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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(11): e25177, 2021 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33726007

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Hydatid cyst is a disease caused by the larvae of Echinococcus spp. The larvae often reside in the liver, lungs, and brain. Occasionally, a primary isolated thoracic vertebral hydatid cyst is reported to cause severe complications. Various diseases may lead to the development of progressive compressive myelopathy. Herein, we report a rare case of a primary isolated thoracic vertebral hydatid cyst with compressive myelopathy. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 57-year-old female had numbness and weakness in the lower limbs for a span of 3-months. DIAGNOSIS: Thoracic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed that an isolated mass was observed in the T5 vertebral body, which compressed the spinal cord. The diagnosis was confirmed after surgical excision, and Echinococcus granulosus was found to be the etiologic factor. INTERVENTIONS: The patient underwent laminectomy with no complications. OUTCOMES: After surgical decompression, the patient made slow and measurable progress. While relatively rare in the non-pastoral area, the primary isolated thoracic vertebral column hydatid cyst may be considered as a possible etiology of atypical extradural spinal compression. LESSONS: This case illustrates the complexity of spinal echinococcosis manifestations and the necessity of an interdisciplinary approach.


Assuntos
Equinococose/complicações , Echinococcus granulosus , Compressão da Medula Espinal/parasitologia , Animais , Equinococose/parasitologia , Equinococose/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Laminectomia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Compressão da Medula Espinal/cirurgia , Vértebras Torácicas/parasitologia , Vértebras Torácicas/cirurgia
2.
Parasite ; 28: 15, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33666550

RESUMO

Cystic echinococcosis, caused by infection with the larval stage of the cestode Echinococcus granulosus, is a chronic zoonosis. The lifecycle of the E. granulosus parasite includes three consecutive stages that require specific gene regulation or protein expression to survive environmental shifts between definitive hosts and intermediate hosts. The aim of the present study is to screen and analyze the stage differential antigens to be considered for vaccine development against E. granulosus. By using the iTRAQ (isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification) method, the differentially expressed proteins were selected from the three consecutive developmental stages of E. granulosus: oncosphere, adult tapeworms, and protoscolex. Through a bioinformatics analysis including Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COG), Gene Ontology (GO), and pathway metabolic annotation, we identified some proteins of interest from each stage. The results showed that a large number of differentially expressed proteins (375: oncosphere vs. adult, 346: oncosphere vs. protoscolex, and 391: adult vs. protoscolex) were identified from the three main lifecycle stages. Analysis of the differential protein pathways showed that these differential proteins are mainly enriched in metabolic pathways, Huntington's diseases, Alzheimer's diseases, and ribosome metabolic pathways. Interestingly, among these differential proteins, expression levels of paramyosin, HSP60, HSP70, HSP90, cathepsin L1, cathepsin D, casein kinase, and calmodulin were significantly higher in the oncosphere than in the adult or protoscolex (p < 0.05). We hope our findings will help to identify potential targets for diagnosis or for therapeutic and prophylactic intervention.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Helmintos/análise , Equinococose/parasitologia , Echinococcus granulosus , Proteômica , Animais , Biologia Computacional , Echinococcus granulosus/genética , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida/genética
3.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 168, 2021 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33568075

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Human alveolar echinococcosis (AE) caused by Echinococcus multilocularis is an underreported, often misdiagnosed and mistreated parasitic disease mainly due to its low incidence. The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of human AE patients in Hungary for the first time. METHOD: Between 2003 and 2018, epidemiological and clinical data of suspected AE patients were collected retrospectively from health database management systems. RESULTS: This case series included a total of 16 AE patients. The mean age of patients was 53 years (range: 24-78 years). The sex ratio was 1:1. Four patients (25%) revealed no recurrence after radical surgery and adjuvant albendazole (ABZ) therapy. For five patients (31.3%) with unresectable lesions, a stabilization of lesions with ABZ treatment was achieved. In seven patients (43.8%), progression of AE was documented. The mean diagnostic delay was 33 months (range: 1-122 months). Three AE related deaths (fatality rate 18.8%) were recorded. CONCLUSIONS: AE is an emerging infectious disease in Hungary with a high fatality rate since based on our results, almost every fifth AE patient died in the study period. Differential diagnosis and appropriate surgical and medical therapy for AE is an urging challenge for clinicians in Hungary, as well as in some other European countries where E. multilocularis is prevalent.


