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1.
Estud. pesqui. psicol. (Impr.) ; 18(4): 1195-1214, out.-dez. 2019.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos técnico-científicos | ID: biblio-994984

RESUMO

O período de 1870 a 1920 é conhecido como aquele no qual diversos teóricos da psicologia estadunidense estabelecem as diretrizes teóricas e políticas da independência da disciplina frente às demais ciências e às reflexões filosóficas. A psicologia comparada proposta por Robert Mearns Yerkes é uma das mais importantes do final do século XIX e das duas primeiras décadas do século seguinte. As obras do autor referentes à evolução do sistema nervoso central e periférico e suas relações com a inteligência, em conjunto com a psicologia militar e a eugenia, possibilitam, ao menos em parte, a concretização da engenharia humana e de suas futuras aplicações em diversos setores da sociedade estadunidense como instrumento de dominação da classe dominante. Como se trata de uma obra vasta e variadas aplicações na vida cotidiana, pensamos que essa primeira aproximação seja aprofundada em futuras investigações acerca dos movimentos da classe trabalhadora durante o processo de modernização da indústria e da grande reforma social pela qual a sociedade estadunidense à época. Movimentos amplamente desprezados pela historiografia da psicologia estadunidense.(AU)


The period from 1870 to 1920 is known as the one in which several theorists of American psychology establish the theoretical and political guidelines of the discipline's independence from other sciences and philosophical domain. The comparative psychology proposed by Robert Mearns Yerkes is one of the most important of the late nineteenth century and the first two decades of the following century. The author's works on the evolution of the central and peripheral nervous system and its relations with intelligence, taken together with military psychology and eugenics, enable, at least in part, the concretization of human engineering and its future applications in various sectors of the American society as an instrument of domination of the ruling class. As it is a vast work and of varied applications in everyday life, we think that this first approximation will be deepened in future investigations about the movements of the working class during the process of modernization of the industry and of the great social reform by which the American society happened to the time. These movements were widely neglected by the historiography of American psychology.(AU)


El período de 1870 a 1920 es conocido como aquel en el cual diversos teóricos de la psicología estadounidense establecen las directrices teóricas y políticas de la independencia de la disciplina frente a las demás ciencias y reflexiones filosóficas. La psicología comparada propuesta por Robert Mearns Yerkes es una de las más importantes del fin del siglo XIX y de las dos primeras décadas del siglo siguiente. Las obras del autor referentes a la evolución del sistema nervioso central y periférico y sus relaciones con la inteligencia, en conjunto con la psicología militar y la eugenesia, posibilitan, al menos en parte, la concreción de la ingeniería humana y de sus futuras aplicaciones en diversos sectores de la sociedad estadounidense como instrumento de dominación de la clase dominante. Como se trata de una obra vasta y de variadas aplicaciones en la vida cotidiana, esperamos que esa primera aproximación sea profundizada en futuras investigaciones acerca de los movimientos de la clase trabajadora durante el proceso de modernización de la industria y de la gran reforma social por la que la sociedad estadounidense pasaba en esa época. Estos movimientos fueron ampliamente despreciados por la historiografía de la psicología estadounidense.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Psicologia/história , Ergonomia , Psicologia Comparada , Psicologia Militar , Eugenia , Sistema Nervoso
2.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 265: 12-21, 2019 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31431571

RESUMO

In this paper we elaborate a preliminary framework to fill this gap and describe the potential contributions of HFE to improve digital health interventions, at the macro, meso and micro level of a health system. Researchers present a practical approach, integrated with some limited reflections on methodological aspects, recently covered in a position paper [8], while previously in conference series and handbooks. This paper presents a HFES perspective on digital health - from the macro, meso and micro level to improve patient safety and delivery of quality care. Experts in HFE can play a key role in creating evidence for an ethical and effective design of digital health intervention and providing support to their implementation and evaluation at the macro, meso and micro level. This framework may help to integrate HFE at the different levels of the system and following the tracks of organization, technology and human factors.


