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1.
Chem Biol Interact ; 313: 108821, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31525342

RESUMO

Decrease in the bioavailability of vasoactive nitric oxide (NO), derived from the endothelial nitric oxide synthase (NOS3), underlines vascular endothelial damage. Our expanding knowledge on mature red blood cells (RBCs) makes it supposable that RBCs might contribute to vascular function and integrity via their active NO synthetizing system (RBC-NOS3). This "rescue" mechanism of RBCs could be especially important during pregnancy with smoking habit, when smoking acts as an additional stressor and causes active change in the redox status. In this study RBC populations of 82 non-smoking (RBC-NS) and 75 smoking (RBC-S) pregnant women were examined. Morphological variants were followed by confocal microscopy and quantified by a microscopy based intelligent analysis software. Fluorescence activated cell sorting was used to examine the translational and posttranslational regulation of RBC-NOS, Arginase-1 and the formation of the major product of lipid peroxidation, 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal. To survey the rheological parameters of RBCs like elasticity and plasticity atomic force microscopy-based measurement was applied. Significant morphological and functional differences of RBCs were found between the non-smoking and smoking groups. The phenotypic variations in RBC-S population, even the characteristic biconcave disc-shaped cells, could be connected to impaired NOS3 activation and are compromised in their physiological properties. Membrane lipid studies reveal an elevated lipid oxidation state well paralleled with the changed elastic and plastic activities. These features can form a basic tool in the prenatal health screening conditions; hence the compensatory mechanism of RBC-S population completely fails to sense and rescue the acute oxidative stress conditions.


Assuntos
Arginase/metabolismo , Eritrócitos/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo III/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Aldeídos/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Eritrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Microscopia de Força Atômica , Gravidez
2.
Cell Physiol Biochem ; 53(3): 453-464, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31448885

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Eryptosis, the suicidal death of red blood cells (RBCs), is characterized by phosphatidylserine (PS) exposure at the cell surface. It can be catalysed by a variety of abnormal conditions and diseases. Until now, the many questions surrounding the physiology and pathophysiology of eryptosis have not been sufficiently answered. Recently, we demonstrated IgM and IgA autoantibodies (aab) to induce PS exposure on circulating RBCs of patients with autoimmune haemolytic anaemia (AIHA). However, it remained unclear how these aab lead to eryptosis. METHODS: Serum and plasma samples from patients with clinically relevant AIHA of cold type were used to induce eryptosis in O RBCs. Serum containing fresh complement from healthy donors, antibodies to complement component, and complement factor depleted sera were added to examine the influence of the complement on PS-exposure. RBC bound annexin V PE were analysed by flow cytometry. RESULTS: Eryptosis related to IgM aab was found to be dependent on complement activation and could be effectively inhibited by EDTA, serum heat inactivation and anti-C5. PS exposure increased with sequential activation of the sublytic terminal complement components C5b6, C5b-7 and was most significant at the C5b-8 stage. A decrease was observed following the formation of the lytic membrane attack complex C5b-9, either because of lysis of eryptotic RBCs or because of inhibition of eryptosis by C9. CONCLUSION: Our findings reflect new aspects on RBC destruction in AIHA as well the impact of the terminal complement complexes on the RBC membrane. The striking differences to nucleated cell apoptosis may even have physiological meaning of RBC acting as a buffer of the complement system.


Assuntos
Anemia Hemolítica Autoimune/patologia , Autoanticorpos/farmacologia , Proteínas do Sistema Complemento/metabolismo , Eriptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Imunoglobulina M/imunologia , Anemia Hemolítica Autoimune/sangue , Ativação do Complemento/efeitos dos fármacos , Complemento C5/metabolismo , Ácido Edético/farmacologia , Eritrócitos/citologia , Eritrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Eritrócitos/metabolismo , Humanos , Fosfatidilserinas/farmacologia
3.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 14: 5323-5338, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31409990