Assuntos
Equinococose/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Albendazol/uso terapêutico , Animais , Antiprotozoários/uso terapêutico , Diagnóstico Tardio , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Equinococose/tratamento farmacológico , Equinococose/epidemiologia , Equinococose/parasitologia , Echinococcus multilocularis/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Humanos , Hungria/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
4.
Parasitol Res ; 120(2): 747-750, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33442817

RESUMO

Two domestic cats from the Patagonia rural area in Argentina were found to be naturally infected with Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto/G1 genotype; so far, the only species/genotype of E. granulosus sensu lato complex described to infect domestic cats. The felines developed abdominal disseminated larval disease; the diagnosis was performed by ultrasound, exploratory laparotomy, and molecular techniques. These results indicate that cystic echinococcosis must be considered for differential diagnosis of felines with abdominal distension and/or observation of vesicles through ultrasound, from endemic areas. Even though cats and dogs are carnivores, differences in digestive physiology and immunological characteristics between them could allow the development of larval or adult worm parasites. Domestic cats with cystic echinococcosis show to be environmentally infected with E. granulosus s. s./G1 eggs.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/parasitologia , Equinococose/veterinária , Echinococcus granulosus/isolamento & purificação , Abdome/diagnóstico por imagem , Abdome/parasitologia , Animais , Argentina/epidemiologia , Doenças do Gato/diagnóstico , Gatos , Equinococose/diagnóstico , Equinococose/parasitologia , Echinococcus granulosus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Genótipo , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ultrassonografia
5.
Parasitol Res ; 120(2): 563-568, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33462709

RESUMO

Cystic echinococcosis is a neglected, zoonotic disease in Turkey. The disease is commonly seen in rural areas where the local population is in close contact with livestock and dogs. This research aimed to molecularly identify of hydatid cysts in cattle and human isolates from Konya, Turkey. Following sample collection, direct microscopy was performed. After direct examination, total DNA was extracted, and positive PCR products of cox 1 mitochondrial gene (~ 875 bp) were sequenced. A total of 83 hydatid cysts (cattle n = 57 and human n = 26), 82 were identified as Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (G1-G3 genotypes), and one human isolate was characterized as Echinococcus equinus (G4 genotype). Fertility rates of cysts belonging to cattle for liver and lung cysts were 93.3% and 80%, respectively. Out of 26 human originated isolates, 18 (69.2%) of cysts were found to be fertile. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of E. equinus from human host in Turkey.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Equinococose/parasitologia , Echinococcus/genética , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/transmissão , Ciclo-Oxigenase 1/genética , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/transmissão , Cães , Equinococose/epidemiologia , Equinococose/transmissão , Echinococcus/isolamento & purificação , Echinococcus/fisiologia , Echinococcus granulosus/genética , Echinococcus granulosus/isolamento & purificação , Echinococcus granulosus/fisiologia , Genótipo , Proteínas de Helminto/genética , Humanos , Fígado/parasitologia , Pulmão/parasitologia , Proteínas Mitocondriais/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Turquia/epidemiologia , Zoonoses
6.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(12): e0008921, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33370302

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alveolar (AE) and cystic echinococcosis (CE) in humans are caused by the metacestode of the tapeworms Echinococcus multilocularis and Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato (s.l.). Immunohistochemistry with the monoclonal antibodies (mAb) Em2G11, specific for AE, and the mAb EmG3, specific for AE and CE, is an important pillar of the histological diagnosis of these two infections. Our aim was to further evaluate mAb EmG3 in a diagnostic setting and to analyze in detail the localization, distribution, and impact of small particles of Echinococcus multilocularis (spems) and small particles of Echinococcus granulosus s.l. (spegs) on lymph nodes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We evaluated the mAb EmG3 in a cohort of formalin-fixed, paraffin embedded (FFPE) specimens of AE (n = 360) and CE (n = 178). These samples originated from 156 AE-patients and 77 CE-patients. mAb EmG3 showed a specific staining of the metacestode stadium of E. multilocularis and E. granulosus s.l. and had a higher sensitivity for spems than mAb Em2G11. Furthermore, we detected spegs in the surrounding host tissue and in almost all tested lymph nodes (39/41) of infected patients. 38/47 lymph nodes of AE showed a positive reaction for spems with mAb EmG3, whereas 29/47 tested positive when stained with mAb Em2G11. Spegs were detected in the germinal centers, co-located with CD23-positive follicular dendritic cells, and were present in the sinuses. Likewise, lymph nodes with spems and spegs in AE and CE were significantly enlarged in size in comparison to the control group. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: mAb EmG3 is specific for AE and CE and is a valuable tool in the histological diagnosis of echinococcosis. Based on the observed staining patterns, we hypothesize that the interaction between parasite and host is not restricted to the main lesion since spegs are detected in lymph nodes. Moreover, in AE the number of spems-affected lymph nodes is higher than previously assumed. The enlargement of lymph nodes with spems and spegs points to an immunological interaction with the small immunogenic particles (spems and spegs) of Echinococcus spp.