Assuntos
Ergonomia , Segurança do Paciente , Humanos , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Tecnologia
4.
Med Lav ; 110(3): 191-201, 2019 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31268426

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Work-related musculoskeletal disorders are a group of painful disorders which arise from work situations with continuous repetitive movements, carried out with speed and without time for recovery. In the performance of their job tasks, supermarket cashiers are exposed to this type of ergonomic stress. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to determine the incidence of self-reported injuries in Portuguese hypermarket cashiers and to identify the related factors. METHODS: The sample included 176 hypermarket cashiers, aged between 18 and 65 years (39.57±11.11), 167 (94.9%) of them women. Symptoms and exposure of interest have been collected through an interview-based questionnaire. The presence of carpal tunnel syndrome was assessed by Phalen's test. RESULTS: One hundred and seventeen (66.5%) cashiers reported an injury during employment, 100 (56.8%) of them reporting an injury in the previous 6 months. A total of 166 injuries were reported, corresponding to 1.14 injuries per 1,000 hours of work. The most common injuries were non-specific pain (30.4%), located in the shoulder (23.2%), cervical (22%) and lumbar spine (22%). Part-time workers showed a 2.25 times greater risk of injury (95% CI: 1.17-4.32; p=0.015) than full-time workers. Cashiers with more than 6 years of employment length had a 3.59 times higher risk of injury (95% CI: 1.84-6.99; p≤0.001) than those who had been working for a shorter period. CONCLUSIONS: Our data showed a high rate of reported injuries among hypermarket cashiers, especially among part-time workers and those with the highest length of employment.


Assuntos
Doenças Musculoesqueléticas , Doenças Profissionais , Autorrelato , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Ergonomia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Portugal , Adulto Jovem
5.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 262: 280-283, 2019 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31349322

RESUMO

Low back pain is one of the most common physical symptom and is frequently related with an abnormal body posture. It may be caused by poor upper body and limb coordination; repetitive lifting of heavy objects or poor working are ergonomics. This study analysis the consequence of repetitive heavy lifting on the normal standing posture of factory workers. To asses the posture malformations the Microsoft Kinect sensor was used to obtain postural data from 88 factory workers. The study has shown that more than 90% of the study group has some sort of postural malformation and lower back pain.


Assuntos
Ergonomia , Remoção , Dor Lombar , Doenças Profissionais , Humanos , Postura , Posição Ortostática , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis
6.
J Laryngol Otol ; 133(8): 713-718, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31317837

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The main objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of work-related musculoskeletal symptoms in otolaryngology and head and neck surgery specialists and trainees in Spain, and to measure the effect that physical exercise could have on muscular discomfort. METHOD: A cross-sectional survey was administered between September and December 2017 to practising otolaryngologists. RESULTS: Four hundred and three ENT surgeons responded, with a median age of 44.9 years, and 89.8 per cent reported discomfort or physical symptoms that they attributed to surgical practice. More female surgeons reported musculoskeletal symptoms (92.8 per cent vs 87.1 per cent; p = 0.04). When the level of physical activity was compared with the frequency of physical discomfort, no significant difference was found. CONCLUSION: This study has shown a high prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders among ENT surgeons in Spain but has failed to demonstrate an important role of physical exercise in the prevention of musculoskeletal disorders.


Assuntos
Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/epidemiologia , Doenças Profissionais/reabilitação , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Ergonomia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/etiologia , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/prevenção & controle , Doenças Profissionais/complicações , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Espanha/epidemiologia , Cirurgiões , Inquéritos e Questionários , Falha de Tratamento
7.
Curr Opin Ophthalmol ; 30(5): 331-336, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31313751

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Although much has been written regarding ergonomics in ophthalmology, little information is available regarding the specific ergonomic concerns of pediatric ophthalmology and in particular, of strabismus surgery. This article will summarize current findings pertaining to musculoskeletal disorders in ophthalmology and review their implications for strabismus surgeons. RECENT FINDINGS: Optical motion capture is a promising alternative to older qualitative and quantitative methods for evaluating ergonomic posture. Recent studies support the need for training to reduce work-related musculoskeletal disorders.


