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1.
Phys Med ; 64: 204-209, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31515021

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We evaluated the feasibility of electronic portal imaging based 3D in-vivo dosimetry for stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) technique in prostate cancer. METHODS AND MATERIALS: To investigate error detectability limitations of iViewDose™ v.1.0.1 (Elekta, Stockholm, Sweden) for prostate SBRT cases, ten prostate cancer patients were selected and in-vivo electronic portal imaging devices dosimetry was performed. Also possible error scenarios including dose calibration, setup, collimator, multi leaf collimator and patient anatomy related inaccuracies were created to investigate detectability of EPID. For this purpose, a SBRT treatment was planned on BrainLab pelvis phantom (BrainLab Medical Systems, Westchester, IL) and irradiated after proving setup with cone beam computer tomography. After that incorrect plans were irradiated and obtained results were compared with original in vivo measurements. RESULTS: Mean gamma analysis (γ% ≤ 1) passing rate of ten patients was found as 96.2%. Additionally, mean dose reference point difference between measurement and calculated in treatment planning system for clinical target volume, rectum, bladder, left and right femur heads were found as 1.4%, 8%, 20.8%, 2.3% and 4.5%, respectively. Phantom measurements showed that positional errors can be escape from detection. However, the incorrect treated plans including linac calibration, MLC positions and patient anatomy based errors could not have passed the in vivo dosimetry analysis. CONCLUSIONS: EPID-based 3D in vivo dosimetry software (iViewDose) provides an efficient safety check on the accuracy of dose delivery during prostate SBRT treatments. However, phantom results showed some limitation of the system.


Assuntos
Equipamentos e Provisões Elétricas , Neoplasias da Próstata/radioterapia , Radiocirurgia/instrumentação , Radioterapia Guiada por Imagem/instrumentação , Estudos de Viabilidade , Humanos , Masculino , Aceleradores de Partículas , Dosagem Radioterapêutica , Planejamento da Radioterapia Assistida por Computador
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31434201

RESUMO

The industrial development and the increase in the use of fossil fuels have been accelerating global warming and climate change, thereby causing more frequent and intense natural disasters than ever before. Since electrical facilities are generally installed outdoors, they are greatly affected by natural disasters, thus accidents related to electrical equipment has been on the rise. In this paper, we present the risk rating associated with climate change by analyzing the statistics of electrical fires, electric shock accidents and electrical equipment accidents caused by domestic climate change. Further, we present a risk rating analysis model for electrical fires on a monthly basis through the data analysis of electrical hazards associated with various regional (metropolitan city) climatic conditions (temperature, humidity), and analyze the accident risk rating for natural disasters related to low and high voltage equipment. Through this risk analysis model for each region and type of equipment, we presented a basic prediction model for electrical hazards. Therefore, it is possible to provide electrical safety services in the future by displaying a risk prediction map of electrical hazards for each region and type of electrical equipment through web sites or smart phone apps using the presented analysis data. Further, efforts should be made to increase the robustness or reliability of electrical equipment in order to prevent electrical accidents caused by natural disasters due to climate change in advance.


Assuntos
Acidentes , Equipamentos e Provisões Elétricas , Fogo , Aquecimento Global , Mudança Climática , Eletricidade , Previsões , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Medição de Risco , Temperatura Ambiente
3.
Rev Esp Salud Publica ; 932019 Aug 30.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31467264

RESUMO

The exponential advance of information and communication technologies (ICT) in the last decade has led to the increasingly widespread use of new electronic devices (NED) in the workplace. The emergence of new concepts such as telework from home or mobile work (ework) represents a clear example of this phenomenon. However, the benefits resulting from these changes in work dynamics may mask potential occupational risks and impacts on health and safety derived from "nonresponsible" use of new technologies. The objective of this study was to analyze the impact of NED use in the work environment and to point out the resulting health consequences. It has been observed that desktop computers are still the most frequently used devices, except in mobile work environments, where laptops and smartphones are more prevalent. The emerging health problems detected are mainly associated with musculoskeletal, visual and psychosocial disorders. This work demonstrates the need to continue deepening the study of the emerging pathologies associated with new work environments and possible intervention measures.