Assuntos
Equinococose Hepática/diagnóstico , Equinococose/diagnóstico , Echinococcus granulosus/imunologia , Echinococcus multilocularis/imunologia , Linfadenopatia/parasitologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Criança , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina , Equinococose/parasitologia , Equinococose/patologia , Equinococose Hepática/parasitologia , Equinococose Hepática/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica/métodos , Linfonodos/parasitologia , Linfonodos/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
7.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 103(5): 1951-1954, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32975181

RESUMO

Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is one of the neglected tropical diseases recognized by the WHO. Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato affects more than 1 million people worldwide and is responsible for high costs in the healthcare system. A clear knowledge of the prevalence of CE and its clinical characteristics could have an important impact on the approach to its diagnosis and to the public health planning of treatment and control interventions. We performed a prevalence study in four municipalities of Catanzaro Province, South Italy. This area is considered to be at high risk of CE because of ovine breeding. We screened by abdominal ultrasound 2,426 volunteers, four of whom had abdominal CE. Given the need for prevention and control programs for CE in endemic areas of Italy, a detailed mapping of prevalence of CE, to complement data obtained through hospital discharge records, appears imperative.


Assuntos
Equinococose/epidemiologia , Echinococcus granulosus/isolamento & purificação , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Equinococose/diagnóstico por imagem , Equinococose/parasitologia , Equinococose/transmissão , Feminino , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Ultrassonografia , Adulto Jovem
8.
Asian Cardiovasc Thorac Ann ; 28(9): 610-612, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32903022

RESUMO

Hydatid disease remains a problem in endemic areas. The combination of both intracardiac and pulmonary hydatid disease in association with chronic pulmonary thromboembolism is a rare presentation. We report a case of a 14-year-old girl with hydatid disease of the lungs, right ventricle, and pulmonary arteries, presenting as chronic pulmonary thromboembolism. She underwent surgery for wedge resection of the pulmonary hydatid in the right lower lobe, removal of the right ventricular hydatid (under cardiopulmonary bypass), and pulmonary endarterectomy (under total circulatory arrest). Her postoperative recovery was uneventful.


Assuntos
Equinococose Pulmonar/complicações , Equinococose/complicações , Cardiopatias/complicações , Embolia Pulmonar/etiologia , Adolescente , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos , Doença Crônica , Equinococose/diagnóstico por imagem , Equinococose/parasitologia , Equinococose Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Equinococose Pulmonar/parasitologia , Endarterectomia , Feminino , Cardiopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Cardiopatias/parasitologia , Humanos , Embolia Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Embolia Pulmonar/cirurgia , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238909, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32915902