Assuntos
Ergonomia , Músculos Oculomotores/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Oftalmológicos , Estrabismo/cirurgia , Humanos , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/prevenção & controle , Doenças Profissionais/prevenção & controle , Postura
8.
Work ; 63(2): 219-229, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31156196

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several comfort perception models have proposed an objective method to evaluate "effects in the internal body" and "perceived comfort". Postural comfort is one aspect of comfort/discomfort perception, and this current work adds to existing knowledge toward a more objectified posture evaluation for comfort. OBJECTIVE: The authors have used the concept of Range of Rest Posture (RRP), as proposed by Apostolico et al. The study focused on the identification of RRP within the Comfort Range of Motion (CROM) for lower limbs. METHODS: The proposed method is based on extensive experimental work involving 114 healthy individuals (59 males and 55 females) ranging from 20 to 40 years old. The age range was narrowed to avoid an age-clustering of results due to inhomogeneity of the statistical sample. Data were processed using statistical methods for identifying the RRP in the experimental CROM. Several Maximum Level of Comfort (MLC) positions were found within the RRP. RESULTS: RRPs for lower limbs of men and women have been identified and can be used for virtual comfort assessment. CONCLUSIONS: This paper shows a method to evaluate in a more objective way the subjective postural comfort perception and results allow researchers to improve models for the virtual preventive comfort assessment.


Assuntos
Extremidade Inferior/fisiologia , Percepção , Postura/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Ergonomia/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Amplitude de Movimento Articular/fisiologia , Descanso/fisiologia , Descanso/psicologia
9.
Work ; 63(2): 231-241, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31156203

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obesity prevalence in the workforce is clearly increasing. Simultaneously, manual lifting/lowering loads, referred to as Vertical Handling Tasks (VHT) in this paper, are common in industries and services. Performing VHT exposes workers to physical overload, which can be measured using a psychophysical approach. Various risk factors can increase this overload, including individual factors such as workers' Body Mass Index (BMI). OBJECTIVE: To study the possible effects of workers' BMI and some task conditions on physical overload during VHT. METHODS: Psychophysical data were collected from 51 participants having different body constitutions (including non-obese, overweight and obese). The participants performed 6 VHT (3 different loads ×2 workstation configurations), during which they lifted and lowered a test-box between their knees and shoulders. For each task, they reported their perceived exertion using the Borg Category Ratio-10 (CR-10) scale. RESULTS: The results showed that the CR-10 scale is sensitive to the variation of the task conditions tested. However, the psychophysical data pointed to a tendency to decrease the perception of physical overload as workers' BMI increases. CONCLUSIONS: This may compromise the validity of the application of psychophysical data as an ergonomic approach for Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders (WRMSD) prevention in obese workers.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Percepção , Esforço Físico/fisiologia , Adulto , Ergonomia/instrumentação , Ergonomia/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Remoção/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Projetos Piloto , Psicofísica/métodos , Psicofísica/tendências , Fatores de Risco , Trabalho/fisiologia , Trabalho/psicologia
10.
Work ; 63(2): 299-308, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31156211

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In modern society, there is an increase both in the demand and the duration of computer work. Failure to correct body posture while using the computer has become a serious health hazard. OBJECTIVE: To identify global trends in research related to body posture and visual display terminals (VDTs) using a bibliometric approach. METHODS: In the search process, the keywords (posture *) AND (computer* OR "visual display terminal") were used in the study title section, in the Wos, Scopus and Medline databases. RESULTS: 149 references published between 1970 and 2016 were analyzed. The studied variables were the years of publication, authorship and collaboration index, publication type, titles of journals, most used languages, impact of the publications, as well as content of the articles. CONCLUSIONS: In recent years, the studies on body posture in relation to VDT have been increased both in quantity and quality of publications. The analysis and/or design of the workplace, as well as the elements that make up the computer (keyboard and mouse) are the most researched topics in the area.


