Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 14.816
Filtrar
1.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 50(4): 1026-1030, 2020 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31926542

RESUMO

The Galápagos shearwater, Puffinus subalaris, is a seabird endemic to the Galápagos archipelago. Hematology, blood chemistry, and general health parameters have not been published for this species. Analyses were run on blood samples drawn from 20 clinically healthy Galápagos shearwaters captured by hand at their nests at Islote Pitt on San Cristóbal Island in July 2016. A portable blood analyzer (iSTAT) was used to obtain near immediate field results for pH, pO2, pCO2, TCO2, HCO3 -, hematocrit, hemoglobin, sodium, potassium, chloride, ionized calcium, creatinine, urea nitrogen, anion gap, and glucose. Blood lactate was measured using a portable Lactate Plus analyzer. The reported results provide baseline data that can be used for comparisons among populations and in detecting changes in health status among Galápagos shearwaters.


Assuntos
Bicarbonatos/sangue , Aves/sangue , Dióxido de Carbono/sangue , Hematócrito/veterinária , Oxigênio/sangue , Equilíbrio Ácido-Base , Animais , Glicemia , Cálcio/sangue , Cloretos/sangue , Creatinina/sangue , Hemoglobinas , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Lactatos/sangue , Potássio/sangue , Sódio/sangue
3.
Med Klin Intensivmed Notfmed ; 114(8): 765-776, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31641791

RESUMO

Keeping blood pH levels stable within narrow limits is prerequisite for maintaining normal body function. Disruptions of this equilibrium can occur for a variety of reasons and may result in life-threatening conditions. Therefore, the identification and the interpretation of acid-base disorders are of great importance in emergency medicine. The same applies to intensive care as well as to almost all areas of internal medicine. In this article, we provide a practical overview of all relevant acid-base disorders that are due to both metabolic and respiratory disturbances. In addition, it shows how they can be diagnosed in everyday clinical practice by applying the simplified Stewart Approach.


Assuntos
Equilíbrio Ácido-Base/fisiologia , Desequilíbrio Ácido-Base , Gasometria , Cuidados Críticos/métodos , Desequilíbrio Ácido-Base/sangue , Desequilíbrio Ácido-Base/diagnóstico , Acidose , Humanos
4.
Physiol Rev ; 99(4): 2015-2113, 2019 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31507243

RESUMO

Na+/H+ exchangers play pivotal roles in the control of cell and tissue pH by mediating the electroneutral exchange of Na+ and H+ across cellular membranes. They belong to an ancient family of highly evolutionarily conserved proteins, and they play essential physiological roles in all phyla. In this review, we focus on the mammalian Na+/H+ exchangers (NHEs), the solute carrier (SLC) 9 family. This family of electroneutral transporters constitutes three branches: SLC9A, -B, and -C. Within these, each isoform exhibits distinct tissue expression profiles, regulation, and physiological roles. Some of these transporters are highly studied, with hundreds of original articles, and some are still only rudimentarily understood. In this review, we present and discuss the pioneering original work as well as the current state-of-the-art research on mammalian NHEs. We aim to provide the reader with a comprehensive view of core knowledge and recent insights into each family member, from gene organization over protein structure and regulation to physiological and pathophysiological roles. Particular attention is given to the integrated physiology of NHEs in the main organ systems. We provide several novel analyses and useful overviews, and we pinpoint main remaining enigmas, which we hope will inspire novel research on these highly versatile proteins.