RESUMO

E. granulosus is a cestode that causes Cystic Echinococcosis (CE), a zoonotic disease with worldwide presence. The immune response generated by the host against the metacestode induces a permissive Th2 response, as opposed to pro-inflammatory Th1 response. In this view, mixed Th2 and regulatory responses allow parasite survival. Overall, larval Echinococcus infections induce strong regulatory responses. Fasciola hepatica, another common helminth parasite, represents a major infection in cattle. Co-infection with different parasite species in the same host, polyparasitism, is a common occurrence involving E. granulosus and F. hepatica in cattle. 'While it is known that infection with F. hepatica also triggers a polarized Th2/Treg immune response, little is reported regarding effects on the systemic immune response of this example of polyparasitism. F. hepatica also triggers immune responses polarized to the Th2/ Treg spectrum. Serum samples from 107 animals were analyzed, and were divided according to their infection status and Echinococcal cysts fertility. Cytokines were measured utilizing a Milliplex Magnetic Bead Panel to detect IFN-γ, IL-1, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12 and IL-18. Cattle infected only with F. hepatica had the highest concentration of every cytokine analyzed, with both 4.24 and 3.34-fold increases in IL-10 and IL-4, respectively, compared to control animals, followed by E. granulosus and F. hepatica co-infected animals with two-fold increase in IL-10 and IL-4, compared to control animals, suggesting that E. granulosus co-infection dampens the cattle Th2/Treg immune response against F. hepatica. When considering Echinococcal cyst fertility and systemic cytokine concentrations, fertile cysts had higher IFN-γ, IL-6 and IL-18 concentrations, while infertile cysts had higher IL-10 concentrations. These results show that E. granulosus co-infection lowers Th1 and Th2 cytokine serological concentration when compared to F. hepatica infection alone. E. granulosus infections show no difference in IFN-γ, IL-1, IL-2, IL-6 and IL-18 levels compared with control animals, highlighting the immune evasion mechanisms of this cestode.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Citocinas/sangue , Equinococose/veterinária , Echinococcus granulosus/imunologia , Fasciola hepatica/imunologia , Fasciolíase/veterinária , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/sangue , Doenças dos Bovinos/imunologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Chile/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/sangue , Coinfecção/imunologia , Coinfecção/parasitologia , Equinococose/sangue , Equinococose/imunologia , Equinococose/parasitologia , Fasciolíase/sangue , Fasciolíase/imunologia , Fasciolíase/parasitologia , Células Th1/imunologia , Células Th2/imunologia
10.
Korean J Parasitol ; 58(4): 451-456, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32871639

RESUMO

This is a report of 2 cases of human hydatidosis caused by Echinococcus ortleppi in Vietnam. The patients were a 12-year-old male (case 1) having a cyst of 10.0×9.0 cm size in the lung and a 50-year-old female with a 3.0×3.3 cm-sized cyst in the heart. Eosinophilia was 33.7% in the male and 45.8% in the female patient. C-reactive protein was increased to 16.5 mg/L in the male and 18.2 mg/L in the female. Both patients were positive for ELISA at OD=2.5 and 3.1, respectively. Echinococcus protoscolices were collected from the cysts by amniocentesis and surgery. The protoscolices were identified as E. ortleppi by morphology and analysis of mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase 1 (nad1) gene sequence. Both patients were cured by surgical resection of the hydatid cyst combined with albendazole medication. The E. ortleppi infection in lung is the second report, and the other in the heart is the first in Vietnam.


Assuntos
Equinococose/diagnóstico , Equinococose/parasitologia , Albendazol/uso terapêutico , Animais , Biomarcadores , Proteína C-Reativa , Criança , DNA de Helmintos/genética , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Equinococose/cirurgia , Echinococcus/genética , Echinococcus/isolamento & purificação , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Cardiopatias , Humanos , Pneumopatias Parasitárias , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , NADH Desidrogenase/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Vietnã
11.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(8): e0008519, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32776936

RESUMO

Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is a neglected zoonosis caused by infection with the cestode Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato. We carried out a systematic literature review on E. granulosus s.l. human and animal (cattle, sheep, dog) infection in European Mediterranean and Balkan countries in 2000-2019, to provide a picture of its recent epidemiology in this endemic area. MEDLINE, EMBASE, Scopus, Google Scholar and Open Grey databases were searched. Included cases were: i) for humans, data from hospital records and imaging studies; ii) for dogs, data from necropsy and coprological studies; iii) for ruminants, cases based on slaughter inspection. The NUTS (Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics) classification was used to categorize extracted data in epidemiological units, defined as data referred to one NUTS2 (basic region) in one year time. Data were then aggregated to NUTS1 level (major regions), calculating the average incidence value of included epidemiological units. For prevalence studies covering different epidemiological units, the pooled prevalence was estimated. Data were extracted from 79 publications, 25 on human infection (covering 437 epidemiological units), and 54 on animal infection (52 epidemiological units for cattle, 35 for sheep and 25 for dogs). At NUTS1 level, average annual incidence rates of human CE ranged from 0.10-7.74/100,000; pooled prevalence values ranged from 0.003-64.09% in cattle, 0.004-68.73% in sheep, and 0-31.86% in dogs. Southern and insular Italy, central Spain, Romania and Bulgaria reported the highest values. Bovine data showed a more similar pattern to human data compared to sheep and dogs. Limitation of evidence included the paucity of human prevalence studies, data heterogeneity, and the patchy geographical coverage, with lack of data especially for the Balkans. Our results confirm Italy, Spain, and Eastern Europe being the most affected areas, but data are extremely heterogeneous, geographical coverage very patchy, and human prevalence studies extremely scant. Results also highlight the notorious problem of underreporting of E. granulosus s.l. infection in both humans and animals.