RESUMO

Background: Candida albicans as an opportunistic fungus is one of the most important causes of late-onset morbidity and mortality in patients with major burns and severely impaired immune system. In recent years, the emergence of resistance to opportunistic fungi and toxicity of antimicrobial drugs make it necessary to develop new drugs. Methods: In the present study, we investigated anticandidal effects of indolicidin, as a representative of host defense peptide, conjugated with gold nanoparticles in fluconazole-resistant clinical isolates of C. albicans. After characterizing the conjugation of indolicidin using biophysical methodologies, the cytotoxicity and hemolytic activity of the nanocomplex were examined. In addition, the expression level of ERG11, responsible for antifungal resistance, and the immunomodulatory effect of peptide-nanomaterial conjugates were assessed. Results: Our data indicated that the nanocomplex was nontoxic for the fibroblast cells and erythrocytes. Treatment with the nanocomplex significantly reduced the expression levels of the ERG11 gene in fluconazole-resistant C. albicans isolates and the iNOS gene in macrophages. Conclusion: The study data provides a chance to develop innovative therapies for the treatment of C. albicans burn infections. However, further investigation is required to examine the efficiency of the nanocomplex.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/farmacologia , Queimaduras/microbiologia , Candida albicans/efeitos dos fármacos , Candida albicans/isolamento & purificação , Fluconazol/farmacologia , Ouro/farmacologia , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Animais , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/química , Queimaduras/tratamento farmacológico , Candida albicans/genética , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Farmacorresistência Fúngica/efeitos dos fármacos , Eritrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Eritrócitos/metabolismo , Fluconazol/química , Regulação Fúngica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Genes Fúngicos , Hemólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/ultraestrutura , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Células NIH 3T3 , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/genética , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/metabolismo
4.
J Photochem Photobiol B ; 197: 111541, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31272033

RESUMO

Here, we report the novel fabrication of ZnO nanoparticles using the Costus igneus leaf extract. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) spectroscopy to determine the bioactive components present in the plant extract. The synthesis of Ci-ZnO NPs (C. igneus- coated zinc oxide nanoparticles) was accomplished using a cost-effective and simple technique. Ci-ZnO NPs were specified using UV-visible spectroscopy, FTIR, XRD, and TEM. Ci-ZnO NPs was authenticated by UV-Vis and exhibited a peak at 365 nm. The XRD spectra proved the crystalline character of the Ci-ZnO NPs synthesized as hexagonal wurtzite. The FTIR spectrum illustrated the presence of possible functional groups present in Ci-ZnO NPs. The TEM micrograph showed evidence of the presence of a hexagonal organization with a size of 26.55 nm typical of Ci-ZnO NPs. The α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibition assays demonstrated antidiabetic activity of Ci-ZnO NPs (74 % and 82 %, respectively), and the DPPH [2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl hydrate] assay demonstrated the antioxidant activity of the nanoparticles (75%) at a concentration of 100 µg/ml. The Ci-ZnO NPs exhibited promising antibacterial and biofilm inhibition activity against the pathogenic bacteria Streptococcus mutans, Lysinibacillus fusiformis, Proteus vulgaris, and Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Additionally, the Ci-ZnO NPs showed biocompatibility with mammalian RBCs with minimum hemolytic activity (0.633 % ±â€¯0.005 %) at a concentration of 200 µg/ml.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Óxido de Zinco/química , Antibacterianos/síntese química , Antibacterianos/química , Materiais Biocompatíveis/química , Materiais Biocompatíveis/farmacologia , Costus/química , Costus/metabolismo , Eritrócitos/citologia , Eritrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Eritrócitos/metabolismo , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/fisiologia , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/fisiologia , Química Verde , Hemólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Insulina/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/toxicidade , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Tamanho da Partícula , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , alfa-Amilases/antagonistas & inibidores , alfa-Amilases/metabolismo
5.
Toxicol Lett ; 314: 133-141, 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31325633

RESUMO

Hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) compounds are classified as carcinogenic to humans. Whereas chromium measurements in urine and plasma attest to the last few hours of total chromium exposure (all oxidation states of chromium), chromium in red blood cells (RBC) is attributable specifically to Cr(VI) exposure over the last few days. Before recommending Cr in RBC (CrIE) as a biological indicator of Cr(VI) exposure, in vivo studies must be undertaken to assess its reliability. The present study examines the kinetics of Cr(VI) in rat after a single intravenous dose of ammonium dichromate. Chromium levels were measured in plasma, red blood cells and urine. The decay of the chromium concentration in plasma is one-phase-like (with half-life time of 0.55 day) but still measurable two days post injection. The excretion of urinary chromium peaks between five and six hours after injection and shows large variations. Intra-erythrocyte chromium (CrIE) was very constant up to a minimum of 2 days and half-life time was estimated to 13.3 days. Finally, Cr(III) does not interfere with Cr(VI) incorporation in RBC. On the basis of our results, we conclude that, unlike urinary chromium, chromium levels in RBC are indicative of the amount of dichromate (Cr(VI)) in blood.