Assuntos
Equilíbrio Ácido-Base , Trocadores de Sódio-Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Animais , Evolução Molecular , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Conformação Proteica , Trocadores de Sódio-Hidrogênio/química , Trocadores de Sódio-Hidrogênio/genética , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Distribuição Tecidual
5.
J Anim Sci ; 97(11): 4557-4566, 2019 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31504564

RESUMO

The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary garcinol supplementation during late gestation (from the 90th day of pregnancy; day 90) and lactation on the acid-base balance of the umbilical cord blood and performance of sows and piglets. Sixty sows (Duroc × Yorkshire × Landrace; second- or third-parity; n = 20) were randomly divided into 3 gestation (day 90 of pregnancy) or lactation treatments, control diet (CON; basal diet), basal diet with 200 mg garcinol, and basal diet with 600 mg garcinol per kg of feed. The body weight (BW); backfat thickness and litter size of the sows; and birth weight, weaning weight, and mortality of piglets were recorded. Sows' blood and piglets' umbilical cord blood were collected for the measurements of hematological parameters and antioxidative and immune indexes, and acid-base balance parameters, respectively. The colostrum and milk and fecal samples of the sows were also collected for analysis of milk composition and apparent total tract nutrient digestibility. Garcinol had no effect on the BW and backfat thickness of the sows but significantly increased the birth weight and weaning weight of piglets (P < 0.05) and decreased the mortality (P < 0.05). Moreover, the white blood cell counts and neutrophil count, mean cell hemoglobin, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and catalase (CAT) activity in the plasma of the sows were increased more significantly (P < 0.05) in the garcinol groups than that in the CON group, whereas the malondialdehyde (MDA) content was decreased (P < 0.05). The garcinol treatment significantly increased the pH, HCO3- and base excess values (P < 0.05), whereas it decreased the pCO2 and lactate content (P < 0.05) in the umbilical blood. Dry matter (DM), ash, and ether extract in the colostrum were similar between groups (P > 0.05), whereas the garcinol significantly increased the crude protein (CP) in the milk. In addition, the content of immunoglobulin A (IgA) and immunoglobulin G (IgG) in the plasma of piglets and in colostrum and milk of sows were increased more significantly (P < 0.05) in the garcinol groups than that in the CON group. The apparent total tract nutrient digestibility was similar between treatments. Collectively, this study indicates that sows fed with garcinol in late gestation and lactation showed improved maternal health and antioxidative status, milk protein content, acid-base balance in the umbilical cord blood, and growth performance in piglets, showing promise in natural plant extract nutrition for sows.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Leite/química , Suínos/fisiologia , Terpenos/administração & dosagem , Equilíbrio Ácido-Base/efeitos dos fármacos , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Colostro/química , Dieta/veterinária , Feminino , Sangue Fetal/efeitos dos fármacos , Imunoglobulina A/sangue , Lactação/efeitos dos fármacos , Tamanho da Ninhada de Vivíparos/efeitos dos fármacos , Paridade , Gravidez , Distribuição Aleatória , Suínos/sangue , Suínos/imunologia , Desmame
6.
Vnitr Lek ; 65(6): 400-404, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31484480

RESUMO

Traditional diagnostic approach to acute acid-base disorders is based on the assessment of bicarbonate buffer system, in which pH is determined by the ratio of [HCO3-] to pCO2. This, in turn, creates basis for distinguishing metabolic and respiratory disorders, and defines the term “compensation”. The use of electroneutrality advantageously complements the bicarbonate-based approach when dealing with complex acid-base disorders. It is possible to simplify this approach so it can be applied only using mental arithmetics. In principle, the space created by strong ion difference (which can be simplified to [Na+]-[Cl-]) is shared by negative charges on albumin and bicarbonate. In turn, a shrinkage of this space ([Na+]-[Cl-]  36 mM causes alka-losis, as well as a decrease in albumin concentration (for every 10 g/L of albumin, 3 mM is freed to be occupied by [HCO3-]). Lastly, if the sum of negative charges on albumin and [HCO3-] is lower than estimated strong ion difference, an unmeasured anion must be present. This concept is explained on commented case reports.