Assuntos
Postura/fisiologia , Interface Usuário-Computador , Bibliometria , Ergonomia/normas , Humanos , Local de Trabalho/normas
11.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31189236

RESUMO

Objective: To study the effects of different holding gun methods and gun weight on health when standing guard, and propose a way to support the health of long-term standing guard soldiers. Methods: We created different percentile mannequins by Classic JACK, and adjusted the standing guard posture based on its standards for soldiers. The pressure on lumbar L4/L5 and moment on ankles and knees were analysied for different holding gun methods and gun weight. Then the mathematical models of joint load, gun weight and body mass index were studied by multiple regression analysis. Results: Holding gun methods and gun weight influence the force characteristics on ankles, knees and lumbar L4/L5. Holding gun with a brace and hands applying downward force -2 kgf could significantly reduce lumbar L4/L5 pressure. When the hand force is -5, -3, -4, -3, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2 kgf, and the weight of the gun is 0, Lumbar vertebrae L4/L5 joint pressure of people with different body mass index(P(1), P(5), P(55), P(95), P(99)) are the smallest, respectively 269, 281, 321, 408, 444 N, and the same change trend occurs when the weight of the gun is 2, 4, and 8 kg.The moment on ankles and knees were less with the same holding gun method and the hands downward force ranged from 0 to -4 kgf, and the higher the body mass index is, the more the hands downward force needed to make the moment on ankles and knees zero. That is, the moment on ankles could be zero when the hands downward force ranged from -1 to -3 kgf, the moment on knees could be zero when the hands downward force ranged from -1.1 to -3.7 kgf. Conclusion: To reduce the pressure on lumbar L4/L5 and moment on ankles and knees, so as to cut down occupational risk of long-standing operation, we advise the long-term standing guard soldiers holding gun with a brace and hands applying downward force -2 kgf.


Assuntos
Ergonomia , Armas de Fogo , Militares , Postura , Humanos , Vértebras Lombares , Pressão , Suporte de Carga
12.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31189242

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the prevalence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) in male welders in different work areas of shipbuilding industry based on their operational working position and body position characteristics and to analyze the operational positions and ergonomic loads. Methods: In February 2017, 412 male welders from the hull and block work areas of a large ship factory were selected by stratified sampling. The prevalence and effects of WMSDs within a year were investigated using the Nordic Musculoskeletal Disorders Questionnaire, and a rapid exposure checklist was used to obtain the ergonomic load index by comprehensive scoring; the exposure-response relationship between the ergonomic loads and WMSDs symptoms of subjects in the hull and block work areas was evaluated. Results: Among the male welders working in the hull work area of shipbuilding industry, WMSDs occurred more commonly in the neck, lower back/waist, and legs, accounting for 53.16% (126/237) , 51.90% (123/237) , and 41.77% (99/237) , respectively; among those working in the block work area, WMSDs occurred more commonly in the lower back/waist, wrist, and legs, accounting for 52.57% (92/175) , 49.14% (86/175) , and 45.14% (79/175) , respectively. There were significant differences in the distribution of cases of pain within the last 7 days and one month, pain lasting more than one month, or absence from work due to pain within a year in the four positions between the two work areas (P<0.05). In the hull work area, high and extremely high exposure levels were mainly seen in the neck, lower back/waist, and legs, accounting for 76.79%(182/237), 69.20%(164/237), and 59.49%(141/237), respectively; in the block work area, high and extremely high exposure levels were mainly seen in the lower back/waist, wrist, and legs, accounting for 77.71%(136/175), 50.29% (88/175), and 46.29% (81/175), respectively. The detection rates of WMSDs in these four positions significantly increased as the exposure levels rose (P<0.01). Conclusion: The WMSDs of male welders working in the hull and block work areas of shipbuilding industry occurs more commonly in the lower back/waist and legs. The risk of WMSDs symptoms increases with the rise of ergonomic load.