Assuntos
Computadores , Equipamentos e Provisões Elétricas/efeitos adversos , Doenças Profissionais/etiologia , Smartphone , Ergonomia , Humanos , Fatores de Risco
4.
Bioelectromagnetics ; 40(8): 569-577, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31373404

RESUMO

This study aims to assess the levels of extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MF) emitted from portable hand-held fans (HHFs) and their principal frequency and to identify factors influencing these levels. We collected a total of eleven models of HHF and monitored the ELF-MF as a function of fan speed and distance from the fan. EMDEX II was used to monitor the ELF-MF. An SMP2 EMF-meter equipped with a P400 field probe was used to determine the levels of ELF-MF and the frequency spectrum. Ten of the fans, excluding only one bladeless-fan model, emitted a high level of ELF-MF near the source of the HHF direct-current motor. The maximum measured level of ELF-MF ranged from 14.07 to 218.7 µT. All measurements of the ELF-MF taken within 10 cm from the HHFs showed values higher than 1.0 µT. ELF-MF levels were found to decrease markedly with distance, regardless of the HHF product. The level of ELF-MF rose noticeably with increased fan speed. The speed of and distance from the HHF significantly influenced the level of ELF-MF. All principal frequencies ranged from 1 to 300 Hz, which falls in the typical range of ELF. Bioelectromagnetics. 2019;40:569-577. © 2019 Bioelectromagnetics Society.


Assuntos
Equipamentos e Provisões Elétricas/efeitos adversos , Campos Magnéticos/efeitos adversos , Eletricidade , Humanos , Exposição Ocupacional , República da Coreia
5.
Nursing ; 49(8): 56-60, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31343536

RESUMO

An effective means of maintaining oral health is imperative for the health of long-term-care patients. This article assesses oral hygiene using an electric toothbrush compared with a manual toothbrush.


Assuntos
Placa Dentária/prevenção & controle , Equipamentos e Provisões Elétricas , Escovação Dentária/instrumentação , Cuidadores , Humanos , Assistência de Longa Duração , Higiene Bucal/métodos , Instituições Residenciais
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31331082

RESUMO

Ozone has become one of the most serious air pollutants in China in recent years. Since people spend most of their time indoors, the ozone in the indoor environment could be a major factor affecting the occupants' health. The indoor ozone in residential buildings mainly comes from two sources: outdoor atmosphere and indoor ozone produced by electrical devices. In this study, a typical residence in Nanjing was taken as an example to calculate and compare the contributions of indoor and outdoor sources to ozone in the building. A questionnaire survey about the type, the placement, and the frequency of use of the ozone emission devices was performed to provide the basis for the settings of indoor ozone sources. The multi-zone software CONTAM was used hourly to simulate the ozone concentration in summer and in winter with inner doors either closed or open, and it was noted whether there were ozone emission devices indoors or not. Source contribution was quantified and compared by three methods in this paper: (1) the average indoor/outdoor (I/O) ratio, (2) the I/O ratio frequency, and (3) the ratio of indoor ozone concentration without ozone sources to that with ozone sources. The results showed that the contribution of outdoor sources was much greater than that of indoor sources in summer, but in winter, the frequency of I/O > 1 could reach 55.8% of the total seasonal time, and the ratio of indoor ozone concentration without sources to that with sources could reach as high as 74.3%. This meant that the indoor concentration had the potential to exceed the outdoor. Furthermore, human respiratory exposure in different ages and genders was calculated. It was found that teenagers aged 10-18 years old and female adults had a higher respiratory exposure level.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Ozônio/análise , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China , Cidades , Equipamentos e Provisões Elétricas , Monitoramento Ambiental , Feminino , Habitação , Humanos , Exposição por Inalação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estações do Ano , Adulto Jovem
7.
Med Phys ; 46(9): 4257-4262, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31309594