Assuntos
Desequilíbrio Ácido-Base , Equilíbrio Ácido-Base , Desequilíbrio Ácido-Base/diagnóstico , Bicarbonatos , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Sódio
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(17)2019 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31450703

RESUMO

Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are intracellular molecules regulating a wide range of cellular functions, including proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, cytoskeleton remodeling and cytokine production. MAPK activity has been shown in normal kidney, and its over-activation has been demonstrated in several renal diseases. The extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases (ERK 1,2) signalling pathway is the first described MAPK signaling. Intensive investigations have demonstrated that it participates in the regulation of ureteric bud branching, a fundamental process in establishing final nephron number; in addition, it is also involved in the differentiation of the nephrogenic mesenchyme, indicating a key role in mammalian kidney embryonic development. In the present manuscript, we show that ERK1,2 signalling mediates several cellular functions also in mature kidney, describing its role along the nephron and demonstrating whether it contributes to the regulation of ion channels and transporters implicated in acid-base and electrolytes homeostasis.


Assuntos
Equilíbrio Ácido-Base , Eletrólitos/metabolismo , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases , Néfrons/metabolismo , Equilíbrio Hidroeletrolítico , Animais , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Humanos , Túbulos Renais Coletores/metabolismo , Túbulos Renais Distais/metabolismo , Túbulos Renais Proximais/metabolismo , Alça do Néfron/metabolismo
8.
Nursing (Säo Paulo) ; 22(255): 3101-3104, ago.2019.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1025993

RESUMO

Objetivos: identificar a influência do tempo, no sangue coletado, para os parâmetros gasométricos. Método: pesquisa descritiva, exploratória de abordagem quantitativa. Foram colhidas quatro amostras de sangue arterial de sessenta pacientes internados. As sessenta amostras de sangue arterial foram divididas e identificadas seguindo a sequência: pH, pCO2 e HCO3 respectivamente. Cada amostra (contida em uma seringa) foi processada na máquina para leitura quatro vezes em momentos diferentes. Resultados: foi feita uma comparação de cada um dos principais dados gasométricos, colocando os resultados de cada tempo pré-determinado, revelando as alterações ocorridas no tempo entre a coleta e a realização do exame de gases. O pH apresentou alterações tendendo para uma acidose, o pCO2 houve um ganho na sua concentração, o HCO3 houve queda na média de sua concentração Conclusão: a amostra para gasometria arterial se apresenta instável e de rápida mudança nos valores dos gases no decorrer do tempo.(AU)


Objectives: identify the influence of time, in the blood collected, for the gasometrical parameters. Method: descriptive, exploratory, quantitative approach research Four arterial blood samples were collected from sixty inpatients. Sixty arterial blood samples were divided and identified following the sequence: pH, pCO2 and HCO3 respectively. Each sample (contained in a syringe) was processed in the machine to read four times at different times. Results: a comparison of each of the main gasometrical data was made, placing the results of each predetermined time, revealing the changes occurred in the time between the collection and the gas examination. The pH presented alterations tending to an acidosis, the pCO2 had a gain in its concentration, the HCO3 had a decrease in the mean of its concentration Conclusion: the sample for arterial blood gases shows an unstable and rapidly changing gas values over time.(AU)


Objetivos: identificar la influencia del tiempo, en la sangre recogida, para los parámetros gasométricos. Método: investigaccíon, descriptiva, exploratória de enfoque cuantitativo. Se tomaron cuatro muestras de sangre arterial de sesenta pacientes internados. Las sesenta muestras de sangre arterial fueron divididas e identificadas siguiendo la secuencia: pH, pCO2 y HCO3 respectivamente. Cada muestra (contenida en una jeringa) fue procesada en la máquina para lectura cuatro veces en momentos diferentes. Resultados: se hizo una comparación de cada uno de los principales datos gasométricos, colocando los resultados de cada tiempo predeterminado, revelando los cambios ocurridos en el tiempo entre la recolección y la realización del examen de gases. El pH presentó alteraciones tendientes a una acidosis, el pCO2 hubo una ganancia en su concentración, el HCO3 hubo caída en la media de su concentración. Conclusión: la muestra para gasometría arterial se presenta inestable y de rápido cambio en los valores de los gases en el transcurso del tiempo.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Equilíbrio Ácido-Base , Gasometria , Coleta de Amostras Sanguíneas , Padrões de Prática em Enfermagem
9.
Clin Nephrol ; 92(5): 258-262, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31347495

