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1.
Recent Results Cancer Res ; 214: 153-167, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31473852

RESUMO

After more than a century of efforts to establish cancer immunotherapy in clinical practice, the advent of checkpoint inhibition (CPI) therapy was a critical breakthrough toward this direction (Hodi et al. in Cell Rep 13(2):412-424, 2010; Wolchok et al. in N Engl J Med 369(2):122-133, 2013; Herbst et al. in Nature 515(7528):563-567, 2014; Tumeh et al. in Nature 515(7528):568-571, 2014). Further, CPIs shifted the focus from long studied shared tumor-associated antigens to mutated ones. As cancer is caused by mutations in somatic cells, the concept to utilize these correlates of 'foreignness' to enable recognition and lysis of the cancer cell by T cell immunity seems an obvious thing to do.


Assuntos
Vacinas Anticâncer , Epitopos/imunologia , Imunoterapia , Neoplasias/terapia , Antígenos de Neoplasias/imunologia , Humanos
2.
Acta Virol ; 63(3): 301-308, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31507196

RESUMO

Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) causes great economic loss to swine industry worldwide. Vaccination is an important method to control the TGEV infection. In this study, a TGEV oral vaccine was generated by transferring a eukaryotic expression recombinant plasmid carrying the SAD (A and D antigenic sites of the S protein) epitope of TGEV into a swine-origin Lactobacillus acidophilus (L. acidophilus). In orally immunized BALB/c mice, the TGEV L. acidophilus oral vaccine induced significantly higher level of SIgA antibodies specific to TGEV compared with the mice immunized with a commercial inactivated TGEV vaccine and similar levels of IgG specific to TGEV as the inactivated vaccine. Furthermore, the TGEV L. acidophilus oral vaccine induced higher levels of IFN-γ, which suggested that the vaccine was able to induce immune response. In brief, this novel TGEV L. acidophilus oral vaccine could induce high levels of both mucosal and humoral immune responses, which has a potential to be used in the pig industries in the future. Keywords: transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV); live L. acidophilus oral vaccine; SIgA antibody; IgG antibody; IFN-γ; IL-4.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais , Epitopos , Gastroenterite Suína Transmissível , Lactobacillus acidophilus , Vírus da Gastroenterite Transmissível , Vacinas Virais , Administração Oral , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Epitopos/genética , Epitopos/imunologia , Gastroenterite Suína Transmissível/imunologia , Gastroenterite Suína Transmissível/patologia , Imunogenicidade da Vacina/imunologia , Lactobacillus acidophilus/genética , Lactobacillus acidophilus/virologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Plasmídeos/genética , Suínos , Proteínas Virais/genética , Proteínas Virais/imunologia , Vacinas Virais/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Virais/imunologia
3.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(37): 10458-10469, 2019 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31469568

RESUMO

Mud crab (Scylla paramamosain) is a commonly consumed seafood as a result of its high nutritional value; however, it is associated with food allergy. The current understanding of crab allergens remains insufficient. In the present study, an 18 kDa protein was purified from crab muscle and confirmed to be myosin light chain 1 (MLC1) by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Total RNA was isolated and amplified to obtain a MLC1 open reading frame of 462 bp, encoding 154 amino acids. A structural analysis revealed that recombinant MLC1 (rMLC1) expressed in Escherichia coli contained α-helix and random coil. Moreover, rMLC1 displayed strong immunoactivity by dot blot and a basophil activation test. Furthermore, seven allergenic epitopes of MLC1 were predicted, and five critical epitope regions were identified by an inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and human mast cell degranulation assay. This comprehensive research of an allergen helps to conduct component-resolved diagnoses and immunotherapies related to crab allergies.