Assuntos
Carcinógenos Ambientais/administração & dosagem , Carcinógenos Ambientais/metabolismo , Cromo/administração & dosagem , Cromo/sangue , Eritrócitos/metabolismo , Administração Intravenosa , Animais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Biomarcadores/urina , Carga Corporal (Radioterapia) , Carcinógenos Ambientais/farmacocinética , Carcinógenos Ambientais/toxicidade , Cromo/farmacocinética , Cromo/toxicidade , Masculino , Modelos Biológicos , Oxirredução , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Especificidade da Espécie , Toxicocinética
6.
Cell Physiol Biochem ; 53(1): 229-241, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31302949

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Circulating or extracellular histones (EHs) in the bloodstream act as a damage-associated-molecular-pattern (DAMP) agent that plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of many diseases such as sepsis and sterile inflammation. To date, not much information is available to describe the mechanistic relationship between human erythrocytes and the cytotoxicity of EHs, the protein members from a highly conserved histone family across species. The present study explored this key question with a hypothesis that EHs induce eryptosis. METHODS: Freshly isolated human red blood cells (RBCs) from healthy donors were treated with EHs or agents for positive controls in a physiological buffer for 3 or 24 h. After treatments, flow cytometry was employed to quantify surface phosphatidylserine (PS) exposure from annexin-V-RFP binding, cell shrinkage from flow cytometric forward scatter (FSC) analysis, Ca2+ rise by fluo-4, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by H2DCFDA, and caspase-3 activation by FAM-DEVD-FMK measurement. Hemolysis and membarne permeabilization were estimated respectively from hemoglobin release into supernatant and calcein leakage from RBC ghosts. RESULTS: With positive controls for validation, EHs in the pathophsyiological range were found to accumulate annexin-V binding on cell surface, decrease FSC, upregulate ROS production, elevate Ca2+ influx and increase caspase-3 activity in a 3-h incubation. Of note, no RBC hemolysis and no calcein release from ghosts were obtained after EHs treatment for 24 h. Interestingly, external Ca2+ was not a prerequisite for the EHs-mediated ROS production and PS externalization. Also, the eryptotic hallmarks in the apoptotic RBCs were partially blocked by heparin and antibody (Ab) against Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2). CONCLUSION: EHs act as a DAMP agent in the human RBCs that induces eryptosis. The cytotoxic effect is rapid as the hallmarks of eryptosis such as cell shrinkage, surface PS exposure, [Ca2+]i rise, ROS production and caspase-3 activation can be seen 3 h after treatment in a dose-dependent manner. The EHs' cytotoxic effects could be blocked by heparin and the Ab against TLR2.


Assuntos
Eriptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Histonas/farmacologia , Anticorpos/imunologia , Anticorpos/farmacologia , Cálcio/metabolismo , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Eritrócitos/citologia , Eritrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Eritrócitos/metabolismo , Heparina/farmacologia , Humanos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Receptor 2 Toll-Like/imunologia
7.
Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) ; 67(7): 666-674, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31257322

RESUMO

Dimeric sesquiterpene thioalkaloids from the rhizomes of Nuphar pumilum exhibited immunosuppressive effects using a sheep erythrocyte plaque forming cell (PFC) assay, as well as an anti-metastasis effect, and rapid apoptosis-inducing effects in tumor cell lines. In particular, dimeric sesquiterpene thioalkaloids with a hydroxy group (6-hydroxythiobinupharidine, 6,6'-dihydroxythiobinupharidine, 6-hydroxythionuphlutine B) showed substantial effects, whereas dimeric sesquiterpene thioalkaloids lacking the hydroxy group (thiobinupharidine, thionuphlutine B, 6'-hydroxythionuphlutine B, neothiobinupharidine, thionuphlutine B ß-sulfoxide, neothiobinupharidine ß-sulfoxide) and monomeric sesquiterpene alkaloids (nupharidine, 7-epideoxynupharidine, nupharolutine) showed weak activity. In this review, we summarize our studies of the biofunctional effects of these alkaloids.