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Dosimetric properties of the new microSilicon diode detector (60023) have been studied with focus on application in small-field dosimetry. The influences of the dimensions of the sensitive volume and the density of the epoxy layer surrounding the silicon chip of microSilicon have been quantified and compared to its predecessor (Diode E 60017) and the microDiamond (60019, all PTW-Freiburg, Germany). METHODS: Dose linearity has been studied in the range from 0.01 to 8.55 Gy and dose-per-pulse dependence from 0.13 to 0.86 mGy/pulse. The effective point of measurement (EPOM) was determined by comparing measured percentage depth dose curves with a reference curve (Roos chamber). Output ratios were measured for nominal field sizes from 0.5 × 0.5  cm2 to 4 × 4 cm2 . The corresponding small-field output correction factors, k, were derived with a plastic scintillation detector as reference. The lateral dose-response function, K(x), was determined using a slit beam geometry. RESULTS: MicroSilicon shows linear dose response (R2  = 1.000) in both low and high dose range up to 8.55 Gy with deviations of only up to 1% within the dose-per-pulse values investigated. The EPOM was found to lie (0.7 ± 0.2) mm below the front detector's surface. The derived k for microSilicon (0.960 at seff  = 0.55 cm) is similar to that of microDiamond (0.956), while Diode E requires larger corrections (0.929). This improved behavior of microSilicon in small-fields is reflected in the slightly wider K(x) compared to Diode E. Furthermore, the amplitude of the negative values in K(x) at the borders of the sensitive volume has been reduced. CONCLUSIONS: Compared to its predecessor, microSilicon shows improved dosimetric behavior with higher sensitivity and smaller dose-per-pulse dependence. Profile measurements demonstrated that microSilicon causes less perturbation in off-axis measurements. It is especially suitable for the applications in small-field output factors and profile measurements.


Assuntos
Equipamentos e Provisões Elétricas , Radiometria/instrumentação , Silício , Modelos Lineares
8.
Molecules ; 24(13)2019 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31261814

RESUMO

Electronics, and nanoelectronics in particular, represent one of the most promising branches of technology. The search for novel and more efficient materials seems to be natural here. Thus far, silicon-based devices have been monopolizing this domain. Indeed, it is justified since it allows for significant miniaturization of electronic elements by their densification in integrated circuits. Nevertheless, silicon has some restrictions. Since this material is applied in the bulk form, the miniaturization limit seems to be already reached. Moreover, smaller silicon-based elements (mainly processors) need much more energy and generate significantly more heat than their larger counterparts. In our opinion, the future belongs to nanostructured materials where a proper structure is obtained by means of bottom-up nanotechnology. A great example of a material utilizing nanostructuring is mesoporous silica, which, due to its outstanding properties, can find numerous applications in electronic devices. This focused review is devoted to the application of porous silica-based materials in electronics. We guide the reader through the development and most crucial findings of porous silica from its first synthesis in 1992 to the present. The article describes constant struggle of researchers to find better solutions to supercapacitors, lower the k value or redox-active hybrids while maintaining robust mechanical properties. Finally, the last section refers to ultra-modern applications of silica such as molecular artificial neural networks or super-dense magnetic memory storage.


Assuntos
Nanoestruturas/química , Dióxido de Silício/química , Equipamentos e Provisões Elétricas , Porosidade
9.
Phys Med ; 61: 77-84, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31151583

RESUMO

In this work, we report on a novel approach for measuring the dose absorbed by the EBT3 Gafchromic™ films exposed to 1 MeV electron beam and 250 kV X-rays in the range 0.5-100 Gy. Although EBT3 is specifically designed to obtain best performance for applications where the maximum dose is less than 10 Gy, there are certain clinical applications requiring dose ranges well above this value. In order to cover wider dose ranges, further models characterized by a thinner sensitive layer and/or different chemical composition have been released. Another method exploiting the three-channel flatbed scanner to delay the saturation point of EBT3 has been also reported. The technique proposed here, aimed at extending the sensitivity of the EBT3 film to high doses up to 100 Gy while ensuring a low dose uncertainty, is based on a broadband analysis of the absorption spectrum of the film in response to irradiation. By combining a wavelength-based approach with the monitoring of two characteristic peaks of the EBT3 absorption spectrum, we demonstrated the capability of measuring the dose in the range 0.5-100 Gy with an experimental uncertainty below 4% for doses lower than 5.52 Gy and below 2% for higher dose levels. Finally, through a dynamic fitting procedure integrating the two aforesaid approaches, a total uncertainty lower than 4%, including both the experimental and fitting errors, was achieved in the whole range 0.5-100 Gy. These results are promising in view of a potential application of this technique in the field of clinical dosimetry at high dose levels.