Assuntos
Alérgenos/imunologia , Proteínas de Artrópodes/imunologia , Braquiúros/genética , Clonagem Molecular , Epitopos/imunologia , Cadeias Leves de Miosina/imunologia , Alérgenos/química , Alérgenos/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Proteínas de Artrópodes/química , Proteínas de Artrópodes/genética , Braquiúros/química , Braquiúros/imunologia , Degranulação Celular , Epitopos/química , Epitopos/genética , Humanos , Mastócitos/imunologia , Cadeias Leves de Miosina/química , Cadeias Leves de Miosina/genética , Fases de Leitura Aberta , Alinhamento de Sequência
4.
Vet Immunol Immunopathol ; 213: 109889, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31307671

RESUMO

Blocking immunoglobulin G (IgG) binding receptors on leukocytes is an established and highly recommended preventive procedure for immunological assays. Failing to prevent such nonspecific binding can lead to erroneous results. Several studies testing different blocking reagents have been performed in murine or human cells, however, there are no specific studies on bovine cells. Our study aimed to investigate the efficiency of blocking reagents to inhibit the nonspecific binding of mouse monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to bovine peripheral blood cells. We observed nonspecific interactions of IgG2a and IgG2b negative isotypes with bovine leukocytes, but not IgG1. We found that these nonspecific bindings could be eliminated by blocking with purified mouse IgG, whereas little or no blocking effect was observed when bovine serum or Mouse Seroblock FcR were applied. Moreover, in the absence of an efficient blocking reagent, the percentage of CD335 positive cells was significantly higher than in the group previously blocked with mouse IgG. Based on these results, and due to the lack of specific commercial blocking reagents for bovine cells, our recommendation is to use purified mouse IgG as a blocking reagent for immune assays targeting bovine leukocytes in order to enhance the accuracy of the results.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Imunofenotipagem/métodos , Leucócitos Mononucleares/imunologia , Receptores Fc/imunologia , Erro Experimental , Animais , Bovinos , Epitopos/imunologia , Citometria de Fluxo , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Imunoglobulina G/isolamento & purificação , Imunofenotipagem/normas , Camundongos , Ligação Proteica
5.
Virol J ; 16(1): 75, 2019 06 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31159841

RESUMO

Porcine parvovirus (PPV) is a DNA virus that causes reproductive failure in gilts and sows, resulting in embryonic and fetal losses worldwide. Epitope mapping of PPV is important for developing new vaccines. In this study, we used spot synthesis analysis for epitope mapping of the capsid proteins of PPV (NADL-2 strain) and correlated the findings with predictive data from immunoinformatics. The virus was exposed to three conditions prior to inoculation in pigs: native (untreated), high hydrostatic pressure (350 MPa for 1 h) at room temperature and high hydrostatic pressure (350 MPa for 1 h) at - 18 °C, and was compared with a commercial vaccine produced using inactivated PPV. The screening of serum samples detected 44 positive spots corresponding to 20 antigenic sites. Each type of inoculated antigen elicited a distinct epitope set. In silico prediction located linear and discontinuous epitopes in B cells that coincided with several epitopes detected in spot synthesis of sera from pigs that received different preparations of inoculum. The conditions tested elicited antibodies against the VP1/VP2 antigen that differed in relation to the response time and the profile of structurally available regions that were recognized.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Antígenos Virais/imunologia , Proteínas do Capsídeo/imunologia , Epitopos/imunologia , Parvovirus Suíno/imunologia , Animais , Antígenos Virais/química , Mapeamento de Epitopos , Epitopos/química , Masculino , Testes de Neutralização , Peptídeos/genética , Peptídeos/imunologia , Suínos
6.
Oncology ; 97(3): 135-148, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31216557

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We have developed a Wilms' tumor 1 (WT1)-targeting dendritic cell (DC)-based cancer vaccine combined with standard chemotherapy for patients with advanced pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA). METHODS: We evaluated predictive markers of overall survival (OS) in PDA patients treated with multiple major histocompatibility complex class I/II-restricted, WT1 peptide-pulsed DC vaccinations (DC/WT1-I/II) in combination with chemotherapy. Throughout the entire period of immunochemotherapy, the plasma levels of soluble factors derived from granulocytes of 7 eligible PDA patients were examined. Moreover, systemic inflammatory response markers (neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio [NLR], monocyte-to-lymphocyte ratio [MLR], and granulocyte-to-lymphocyte ratio [GLR]) were assessed. In addition, cytoplasmic WT1 expression in PDA cells was examined. RESULTS: Compared to the 4 non-super-responders (OS <1 year), the remaining 3 super-responders (OS ≥1 year) showed significantly decreased low plasma matrix metalloproteinase-9 levels throughout long-term therapy. The NLR, MLR, and GLR after 5 DC/WT1-I/II vaccinations and 3 cycles of gemcitabine were significantly lower in the super-responders than in the non-super-responders. Furthermore, the cytoplasmic WT1 expression in the PDA cells of super-responders was relatively weak compared to that in the PDA cells of non-super-responders. CONCLUSIONS: Prolonged low levels of a granulocyte-related systemic inflammatory response after the early period of therapy and low cytoplasmic WT1 expression in PDA cells may be markers predictive of OS in PDA patients receiving WT1-targeting immunochemotherapy.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais , Vacinas Anticâncer/imunologia , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Imunoterapia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/imunologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/mortalidade , Proteínas WT1/imunologia , Biomarcadores , Vacinas Anticâncer/administração & dosagem , Terapia Combinada , Células Dendríticas/metabolismo , Epitopos/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imunofenotipagem , Masculino , Metaloproteinase 9 da Matriz/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/terapia , Peptídeos/imunologia , Peroxidase/metabolismo , Prognóstico , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/metabolismo , Resultado do Tratamento , Vacinação , Proteínas WT1/genética
7.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2150, 2019 05 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31089130