Assuntos
Doenças Musculoesqueléticas , Doenças Profissionais , Soldagem , Ergonomia , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
Work ; 62(4): 657-665, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31104049

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite the call for the application of ergonomics in developing countries, the African share of ergonomic studies is modest. Date palm farming is considered one of the most important economic resources in hot and dry areas. In African countries, including Algeria, there exist millions of date palms. Date palm work can be precarious and associated with higher rates of work related musculoskeletal disorders. OBJECTIVE: This paper aims to:1.Reveal how the workers climb the trunk of the date palm to get to the crown.2.Detect the amount of work related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMSDs) in date palm trees work, and how to combat it. METHOD: The descriptive method was used. RESULTS: Objective 1, Majority of date palm workers are still using the traditional methods, i.e. free climbing, and belt aided climbing. However, a minority of workers have started using modern methods i.e. ladders, climbing devices, and modern technology (e.g. hydraulic lifts). Objective 2, the workers complained about WRMSDs presence in the shoulders, hands, wrists, lower back, hips knees, and feet. Efforts to combat these WRMSDs are personal, educational and scientific efforts. CONCLUSION: Regarding climbing, the traditional methods are still dominant, and the use of technology is very limited. As regards WRMSDs, date palm workers complain about their presence in many parts of the body.


Assuntos
Agricultura/métodos , Ergonomia/normas , Agricultura/estatística & dados numéricos , Argélia/epidemiologia , Ergonomia/métodos , Fazendeiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Traumatismos Ocupacionais/epidemiologia , Traumatismos Ocupacionais/etiologia , Fatores de Risco , Árvores
14.
Malawi Med J ; 31(1): 45-49, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31143396

RESUMO

Background: Recent outbreaks of highly contagious diseases have prompted hospital departments to adopt preventive hygiene protocols. Use of shared equipment, including ultrasound transducers and coupling gels, potentially exposes patients to these microbes. Inexpensive means of microbicide fortification of plain/non-sterile ultrasound gel may be useful in interrupting nosocomial infections. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of low-cost antimicrobial fortification of ultrasound coupling gel in preventing nosocomial infections during ultrasound examinations. Methods: Volunteer patients, 20 in number, who presented for an ultrasound scan in a busy radiology clinic in Enugu, Nigeria, were randomly divided into 2 groups of 10 each and were scanned using plain non-sterile gel and gel-fortified with 0.5% chlorhexidine and 70% ethyl alcohol (in a volume ratio of 20:2:1) respectively. Swabs were taken from the patients' skin, gel-laden transducer, and the cleaned transducer and subjected to microbiology analysis. Subsequently, plain and fortified gel samples were allowed to stand in their respective dispensers for 72 hours. The plain and fortified gel samples were subjected to microbiology analysis. Fisher's Exact Test was utilised to compare outcomes in the 2 groups of volunteers. Results: With fortified gel, swab cultures from patients' skin and gel-laden transducer, and from the cleaned transducer, significantly yielded no growth (P= <0.0001 and P= 0.0001 respectively) while swab cultures from the plain gel yielded a total of 19 microbial isolates from 5 micro-organisms. Conclusion: Low-cost fortification of ultrasound coupling gel with 0.5% chlorhexidine and 70% ethyl alcohol renders it hostile to microorganisms encountered at sonology thus preventing nosocomial transmission.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Contaminação de Equipamentos/prevenção & controle , Géis , Ultrassonografia/instrumentação , Estudos Transversais , Ergonomia , Feminino , Humanos , Nigéria , Projetos Piloto , Transdutores
15.
Arch Ital Biol ; 157(1): 15-23, 2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31111953