Assuntos
Animais Domésticos , Equinococose/epidemiologia , Echinococcus granulosus , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Animais , Bovinos , Bases de Dados Factuais , Cães , Equinococose/parasitologia , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Prevalência , Ovinos , Zoonoses/parasitologia
12.
Korean J Parasitol ; 58(3): 287-299, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32615742

RESUMO

Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is a zoonotic infection caused by Echinococcus granulosus larvae. It seriously affects the development of animal husbandry and endangers human health. Due to a poor understanding of the cystic fluid formation pathway, there is currently a lack of innovative methods for the prevention and treatment of CE. In this study, the protoscoleces (PSCs) in the encystation process were analyzed by high-throughput RNA sequencing. A total of 32,401 transcripts and 14,903 cDNAs revealed numbers of new genes and transcripts, stage-specific genes, and differently expressed genes. Genes encoding proteins involved in signaling pathways, such as putative G-protein coupled receptor, tyrosine kinases, and serine/threonine protein kinase, were predominantly up-regulated during the encystation process. Antioxidant enzymes included cytochrome c oxidase, thioredoxin glutathione, and glutathione peroxidase were a high expression level. Intriguingly, KEGG enrichment suggested that differentially up-regulated genes involved in the vasopressin-regulated water reabsorption metabolic pathway may play important roles in the transport of proteins, carbohydrates, and other substances. These results provide valuable information on the mechanism of cystic fluid production during the encystation process, and provide a basis for further studies on the molecular mechanisms of growth and development of PSCs.


Assuntos
Echinococcus granulosus/genética , Echinococcus granulosus/fisiologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Encistamento de Parasitas/genética , Transcriptoma/genética , Animais , Equinococose/parasitologia
13.
Parasitol Res ; 119(9): 2863-2875, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32666190

RESUMO

Taenia species of domestic dogs can cause cysticercosis and coenurosis in a wide range of intermediate hosts including humans. Most taeniids of dogs are globally distributed, but some wildlife-transmitted species can be specific for certain regions. Generally, little information exists on the species composition and frequency in most regions of the world, which impairs risk assessment and control strategies. This study determined the range of taeniid species in dogs in four widely spaced areas of Kenya by genetic identification of eggs in faeces collected from the environment. Individual taeniid eggs were characterised by nested polymerase chain reaction of NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 and cytochrome C oxidase 1 genes, restriction fragment length polymorphism and partial sequencing. Overall 79/1621 (4.9%) faecal samples contained eggs of Taenia or Hydatigera (8.0% in Turkana, 4.8% in Isiolo, 3.8% in Maasai Mara and 1.3% in Meru). Taenia hydatigena and T. multiceps were the most frequent, found in 36 and 15 samples, respectively. Other eggs found in the faeces belonged to T. serialis (sensu lato), T. madoquae (the first record in domestic dogs), T. ovis, T. saginata and Hydatigera taeniaeformis. Polymorphism of nad1 sequences revealed 22 and 8 haplotypes of T. hydatigena and T. multiceps, respectively. The results show the involvement of dogs in both domestic and sylvatic transmission cycles. In addition to the species range, this study provides data on the intraspecific diversity of T. hydatigena and T. multiceps in Kenya, which will serve as baseline information for further studies into cysticercosis and coenurosis in livestock and humans in the region.