RESUMO

Peptide-major histocompatibility complex class II (pMHCII)-based nanomedicines displaying tissue-specific autoantigenic epitopes can blunt specific autoimmune conditions by re-programming cognate antigen-experienced CD4+ T-cells into disease-suppressing T-regulatory type 1 (TR1) cells. Here, we show that single pMHCII-based nanomedicines displaying epitopes from mitochondrial, endoplasmic reticulum or cytoplasmic antigens associated with primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) or autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) can broadly blunt PBC, AIH and Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis in various murine models in an organ- rather than disease-specific manner, without suppressing general or local immunity against infection or metastatic tumors. Therapeutic activity is associated with cognate TR1 cell formation and expansion, TR1 cell recruitment to the liver and draining lymph nodes, local B-regulatory cell formation and profound suppression of the pro-inflammatory capacity of liver and liver-proximal myeloid dendritic cells and Kupffer cells. Thus, autoreactivity against liver-enriched autoantigens in liver autoimmunity is not disease-specific and can be harnessed to treat various liver autoimmune diseases broadly.


Assuntos
Doenças Autoimunes/tratamento farmacológico , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe II/imunologia , Hepatopatias/tratamento farmacológico , Nanopartículas/administração & dosagem , Peptídeos/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Animais , Autoantígenos/imunologia , Doenças Autoimunes/imunologia , Linhagem Celular , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Epitopos/imunologia , Feminino , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe II/química , Humanos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/imunologia , Hepatopatias/imunologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nanomedicina/métodos , Nanopartículas/química , Peptídeos/química , Peptídeos/imunologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia
8.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2174, 2019 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31092823

RESUMO

RTS,S/AS01E has been tested in a phase 3 malaria vaccine study with partial efficacy in African children and infants. In a cohort of 1028 subjects from one low (Bagomoyo) and two high (Nanoro, Kintampo) malaria transmission sites, we analysed IgG plasma/serum concentration and avidity to CSP (NANP-repeat and C-terminal domains) after a 3-dose vaccination against time to clinical malaria events during 12-months. Here we report that RTS,S/AS01E induces substantial increases in IgG levels from pre- to post-vaccination (p < 0.001), higher in NANP than C-terminus (2855 vs 1297 proportional change between means), and higher concentrations and avidities in children than infants (p < 0.001). Baseline CSP IgG levels are elevated in malaria cases than controls (p < 0.001). Both, IgG magnitude to NANP (hazard ratio [95% confidence interval] 0.61 [0.48-0.76]) and avidity to C-terminus (0.07 [0.05-0.90]) post-vaccination are significantly associated with vaccine efficacy. IgG avidity to the C-terminus emerges as a significant contributor to RTS,S/AS01E-mediated protection.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Protozoários/imunologia , Vacinas Antimaláricas/imunologia , Malária Falciparum/prevenção & controle , Plasmodium falciparum/imunologia , Proteínas de Protozoários/imunologia , África ao Sul do Saara , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/imunologia , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/isolamento & purificação , Afinidade de Anticorpos/imunologia , Epitopos/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imunogenicidade da Vacina , Lactente , Vacinas Antimaláricas/uso terapêutico , Malária Falciparum/sangue , Malária Falciparum/imunologia , Malária Falciparum/parasitologia , Masculino , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2073, 2019 05 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31061402