RESUMO

In recent years people suffering of backache has significantly increased. This led us to focus our attention on the adequacy of school furniture for the correct development of the adult posture. The standing posture of 67 students of middle school has been analyzed at the beginning and at the end of two consecutive scholastic years using a stabilometric platform. Starting from the second year, about half of the students were provided with the furniture designed following European standard (UNI EN 1729:2006), while the other half maintained the traditional one. The main purpose of this research has been to verify by means of posturometric analysis the effects on postural parameters of the use of traditional furniture in comparison to the furniture following the UNI EN 1729:2006. We observed that prolonged sitting at school changes some posturometric variables of schoolchildren. Since no differences has been found between the two groups, the validity of the European standards is questioned. The present study allowed us to single out four anthropometric parameters that should be considered in order to devise a new model of adjustable furniture. By adjusting every year the furniture of each student, it would be possible to avoid (at least at school) the adoption of wrong postural positions that could be responsible for backache and other common musculoskeletal disorders.


Assuntos
Ergonomia , Decoração de Interiores e Mobiliário , Postura , Adolescente , Antropometria , Criança , Humanos , Instituições Acadêmicas
16.
Work ; 63(1): 137-149, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31127741

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ergonomics/Human factors (HFE) is little considered in the engineering design practice and design methodologies do not adequately present the use of HFE. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this paper is to propose a systematic for the integration of HFE into product design, based on the user-centered design approach. Thus, an overview of the systematic is presented, as well as the suggestion of methods and support tools for each phase of the design process. METHODS: In order to verify the applicability of the systematic it was done an expert evaluation of the systematic and an experiment was carried out in the engineering education, in two classes of the product design course in a Brazilian University in 2016. RESULTS: The results showed that the students of the study group developed a better knowledge about HFE and its use in product design, besides the probability of using HFE in the product design went from low to high after the experiment. CONCLUSION: Presenting this information in a systematized way together with the design process allows students to be more likely to use it, to understand it better and know how to use it.


Assuntos
Engenharia/educação , Desenho de Equipamento/métodos , Ergonomia/métodos , Brasil , Currículo/normas , Currículo/tendências , Assistência à Saúde/métodos , Educação/métodos , Educação/tendências , Engenharia/métodos , Desenho de Equipamento/normas , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31022886

RESUMO

This paper addresses a significant gap in the literature by describing a study that tests the feasibility and efficacy of an organizational intervention to improve working conditions, safety, and wellbeing for low-wage food service workers. The Workplace Organizational Health Study tests the hypothesis that an intervention targeting the work organization and environment will result in improvements in workers' musculoskeletal disorders and wellbeing. This ongoing study is being conducted in collaboration with a large food service company. Formative evaluation was used to prioritize outcomes, assess working conditions, and define essential intervention elements. The theory-driven intervention is being evaluated in a proof-of-concept trial, conducted to demonstrate feasibility and potential efficacy using a cluster randomized design. Ten worksites were randomly assigned to intervention or control conditions. The 13-month intervention uses a comprehensive systems approach to improve workplace policies and practices. Using principles of participatory engagement, the intervention targets safety and ergonomics; work intensity; and job enrichment. The evaluation will provide a preliminary assessment of estimates of the intervention effect on targeted outcomes and inform understanding of the intervention implementation across worksites. This study is expected to provide insights on methods to improve working conditions in support of the safety and wellbeing of low-wage workers.