Assuntos
Cisticercose/epidemiologia , Cisticercose/veterinária , Equinococose/epidemiologia , Equinococose/veterinária , Taenia/genética , Animais , Cestoides/genética , Cisticercose/parasitologia , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães/parasitologia , Equinococose/parasitologia , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Fezes/parasitologia , Haplótipos , Humanos , Quênia/epidemiologia , NADH Desidrogenase/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Polimorfismo de Fragmento de Restrição , Ovinos/genética
14.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(5): e0007640, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32442168

RESUMO

We present a comprehensive analysis of the hepatic miRNA transcriptome at one month post-infection of experimental primary alveolar echinococcosis (AE), a parasitic infection caused upon ingestion of E. multilocularis eggs. Liver tissues were collected from infected and non-infected C57BL/6 mice, then small RNA libraries were prepared for next-generation sequencing (NGS). We conducted a Stem-loop RT-qPCR for validation of most dysregulated miRNAs. In infected mice, the expression levels of 28 miRNAs were significantly altered. Of these, 9 were up-regulated (fold change (FC) ≥ 1.5) and 19 were down-regulated (FC ≤ 0.66) as compared to the non-infected controls. In infected livers, mmu-miR-148a-3p and mmu-miR-101b-3p were 8- and 6-fold down-regulated, respectively, and the expression of mmu-miR-22-3p was reduced by 50%, compared to non-infected liver tissue. Conversely, significantly higher hepatic levels were noted for Mus musculus (mmu)-miR-21a-5p (FC = 2.3) and mmu-miR-122-5p (FC = 1.8). In addition, the relative mRNA expression levels of five genes (vegfa, mtor, hif1-α, fasn and acsl1) that were identified as targets of down-regulated miRNAs were significantly enhanced. All the five genes exhibited a higher expression level in livers of E. multilocularis infected mice compared to non-infected mice. Finally, we studied the issue related to functionally mature arm selection preference (5p and/or 3p) from the miRNA precursor and showed that 9 pre-miRNAs exhibited different arm selection preferences in normal versus infected liver tissues. In conclusion, this study provides first evidence that miRNAs are regulated early in primary murine AE. Our findings raise intriguing questions such as (i) how E. multilocularis affects hepatic miRNA expression;(ii) what are the alterations in miRNA expression patterns in more advanced AE-stages; and (iii) which hepatic cellular, metabolic and/or immunologic processes are modulated through altered miRNAs in AE. Thus, further research on the regulation of miRNAs during AE is needed, since miRNAs constitute an attractive potential option for development of novel therapeutic approaches against AE.


Assuntos
Equinococose/genética , Echinococcus multilocularis/fisiologia , Fígado/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Óvulo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Equinococose/metabolismo , Equinococose/parasitologia , Echinococcus multilocularis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Feminino , Humanos , Fígado/parasitologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , MicroRNAs/genética , Óvulo/fisiologia
15.
Ceska Gynekol ; 85(1): 35-40, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32414283

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Describe the case of echinococcal disease in gynecological practice and point out the complications of its diagnosis. DESIGN: Case report. SETTING: Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Faculty Hospital Trenčín, Slovakia. CASE REPORT: The case is presented in an immunosuppressed patient with peritoneal carcinomatosis, mild Ca 125 elevation and increased CRP presenting as a finding of gynecological etiology with histopathological outcome and conclusion of parasitic disease - echinococcosis (hydatidosis). CONCLUSION: In the differential diagnosis of peritoneal carcinomatosis and ascites, especially in immunosuppressed patients with a positive social (or epidemiological) history, the possibility of rare parasitic diseases such as echinococcosis, which resembles malignant tumors, should be considered.


Assuntos
Equinococose/diagnóstico , Adulto , Ascite/diagnóstico , Proteína C-Reativa , Antígeno Ca-125/sangue , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Equinococose/sangue , Equinococose/parasitologia , Feminino , Humanos , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/sangue , Neoplasias Peritoneais/diagnóstico , Eslováquia
16.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(5): e0008114, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32379760

RESUMO

Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is distributed worldwide, extending from China to the Middle East and from Mediterranean countries to the sub-Saharan Africa and South America. According to WHO, one million people around the world are suffering from CE with an estimated burden of 183,573 DALYs. The annual monetary burden of the disease due to treatment costs and CE-related livestock losses has been estimated at US$ 3 billion. CE is endemic in all countries within the WHO Eastern Mediterranean Regional Office (EMRO). The region, which includes most of the Middle East and North Africa, is one of the most ancient foci of the domestic cycle of CE and is recognized as one of the major hotspots of CE. There are 22 countries in the EMRO, where about 688 million people are living at risk of CE. In many EMRO countries, little is known about CE epidemiology and transmission. WHO included echinococcosis in a list of 17 neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) and 12 neglected zoonotic diseases (NZDs). Accordingly, different regional offices of WHO organized several initiatives for CE control and prevention. WHO's Western Pacific regional office considered echinococcosis as one of the region's major health topics, and several preventive measures have been implemented in the American region with the support of Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) in Argentina, Peru, Uruguay, and Chile. Although CE is endemic in all 22 EMRO countries, surprisingly, CE is absent from the health topics list of diseases and conditions in this region. Therefore, CE clearly requires further attention in the WHO EMRO agenda, and the need for elaboration of specific measures for CE control is becoming apparent in EMRO countries, where substantial collaborations among the member states and WHO EMRO is of paramount importance. Major topics of collaborative activities include training programs and health communication on different aspects of CE control, analysis of CE burden, national and international surveillance and disease registry systems, technical support to promote epidemiological studies for collecting baseline data, cost-benefit analysis of control interventions, and intersectoral cooperation among the agriculture, veterinary, medical, and health sectors.