RESUMO

Isolation of broadly neutralizing human monoclonal antibodies (HmAbs) targeting the E2 glycoprotein of Hepatitis C virus (HCV) has sparked hope for effective vaccine development. Nonetheless, escape mutations have been reported. Ideally, a potent vaccine should elicit HmAbs that target regions of E2 that are most difficult to escape. Here, aimed at addressing this challenge, we develop a predictive in-silico evolutionary model for E2 that identifies one such region, a specific antigenic domain, making it an attractive target for a robust antibody response. Specific broadly neutralizing HmAbs that appear difficult to escape from are also identified. By providing a framework for identifying vulnerable regions of E2 and for assessing the potency of specific antibodies, our results can aid the rational design of an effective prophylactic HCV vaccine.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Hepacivirus/imunologia , Hepatite C/imunologia , Proteínas do Envelope Viral/imunologia , Simulação por Computador , Desenho de Drogas , Mapeamento de Epitopos/métodos , Epitopos/genética , Epitopos/imunologia , Evolução Molecular , Hepacivirus/genética , Hepatite C/prevenção & controle , Hepatite C/virologia , Humanos , Modelos Biológicos , Proteínas do Envelope Viral/genética , Vacinas contra Hepatite Viral/imunologia
10.
Nat Protoc ; 14(6): 1926-1943, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31101906

RESUMO

The identification of immunogenic neoantigens and their cognate T cells represents the most crucial and rate-limiting steps in the development of personalized cancer immunotherapies that are based on vaccination or on infusion of T cell receptor (TCR)-engineered T cells. Recent advances in deep-sequencing technologies and in silico prediction algorithms have allowed rapid identification of candidate neoepitopes. However, large-scale validation of putative neoepitopes and the isolation of reactive T cells are challenging because of the limited availablity of patient material and the low frequencies of neoepitope-specific T cells. Here we describe a standardized protocol for the induction of neoepitope-reactive T cells from healthy donor T cell repertoires, unaffected by the potentially immunosuppressive environment of the tumor-bearing host. Monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs) transfected with mRNA encoding candidate neoepitopes are used to prime autologous naive CD8+ T cells. Antigen-specific T cells that recognize endogenously processed and presented epitopes are detected using peptide-MHC (pMHC) multimers. Single multimer-positive T cells are sorted for the identification of TCR sequences, after an optional step that includes clonal expansion and functional characterization. The time required to identify neoepitope-specific T cells is 15 d, with an additional 2-4 weeks required for clonal expansion and downstream functional characterization. Identified neoepitopes and corresponding TCRs provide candidates for use in vaccination and TCR-based cancer immunotherapies, and datasets generated by this technology should be useful for improving algorithms to predict immunogenic neoantigens.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Epitopos/imunologia , Neoplasias/imunologia , Células Cultivadas , Células Dendríticas/metabolismo , Eletroporação/métodos , Epitopos/genética , Humanos , Imunoterapia/métodos , Neoplasias/terapia , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T/análise , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Transfecção/métodos
11.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 20(Suppl 7): 192, 2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31074372

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Iridoviridae family is categorized into five genera and clustered into two subfamilies: Alphairidovirinae includes Lymphocystivirus, Ranavirus (GIV), and Megalocystivirus (TGIV), which infect vertebrate hosts and Betairidovirinae includes Iridovirus and Chloriridovirus, which infect invertebrate hosts. Clustered Iridoviridae subfamilies possess host-specific characteristics, which can be considered as exclusive features for in-silico prediction of effective epitopes for vaccine development. A voting mechanism-based linear epitope (LE) prediction system was applied to identify and endorse LE candidates with a minimum length requirement for each clustered subfamily RESULTS: The experimental results showed that four conserved epitopes among the Iridovirideae family, one exclusive epitope for invertebrate subfamily and two exclusive epitopes for vertebrate family were predicted. These predicted LE candidates were further validated by ELISA assays for evaluating the strength of antigenicity and cross antigenicity. The conserved LEs for Iridoviridae family reflected high antigenicity responses for the two subfamilies, while exclusive LEs reflected high antigenicity responses only for the host-specific subfamily CONCLUSIONS: Host-specific characteristics are important features and constraints for effective epitope prediction. Our proposed voting mechanism based system provides a novel approach for in silico LE prediction prior to vaccine development, and it is especially powerful for analyzing antigen sequences with exclusive features between two clustered groups.