Assuntos
Alcaloides/química , Nuphar/química , Sesquiterpenos/química , Alcaloides/isolamento & purificação , Alcaloides/farmacologia , Animais , Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/isolamento & purificação , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Eritrócitos/citologia , Eritrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Eritrócitos/metabolismo , Humanos , Imunossupressores/química , Imunossupressores/isolamento & purificação , Imunossupressores/farmacologia , Nuphar/metabolismo
8.
Cell Physiol Biochem ; 53(1): 186-199, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31278696

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Estrogen could play a key role in the mechanisms underlying sex-related disparity in the incidence of thrombotic events. We investigated whether estrogen receptors (ERs) were expressed in human red blood cells (RBCs), and if they affected cell signaling of erythrocyte constitutive isoform of endothelial NO-synthase (eNOS) and nitric oxide (NO) release. METHODS: RBCs from 29 non-smoker volunteers (15 males and 14 females) aged between 20 and 40 years were analyzed by cytometry and western blot. In particular, content and distribution of ER-α and ER-ß, tyrosine kinases and eNOS phosphorylation and NO release were analyzed. RESULTS: We demonstrated that: i) both ER-α and ER-ß were expressed by RBCs; ii) they were both functionally active; and iii) ERs distribution and function were different in males and females. In particular, ERs modulated eNOS phosphorylation and NO release in RBCs from both sexes, but they induced the phosphorylation of specific tyrosine residues of kinases linked to eNOS activation and NO release in the RBCs from females only. CONCLUSION: Collectively, these data suggest that ERs could play a critical role in RBC intracellular signaling. The possible implication of this signaling in sex-linked risk disparity in human cardiovascular diseases, e.g. in thrombotic events, may not be ruled out.


Assuntos
Receptores Estrogênicos/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Adulto , Dronabinol/farmacologia , Eritrócitos/citologia , Eritrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Eritrócitos/metabolismo , Receptor alfa de Estrogênio/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptor alfa de Estrogênio/metabolismo , Receptor beta de Estrogênio/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptor beta de Estrogênio/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteína Quinase 1 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Proteína Quinase 3 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo III/metabolismo , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Piperidinas/farmacologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Pirazóis/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto Jovem
9.
Ann Hematol ; 98(8): 1827-1834, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31190133

RESUMO

In this study, we aimed to investigate the pattern and association of genetic mutations occurring within the alpha hemoglobin-stabilizing protein (AHSP) gene among HbE beta thalassemia patients with varying phenotypic expressions. Fifty-four diagnosed cases of HbE beta thalassemia (transfusion dependent and independent) were included in the study. Among them, 38 patients with similar genotypes (IVS 1-5, alpha gene deletion and triplication, Xmn polymorphism) were selected for further analysis. AHSP gene sequencing was done for these 38 samples to study associated mutations in AHSP gene. HbE beta thalassemia patients with similar genotypes but different phenotypic expressions were found to have mutations in the AHSP gene. There were five mutations found most prevalent among the samples analyzed for AHSP gene sequencing. Among these, two mutations were from intron 1 region of AHSP and three mutations were found in exon 3. The most prevalent mutation was found at the Oct binding site at intron 1 of AHSP. The mutations in exon 3 were more prevalent among the TDT groups. A mutation in exon 3 changing the amino acid (33rd) from serine to phenylalanine was found to be associated with only TDT group. This study documents that among the HbE beta thalassemia patients with varying severity, an exon mutation in AHSP is significantly prevalent only among the TDT group. Further understanding of the mechanism will shed light upon the impact of AHSP in modifying the disease severity in thalassemia.


Assuntos
Proteínas Sanguíneas/genética , Deleção de Genes , Duplicação Gênica , Hemoglobina E/genética , Chaperonas Moleculares/genética , Talassemia beta/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Sequência de Bases , Proteínas Sanguíneas/metabolismo , Transfusão de Sangue/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Eritrócitos/metabolismo , Eritrócitos/patologia , Éxons , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Genótipo , Hemoglobina E/metabolismo , Humanos , Íntrons , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Moleculares , Chaperonas Moleculares/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Estrutura Secundária de Proteína , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Talassemia beta/metabolismo , Talassemia beta/patologia , Talassemia beta/terapia
10.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 131: 110553, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31163221

RESUMO

Ginseng and its active gradient, ginsenoside Rg3 (Rg3), are widely used for a variety of health benefits, but concerns over their misuses are increasing. Previously, it has been reported that Rg3 can cause hemolysis, but its health outcome remains unknown. Here, we demonstrated that Rg3 could promote the procoagulant activity of erythrocytes through the process of hemolysis, ultimately leading to increased thrombosis. In freshly isolated human erythrocytes, Rg3 caused pore formation and fragmentation of the erythrocyte membrane. Confocal microscopy observation and flow cytometric analysis revealed that remnant erythrocyte fragments after the exposure to Rg3 expressed phosphatidylserine (PS), which can promote blood coagulation through providing assembly sites for coagulation complexes. Rat in vivo experiments further confirmed that intravenous administration of Rg3 produced PS-bearing erythrocyte debris and increased thrombosis. Collectively, we demonstrated that Rg3 could induce the procoagulant activity of erythrocytes by generating PS-bearing erythrocyte debris through hemolysis, which might provoke thrombosis.


