Proteínas de Protozoários/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Antígenos de Protozoários/química , Antígenos de Protozoários/genética , Células Cultivadas , Citocinas/metabolismo , Doenças do Cão/sangue , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , Epitopos de Linfócito B/imunologia , Humanos , Imunogenicidade da Vacina , Leishmania infantum/imunologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/sangue , Leishmaniose Visceral/parasitologia , Leucócitos Mononucleares/imunologia , Proteínas de Protozoários/química , Proteínas de Protozoários/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/química , Proteínas Recombinantes/imunologia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Testes Sorológicos
13.
Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis ; 95(2): 125-130, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31182246

RESUMO

Human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA) is caused by Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) is generally used for HGA serodiagnosis. A. phagocytophilum immunodominant P44 major outer membrane proteins are encoded by p44/msp2 multigene family, responsible for IFA reactivity. However, because multiple P44-related proteins may involve immunoreactivity in IFA, the available diagnostic antigens remain obscure. In this study, we identified 12 B-cell epitopes on triple P44-related proteins using peptide array that reacted with 4 HGA patients' sera. Then, peptide spot immunoassay using 14 synthetic peptides derived from those 12 epitopes as antigens was applied for the detection of antibody to A. phagocytophilum from patients with fever of unknown origin. The sensitivities and diagnostic efficiencies of this immunoassay were higher than those of Western blot analysis using 3 recombinant proteins previously developed. Thus, the immunoassay using our epitope-derived antigens, which has higher diagnostic performances, may have significant benefit for HGA serodiagnosis.


Assuntos
Anaplasma phagocytophilum/imunologia , Anaplasmose/diagnóstico , Antígenos de Bactérias/imunologia , Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa/química , Epitopos de Linfócito B/imunologia , Imunoensaio/métodos , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Anaplasma phagocytophilum/isolamento & purificação , Anaplasmose/sangue , Anaplasmose/microbiologia , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Antígenos de Bactérias/química , Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa/imunologia , Western Blotting , Epitopos de Linfócito B/química , Humanos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Testes Sorológicos
14.
Pol J Microbiol ; 68(2): 233-246, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31250594

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to identify the potential vaccine antigens in Corynebacterium diphtheriae strains by in silico analysis of the amino acid variation in the 67-72p surface protein that is involved in the colonization and induction of epithelial cell apoptosis in the early stages of infection. The analysis of pili structural proteins involved in bacterial adherence to host cells and related to various types of infections was also performed. A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was carried out to amplify the genes encoding the 67-72p protein and three pili structural proteins (SpaC, SpaI, SapD) and the products obtained were sequenced. The nucleotide sequences of the particular genes were translated into amino acid sequences, which were then matched among all the tested strains using bioinformatics tools. In the last step, the affinity of the tested proteins to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) classes I and II, and linear B-cell epitopes was analyzed. The variations in the nucleotide sequence of the 67-72p protein and pili structural proteins among C. diphtheriae strains isolated from various infections were noted. A transposition of the insertion sequence within the gene encoding the SpaC pili structural proteins was also detected. In addition, the bioinformatics analyses enabled the identification of epitopes for B-cells and T-cells in the conserved regions of the proteins, thus, demonstrating that these proteins could be used as antigens in the potential vaccine development. The results identified the most conserved regions in all tested proteins that are exposed on the surface of C. diphtheriae cells.The aim of this study was to identify the potential vaccine antigens in Corynebacterium diphtheriae strains by in silico analysis of the amino acid variation in the 67­72p surface protein that is involved in the colonization and induction of epithelial cell apoptosis in the early stages of infection. The analysis of pili structural proteins involved in bacterial adherence to host cells and related to various types of infections was also performed. A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was carried out to amplify the genes encoding the 67­72p protein and three pili structural proteins (SpaC, SpaI, SapD) and the products obtained were sequenced. The nucleotide sequences of the particular genes were translated into amino acid sequences, which were then matched among all the tested strains using bioinformatics tools. In the last step, the affinity of the tested proteins to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) classes I and II, and linear B-cell epitopes was analyzed. The variations in the nucleotide sequence of the 67­72p protein and pili structural proteins among C. diphtheriae strains isolated from various infections were noted. A transposition of the insertion sequence within the gene encoding the SpaC pili structural proteins was also detected. In addition, the bioinformatics analyses enabled the identification of epitopes for B-cells and T-cells in the conserved regions of the proteins, thus, demonstrating that these proteins could be used as antigens in the potential vaccine development. The results identified the most conserved regions in all tested proteins that are exposed on the surface of C. diphtheriae cells.