Assuntos
Infecções por Vírus de DNA/imunologia , Epitopos/imunologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Invertebrados/imunologia , Iridoviridae/imunologia , Vertebrados/imunologia , Proteínas Virais/imunologia , Animais , Infecções por Vírus de DNA/virologia , Invertebrados/virologia , Iridoviridae/classificação , Iridoviridae/genética , Vertebrados/virologia
12.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 8(1): 749-759, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31130109

RESUMO

The Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak and its link to microcephaly triggered a public health concern. To examine antibody response in a patient infected with ZIKV, we used single-cell PCR to clone 31 heavy and light chain-paired monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that bind to ZIKV envelope (E) proteins isolated from memory B cells of a ZIKV-infected patient. Three mAbs (7B3, 1C11, and 6A6) that showed the most potent and broad neutralization activities against the African, Asian, and American strains were selected for further analysis. mAb 7B3 showed an IC50 value of 11.6 ng/mL against the circulating American strain GZ02. Epitope mapping revealed that mAbs 7B3 and 1C11 targeted residue K394 of the lateral ridge (LR) epitope of the EDIII domain, but 7B3 has a broader LR epitope footprint and recognizes residues T335, G337, E370, and N371 as well. mAb 6A6 recognized residues D67, K118, and K251 of the EDII domain. Interestingly, although the patient was seronegative for DENV infection, mAb 1C11, originating from the VH3-23 and VK1-5 germline pair, neutralized both ZIKV and DENV1. Administration of the mAbs 7B3, 1C11, and 6A6 protected neonatal SCID mice infected with a lethal dose of ZIKV. This study provides potential therapeutic antibody candidates and insights into the antibody response after ZIKV infection.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Antivirais/administração & dosagem , Imunização Passiva , Proteínas do Envelope Viral/imunologia , Infecção por Zika virus/prevenção & controle , Zika virus/imunologia , Adulto , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Anticorpos Monoclonais/isolamento & purificação , Anticorpos Antivirais/isolamento & purificação , China , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Mapeamento de Epitopos , Epitopos/imunologia , Humanos , Fatores Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Fatores Imunológicos/isolamento & purificação , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos SCID , Testes de Neutralização , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento , Infecção por Zika virus/imunologia
13.
mSphere ; 4(3)2019 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31092602

RESUMO

The Plasmodium vivax Duffy binding protein region II (DBPII) is a vital ligand for the parasite's invasion of reticulocytes, thereby making this molecule an attractive vaccine candidate against vivax malaria. However, strain-specific immunity due to DBPII allelic variation in Bc epitopes may complicate vaccine efficacy, suggesting that an effective DBPII vaccine needs to target conserved epitopes that are potential targets of strain-transcending neutralizing immunity. The minimal epitopes reactive with functionally inhibitory anti-DBPII monoclonal antibody (MAb) 3C9 and noninhibitory anti-DBPII MAb 3D10 were mapped using phage display expression libraries, since previous attempts to deduce the 3C9 epitope by cocrystallographic methods failed. Inhibitory MAb 3C9 binds to a conserved conformation-dependent epitope in subdomain 3, while noninhibitory MAb 3D10 binds to a linear epitope in subdomain 1 of DBPII, consistent with previous studies. Immunogenicity studies using synthetic linear peptides of the minimal epitopes determined that the 3C9 epitope, but not the 3D10 epitope, could induce functionally inhibitory anti-DBPII antibodies. Therefore, the highly conserved binding-inhibitory 3C9 epitope offers the potential as a component in a broadly inhibitory, strain-transcending DBP subunit vaccine.IMPORTANCE Vivax malaria is the second leading cause of malaria worldwide and the major cause of non-African malaria. Unfortunately, efforts to develop antimalarial vaccines specifically targeting Plasmodium vivax have been largely neglected, and few candidates have progressed into clinical trials. The Duffy binding protein is considered a leading blood-stage vaccine candidate because this ligand's recognition of the Duffy blood group reticulocyte surface receptor is considered essential for infection. This study identifies a new target epitope on the ligand's surface that may serve as the target of vaccine-induced binding-inhibitory antibody (BIAb). Understanding the potential targets of vaccine protection will be important for development of an effective vaccine.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Protozoários/imunologia , Epitopos/imunologia , Plasmodium vivax/imunologia , Proteínas de Protozoários/imunologia , Receptores de Superfície Celular/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/imunologia , Antígenos de Protozoários/genética , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Epitopos/genética , Ligantes , Vacinas Antimaláricas , Malária Vivax/imunologia , Malária Vivax/prevenção & controle , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Biblioteca de Peptídeos , Plasmodium vivax/química , Proteínas de Protozoários/genética , Receptores de Superfície Celular/genética
14.
Virol J ; 16(1): 72, 2019 05 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31138240