Assuntos
Coagulação Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Eritrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Ginsenosídeos/efeitos adversos , Hemólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Trombose/induzido quimicamente , Animais , Membrana Eritrocítica/química , Membrana Eritrocítica/efeitos dos fármacos , Eritrócitos/metabolismo , Eritrócitos/patologia , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Fosfatidilserinas/química , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
11.
Ann Hematol ; 98(9): 2045-2052, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31243572

RESUMO

Thalassemia has a high prevalence in Thailand. Oxidative damage to erythroid cells is known to be one of the major etiologies in thalassemia pathophysiology. Oxidative stress status of thalassemia is potentiated by the heme, nonheme iron, and free iron resulting from imbalanced globin synthesis. In addition, levels of antioxidant proteins are reduced in α-thalassemia and ß-thalassemia erythrocytes. However, the primary molecular mechanism for this phenotype remains unknown. Our study showed a high expression of miR-144 in ß- and α-thalassemia. An increased miR-144 expression leads to decreased expression of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2) target, especially in α-thalassemia. In α-thalassemia, miR-144 and NRF2 target are associated with glutathione level and anemia severity. To study the effect of miR-144 expression, the gain-loss of miR-144 expression was performed by miR inhibitor and mimic transfection in the erythroblastic cell line. This study reveals that miR-144 expression was upregulated, whereas NRF2 expression and glutathione levels were decreased in comparison with the untreated condition after miR mimic transfection, while the reduction of miR-144 expression contributed to the increased NRF2 expression and glutathione level compared with the untreated condition after miR inhibitor transfection. Moreover, miR-144 overexpression leads to significantly increased sensitivity to oxidative stress at indicated concentrations of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and rescued by miR-144 inhibitor. Taken together, our findings suggest that dysregulation of miR-144 may play a role in the reduced ability of erythrocyte to deal with oxidative stress and increased RBC hemolysis susceptibility especially in thalassemia.


Assuntos
Eritrócitos/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/biossíntese , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/biossíntese , Estresse Oxidativo , Regulação para Cima , Talassemia alfa/metabolismo , Talassemia beta/metabolismo , Eritrócitos/patologia , Feminino , Glutationa/biossíntese , Glutationa/genética , Hemólise , Humanos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Células K562 , Masculino , MicroRNAs/genética , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/genética , Talassemia alfa/genética , Talassemia alfa/patologia , Talassemia beta/genética , Talassemia beta/patologia
12.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 317, 2019 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31234897

RESUMO

Glycophorins are heavily glycosylated sialoglycoproteins of human and animal erythrocytes. In humans, there are four glycophorins: A, B, C and D. Glycophorins play an important role in the invasion of red blood cells (RBCs) by malaria parasites, which involves several ligands binding to RBC receptors. Four Plasmodium falciparum merozoite EBL ligands have been identified: erythrocyte-binding antigen-175 (EBA-175), erythrocyte-binding antigen-181 (EBA-181), erythrocyte-binding ligand-1 (EBL-1) and erythrocyte-binding antigen-140 (EBA-140). It is generally accepted that glycophorin A (GPA) is the receptor for P. falciparum EBA-175 ligand. It has been shown that α(2,3) sialic acid residues of GPA O-glycans form conformation-dependent clusters on GPA polypeptide chain which facilitate binding. P. falciparum can also invade erythrocytes using glycophorin B (GPB), which is structurally similar to GPA. It has been shown that P. falciparum EBL-1 ligand binds to GPB. Interestingly, a hybrid GPB-GPA molecule called Dantu is associated with a reduced risk of severe malaria and ameliorates malaria-related morbidity. Glycophorin C (GPC) is a receptor for P. falciparum EBA-140 ligand. Likewise, successful binding of EBA-140 depends on sialic acid residues of N- and O-linked oligosaccharides of GPC, which form a cluster or a conformational structure depending on the presence of peptide fragment encompassing amino acids (aa) 36-63. Evaluation of the homologous P. reichenowi EBA-140 unexpectedly revealed that the chimpanzee homolog of human glycophorin D (GPD) is probably the receptor for this ligand. In this review, we concentrate on the role of glycophorins as erythrocyte receptors for Plasmodium parasites. The presented data support the long-lasting idea of high evolutionary pressure exerted by Plasmodium on the human glycophorins, which emerge as important receptors for these parasites.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Eritrócitos/metabolismo , Eritrócitos/parasitologia , Glicoforina/metabolismo , Plasmodium falciparum/fisiologia , Proteínas de Protozoários/metabolismo , Receptores de Superfície Celular/metabolismo , Animais , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Glicoforina/genética , Humanos , Ligantes , Merozoítos , Pan troglodytes , Ligação Proteica , Proteínas de Protozoários/genética , Receptores de Superfície Celular/genética
13.
J Food Sci ; 84(7): 1929-1936, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31218698