Assuntos
Dosimetria Fotográfica/métodos , Calibragem , Equipamentos e Provisões Elétricas , Dosimetria Fotográfica/instrumentação , Fenômenos Ópticos , Doses de Radiação , Incerteza
10.
Med Phys ; 46(9): 4193-4203, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31199521

RESUMO

PURPOSE: At our institute, in vivo patient dose distributions are reconstructed for all treatments delivered using conventional linacs from electronic portal imaging device (EPID) transit images acquired during treatment using a simple back-projection model. Currently, the clinical implementation of MRI-guided radiotherapy systems, which aims for online and real-time adaptation of the treatment plan, is progressing. In our department, the MR-linac (Unity, Elekta AB, Stockholm, Sweden) is now in clinical use. The aim of this work is to demonstrate the feasibility of two-dimensional (2D) EPID dosimetric verification for the magnetic resonance (MR)-linac by comparing back-projected EPID doses to ionization chamber (IC) array dose distributions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Our conventional back-projection algorithm was adapted for the MR-linac. The most important changes involve modeling of the attenuation by and scatter from the cryostat. The commissioning process involved the acquisition of square field EPID measurements using various phantom setups (varying SSD, phantom thickness, and field size). Commissioning models were created for gantry 0°, 90°, and 180° and verified by comparing EPID-reconstructed 2D dose distributions to measurements made with the OCTAVIUS 1500 IC array (PTW, Freiburg, Germany) for two prostate and one rectum IMRT plans (25 beams total). The average of the γ parameters (y-mean and y-pass rate) and the dose difference at a reference point were reported. Due to their construction, the attenuation of couch, bridge, and cryostat shows a much stronger dependence on gantry angle in the MR-linac compared to conventional linacs. We present a method to correct for these effects. This method is validated by dose reconstruction of the 25 intensity-modulated radiation therapy beams recorded at a certain gantry angle using the model of another gantry angle, combined with the correction method. RESULTS: For dose verification performed at a gantry angle identical to the commissioned model, the average y-mean and y-pass rate values (3% global dose, 2 mm, 10% isodose) were 0.37 ± 0.07 and 98.1, 95% CI [98.1 ± 2.4], respectively. The average dose difference at the reference point was -0.5% ± 1.8%. Verification at gantry angles different from the commissioned model (i.e., using the gantry angle dependent correction) reported 0.39 ± 0.08 and 97.6, 95% CI [96.9, 98.3] average y-mean and y-pass rate values. The average dose difference at the reference point was -0.1% ± 1.8%. CONCLUSION: The EPID dosimetry back-projection model was successfully adapted for the MR-linac at gantry 0°, 90°, and 180°, accounting for the presence of the MRI housing between phantom (or patient) and the EPID. A method to account for the gantry angle dependence was also tested reporting similar results.


Assuntos
Equipamentos e Provisões Elétricas , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/instrumentação , Aceleradores de Partículas , Algoritmos , Imagens de Fantasmas , Radiometria , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada
11.
Appl Ergon ; 78: 97-109, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31046964

RESUMO

The aim of this research was to study the relationship between user sustainable design attitudes versus behaviour, and to develop and test environmental personas as design tools. Current approaches towards environmentally sustainable design are primarily focused on capturing the environmentally conscious and pro-environmental consumers, or changing the attitude and behaviour of the anti-environmental consumer. In a survey of 521 consumers, environmental attitude was a poor predictor of environmental behaviour. A series of interviews was performed with different profiles of environmentally orientated users to assess their environmental attitudes and behaviour. The survey and interview data were used to develop four personas, one for each of the environmental attitude and behaviour types based on data from the consumer survey. A case study performed with university design students found that concepts generated by groups using environmentally orientated personas scored higher on environmental sustainability versus those generated by groups using an image board. This study illustrates how user-centred design approaches could be used to embed sustainable design in products by exploiting consumer environmental behaviour to overcome different attitudes and behaviour.