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Human papillomavirus (HPV) E6 and E7 oncoproteins play a crucial role in HPV-related diseases, such as cervical cancer, and can be used as ideal targets for therapeutic vaccines. Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) participates in the immune response to block HPV infection and invasion by its target/recognition function. HPV-33 and HPV-58 are highly prevalent among Chinese women. Therefore, it is of great significance to study the E6 and E7 region-specific gene polymorphisms of HPV-33 and HPV-58 in Southwest China and to identify ideal epitopes for vaccine design. Both HPV-33 and HPV-58 belong to α-9 genus HPV and are highly homologous, so their correlations are included in our research. METHODS: To study the E6 and E7 variations and polymorphisms of HPV-33 and HPV-58 in Southwest China, we collected samples, extracted and sequenced DNA, and identified variants. Nucleotide sequences were translated into amino acids by Mega 6.0 software. The physical/chemical properties, amino acid-conserved sequences and secondary structure of protein sequences were analysed by the Protparam server, ConSurf server and PSIPRED software. The T and B cell epitopes of the E6/E7 reference and variant sequences in HPV-33 and HPV-58 were predicted by the Immune Epitope Database (IEDB) analysis server and the ABCpred server, respectively. RESULTS: Five and seven optimal HLA-I restricted T cell epitopes were selected from HPV-33 and HPV-58 E6, respectively, and these optimal epitopes are mainly located in 41-58EVYDFAFADLTVVYREGN of HPV-33 E6 and 40-60SEVYDFVFADLRIVYRDGNPF of HPV-58 E6. Six optimal HLA-I-restricted T cell epitopes were selected from HPV-33 and HPV-58 E7, and these epitopes are mainly located in 77-90RTIQQLLMGTVNIV of HPV-33 E7 and 78-91RTLQQLLMGTCTIV of HPV-58 E7. CONCLUSIONS: HPV-33/HPV-58 E6/E7 gene polymorphisms and T/B cell epitopes of their reference and variant sequences were studied, and candidate epitopes were selected by bioinformatics techniques for therapeutic vaccine design for people in Southwest China. This study was the first to investigate the correlation of epitopes between HPV-33 and HPV-58. After experimental validation, these selected epitopes will be employed to induce a wide range of immune responses in heterogeneous HLA populations.


Assuntos
Epitopos/imunologia , Variação Genética , Papillomaviridae/imunologia , Proteínas E7 de Papillomavirus/genética , Proteínas E7 de Papillomavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/imunologia , Epitopos/genética , Epitopos de Linfócito B/imunologia , Epitopos de Linfócito T/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Infecções por Papillomavirus/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/virologia
15.
Carbohydr Res ; 478: 58-67, 2019 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31096122

RESUMO

The immunodominant epitope α-d-Galp-(1 → 3)-ß-d-Galp-(1 → 4)-d-GlcNAc, expressed in the mucins of the infective trypomastigote stage of Trypanosoma cruzi has been proposed for multiple clinical applications, from serodiagnosis of protozoan caused diseases to xenotransplantation or cancer vaccinology. It was previously shown that the analogue trisaccharide, with glucose in the reducing end instead of GlcNAc, was as efficient as the natural trisaccharide for recognition of chagasic antibodies. Here we describe the synthesis of α-d-Galp-(1 → 3)-ß-d-Galp-(1 → 4)-d-Glcp functionalized as the 6-aminohexyl glycoside and its conjugation to BSA using the squarate method. The conjugate of 6-aminohexyl α-d-Galp-(1 → 3)-ß-d-Galp was also prepared. Both neoglycoconjugates were recognized by serum samples of Trypanosoma cruzi-infected individuals and thus, are promising tools for the improvement of Chagas disease diagnostic applications.