RESUMO

This study dealt with the effect of sourdough fermentation on antinutrients, phytochemicals, and antioxidant activities of flours from three Phaseoulus vulgaris L. genotypes with differing composition of lectins. Specifically, cultivar Lady Joy (LJ) devoid of phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and enriched in alfa-amylase inhibitor (αAI), breeding line P500 low in PHA and devoid of αAI, and Taylor's horticultivar, containing normal levels of both proteins. Sourdough fermentation positively affects the nutritional values of all bean flours by reducing some antinutrients, for example, phytic acid while preserving αAI activity. It significantly increased total polyphenols, flavonols, and ascorbic acid content, while reducing flavonoids. No significant differences in antioxidant activity, measured by in vitro and ex vivo assays on human erythrocytes, were found. The kinetic profiles of conjugated dienes analysis showed a strong inhibitory effect on low-density lipoproteins oxidation of all tested powders, with unfermented flours displaying the best antioxidant activity. Among bean powders, unfermented and fermented LJ showed the highest polyphenols level (4.21 ± 0.18 and 4.96 ± 0.15 mg GAE/g dw, respectively), oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) values (24.17 ± 0.14 and 24.02 ± 0.93 µmol TE/100g dw, respectively) and cellular antioxidant activity (71.6 ± 7.05 and 62.7 ± 3.3 units, respectively). Finally, since fermentation drastically reduces phytic acid content while preserving αAI activity, fermented LJ represents an important natural slimming supplement.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/análise , Pão/análise , Farinha/análise , Phaseolus/química , Eritrócitos/metabolismo , Fermentação , Genótipo , Humanos , Lipoproteínas LDL/metabolismo , Valor Nutritivo , Oxirredução , Phaseolus/classificação , Phaseolus/metabolismo , Ácido Fítico/análise , Polifenóis/análise
14.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(20): 20654-20668, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31104239

RESUMO

Copper (Cu) is widely used in various industries, and human exposure to this metal results in severe multi-organ toxicity, which is thought to be due to the generation of free radicals by Fenton-like reaction. The generation of reactive oxygen as well as nitrogen species and free radicals results in induction of oxidative stress in the cell. We have studied the effect of different concentrations of Cu(II) on human erythrocytes and lymphocytes. Incubation of erythrocytes with copper chloride, a Cu(II) compound, enhanced the production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, decreased glutathione and total sulphydryl content and increased protein oxidation and lipid peroxidation. All changes were in a Cu(II) concentration-dependent manner. This strongly suggests that Cu(II) causes oxidative damage in erythrocytes. The activities of major antioxidant enzymes were altered, and antioxidant power was lowered. Cu(II) treatment also resulted in membrane damage in erythrocytes as seen by electron microscopy and lowered activities of plasma membrane-bound enzymes. Incubation of human lymphocytes with Cu(II) resulted in DNA damage when studied by the sensitive comet assay. These results show that Cu(II) exerts cytotoxic and genotoxic effects on human blood cells probably by enhancing the generation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Cobre/toxicidade , Dano ao DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Espécies Reativas de Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Membrana Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Eritrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Eritrócitos/metabolismo , Eritrócitos/patologia , Humanos , Linfócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos/metabolismo , Linfócitos/patologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos
15.
Folia Histochem Cytobiol ; 57(2): 43-55, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31099889

RESUMO

Biological membranes are organized in various microdomains, one of the best known being called membrane rafts. The major function of these is thought to organize signaling partners into functional complexes. An important protein found in membrane raft microdomains of erythroid and other blood cells is MPP1 (membrane palmitoylated protein 1)/p55. MPP1 (p55) belongs to the MAGUK (membrane-associated guanylate kinase homolog) family and it is a major target of palmitoylation in the red blood cells (RBCs) membrane. The well-known function of this protein is to participate in formation of the junctional complex of the erythrocyte mem-brane skeleton. However, its function as a "raft organizer" is not well understood. In this review we focus on recent reports concerning MPP1 participation in membrane rafts organization in erythroid cells, including its role in signal transduction. Currently it is not known whether MPP1 could have a similar role in cell types other than erythroid lineage. We present also preliminary data regarding the expression level of MPP1 gene in several non-erythroid cell lines.