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Falsely low or even unmeasurable serum bicarbonate has been described in patients with severe hypertriglyceridemia or paraproteinemia. This phenomenon, known as pseudo-hypobicarbonatemia, is believed to be due to interference by these components when the commonly used enzymatic assay is utilized for serum bicarbonate measurement. The calculated bicarbonate derived from blood gas machines is not affected. This can lead to a misdiagnosis of a severe anion gap metabolic acidosis along with an extensive and expensive work-up. CASE PRESENTATIONS: We review a series of 5 patients with severe hypertriglyceridemia who presented with pseudo-hypobicarbonatemia and an elevated anion gap metabolic acidosis. Membrane-based therapeutic plasma exchange was utilized. RESULTS: Following aggressive lowering of the triglycerides, there was an immediate resolution of the pseudo-hypobicarbonatemia and anion gap metabolic acidosis. CONCLUSION: Recognition of lipemic serum in the setting of an otherwise unexplained anion gap metabolic acidosis should prompt the clinician to obtain a blood gas sample for true determination of the acid-base status. Doing so may avoid an extensive and expensive metabolic work-up.


Assuntos
Acidose , Hipertrigliceridemia/complicações , Troca Plasmática , Equilíbrio Ácido-Base/fisiologia , Acidose/sangue , Acidose/diagnóstico , Acidose/etiologia , Acidose/terapia , Análise Química do Sangue/normas , Erros de Diagnóstico , Humanos , Hipertrigliceridemia/sangue
10.
J Med Case Rep ; 13(1): 203, 2019 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31266532

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Brake oil is an automobile transmission fluid composed of a mixture of toxic alcohols such as ethylene glycols and glycol ethers. Both accidental and intentional ingestion cases have been reported and they can present with multisystem involvement. Life-threatening complications evolve from deleterious effects on cardiopulmonary and renal systems. Effects on neurological and gastrointestinal systems give rise to a multitude of complications although non-fatal in nature. The biochemical panel consists of a high concentration of ethylene glycol with severe metabolic acidosis, high anion gap, high osmolar gap, oxaluria, and hypocalcemia. The mainstay of treatment is enhanced elimination of ethylene glycol and its metabolites by hemodialysis, together with general supportive care, gastric decontamination, and vitamins such as thiamine and pyridoxine to minimize the adverse effects of intoxication. CASE PRESENTATION: A 26-year-old Sinhalese woman presented with reduced urine output, shortness of breath, reduced level of consciousness, abdominal pain, and vomiting with mild degree fever of 2 days' duration. She had bilateral lower limb edema, crepitations over bilateral lower lung fields, and right-sided lower motor type facial nerve palsy. Investigations showed severe metabolic acidosis with high anion gap and high osmolar gap. With regular hemodialysis she made a complete recovery after 3 months. CONCLUSION: Even without a clear history of poisoning, the presence of a high anion, high osmolar gap metabolic acidosis should prompt one to search for ethylene glycol ingestion. Uncommon manifestations like cranial neuropathies need to be examined and considered. Timely aggressive treatment leads to a better prognosis.