Assuntos
Adesinas Bacterianas/genética , Antígenos de Bactérias/genética , Corynebacterium diphtheriae/genética , Toxoide Diftérico/genética , Difteria/prevenção & controle , Variação Genética , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Adesinas Bacterianas/imunologia , Antígenos de Bactérias/imunologia , Biologia Computacional , Sequência Conservada , Corynebacterium diphtheriae/imunologia , Toxoide Diftérico/imunologia , Epitopos de Linfócito B/genética , Epitopos de Linfócito B/imunologia , Epitopos de Linfócito T/genética , Epitopos de Linfócito T/imunologia , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe I/imunologia , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe II/imunologia , Proteínas de Membrana/imunologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Ligação Proteica , Análise de Sequência de DNA
15.
Virol J ; 16(1): 72, 2019 05 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31138240

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Human papillomavirus (HPV) E6 and E7 oncoproteins play a crucial role in HPV-related diseases, such as cervical cancer, and can be used as ideal targets for therapeutic vaccines. Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) participates in the immune response to block HPV infection and invasion by its target/recognition function. HPV-33 and HPV-58 are highly prevalent among Chinese women. Therefore, it is of great significance to study the E6 and E7 region-specific gene polymorphisms of HPV-33 and HPV-58 in Southwest China and to identify ideal epitopes for vaccine design. Both HPV-33 and HPV-58 belong to α-9 genus HPV and are highly homologous, so their correlations are included in our research. METHODS: To study the E6 and E7 variations and polymorphisms of HPV-33 and HPV-58 in Southwest China, we collected samples, extracted and sequenced DNA, and identified variants. Nucleotide sequences were translated into amino acids by Mega 6.0 software. The physical/chemical properties, amino acid-conserved sequences and secondary structure of protein sequences were analysed by the Protparam server, ConSurf server and PSIPRED software. The T and B cell epitopes of the E6/E7 reference and variant sequences in HPV-33 and HPV-58 were predicted by the Immune Epitope Database (IEDB) analysis server and the ABCpred server, respectively. RESULTS: Five and seven optimal HLA-I restricted T cell epitopes were selected from HPV-33 and HPV-58 E6, respectively, and these optimal epitopes are mainly located in 41-58EVYDFAFADLTVVYREGN of HPV-33 E6 and 40-60SEVYDFVFADLRIVYRDGNPF of HPV-58 E6. Six optimal HLA-I-restricted T cell epitopes were selected from HPV-33 and HPV-58 E7, and these epitopes are mainly located in 77-90RTIQQLLMGTVNIV of HPV-33 E7 and 78-91RTLQQLLMGTCTIV of HPV-58 E7. CONCLUSIONS: HPV-33/HPV-58 E6/E7 gene polymorphisms and T/B cell epitopes of their reference and variant sequences were studied, and candidate epitopes were selected by bioinformatics techniques for therapeutic vaccine design for people in Southwest China. This study was the first to investigate the correlation of epitopes between HPV-33 and HPV-58. After experimental validation, these selected epitopes will be employed to induce a wide range of immune responses in heterogeneous HLA populations.


Assuntos
Epitopos/imunologia , Variação Genética , Papillomaviridae/imunologia , Proteínas E7 de Papillomavirus/genética , Proteínas E7 de Papillomavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/imunologia , Epitopos/genética , Epitopos de Linfócito B/imunologia , Epitopos de Linfócito T/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Infecções por Papillomavirus/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/virologia
16.
mSphere ; 4(3)2019 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31043513

RESUMO

BBK32 is a multifunctional surface lipoprotein expressed by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, the causative agent of Lyme disease. Previous studies suggested that BBK32 could be a sensitive antigen target of new, more effective, serodiagnostic assays for the laboratory diagnosis of Lyme disease. However, nonspecific antibody binding to full-length BBK32 has hampered its use as a target in clinical assays. Specificity can be improved by the use of peptides composed of linear B cell epitopes that are unique to B. burgdorferi, eliminating cross-reactive epitopes that bind to antibodies generated by non-B. burgdorferi antigens. In this study, we identified linear B cell epitopes in 2 regions, BBK32 amino acids 16 to 30 [BBK32(16-30)] and BBK32 amino acids 51 to 80 [BBK32(51-80)], by probing overlapping peptide libraries of BBK32 with serum from patients with early Lyme disease. We screened synthetic peptides containing these epitopes using a large panel of serum (n = 355) obtained from patients with erythema migrans lesions (early Lyme disease), Lyme arthritis, syphilis, rheumatoid arthritis, or healthy volunteers. BBK32(16-30) demonstrated a nearly universal antibody binding in serum from all patients, indicating that regions of BBK32 are highly cross-reactive. BBK32(51-80) was less cross-reactive, being able to distinguish serum from Lyme disease patients from control patient serum; however, an unacceptable level of antibody binding was still observed in control samples, resulting in a reduced specificity (94.7%). These results indicate that BBK32 contains cross-reactive epitopes that make it a poor antigen target for inclusion in a serodiagnostic assay for Lyme disease and highlight the difficulties in identifying highly sensitive and specific seroassay targets.IMPORTANCE Lyme disease is an infectious disease that has the potential to cause significant morbidity with damage to nervous and musculoskeletal systems if left untreated. Appropriate antibiotic treatment during early infection prevents disease progression. Unfortunately, currently available diagnostics are suboptimal in the detection of early disease. The inability to confirm Borrelia infection using laboratory methods during early disease is, in part, responsible for much of the controversy surrounding Lyme disease today. As a result, there has been significant investment in the identification of new antigen targets to generate diagnostic assays that are more sensitive for the detection of early infection. The importance of our research is that in our evaluation of BBK32, an antigen that was previously identified as a promising target for use in serodiagnostics, we found a high degree of cross-reactivity that could compromise the specificity of assays that utilize this antigen, leading to false-positive diagnoses.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Borrelia burgdorferi/imunologia , Epitopos de Linfócito B/imunologia , Doença de Lyme/diagnóstico , Afinidade de Anticorpos , Antígenos de Bactérias/sangue , Antígenos de Bactérias/imunologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/imunologia , Borrelia burgdorferi/química , Humanos , Doença de Lyme/imunologia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Testes Sorológicos/métodos
17.
Acta Trop ; 196: 1-6, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31059707