Assuntos
Atitude , Comportamento do Consumidor , Desenho de Equipamento/métodos , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Adolescente , Adulto , Equipamentos e Provisões Elétricas , Meio Ambiente , Saúde Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
12.
Inorg Chem ; 58(13): 8379-8387, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31063357

RESUMO

Modulating the local environment around the emitting ions with component screening to increase the quantum yield and thermal stability is an effective and promising strategy for the design of high-performance fluorescence materials. In this work, smaller Lu3+ was introduced into the La3+ site in a Mn4+-activated LaAlO3 phosphor with the expectation of improving the luminescence properties via lattice contraction induced by cation substitution. Finally, a La1- xLu xAlO3:Mn4+ ( x = 0-0.04) perovskite phosphor with a high quantum yield of 86.0% and satisfactory thermal stability was achieved, and the emission peak at 729 nm well matches with the strongest absorption peak of the Phytochrome PFR. The favorable performances could be attributed to the suppressed cell volume and superior lattice rigidity after the substitution of Lu3+. This work not only obtains a highly efficient La1- xLu xAlO3:Mn4+ ( x = 0.02) phosphor, which holds great potential for application in plant-cultivation light-emitting diodes, but also provides an applicable strategy for further investigation of far-red-emitting phosphors.


Assuntos
Compostos de Alumínio/química , Equipamentos e Provisões Elétricas , Corantes Fluorescentes/química , Lantânio/química , Lutécio/química , Manganês/química , Agricultura/instrumentação , Compostos de Alumínio/síntese química , Compostos de Alumínio/efeitos da radiação , Cor , Corantes Fluorescentes/síntese química , Corantes Fluorescentes/efeitos da radiação , Lantânio/efeitos da radiação , Lutécio/efeitos da radiação , Manganês/efeitos da radiação , Raios Ultravioleta
14.
J Vis Exp ; (145)2019 03 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30958472

RESUMO

Communities of nonvascular cryptogams, such as mosses or lichens, are an important part of the Earth's biodiversity, contributing to the regulation of the carbon and nitrogen cycles in many ecosystems. Being poikilohydric organisms, they do not actively control their internal water content and need a humid environment to activate their metabolism. Therefore, studying water relationships of nonvascular cryptogams is crucial to understand both their diversity patterns and their functions in the ecosystems. We present the BtM datalogger, a low-cost open-source platform for the study of the water content of nonvascular cryptogams. The datalogger is designed to measure ambient temperature, humidity, and conductance from up to eight samples simultaneously. We provide a design for a printed circuit board (PCB), a detailed protocol to assemble the components, and the required source code. All this makes the assembly of the BtM datalogger accessible to any research group, even to those without previous specialized knowledge. Therefore, the design presented here has the potential to help popularize the use of this type of device among ecologists and field biologists.


Assuntos
Briófitas/metabolismo , Custos e Análise de Custo , Equipamentos e Provisões Elétricas/economia , Monitoramento Ambiental/instrumentação , Líquens/metabolismo , Água/metabolismo , Monitoramento Ambiental/economia , Umidade , Temperatura Ambiente
15.
Phys Med ; 59: 37-46, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30928064