Assuntos
Acidose/induzido quimicamente , Etilenoglicol/envenenamento , Doenças do Nervo Facial/induzido quimicamente , Equilíbrio Ácido-Base , Acidose/fisiopatologia , Acidose/terapia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Diálise Renal , Tentativa de Suicídio
11.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(23): e15973, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31169729

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although the prognostic significance of base excess (BE) in patients with paraquat (PQ) poisoning has been investigated for several years, the results remain controversial. Thus, we performed for the first time a comprehensive meta-analysis to explore the value of BE in predicting the prognosis of patients with PQ poisoning. METHODS: We searched PubMed, EMBase, Web of Science, ScienceDirect, Cochrane Library, and the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure to identify all relevant papers that were published up to August 2018. The data were extracted for pooled analysis, heterogeneity testing, sensitivity analysis, publication bias analysis, and subgroup analysis. RESULTS: Pooled analysis revealed that a decreased BE is correlated with poor mortality (pooled OR = 21.358, 95% CI: 12.716-35.873, P < .001). Pooled sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio, negative likelihood ratio, and diagnostic odds ratio were 78% (95% CI: 0.66-0.86), 88% (95% CI: 0.66-0.97), 6.6 (95% CI: 2.2-19.9), 0.25 (95% CI: 0.18-0.36), and 26 (10-69), respectively. No publication bias was detected by Egger test (P = .263) and Begg test (P = .462). Sensitivity analyses indicated no important differences among the estimates of effects. CONCLUSION: Our findings show that BE is useful for predicting the prognosis of PQ poisoning.


Assuntos
Equilíbrio Ácido-Base , Herbicidas/envenenamento , Paraquat/envenenamento , Envenenamento/mortalidade , Humanos , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
12.
J Anim Sci ; 97(7): 2927-2939, 2019 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31150088

RESUMO

A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of feeding an acidogenic diet with a low dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD) on acid-base balance, blood, milk, and urine Ca concentrations of sows during lactation. A total of 30 multiparous sows (parity: 4.5 ± 2.9, Smithfield Premium Genetic, Rose Hill, NC) were allotted to 1 of 2 dietary treatments: CON (control diets were corn-soybean meal based with a calculated DCAD of 170 and 226 mEq/kg during late gestation and lactation, respectively) or ACI (acidogenic diets had a DCAD 100 mEq/kg lower than the control diets). The lower DCAD was achieved by the addition of an acidogenic mineral. The DCAD was calculated as mEq (Na + K - Cl)/kg diet. Sows had a daily access to 2-kg feed from day 94 of gestation to parturition and ad libitum access to feed during lactation. Blood and urine pH and Ca, serum macrominerals, serum biochemistry, Ca-regulating hormones, and milk composition were measured. Sows in ACI had a lower (P < 0.05) blood pH than sows in CON at day 1 of lactation. Sows in ACI had a lower (P < 0.05) urine pH at day 108 of gestation, days 1, 9, and 18 of lactation compared with sows in CON. Sows in ACI had greater (P < 0.05) concentrations of serum total Ca at days 1 and 18 of lactation than sows in CON. There was a greater (P < 0.05) concentration of colostrum Ca in ACI than in CON. There was no difference in urine Ca concentration between treatments during lactation. Concentrations of parathyroid hormone and 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol were not different between treatments at either day 1 or 18 of lactation. Sows in ACI tended to have a smaller (P = 0.086) concentration of total alkaline phosphatase in serum at day 18 of lactation compared with sows in CON. At day 1 of lactation, the concentration of serum Cl in ACI was greater (P < 0.05) than that in CON. Feed intake, BW loss, and litter performance were not different between treatments. Collectively, feeding an acidogenic diet with a low DCAD to sows can induce a mild metabolic acidosis at farrowing, reduce the urine pH consistently, and increase serum total Ca and colostrum Ca concentrations during lactation but without altering the parathyroid hormone and 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol levels during lactation.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Cálcio/análise , Colostro/química , Leite/química , Minerais/análise , Suínos/sangue , Equilíbrio Ácido-Base , Animais , Ânions/análise , Cátions/análise , Dieta/veterinária , Feminino , Lactação , Paridade , Parto , Gravidez
13.
J Vet Emerg Crit Care (San Antonio) ; 29(4): 373-384, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31231948