Assuntos
Equinococose/epidemiologia , Doenças Negligenciadas/epidemiologia , Animais , Equinococose/economia , Equinococose/parasitologia , Echinococcus/fisiologia , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Humanos , Região do Mediterrâneo , Oriente Médio , Doenças Negligenciadas/economia , Doenças Negligenciadas/parasitologia
17.
Parasitol Res ; 119(7): 2177-2187, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32377911

RESUMO

Liver fibrosis is a dynamic process that occurs in response to chronic liver disease resulting from factors such as chronic infections, autoimmune reactions, allergic responses, toxins, radiation, and infectious agents. Among the infectious agents, multicellular parasites cause chronic inflammation and fibrosis. Twenty-five patients with different stages of cystic echinococcosis (CE) were enrolled in the study. The expression of ACTA2, COL3A1, IFN-γ, MMP2, MMP9, TGF-ß1, and TNF-α genes was determined by qRT-PCR in healthy and fibrotic liver tissue of the CE patients. TGF-ß1 expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry, and histology was conducted to assess the development of liver fibrosis. Expression of MMP9, ACTA2, COL3A1, and MMP2 was found significantly higher in the fibrotic tissue compared to healthy tissue. We observed a significant correlation between TGF-ß1 and TNF-α gene expressions and liver fibrosis. The mRNA level of IFN-γ was lower in the fibrotic than in the healthy hepatic tissue. Immunohistochemistry analysis revealed TGF-ß1 upregulation in the fibrotic tissue. Histology showed inflammation and fibrosis to be significantly higher in the fibrotic tissue. The findings of this study suggest that Echinococcus granulosussensu lato can promotes fibrosis through the overexpression of TGF-ß1, MMP9, ACTA2, COL3A1, and MMP2. The downregulation of IFN-γ mRNA in fibrotic samples is probably due to the increased production of TGF-ß1 and the suppression of potential anti-fibrotic role of IFN-γ during advanced liver injury caused by E. granulosussensu lato.


Assuntos
Equinococose/patologia , Cirrose Hepática/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Criança , Equinococose/genética , Equinococose/metabolismo , Equinococose/parasitologia , Echinococcus granulosus/fisiologia , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Cirrose Hepática/genética , Cirrose Hepática/metabolismo , Cirrose Hepática/parasitologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
18.
Korean J Parasitol ; 58(2): 121-127, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32418380

RESUMO

Pakistan is at intersection of hyperendemic regions for hydatidosis. Current study aimed to determine the prevalence of hydatid cysts and cyst characteristics in different intermediate hosts (sheep, goats, cattle and buffaloes) across the 4 provinces of Pakistan. A total of 991 sheep, 1,478 goats, 1,602 cattle and 1,343 buffaloes were examined for presence of hydatid cysts during 2 years (January 2016-December 2018). Differences in frequency of hydatidosis were observed with highest overall prevalence in buffaloes (11.9%) and sheep (11.5%). Highest prevalence and burden of infection were observed in older age animals (23.8%, 9.78±0.49) and females (26.5%, 12.53±0.67). Data for seasonal prevalence alluded to year-round presence of disease with non-significant statistical difference. Organ predilection indicated liver as the most preferred site of cyst localization followed mainly by lungs. An over-dispersion pattern was observed in all infected animals as majority of cysts belonged <10 cysts per infected host category. Highest percentage of fertile cysts was observed in liver of sheep. Interestingly, solitary form of cysts had higher fertility rate than multiple form. Amid lack of data and wide gap of knowledge, this study would try to fill up the lacunae regarding this neglected tropical disease. Extensive rearing of livestock, unregulated official slaughter and home slaughtering have played role in adaptability of E. granulosus in Pakistan.