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To study the sensitivity of an Electronic Portal Imaging Device (EPID) in detecting delivery errors for VMAT lung stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) using the Collapsed Arc method. METHODS: Baseline VMAT plans and plans with errors intentionally introduced were generated for 15 lung SBRT patients. Three types of errors were introduced by modifying collimator angles and multi-leaf collimator (MLC) field sizes (MLCFS) and MLC shifts by ±5, ±2, and ±1° or millimeters. A total of 103 plans were measured with EPID on an Elekta Synergy Linear Accelerator (Agility MLC) and compared to both the original treatment planning system (TPS) Collapsed Arc dose matrix and the no-error plan baseline EPID measurements. Gamma analysis was performed using the OmniPro-I'mRT (IBA Dosimetry) software and gamma criteria of 1%/1 mm, 2%/1 mm, 2%/2 mm, and 3%/3. RESULTS: When the error-introduced EPID measured dose matrices were compared to the TPS matrices, the majority of simulated errors were detected with gamma tolerance of 2%/1 mm and 1%/1 mm. When the error-introduced EPID measured dose matrices were compared to the baseline EPID measurements, all the MLCFS and MLC shift errors, and ±5°collimator errors were detected using 2%/1 mm and 1%/1 mm gamma criteria. CONCLUSION: This work demonstrates the feasibility and effectiveness of the collapsed arc technique and EPID for pre-treatment verification of lung SBRT VMAT plans. The EPID was able to detect the majority of MLC and the larger collimator errors with sensitivity to errors depending on the gamma tolerances.


Assuntos
Equipamentos e Provisões Elétricas , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico por imagem , Planejamento da Radioterapia Assistida por Computador , Erros de Configuração em Radioterapia , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada/instrumentação , Humanos , Aceleradores de Partículas , Dosagem Radioterapêutica
16.
Phys Med ; 59: 86-91, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30928070

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Development and implementation of a PIN diode measurement system that can measure dose on the surface of a patient, which can be compared to dose calculated by a treatment planning system. Measurements are to be possible for static or rotational photon beams and electrons. Simple calibration procedures are to be devised that require a minimum set of correction factors. METHODS: Readily available PIN type photodiodes are fabricated into devices that can be used for detection of ionizing radiation. Single or dual PIN diodes are soldered onto flexible shielded cables for static and rotational irradiation use. Diode signals are measured with an electrometer with zero input bias voltage. Diode temperature is determined by operating it as a thermistor. Linac photon and electron dose is measured. A commercial treatment planning system is used for calculating dose expected in various test geometries. RESULTS: The scanning and surface diodes have an intrinsic buildup of 0.3 mm water equivalence and the IMRT device a buildup of 1.5 mm. Correction factors are determined for changes in diode sensitivity with the following factors: dose-per-pulse, dose rate, angle of radiation incidence, temperature, and field size. The surface or IMRT diode detector measurements agree within 1.0% with Eclipse calculations. CONCLUSIONS: Clinically useable dose detection devices can be fabricated from PIN type photodiodes. These diodes are used to measure dose at the surface of a patient or under bolus. Correction factors are unnecessary if a surface or IMRT type device is chosen for use with static orthogonal or rotational IMRT delivered beams, respectively.


Assuntos
Equipamentos e Provisões Elétricas , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada/instrumentação , Desenho de Equipamento , Dosagem Radioterapêutica
17.
Phys Med Rehabil Clin N Am ; 30(2): 451-457, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30954158

RESUMO

Recent advances in commercial home automation, or Smart Home, technology may augment adaptive living. Although these interconnected devices were not designed specifically for individuals with disabilities, they may increase independence with tasks in the home, such as adjusting the temperature or lighting, cleaning, and maintaining home security. As these integrated systems continue to advance in capability and availability, the potential for adaptive application continues to grow. This article highlights categories of currently available consumer devices with potential for application to adaptive living, and outlines the ways in which these novel devices might augment more traditional approaches to maximizing function.


Assuntos
Habitação , Internet , Equipamentos de Autoajuda , Automação , Pessoas com Deficiência , Equipamentos e Provisões Elétricas , Humanos
18.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 132: 658-665, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30946908

RESUMO

Adsorption of metal impurities from transformer oil was studied using a novel porous membrane. A solution of N, O­carboxymethyl­chitosan (CMC) and sodium phytate (SP) was blended to prepare a novel porous membrane for the metal impurities adsorption from transformer oil. The chemical structure of the membranes was characterised by their FTIR spectra, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and video camera observations. The effects of the SP content of the membrane, contact time, and contact temperature on adsorption of copper, iron, and aluminium impurities were studied. The FTIR spectra and thermogravimetric curves of the membranes indicated good compatibility between CMC and SP. The SEM and video camera observations suggested that CMC-SP composite membranes had a mature, porous structure. The experimental results showed that the SP content significantly affected the adsorption capacity of a CMC membrane. The maximum adsorption percentages of elemental copper, iron, and aluminium were 88.12%, 82.35%, and 80.36% when the SP ratio was 80% at 60 °C.