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the association between thoracic injuries evaluated by computed tomography (CT) and arterial blood gas and acid-base status in dogs with blunt thoracic trauma caused by motor vehicle accidents. DESIGN: Prospective observational clinical study. SETTING: University teaching hospital. ANIMALS: Thirty-one client owned traumatized dogs and 15 healthy dogs. PROCEDURES: All trauma group dogs underwent a CT scan and simultaneous arterial blood gas analysis within 24 hours, but not before 4 hours, after the traumatic incident within a 45-month enrollment period. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Thorax injuries were classified as pulmonary, pleural space, or rib cage and each of these components was scored for severity using a CT composite pulmonary, pleural, and rib score. The trauma group arterial blood gas and acid-base status were evaluated for statistical difference from the control group. The pulmonary-arterial oxygen pressure was significantly lower in the trauma group compared to the control group that was supported by significant differences in the calculated variables of arterial blood oxygenation as well. There was also a significant correlation between the composite lung score and pleural score and the variables of arterial oxygen status. The pulmonary-arterial carbon dioxide pressure was not significantly different to any of the thoracic injury variables indicating normal alveolar ventilation. Acid-base imbalances were generally mild, insignificant, and variable. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Blunt thoracic trauma causes significant pulmonary and pleural injury and the blood oxygen economy is significantly affected by this. The functional measures of arterial blood oxygenation were well correlated with thoracic CT pathology. Alveolar ventilation was mostly spared but a clinically significant ventilation perfusion mismatch was present.


Assuntos
Equilíbrio Ácido-Base/fisiologia , Gasometria/veterinária , Traumatismos Torácicos/veterinária , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/veterinária , Ferimentos não Penetrantes/veterinária , Animais , Cães , Feminino , Pulmão/patologia , Masculino , Oxigênio/sangue , Estudos Prospectivos , Traumatismos Torácicos/sangue , Traumatismos Torácicos/diagnóstico por imagem , Traumatismos Torácicos/patologia , Ferimentos não Penetrantes/sangue , Ferimentos não Penetrantes/diagnóstico por imagem , Ferimentos não Penetrantes/patologia
14.
J Vet Emerg Crit Care (San Antonio) ; 29(4): 399-406, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31225690

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare intravenous and intraosseous blood aspirates using point-of-care diagnostic equipment available in veterinary hospitals. DESIGN: Prospective study. SETTING: Private referral hospital. ANIMALS: Dogs undergoing a tibial plateau leveling osteotomy or extracapsular anterior cruciate ligament stabilization procedure were enrolled. METHODS: Under general anesthesia, simultaneous 0.5 mL intravenous and intraosseous blood samples were collected from the jugular vein and proximal tibia, respectively. Samples were evaluated in duplicate within 10 minutes of collection and averaged for each of the following parameters: blood urea nitrogen (BUN), glucose, packed cell volume, total plasma protein (TPP), plasma lactate, sodium, potassium, chloride, urea, glucose, pH, anion gap, pO2, and pCO2 . Normalcy was tested with Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. A Student's t-test and Bland-Altman plot were used to compare intravenous and intraosseous samples. RESULTS: Twelve dogs were recruited into the study. There were statistically significant differences between intravenous and intraosseous samples for sodium (P = 0.0216), chloride (P = 0.0225), BUN (P = 0.014), and potassium (P < 0.0001), respectively. No significant differences were detected for the other parameters evaluated. DISCUSSION: The intraosseous space provides an easily accessible, noncollapsible alternative for assessing blood parameters. Omitting potassium, the statistically significant differences noted between sites was not felt to be clinically significant. Although statistically insignificant, the large difference in hematocrit values indicates that the samples should not be used interchangeably. CONCLUSION: Intraosseous aspirates, excluding potassium and hematocrit, appear to be a reliable alternative for assessing most point-of-care analytes in healthy dogs, although a larger sample size should be investigated. The application of these data in shock patients is unknown.