Assuntos
Doença de Chagas/tratamento farmacológico , Epitopos/imunologia , Glicoconjugados/uso terapêutico , Configuração de Carboidratos , Doença de Chagas/imunologia , Epitopos/química , Glicoconjugados/síntese química , Glicoconjugados/química , Humanos
16.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2355, 2019 05 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31142746

RESUMO

Stabilized HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins (Env) that resemble the native Env are utilized in vaccination strategies aimed at inducing broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs). To limit the exposure of rare isolate-specific antigenic residues/determinants we generated a SOSIP trimer based on a consensus sequence of all HIV-1 group M isolates (ConM). The ConM trimer displays the epitopes of most known bNAbs and several germline bNAb precursors. The crystal structure of the ConM trimer at 3.9 Å resolution resembles that of the native Env trimer and its antigenic surface displays few rare residues. The ConM trimer elicits strong NAb responses against the autologous virus in rabbits and macaques that are significantly enhanced when it is presented on ferritin nanoparticles. The dominant NAb specificity is directed against an epitope at or close to the trimer apex. Immunogens based on consensus sequences might have utility in engineering vaccines against HIV-1 and other viruses.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra a AIDS/imunologia , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Epitopos/imunologia , Anticorpos Anti-HIV/imunologia , HIV-1/imunologia , Produtos do Gene env do Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana/imunologia , Animais , Sequência Consenso , Macaca , Multimerização Proteica , Coelhos
17.
Parasitol Res ; 118(7): 2263-2270, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31089811

RESUMO

Current diagnostic tools to determine infection with the helminth parasite Onchocerca volvulus have limited performance characteristics. In previous studies, a proteome-wide screen was conducted to identify linear epitopes in this parasite's proteome, resulting in the discovery of 1110 antigenic peptide fragments. Here, we investigated three of these peptides using peptide ELISA's and evaluated their sensitivity and specificity. Epitope mapping was performed, and peptides were constructed that contained only the minimal epitope, flanked by a linker. Investigation of the performance of these minimal epitope peptides demonstrated that all three of them have a specificity (as defined by lack of response in non-helminth-infected individuals) of 100%, low cross-reactivity (5.6%, 5.6%, and 9.3%, respectively), but low sensitivity (36.9%, 46.5%, and 41.2%, respectively). Some cross-reactivity was observed in samples from individuals infected with soil-transmitted helminths or Brugia malayi. Combining these three minimal epitopes in a single peptide, called OvNMP-48, resulted in a performance that exceeded the sum of the individual epitopes, with a sensitivity of 76.0%, a specificity of 97.4%, and a cross-reactivity of 11.1%. Cross-reactivity was observed in some STH and Brugia malayi-infected individuals. This work opens the opportunity to start exploring how these novel linear epitope markers might become part of the O. volvulus diagnostic toolbox.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Helmintos/imunologia , Epitopos/imunologia , Filariose/diagnóstico , Onchocerca volvulus/imunologia , Oncocercose/diagnóstico , Peptídeos/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Brugia Malayi/imunologia , Reações Cruzadas , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Mapeamento de Epitopos , Feminino , Filariose/parasitologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oncocercose/parasitologia , Proteoma , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Testes Sorológicos , Adulto Jovem
18.
Gene ; 703: 102-111, 2019 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30928364