Assuntos
Quitosana/análogos & derivados , Equipamentos e Provisões Elétricas , Membranas Artificiais , Óleos/química , Ácido Fítico/química , Quitosana/química , Cinética , Porosidade , Temperatura Ambiente
19.
J Nurs Manag ; 27(5): 1055-1063, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30963652

RESUMO

AIM: Different designs of electronic hand-off systems might have different levels of effectiveness; this study validated the effectiveness of systems with an Identify, Situation, Background, Assessment and Recommendation (ISBAR) design to one without such a design. BACKGROUND: Adverse consequences in hospital commonly occur when there are breakdowns in the transmission of information between team members. To ensure information accuracy and consistency, some Taiwan hospitals implemented electronic hand-off systems. However, the effectiveness of such systems was not investigated. METHODS: A quasi-experiment was conducted to the nurses of two Taiwan case hospitals, one with ISBAR and the other with non-ISBAR design systems and 200 questionnaires were used to collect data. RESULTS: The respondent rate was 72%. Using system with ISBAR design, nurses can enhance their communication effectiveness and further increase their individual benefits at hand-off. Using a non-ISBAR hand-off system, communication effectiveness depends solely on the nurses' individual cognitive and expressive ability. CONCLUSION: System with ISBAR design can ensure effective information transmission among nurses for care continuity and prevention of adverse events. IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING MANAGEMENT: Ensuring the design of electronic systems is adequate, nursing managers can save nurses' time and effort while using the system to perform their regular work effectively and gain competitive advantage.


Assuntos
Comunicação , Equipamentos e Provisões Elétricas/normas , Transferência da Responsabilidade pelo Paciente/normas , Adulto , Equipamentos e Provisões Elétricas/tendências , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Transferência da Responsabilidade pelo Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Taiwan
20.
J Cancer Res Ther ; 15(1): 204-210, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30880779

RESUMO

Purpose: The aim of the present study was to compare the positional accuracy of varian's exact-arm (E-arm) and retractable-arm (R-arm) supporting electronic portal imaging device (EPID) systems (amorphous silicon flat-panel detector) using the intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) graticule phantom. Materials and Methods: The known shifts of 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 cm were introduced to the given phantom in longitudinal, lateral, and vertical directions, respectively, with respect to treatment couch of medical linear accelerator. The experiment was repeated for different gantry angle and varying source to imager distances (SIDs). The images were acquired for each shift at varying SIDs and beam orientations for both EPID supporting systems. The corresponding shifts obtained from treatment planning system (TPS) were recorded and compared. Results: The known (expected) and observed (recorded from TPS) shifts obtained for different beam angles (namely, 0°, 90°, 180°, and 270° for anterior, left lateral, posterior, and right-lateral portal images, respectively) in the longitudinal, lateral, and vertical direction at varying SID were compared. The maximum shift in the observed value from the expected one was 3 and 2 mm, respectively, out of the all beam configuration for R-arm and E-arm. These shifts were randomly observed for all imager position and beam orientation. Conclusion: The IMRT graticule phantom is an effective tool to check the mechanical characteristic and consistency of different EPID supporting arms. The effect of EPID sag due to gravity (gantry and treatment couch) was not significant for detection of shift in patient's position. The E-arm support EPID has better mechanical stability and accuracy in detection of patient's position than that of R-arm.


Assuntos
Equipamentos e Provisões Elétricas , Posicionamento do Paciente/instrumentação , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada/instrumentação , Humanos , Neoplasias/radioterapia , Aceleradores de Partículas , Imagens de Fantasmas , Radiometria , Dosagem Radioterapêutica , Planejamento da Radioterapia Assistida por Computador/instrumentação , Planejamento da Radioterapia Assistida por Computador/métodos , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada/métodos
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