Assuntos
Proteínas Sanguíneas/metabolismo , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Eritrócitos/metabolismo , Microdomínios da Membrana/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Proteínas Sanguíneas/genética , Colesterol/metabolismo , Humanos , Fluidez de Membrana/fisiologia , Lipídeos de Membrana/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Ligação Proteica
16.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 130: 22-31, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31091427

RESUMO

Arsenic species contaminate food and water, with typical dietary intake below 1 µg/kg bw/d. Exposure to arsenic in heavily contaminated drinking water is associated with human diseases, including cardiovascular and respiratory disorders, diabetes, and cancer. Dietary intake assessments show that rice and seafood are the primary contributors to intake of both inorganic arsenic and dimethylarsinic acid (DMAV) and at similar magnitudes. DMAV plays a central role in the toxicology of arsenic because enzymatic methylation of arsenite produces DMAV as the predominant metabolite, which may promote urinary clearance but also generates reactive intermediates, predominantly DMAIII, that bind extensively to cellular thiols. Both inorganic arsenic and DMAV are carcinogenic in chronically exposed rodents. This study measured pentavalent and trivalent arsenic species in blood and tissues after oral and intravenous administration of DMAV (50 µg As/kg bw). DMAV underwent extensive first-pass metabolism in the intestine and liver, exclusively by reduction to DMAIII, which bound extensively to blood and tissues. The results confirm a role for methylation-independent reductive metabolism in producing fluxes of DMAIII that presumably underlie arsenic toxicity and indicate the need to include all dietary intake of inorganic arsenic and DMAV in risk assessments.


Assuntos
Ácido Cacodílico/metabolismo , Administração Oral , Animais , Ácido Cacodílico/administração & dosagem , Ácido Cacodílico/farmacocinética , Eritrócitos/metabolismo , Feminino , Injeções Intravenosas , Camundongos
17.
Arch Endocrinol Metab ; 63(3): 228-234, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31038595

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Hyperthyroidism causes many injuries in its target organs and the consequences are reflected systemically. As systemic alterations in hyperthyroidism at earlier stages have received partial attention, this study aimed to investigate systemic redox and inflammatory status at an early stage of T4-induced hyperthyroidism. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male Wistar rats were assigned to control and hyperthyroid groups (n = 7/group). The hyperthyroid group received L-thyroxine (12 mg/L) in their drinking water for 14 days whereas control group received only the vehicle. Body weight was measured on the 1st and 14th day of the protocol. On the 14th day, animals were anaesthetized. Blood was then collected from the retro-orbital venous plexus and then the animals were euthanised. The blood was separated into plasma and erythrocytes. Plasma was used to measure ROS levels, sulfhydryl compounds, IL-10, TNF-α and LDH levels; erythrocytes were used for the analysis of thioredoxin reductase activity, glutaredoxin content, and pentose cycle enzymes (total G6PD, G6PD and 6PGD). RESULTS: Hyperthyroid animals presented body weight gain and final body weight reduction, which was associated with increased ROS levels and decreased sulfhydryl content in plasma. Thioredoxin reductase activity, glutaredoxin content, and pentose cycle enzymes levels in erythrocytes, as well as IL-10, TNF-α and LDH plasma levels were unaltered. CONCLUSION: Taken together, our results suggest an impairment in corporal mass associated with systemic oxidative stress at this stage of hyperthyroidism. Meanwhile, the pentose cycle was not influenced and systemic inflammation and tissue damage seem to be absent at this stage of hyperthyroidism.