RESUMO

Haemonchus contortus (HC) causes Haemonchosis in sheep and goats, with high mortality and morbidity due to lack of effective vaccine and increasing resistance to anthelmintic drugs. The present study was aimed at developing the 3D model of HCP24 protein and to identify the candidate epitopic peptides for effective humoral and cell-mediated immune-response. The HCP24 protein was homology modelled using the Swiss server and developed model was validated by ERRAT, VERIFY3D, PROQ, RAMPAGE and PROCHECK servers. Linear and prominent antigenic epitopes were predicted by SVMTrip and Immuno-medicine group tool. Conformational B-cell epitopes were predicted by Ellipro. MHC-I and MHC-II binding peptides were predicted by MHCPRED2, MHC2PRED and Propred I server. Proteosomal cleavage sites were predicted by Netchop server, to assess the stability of peptides. Reverse and three frame translation was done by EMBOSS tool. Bepipred and IEDB analysis also confirmed that both the predicted peptides (pep-1 and pep-2) were important antigenic region but pep-1 should have better hydrophobicity and stability. The degree of confidence achieved on scientific validation of the generated 3D model of the protein allows us to prescribe its use for research purpose. We could determine the peptide Pep-1(EDCKCTNCVCSRDEAL) should be a conformational B cell epitope with high antigenic potential and should demonstrate good binding affinity with host MHC-II and MHC-I alleles as well as stability inside host. Thus, it could be an ideal vaccine candidate for developing sub-unit vaccine against the parasite and should be assessed for protective immune response by in vitro and in-vivo studies.


Assuntos
Epitopos/química , Haemonchus/metabolismo , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/química , Animais , Sítios de Ligação , Simulação por Computador , Epitopos/imunologia , Proteínas de Helminto/química , Proteínas de Helminto/imunologia , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/imunologia , Modelos Moleculares , Conformação Proteica , Homologia Estrutural de Proteína
19.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 15(4): e1006954, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30970017

RESUMO

HIV is a highly mutable virus for which all attempts to develop a vaccine have been unsuccessful. Nevertheless, few long-infected patients develop antibodies, called broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs), that have a high breadth and can neutralize multiple variants of the virus. This suggests that a universal HIV vaccine should be possible. A measure of the efficacy of a HIV vaccine is the neutralization breadth of the antibodies it generates. The breadth is defined as the fraction of viruses in the Seaman panel that are neutralized by the antibody. Experimentally the neutralization ability is measured as the half maximal inhibitory concentration of the antibody (IC50). To avoid such time-consuming experimental measurements, we developed a computational approach to estimate the IC50 and use it to determine the antibody breadth. Given that no direct method exists for calculating IC50 values, we resort to a combination of atomistic modeling and machine learning. For each antibody/virus complex, an all-atoms model is built using the amino acid sequence and a known structure of a related complex. Then a series of descriptors are derived from the atomistic models, and these are used to train a Multi-Layer Perceptron (an Artificial Neural Network) to predict the value of the IC50 (by regression), or if the antibody binds or not to the virus (by classification). The neural networks are trained by use of experimental IC50 values collected in the CATNAP database. The computed breadths obtained by regression and classification are reported and the importance of having some related information in the data set for obtaining accurate predictions is analyzed. This approach is expected to prove useful for the design of HIV bnAbs, where the computation of the potency must be accompanied by a computation of the breadth, and for evaluating the efficiency of potential vaccination schemes developed through modeling and simulation.


Assuntos
Biologia Computacional/métodos , Anticorpos Anti-HIV/classificação , Anticorpos Anti-HIV/imunologia , Vacinas contra a AIDS/imunologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/genética , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Antígenos CD4/imunologia , Contagem de Linfócito CD4/métodos , Epitopos/imunologia , Anticorpos Anti-HIV/genética , Infecções por HIV/virologia , HIV-1/imunologia , Humanos , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Aprendizado de Máquina
20.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 8(1): 516-530, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30938227

RESUMO

The Middle-East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is a zoonotic virus that causes severe and often fatal respiratory disease in humans. Efforts to develop antibody-based therapies have focused on neutralizing antibodies that target the receptor binding domain of the viral spike protein thereby blocking receptor binding. Here, we developed a set of human monoclonal antibodies that target functionally distinct domains of the MERS-CoV spike protein. These antibodies belong to six distinct epitope groups and interfere with the three critical entry functions of the MERS-CoV spike protein: sialic acid binding, receptor binding and membrane fusion. Passive immunization with potently as well as with poorly neutralizing antibodies protected mice from lethal MERS-CoV challenge. Collectively, these antibodies offer new ways to gain humoral protection in humans against the emerging MERS-CoV by targeting different spike protein epitopes and functions.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/imunologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/química , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Epitopos/química , Epitopos/genética , Epitopos/imunologia , Humanos , Imunização Passiva , Camundongos , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/química , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/genética , Domínios Proteicos , Receptores Virais/genética , Receptores Virais/imunologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética
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