RESUMO

Toxoplasmosis is a disease caused by Toxoplasma gondii, an intracellular protozoan able to infect a wide range of hosts. The infection is particularly severe in immunocompromised patients or during pregnancy, circumstances in which the parasite could find a more favorable microenvironment to replicate and invade host tissues. The current treatment consists in toxic drugs for the patients, being not appropriate for the fetuses and immunodeficient patients. So far, there is a lack of available vaccine to prevent the disease. The present study aimed to evaluate the immune response induced by peptides derived from parasite immunodominant proteins from key components, as surface, rhoptry, microneme and dense granule antigens. A panel of eleven peptides was selected considering the highest scores for B cell epitope prediction by in silico analyses. The peptides were divided in groups, according to the parasite organelle locations, and used to immunize C57BL/6 mice. The animals were submitted to three doses of immunization and infected by 10 cysts of T. gondii ME49 strain. Blood samples were collected and used to measure the production of antibodies and cytokines, while the brains were collected to determine the parasite burden by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). It was found that synthetic peptides from all targets were able to induce IgG synthesis in immunized mice, as well as to modulate the Th1/Th2 cytokine production, particularly the MIC and SRS groups, which presented the IFN-γ/IL-10 and TNF-α/IL-10 ratios 30 and 10 times higher, respectively, when compared with non-immunized group. Interestingly, the animals from MIC and SRS groups had significantly lower levels of T. gondii DNA in their brains. In summary, it can be concluded that peptides mainly from SRS and MIC parasite components constitute relevant targets to design vaccine candidates against parasite burden observed during chronic toxoplasmosis.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/parasitologia , Epitopos Imunodominantes/imunologia , Vacinas Protozoárias/imunologia , Toxoplasma/imunologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/prevenção & controle , Animais , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Antígenos de Protozoários/imunologia , Encéfalo/imunologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Epitopos de Linfócito B/imunologia , Feminino , Imunização , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Peptídeos/imunologia , Proteínas de Protozoários/genética
18.
Microb Pathog ; 132: 275-281, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31078709

RESUMO

Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite that causes one of the most common parasitic infections in humans and other warm-blooded animals. Currently, there are no effective treatments for inhibiting the formation of chronic tissue cysts in infected hosts. Thus, the development of a vaccine to protect against toxoplasmosis is an attractive option for avoiding infection. The aim of this study was to design an epitope-based vaccine for T. gondii. In the present study, an in silico approach was used to predict and analyze B-cell and T-cell epitopes and the transmembrane domain of proteins SAG1, MIC3, and ROP8. We also predicted the antigenicity, allergenicity, secondary and tertiary structures, and physicochemical characteristics of a chimeric protein. Next, codon optimization and mRNA structure prediction were conducted using bioinformatics tools, and the designed construct was chemically synthesized and cloned into the pET28a vector. SAG1 (amino acid positions 85-235), MIC3 (30-180), and ROP8 (85-185) were found to have several strong immunodominant epitopes that were joined with a rigid linker A(EAAAK)2A. Although the resultant protein called MRS (MIC3, ROP8, and SAG1) did not turn out to be an allergen, its antigenicity was estimated to be 0.7983. Additionally, MRS was selected as the best vaccine candidate on the basis of its secondary and tertiary structures. The number of amino acids, molecular weight, and numbers of negatively and positively charged residues of MRS were 427 and 45,661.31 Da, 45, and 50, respectively. ΔG of the best-predicted structure was -413.0 kcal/mol, and the first nucleotides at the 5' end did not form a stable hairpin or pseudoknot. Finally, successful expression and verification of the expressed MRS protein showed that in silico analysis was almost accurate. This vaccine candidate selected by in silico tools should be validated in experimental studies.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Protozoários/imunologia , Imunogenicidade da Vacina/imunologia , Vacinas Protozoárias/imunologia , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/imunologia , Toxoplasma/imunologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Antígenos de Protozoários/genética , Biologia Computacional , Simulação por Computador , Epitopos de Linfócito B/imunologia , Epitopos de Linfócito T/imunologia , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Modelos Moleculares , Conformação Proteica , Proteínas de Protozoários/genética , Proteínas de Protozoários/imunologia , RNA Mensageiro/química , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/química , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/genética , Toxoplasmose/imunologia , Toxoplasmose/prevenção & controle
19.
Microb Pathog ; 132: 243-253, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31075428