Assuntos
Medula Óssea/fisiologia , Cães/sangue , Emergências/veterinária , Testes Imediatos , Equilíbrio Ácido-Base , Animais , Gasometria , Nitrogênio da Ureia Sanguínea , Cloretos/sangue , Hematócrito/veterinária , Infusões Intraósseas/métodos , Veias Jugulares , Ácido Láctico/sangue , Projetos Piloto , Potássio/sangue , Estudos Prospectivos
15.
J Environ Sci Health B ; 54(8): 676-680, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31230517

RESUMO

Members of TRP receptor family are involved in response to acidification. Here, we determined the effect of capsaicin, one of the TRP receptor activators, on hemolymph acid-base status in the American cockroach. Periplaneta americana adult individuals were injected with lactic acid (5% or 10%) and exposed to 100 µM capsaicin solution. Hemolymph pH was measured 15 min, 1, 4, 8 and 24 h after lactic acid and capsaicin application with a glass microelectrode. The results demonstrated that cockroaches recover from acidosis within 4 h from acid injection. Capsaicin impaired the buffering capacity of insects' hemolymph, resulting in significant drop of hemolymph pH observed even 24 h after application. Joint action of capsaicin and acidosis reveals new insight into possible mechanism of capsaicin action on TRP receptors in insects.


Assuntos
Capsaicina/farmacologia , Hemolinfa/efeitos dos fármacos , Periplaneta/efeitos dos fármacos , Equilíbrio Ácido-Base/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Feminino , Hemolinfa/química , Hemolinfa/metabolismo , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Ácido Láctico/farmacologia , Masculino , Mortalidade , Periplaneta/metabolismo , Canais de Receptores Transientes de Potencial/metabolismo
16.
Clin Exp Nephrol ; 23(8): 1045-1049, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31062197

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gap acidosis, a type of metabolic acidosis caused by titratable acid accumulation, participates in CKD progression. It was found at all the stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD), whereas the kidney was believed to preserve its ability to excrete titratable acid until renal function is impaired severely. METHODS: Serum concentrations of lactate (Lac) and the other usually unmeasured anions (OUA) were separately examined using 420 records of blood gas analysis performed simultaneously with serum chemistry at a general hospital. RESULTS: Between the records grouped by the CKD stage, Lac was generally higher in the early stages than the late stages (2.2 ± 1.1, 1.9 ± 1.7, 1.5 ± 1.3, and 1.2 ± 0.6 mmol/L in G1-2, G3, G4, and G5, respectively). While OUA was not significantly different between G1-2, G3, and G4 (1.3 ± 2.0, 2.5 ± 2.7, and 2.6 ± 2.2 mEq/L, respectively), it was higher in G5 (4.7 ± 2.3 mEq/L) than in G1-4 (P < 0.001). In G5, OUA generally increased as eGFR decreased, and OUA was 6.6 ± 1.9, 4.7 ± 2.1 and 3.6 ± 2.0 mEq/L in subgroups of eGFR < 5, 5-10, and 10-15 mL/min/1.73 m2, respectively (P ≤ 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Gap acidosis except lactic acidosis developed and progressed during the CKD stage G5, while lactic acidosis developed in the CKD stages G1-4. Prevention of lactic acidosis by preserving peripheral perfusion in the early CKD stages could slow CKD progression.


Assuntos
Equilíbrio Ácido-Base , Acidose/fisiopatologia , Rim/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/fisiopatologia , Acidose/sangue , Acidose/diagnóstico , Acidose Láctica/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Ácido Láctico/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/sangue , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/diagnóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
17.
Aquat Toxicol ; 212: 54-69, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31075620