Assuntos
Búfalos/parasitologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Bovinos/parasitologia , Equinococose/epidemiologia , Equinococose/veterinária , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Cabras/parasitologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Ovinos/parasitologia , Animais , Equinococose/parasitologia , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Prevalência
19.
Asian Cardiovasc Thorac Ann ; 28(5): 273-275, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32418436

RESUMO

Isolated cardiac hydatid cyst is a rare entity. It warrants early surgical repair because cyst rupture is potentially fatal. We report the case of a 32-year-old lady with an epicardial ventricular hydatid cyst, which was managed successfully by complete cyst excision.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos , Equinococose/cirurgia , Cardiopatias/cirurgia , Pericárdio/cirurgia , Adulto , Albendazol/administração & dosagem , Anticestoides/administração & dosagem , Equinococose/diagnóstico por imagem , Equinococose/parasitologia , Feminino , Cardiopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Cardiopatias/parasitologia , Humanos , Pericárdio/diagnóstico por imagem , Pericárdio/parasitologia , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(5): e0008242, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32401754

RESUMO

Alveolar and cystic echinococcosis (AE, CE) caused by E. multilocularis and E. granulosus s.l., respectively, are considered emerging zoonotic diseases in Kyrgyzstan with some of the world highest regional incidences. Little is known regarding the molecular variability of both species in Kyrgyzstan. In this study we provide molecular data from a total of 72 parasite isolates derived from humans (52 AE and 20 CE patients) and 43 samples from dogs (23 infected with E. multilocularis and 20 with E. granulosus s.l.).Genetic variability in E. multilocularis was studied using the concatenated complete sequences of the cob, nad2 and cox1 mitochondrial genes adding a total of 3,558bp per isolate. The cob/nad2/cox1 A2 haplotype was identified in 63.4% of the human and in 65.2% of the dog samples. This haplotype was originally described in samples from Kazakhstan and St. Lawrence Island (Alaska, USA). We also describe here 16 non-previously defined variants of E. multilocularis (called A11-A26). All haplotypes cluster together within the Asian group in the haplotype network. Based on Fst values, low level of genetic differentiation was found between the populations of E. multilocularis isolated from different regions within the country. However, high degree of differentiation was found when all the concatenated sequences from Kyrgyzstan are considered as a single population and compared with the population of the parasite from the neighbouring country China. In the case of E. granulosus s.l. the analysis was based in 1,609bp of the cox1 gene. One isolate from a dog was identified as E. equinus, while all the other sequences were identified belonging to E. granulosus s.s. In total, 24 cox1 haplotypes of E. granulosus s.s. were identified including the already described variants: Eg01 (in 6 samples), Eg33 (in 4 samples), EgCl04 (in 2 samples), Eg03 (in 1 sample) and Eg32 (in 1 sample). From the twenty-five other isolates of E. granulosus s.s. a total of 19 non-previously described cox1 haplotypes were identified and named as EgKyr1 to EgKyr19. The most common haplotype infecting human is the EgKyr1 which was found in 5 isolates.The cob/nad2/cox1 A2 haplotype of E. multilocularis is responsible for the majority of human infections in Kyrgyzstan and is also found in the majority of dogs included in this study. Further similar studies in different parts of Asia could elucidate if it is also the most common variant infecting humans in other countries. It remains unknown if this particular haplotype presents differences in virulence which could have contributed to the emergency of alveolar echinococcosis in Kyrgyzstan. In the case of E. granulosus s.s. it seems that there is no dominant haplotype infecting humans in Kyrgzstan. Further characterization of biological or antigenic features of dominant mitochondrial haplotypes could help to elucidate if they present differences which could be relevant in the diagnostic, pathogenicity or in the host/parasite interaction when infecting humans.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/parasitologia , Equinococose/parasitologia , Echinococcus granulosus/classificação , Echinococcus granulosus/genética , Echinococcus multilocularis/classificação , Echinococcus multilocularis/genética , Variação Genética , Adulto , Animais , Análise por Conglomerados , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , Equinococose/epidemiologia , Equinococose/veterinária , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Feminino , Haplótipos , Proteínas de Helminto/genética , Humanos , Incidência , Quirguistão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , NADH Desidrogenase/genética
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