Assuntos
Eritrócitos/metabolismo , Hipertireoidismo/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Eritrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipertireoidismo/sangue , Masculino , Oxirredução , Pentoses , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Tiroxina
18.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2019: 3435174, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31049132

RESUMO

Uric acid (UA) is a major antioxidant molecule in the human blood, and it has been linked with cell longevity. However, it is unclear whether serum UA levels are associated with red blood cell (RBC) indexes. This cross-sectional study included 10,759 Chinese subjects, recruited from the Shanghai Xuhui Central Hospital from January 2014 to December 2017. The participants were categorized into gender groups and then further divided into three different subgroups according to their UA reference range as follows: low (male (UA < 0.202 mmol/l), female (UA < 0.143 mmol/l)), normal (male (0.417 mmol/l > UA ≥ 0.202 mmol/l), female (0.339 mmol/l > UA ≥ 0.143 mmol/l)), and high (male (UA ≥ 0.417 mmol/l), female (UA ≥ 0.339 mmol/l)). The associations of UA levels with RBC parameters were analyzed using 1-way ANOVA, Pearson correlations, and multivariate linear regression. The levels of mean corpuscular hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, RBCs, and hemoglobin were lowest in the low UA group, followed by the normal UA group and high UA group (p < 0.001). Pearson analysis showed that there was a statistically significant correlation between UA levels with mean corpuscular hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentrations, mean corpuscular volumes, RBC counts, and hemoglobin (p < 0.05). Multiple linear regression analysis suggested that there were statistically significant positive correlations between UA levels and RBC counts (B = 0.245, p < 0.001, 95% CI = 0.003 to 0.092), as well as UA levels and hemoglobin concentrations (B = 0.138, p < 0.001, 95% CI = 0.002 to 0.082). Furthermore, similar results were observed in both the male and female subgroups. The serum UA levels may be independently associated with RBC parameters, regardless of sex, and UA may protect RBCs owing to its antioxidant effect.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Eritrócitos/metabolismo , Caracteres Sexuais , Ácido Úrico/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Contagem de Eritrócitos , Eritrócitos/citologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
19.
Clin Interv Aging ; 14: 763-771, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31118597

RESUMO

Introduction: Since 1956 there have been numerous scientific articles about free radical theory of aging which both confirm and deny the theory. Due to oxygen metabolism, there are relatively high concentrations of molecular oxygen in human cells, especially in mitochondria. Under normal physiological conditions, a small fraction of oxygen is constantly converted to ROS, such as superoxide radical (O2-•), H2O2, and related metabolites. Aim of the study: The aim of this work was to show the relation between the activity of main antioxidative enzymes and the age of the examined patients. Materials and methods: The analysis of antioxidant defense was performed on the blood samples from 184 "aged" individuals aged 65-90+ years, and compared to the blood samples of 37 individuals just about at the beginning of aging, aged 55-59 years. Results: The statistically significant decreases of Zn,Cu-superoxide dismutase (SOD-1), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities were observed in elderly people in comparison with the control group. Moreover, an inverse correlation between the activities of SOD-1, CAT, and GSH-Px and the age of the examined persons was found. No age-related changes in glutathione reductase activities and malondialdehyde concentrations were observed. Conclusion: Lower activities of fundamental antioxidant enzymes in the erythrocytes of elderly people, which indicate the impairment of antioxidant defense in the aging organism and the intensity of peroxidative lipid structures, were observed.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Catalase/metabolismo , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase-1/metabolismo , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Eritrócitos/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/fisiologia , Masculino , Malondialdeído/metabolismo
20.
Science ; 364(6439): 458-464, 2019 05 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31048486

RESUMO

Solid organs transport fluids through distinct vascular networks that are biophysically and biochemically entangled, creating complex three-dimensional (3D) transport regimes that have remained difficult to produce and study. We establish intravascular and multivascular design freedoms with photopolymerizable hydrogels by using food dye additives as biocompatible yet potent photoabsorbers for projection stereolithography. We demonstrate monolithic transparent hydrogels, produced in minutes, comprising efficient intravascular 3D fluid mixers and functional bicuspid valves. We further elaborate entangled vascular networks from space-filling mathematical topologies and explore the oxygenation and flow of human red blood cells during tidal ventilation and distension of a proximate airway. In addition, we deploy structured biodegradable hydrogel carriers in a rodent model of chronic liver injury to highlight the potential translational utility of this materials innovation.


Assuntos
Materiais Biocompatíveis/química , Materiais Biomiméticos/química , Vasos Sanguíneos , Hidrogéis/química , Absorção Fisico-Química , Animais , Corantes/química , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Eritrócitos/metabolismo , Humanos , Luz , Fígado , Lesão Pulmonar/terapia , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Polimerização/efeitos da radiação , Estereolitografia
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