RESUMO

Ebola virus (EBOV), a non-segmented single-stranded RNA virus, is often-most transmitted through body fluids like sweat, tears, saliva, and nasal secretions. Till date, there is no licensed vaccine of EBOV is available in the market; however, the world is increasingly vulnerable to this emerging threat. Hence, it is the need of time to develop a vaccine for EBOV to hinder its dissemination. The current study has been designed for identification and characterization of the potential B and T-cell epitopes using the Immuno-informatics tools, and it helped in finding the potent vaccine candidates against EBOV. Prediction, antigenicity and allergenicity testing of predicted B and T cells' epitopes was done as well to identify their potential as a vaccine candidate and to measure their safety level respectively. Among B-cell epitopes "WIPAGIGVTGVIIA" showed a high antigenicity score and it would play an important role in evoking the immune response. In T-cell epitopes, peptides "AIGLAWIPY" and "IRGFPRCRY" presented high antigenicity score, which binds to MHC class-I and MHC class-II alleles respectively. All predicted epitopes were analyzed and compared with already reported peptides carefully. Comparatively, Peptides predicted in the present study showed more immunogenicity score than already reported peptides, used as positive control, and are more immunogenic as compared to them. Peptides reported in the present study do not target only Zaire EBOV (ZEBOV), as in previous studies, but also other species, i.e. Tai Forest EBOV (TAFV), Sudan EBOV (SUDV), Bundibugyo EBOV (BDBV), and Reston EBOV (RESTV) and would bring the promising results as potent vaccine candidates.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra Ebola/imunologia , Ebolavirus/imunologia , Epitopos de Linfócito B/imunologia , Epitopos de Linfócito T/imunologia , Glicoproteínas/imunologia , Alelos , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Vacinas contra Ebola/genética , Ebolavirus/genética , Genes MHC Classe I , Genes MHC da Classe II , Glicoproteínas/química , Glicoproteínas/genética , Antígeno HLA-B7 , Imunogenicidade da Vacina , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Estrutura Secundária de Proteína
20.
Mol Immunol ; 112: 151-162, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31108423

RESUMO

Pb27 antigen is an interesting alternative to immunological diagnosis of Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) and has demonstrated to be protective in experimental PCM. Its tertiary structure and possible function remained unknown till now. To study Pb27 at the atomic level, the recombinant protein was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3), purified, and its three-dimensional structure was solved by X-ray crystallography. Based on this structure, we performed a residue correlation analysis and in silico ligand search assays to address a possible biological function to Pb27. We identified Pb27 as a member of the extensive nucleotidyltransferase superfamily. The protein has an αßαßαß topology with two domains (N- and C-terminal domains) and adopts a monomeric form as its biological unit in solution. Structural comparisons with similar members of the superfamily clearly indicate Pb27 C-terminal domain is singular and may play an important role in its biological function. Bioinformatics analysis suggested that Pb27 might bind to ATP and CTP. This suggestion is corroborated by the fact that a magnesium cation is coordinated by two aspartic acid residues present at the active site (between N- and C-terminal domains), as evidenced by X-ray diffraction data. Besides, NMR assays (1H-15N HSQC spectra) confirmed the binding of CTP to Pb27, demonstrating for the first time an interaction between a nucleotide and this protein. Moreover, we evaluated the reactivity of sera from patients with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis infection against the recombinant form of Pb27 and showed that it was recognized by sera from infected and treated patients. Predicted B and T cell epitopes were synthesized and further evaluated against sera of PCM patients, providing information of the most reactive peptides in Pb27 primary structure which interact with specific Pb27 antibodies.


Assuntos
Proteínas Fúngicas/imunologia , Nucleotidiltransferases/imunologia , Paracoccidioides/imunologia , Paracoccidioidomicose/imunologia , Trifosfato de Adenosina/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Citidina Trifosfato/imunologia , Epitopos de Linfócito B/imunologia , Epitopos de Linfócito T/imunologia , Escherichia coli/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas Recombinantes/imunologia , Adulto Jovem
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