Assuntos
Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/prevenção & controle , Saúde do Trabalhador , Adulto , Idoso , Ergonomia , Feminino , Serviços de Alimentação , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Salários e Benefícios , Local de Trabalho , Adulto Jovem
18.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord ; 20(1): 175, 2019 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31014316

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are prevalent in working populations and could result in a number of detrimental consequences. In China, healthcare professionals (HCP) in large hospitals may be likely to suffer from MSDs considering the facts of shortages in medical staff, the large Chinese population base, the aging of the population and patients' inclination to go to large hospitals. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and factors associated with MSDs among HCP working in tertiary hospitals. METHODS: A self-administered questionnaire incorporating the Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire and the Dutch Musculoskeletal Questionnaire was conducted among 14,720 HCP in eight tertiary hospitals selected by random cluster sampling in Shandong, China. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to quantify the association of psychological, ergonomic, organizational and individual factors with MSDs. RESULTS: The 12-month period prevalence rate of experiencing an MSD in at least one body region for at least 24 h, experiencing an MSD for at least three months, and seeking health care for this condition were 91.2, 17.1 and 68.3%, respectively; these rates were highest for the lower back (72.8, 14.3, 60.3%) and knees (65.7, 8.1, 46.7%), followed by the shoulders (52.1, 6.2, 38.9%), neck (47.6, 4.8, 32.6%), wrists/hands (31.1, 3.2, 23.1%), ankles/feet (23.6, 1.9, 13.4%), upper back, hips/thighs and elbows. MSDs were associated with workload (work hours per week, break times during workday), psychological factors (psychological fatigue, mental stress), employment status and ergonomic factors. Regarding the ergonomic factors, lower back MSDs were associated with bending the trunk frequently, heavy or awkward lifting, and bending or twisting the neck; knee MSDs were associated with walking or standing for long periods of time; and shoulder MSDs were associated with maintaining shoulder abduction for long periods of time and bending or twisting the neck. CONCLUSIONS: MSDs among HCP in tertiary hospitals in Mainland China were highly prevalent. The many factors listed above should be considered in the prevention of MSDs in HCP.


Assuntos
Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/epidemiologia , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Centros de Atenção Terciária/estatística & dados numéricos , Carga de Trabalho/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Ergonomia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/diagnóstico , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/prevenção & controle , Doenças Profissionais/diagnóstico , Doenças Profissionais/prevenção & controle , Prevalência , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
19.
Can J Ophthalmol ; 54(2): 159-163, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30975337

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To characterize changes in body positioning while performing a standardized slit lamp examination after exposure to an educational module on ergonomics. DESIGN: Prospective interventional pilot study. PARTICIPANTS: Ten ophthalmology residents. METHODS: An educational module discussing ergonomic issues in ophthalmology was created. In a standardized examination lane, participants were recorded performing 3 trials of an indirect slit lamp examination of a volunteer patient, adjusting equipment as they saw fit. Participants were then sent the module and within 2 weeks repeated the trial process. Data were processed using biomechanical software to obtain the Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA) injury risk score, elbow and shoulder joint reaction moments, neck and trunk flexion angles, and spinal curvature magnitudes. RESULTS: The RULA injury risk scores decreased after completion of the module (95% CI 2.10-2.77), indicating a lesser risk for injury to the resident. Shoulder flexion and elbow abduction moments also decreased (95% CI -3.2 to -1.5 and -0.44 to -0.04, respectively), suggesting a more neutral body posture. The trunk flexion angle increased after completion of the module (95% CI -5.1 to -1.6), signifying a more upright trunk posture; this was confirmed by the lumbar spine curvature, which flattened postmodule (95% CI 6.6-940). CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest a promising ability for an educational module to mitigate some injury risk in this population during indirect slit lamp examination. It also delineated some awkward postures that persisted despite the module. These results will be reintegrated into the module to optimize its educational utility.


Assuntos
Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina , Ergonomia/métodos , Internato e Residência , Doenças Profissionais/prevenção & controle , Oftalmologia/educação , Postura/fisiologia , Microscopia com Lâmpada de Fenda/normas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Doenças Profissionais/etiologia , Exposição Ocupacional/prevenção & controle , Projetos Piloto , Estudos Prospectivos
20.
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