RESUMO

In this era of global climate change, ocean acidification is becoming a serious threat to the marine ecosystem. Despite this, it remains almost unknown how fish will respond to the co-occurrence of ocean acidification with other conventional environmental perturbations typically salinity fluctuation and high ammonia threat. Therefore, the present work evaluated the interactive effects of elevated pCO2, salinity reduction and high environmental ammonia (HEA) on the ecophysiological performance of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax). Fish were progressively acclimated to seawater (32 ppt), to brackish water (10 ppt) and to hyposaline water (2.5 ppt). Following acclimation to different salinities for at least two weeks, fish were exposed to CO2-induced water acidification representing present-day (control pCO2, 400 µatm, LoCO2) and future (high pCO2, 1000 µatm, HiCO2) sea-surface CO2 level for 3, 7 and 21 days. At the end of each exposure period, fish were challenged with HEA for 6 h (1.18 mM representing 50% of 96 h LC50). Results show that, in response to the individual HiCO2 exposure, fish within each salinity compensated for blood acidosis. Fish subjected to HiCO2 were able to maintain ammonia excretion rate (Jamm) within control levels, suggesting that HiCO2 exposure alone had no impact on Jamm at any of the salinities. For 32 and 10 ppt fish, up-regulated expression of Na+/K+-ATPase was evident in all exposure groups (HEA, HiCO2 and HEA/HiCO2 co-exposed), whereas Na+/K+/2Cl- co-transporter was up-regulated mainly in HiCO2 group. Plasma glucose and lactate content were augmented in all exposure conditions for all salinity regimes. During HEA and HEA/HiCO2, Jamm was inhibited at different time points for all salinities, which resulted in a significant build-up of ammonia in plasma and muscle. Branchial expressions of Rhesus glycoproteins (Rhcg isoforms and Rhbg) were upregulated in response to HiCO2 as well as HEA at 10 ppt, with a more moderate response in 32 ppt groups. Overall, our findings denote that the adverse effect of single exposures of ocean acidification or HEA is exacerbated when present together, and suggests that fish are more vulnerable to these environmental threats at low salinities.


Assuntos
Equilíbrio Ácido-Base/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácidos/química , Amônia/toxicidade , Bass/fisiologia , Oceanos e Mares , Osmorregulação/efeitos dos fármacos , Salinidade , Amônia/sangue , Animais , Bass/sangue , Glicemia/metabolismo , Dióxido de Carbono/farmacologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Brânquias/efeitos dos fármacos , Brânquias/metabolismo , Glicoproteínas/metabolismo , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Íons/sangue , Ácido Láctico/sangue , Músculos/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculos/metabolismo , Análise de Componente Principal , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , ATPase Trocadora de Sódio-Potássio/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
19.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 50(1): 262-265, 2019 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31120688

RESUMO

This study aimed to compare the venous acid-base status of healthy awake versus anesthetized Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus). Ten nonanesthetized penguins were manually restrained, and a venous blood sample was collected. Six of these penguins were anesthetized by 2% isoflurane and, after an anesthetic stabilization period, both venous and arterial blood samples were simultaneously withdrawn. Using an i-STAT analyzer, partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PCO2), partial pressure of oxygen (PO2), pH, standard bicarbonate concentration (HCO3-), total carbon dioxide (ctCO2), oxygen saturation (SO2), base excess (BE), Na+, and K+ levels were measured in venous blood samples of awake (Gawake) penguins and in venous (Gven) and arterial blood (Gart) samples of anesthetized penguins. There were no significant differences between groups in pH, BE, or Na+. Venous carbon dioxide pressure, HCO3-, and venous ctCO2 were higher in Gven than Gawake penguins, whereas PCO2 was higher in Gven than Gart penguins. PO2 and SO2 were higher in the Gart group than in the other groups. Both venous and arterial blood samples may be used to evaluate the acid-base profile of Magellanic penguins.


Assuntos
Equilíbrio Ácido-Base , Anestesia/veterinária , Anestésicos Inalatórios/administração & dosagem , Isoflurano/administração & dosagem , Spheniscidae/fisiologia , Anestesia/efeitos adversos , Animais , Artérias/química , Veias/química
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA