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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34074061

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Erythritol, a sugar alcohol, is widely used as a substitute for sugar in diets for patients with diabetes or obesity. METHODS: In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of erythritol on metabolic disorders induced by a high-fat diet in C57BL/6J mice, while focusing on changes in innate immunity. RESULTS: Mice that were fed a high-fat diet and administered water containing 5% erythritol (Ery group) had markedly lower body weight, improved glucose tolerance, and markedly higher energy expenditure than the control mice (Ctrl group) (n = 6). Furthermore, compared with the Ctrl group, the Ery group had lesser fat deposition in the liver, smaller adipocytes, and significantly better inflammatory findings in the small intestine. The concentrations of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), such as acetic acid, propanoic acid, and butanoic acid, in the serum, feces, and white adipose tissue of the Ery group were markedly higher than those in the Ctrl group. In flow cytometry experiments, group 3 innate lymphoid cell (ILC3) counts in the lamina propria of the small intestine and ILC2 counts in the white adipose tissue of the Ery group were markedly higher than those in the Ctrl group. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analyses showed that the Il-22 expression in the small intestine of the Ery group was markedly higher than that in the Ctrl group. CONCLUSIONS: Erythritol markedly decreased metabolic disorders such as diet-induced obesity, glucose intolerance, dyslipidemia, and fat accumulation in the mouse liver by increasing SCFAs and modulating innate immunity.


Assuntos
Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Eritritol/farmacologia , Intolerância à Glucose/dietoterapia , Imunidade Inata/efeitos dos fármacos , Intestino Delgado/efeitos dos fármacos , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Adipócitos/citologia , Adipócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo Branco/metabolismo , Animais , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicemia/metabolismo , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Eritritol/administração & dosagem , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/sangue , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Intolerância à Glucose/metabolismo , Imunidade Inata/genética , Inflamação/dietoterapia , Inflamação/genética , Inflamação/metabolismo , Interleucinas/genética , Interleucinas/metabolismo , Intestino Delgado/imunologia , Intestino Delgado/metabolismo , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/enzimologia , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Linfócitos/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Membrana Mucosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Membrana Mucosa/metabolismo , Obesidade/genética , Obesidade/metabolismo
2.
J Insect Physiol ; 131: 104240, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33845094

RESUMO

In recent years, there has been interest in reduced-risk materials with insecticidal properties for the invasive pest spotted-wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii. Here, we compared the peripheral sensitivity (via the tip-recording technique, used to monitor the neural activity of gustatory receptor neurons [GRNs]) and palatability (via the Proboscis Extension Reflex [PER]) of chitosan, a polysaccharide derived from chitin, with that of erythritol, a sugar alcohol, to male and female D. suzukii. Because in some insect species it has previously been shown that chitosan has some insecticidal properties, then treatment effects on mortality rates of male and female D. suzukii were quantified. Physiological recordings from the l-type labellar sensilla showed that erythritol evoked responses from one GRN, while chitosan elicited spiked activity from a second one. The first PER bioassay revealed that the level of response to erythritol increased significantly for males and females as the concentrations increased, and the effect of fly sex was non-significant. The second PER bioassay compared the male and female response to chitosan and erythritol each at 0.125, 0.25, 0.5, 1, and 2% concentrations. The overall female PER to erythritol was significantly greater than that exhibited by males, and no differences were noted between sexes when chitosan was evaluated. These results indicate that chitosan alone can elicit PER responses in adult D. suzukii. In the third experiment, chitosan was toxic to D. suzukii. When combined with sucrose (2%), chitosan elicited high levels (80-100%) of mortality of adult D. suzukii within 3 days, particularly in males. The presence of erythritol did not seem to increase the toxic effect of chitosan.


Assuntos
Células Quimiorreceptoras/efeitos dos fármacos , Quitosana/farmacologia , Drosophila/efeitos dos fármacos , Eritritol/farmacologia , Controle de Insetos/métodos , Animais , Comportamento Alimentar/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Masculino , Testes de Toxicidade
3.
Mar Drugs ; 18(11)2020 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33233849

RESUMO

One new meroterpenoid-type alkaloid, oxalicine C (1), and two new erythritol derivatives, penicierythritols A (6) and B (7), together with four known meroterpenoids (2-5), were isolated from the marine algal-derived endophytic fungus Penicillium chrysogenum XNM-12. Their planar structures were determined by means of spectroscopic analyses, including UV, 1D and 2D NMR, and HRESIMS spectra. Their stereochemical configurations were established by comparing the experimental and calculated electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectra for compound 1, as well as by comparison of the optical rotations with literature data for compounds 6 and 7. Notably, oxalicine C (1) represents the first example of an oxalicine alkaloid with a cleaved α-pyrone ring, whereas penicierythritols A (6) and B (7) are the first reported from the Penicillium species. The antimicrobial activities of compounds 1-7 were evaluated. Compounds 1 and 6 exhibited moderate antibacterial effects against the plant pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of 8 and 4 µg/mL, respectively. Compound 6 also possesses moderate antifungal properties against the plant pathogen Alternaria alternata with a MIC value of 8 µg/mL.


Assuntos
Alternaria/efeitos dos fármacos , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Eritritol/farmacologia , Penicillium chrysogenum/metabolismo , Ralstonia solanacearum/efeitos dos fármacos , Estramenópilas/microbiologia , Terpenos/farmacologia , Alternaria/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Antibacterianos/isolamento & purificação , Antifúngicos/isolamento & purificação , Eritritol/análogos & derivados , Eritritol/isolamento & purificação , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Estrutura Molecular , Ralstonia solanacearum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Metabolismo Secundário , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Terpenos/isolamento & purificação
4.
BMC Microbiol ; 20(1): 184, 2020 06 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32600259

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Regular consumption of xylitol decreases the number of cariogenic streptococci in dental plaque. In vitro biofilm models to study the mechanism of xylitol action have been set-up, but the obtained results are contradictory. Biofilm growth is a dynamic process with time-specific characteristics that may remain undetected in conventional end-point biofilm tests. In this study we used an impedance spectroscopy instrument, xCELLigence Real Time Cell Analyzer (RTCA), that allows label-free, non-invasive real-time monitoring of biofilm formation, to explore effects of xylitol on biofilm formation by Streptococcus mutans. Based on the obtained information of biofilm dynamics, we assessed the number of viable bacteria, the polysaccharide content, and the expression levels of selected genes involved in glucan-mediated biofilm formation in different biofilm stages. Xylitol inhibition was compared with that of erythritol; another polyol suggested to have a positive impact on oral health. RESULTS: Our results showed that real-time monitoring provided new information of polyol-induced changes in S. mutans biofilm formation dynamics. The inhibitory effect of polyols was more pronounced in the early stages of biofilm formation but affected also the measured total amount of formed biofilm. Effects seen in the real-time biofilm assay were only partially explained by changes in CFU values and polysaccharide amounts in the biofilms. Both xylitol and erythritol inhibited real-time biofilm formation by all the nine tested S. mutans strains. Sensitivity of the strains to inhibition varied: some were more sensitive to xylitol and some to erythritol. Xylitol also modified the expression levels of gbpB, gtfB, gtfC and gtfD genes that are important in polysaccharide-mediated adherence of S. mutans. CONCLUSION: The erythritol- and xylitol- induced inhibition of biofilm formation was only partly explained by decrease in the number of viable S. mutans cells or the amount of polysaccharides in the biofilm matrix, suggesting that in addition to reduced proliferation also the matrix composition and thereby the surface attachment quality of biofilm matrix may be altered by the polyols.


Assuntos
Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Eritritol/farmacologia , Streptococcus mutans/fisiologia , Xilitol/farmacologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Espectroscopia Dielétrica/instrumentação , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Viabilidade Microbiana/efeitos dos fármacos , Polissacarídeos Bacterianos/metabolismo , Streptococcus mutans/efeitos dos fármacos
5.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 6297, 2020 04 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32286378

RESUMO

Non-cariogenic sweet substances, like sugar alcohols, are used to decrease the risk of caries by reducing the growth of dental plaque. The aim of our study was to reveal the impact of xylitol and erythritol on the growth and biofilm formation of cariogenic bacteria including as a novelty, set of clinical mutans streptococci and Scardovia wiggsiae and to assess the possible synergistic influence of these polyols. We found both xylitol and erythritol to express high growth inhibition effect on cariogenic bacteria. In synergistic effect experiments, 10% polyol combination with excess of erythritol was found to be more effective against growth of Streptococcus mutans and the combination with excess of xylitol more effective against growth of Streptococcus sobrinus and S. wiggsiae. In biofilm inhibition experiments, solutions of 10% polyols in different combinations and 15% single polyols were equally effective against mutans streptococci. At the same time, higher biofilm formation of S. wiggsiae compared to experiments without polyols was detected in different polyol concentrations for up to 34%. In conclusion, both erythritol and xylitol as well as their combinations inhibit the growth of different cariogenic bacteria. Biofilm formation of mutans streptococci is also strongly inhibited. When applying polyols in caries prophylaxis, it is relevant to consider that the profile of pathogens in a particular patient may influence the effect of polyols used.


Assuntos
Cariostáticos/farmacologia , Cárie Dentária/prevenção & controle , Eritritol/farmacologia , Xilitol/farmacologia , Actinobacteria/efeitos dos fármacos , Aderência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cariostáticos/uso terapêutico , Cárie Dentária/microbiologia , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Quimioterapia Combinada/métodos , Eritritol/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Streptococcus mutans/efeitos dos fármacos , Streptococcus sobrinus/efeitos dos fármacos , Xilitol/uso terapêutico
6.
Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr ; 60(12): 1986-1998, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31204494

RESUMO

Xylitol and erythritol are widely used in a variety of food and oral care products as sugar substitutes. Although a number of studies have been conducted on the health benefits of xylitol since the 1960s, erythritol only attracted the attention of researchers during the early 1990s. Historically, researchers mainly focused on the effects of xylitol and other sugar alcohols on oral and dental healthcare while the anti-diabetic or antihyperglycemic effects have only been revealed recently. Though a few reviews have been published on the health benefits of sugar alcohols in the last few decades, none of them closely evaluated the antihyperglycemic potential and underlying mechanisms, particularly with a focus on xylitol and erythritol. The current review thoroughly analyzes the anti-diabetic and antihyperglycemic effects as well as other metabolic effects of xylitol and erythritol using articles published in PubMed since the 1960s, containing research done on experimental animals and humans. This review will help researchers ascertain the controversies surrounding sugar alcohols, investigate further beneficial effects of them as well as aid food industries in exploring the possibilities of using sugar alcohols as anti-diabetic supplements in diabetic foods and food products.


Assuntos
Eritritol/farmacologia , Edulcorantes/farmacologia , Xilitol/farmacologia , Animais , Diabetes Mellitus/dietoterapia , Diabetes Mellitus/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia
7.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(46): 13093-13101, 2020 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31869223

RESUMO

Leaf extracts of Stevia rebaudiana, composed of more than 10 steviol glycosides (SGs), are used as non-nutritive, table sugar (sucrose) alternatives due to their high level of sweetness and low caloric impact. They are often combined with the sugar alcohol erythritol to increase volume and reduce aftertaste. Little is known of the impact of sugar alternatives on the human gut microbiota in terms of the diversity, composition, and metabolic products. Testing of SGs and erythritol using six representatives of the gut microbiota in vitro found no impact on bacterial growth, yet treatment with erythritol resulted in an enhancement of butyric and pentanoic acid production when tested using a human gut microbial community. Furthermore, administration of SGs and erythritol to a Cebus apella model resulted in changes to the gut microbial structure and diversity. Overall, the study did not find a negative impact of SGs and erythritol on the gut microbial community.


Assuntos
Diterpenos do Tipo Caurano/farmacologia , Eritritol/farmacologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Glucosídeos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Sapajus apella/microbiologia , Animais , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bactérias/metabolismo , Ácido Butírico/metabolismo , Humanos , Ácidos Pentanoicos/metabolismo , Stevia/química
8.
J Vector Ecol ; 44(1): 11-17, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31124230

RESUMO

The house fly, Musca domestica (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae), and the stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae), are two filth flies responsible for significant economic losses in animal production. Although some chemical control products target adults of both species, differences in mouthpart morphology and behavior necessitates distinct modalities for each. For these reasons, larvicides are an attractive means of chemical control. We assessed the potential of the polyol sweeteners erythritol and xylitol as larvicides to the house fly and stable fly. LC50 values of erythritol against 2nd instar larvae were 34.94 mg/g media (house fly) and 22.10 mg/g media (stable fly). For xylitol, LC50 values were 74.91 mg/g media (house fly) and 41.58 mg/g media (stable fly). When given a choice, neither species showed a preference for ovipositing in media treated with either sweetener at various concentrations or in media without sweetener. Significantly lower development from egg to adult was observed when the 2nd instar LC50 equivalent of each sweetener was present in the media compared to controls. Erythritol and xylitol both have larvicidal qualities, however their effective concentrations would necessitate creative product formulation and deployment methods to control all stages of developing flies.


Assuntos
Eritritol/farmacologia , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Muscidae/efeitos dos fármacos , Xilitol/farmacologia , Animais , Controle de Insetos , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Edulcorantes
9.
Plant Cell Environ ; 42(7): 2309-2323, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30786032

RESUMO

Feeding by insect herbivores such as caterpillars and aphids induces plant resistance mechanisms that are mediated by the phytohormones jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA). These phytohormonal pathways often crosstalk. Besides phytohormones, methyl-D-erythriol-2,4-cyclodiphosphate (MEcPP), the penultimate metabolite in the methyl-D-erythritol-4-phosphate pathway, has been speculated to regulate transcription of nuclear genes in response to biotic stressors such as aphids. Here, we show that MEcPP uniquely enhances the SA pathway without attenuating the JA pathway. Arabidopsis mutant plants that accumulate high levels of MEcPP (hds3) are highly resistant to the cabbage aphid (Brevicoryne brassicae), whereas resistance to the large cabbage white caterpillar (Pieris brassicae) remains unaltered. Thus, MEcPP is a distinct signalling molecule that acts beyond phytohormonal crosstalk to induce resistance against the cabbage aphid in Arabidopsis. We dissect the molecular mechanisms of MEcPP mediating plant resistance against the aphid B. brassicae. This shows that MEcPP induces the expression of genes encoding enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of several primary and secondary metabolic pathways contributing to enhanced resistance against this aphid species. A unique ability to regulate multifaceted molecular mechanisms makes MEcPP an attractive target for metabolic engineering in Brassica crop plants to increase resistance to cabbage aphids.


Assuntos
Afídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Eritritol/análogos & derivados , Animais , Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Brassica , Ciclopentanos/metabolismo , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/metabolismo , Resistência à Doença/genética , Resistência à Doença/fisiologia , Eritritol/genética , Eritritol/metabolismo , Eritritol/farmacologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Glucosinolatos/metabolismo , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/genética , Metaboloma , Oxilipinas/metabolismo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/farmacologia , Ácido Salicílico/metabolismo , Metabolismo Secundário , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Fosfatos Açúcares , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
10.
Gene ; 675: 240-253, 2018 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29958953

RESUMO

Biosynthesis of isoprenoids (MEP Pathway) in apicoplast has an important role during the erythrocytic stages of Plasmodium, as it is the sole pathway to provide the major isoprene units required as metabolic precursor for various housekeeping activities. With the intensifying need to identify a novel therapeutic drug target against Plasmodium, the MEP pathway and its components are considered as potential therapeutic targets, due to the difference in the isoprenoid synthesis route (MVA) functional in the host cells. While few major components have already been studied from this pathway for their potential as a drug target, IspD (2-C-methyl-D-erythritol-4-phosphate cytidyltransferase) enzyme, the enzyme catalyzing the third step of the pathway has only been tested against a synthetic compound from Malaria box called MMV008138, which also has not shown adequate inhibitory activity against P. vivax IspD. In the present study, to validate the potential of PvIspD as a drug target, various antimicrobial agents were screened for their inhibition possibilities, using in-vitro High Throughput Screening (HTS) technique. Shortlisted antimicrobial drug molecules like Cefepime, Tunicamycin and Rifampicin were further validated by in-vitro biochemical enzyme inhibition assays where they showed activity at nanomolar concentrations suggesting them or their derivatives as prospective future antimalarials. This study also confirmed the in-vivo expression of PvIspD protein during asexual stages by sub-cellular localization in apicoplast and explores the importance of the IspD enzyme in the development of new therapeutics.


Assuntos
Antimaláricos/uso terapêutico , Inibidores Enzimáticos/uso terapêutico , Malária Vivax/tratamento farmacológico , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Nucleotidiltransferases/antagonistas & inibidores , Plasmodium vivax/efeitos dos fármacos , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Eritritol/análogos & derivados , Eritritol/química , Eritritol/farmacologia , Humanos , Modelos Moleculares , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Nucleotidiltransferases/química , Nucleotidiltransferases/genética , Nucleotidiltransferases/metabolismo , Filogenia , Plasmodium vivax/enzimologia , Alinhamento de Sequência , Fosfatos Açúcares/química , Fosfatos Açúcares/farmacologia
11.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 34(8): 108, 2018 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29971736

RESUMO

Successful commercialization of microbial biocontrol agents, such as Metarhizium spp., is often constrained by poor drying survival and shelf life. Here, we hypothesized that culture age would influence endogenous arabitol, erythritol, mannitol and trehalose contents in M. brunneum mycelium and that elevated levels of these compounds would improve drying survival and shelf life of encapsulated mycelium coupled with enhanced fungal virulence against T. molitor larvae. We found that culture age significantly influenced endogenous arabitol and mannitol contents in mycelium with highest concentrations of 0.6 ± 0.2 and 2.1 ± 0.2 µg/mg after 72 h, respectively. Drying survival of encapsulated mycelium was independent of culture age and polyol content with 41.1 ± 4.4 to 55.0 ± 6.2%. Best shelf life was determined for biomass harvested after 72 h at all investigated storage temperatures with maximum values of 59.5 ± 3.3% at 5 °C followed by 54.5 ± 1.6% at 18 °C and 19.4 ± 1.3% at 25 °C after 6 months. Finally, high fungal virulence against T. molitor larvae of 83.3 ± 7.6 to 98.0 ± 1.8% was maintained during storage of encapsulated mycelium for 12 months with larval mortalities being independent of culture age and polyol content. In conclusion, our findings indicate beneficial effects of endogenous polyols in improving shelf life of encapsulated mycelium and this may spur the successful development of microbial biocontrol agents in the future.


Assuntos
Manitol/farmacologia , Metarhizium/efeitos dos fármacos , Metarhizium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Metarhizium/fisiologia , Viabilidade Microbiana/efeitos dos fármacos , Álcoois Açúcares/farmacologia , Animais , Biomassa , Dessecação , Eritritol/farmacologia , Larva/microbiologia , Micélio/efeitos dos fármacos , Controle Biológico de Vetores , Polímeros/farmacologia , Temperatura , Trealose/farmacologia , Virulência/efeitos dos fármacos
12.
J Org Chem ; 83(17): 9580-9591, 2018 09 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29870251

RESUMO

Targeting essential bacterial processes beyond cell wall, protein, nucleotide, and folate syntheses holds promise to reveal new antimicrobial agents and expand the potential drugs available for combination therapies. The synthesis of isoprenoid precursors, isopentenyl diphosphate (IDP) and dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMADP), is vital for all organisms; however, humans use the mevalonate pathway for production of IDP/DMADP while many pathogens, including Plasmodium falciparum and Mycobacterium tuberculosis, use the orthogonal methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) pathway. Toward developing novel antimicrobial agents, we have designed and synthesized a series of phosphonyl analogues of MEP and evaluated their abilities to interact with IspD, both as inhibitors of the natural reaction and as antimetabolite alternative substrates that could be processed enzymatically to form stable phosphonyl analogues as potential inhibitors of downstream MEP pathway intermediates. In this compound series, the S-monofluoro MEP analogue displays the most potent inhibitory activity against Escherichia coli IspD and is the best substrate for both the E. coli and P. falciparum IspD orthologues with a Km approaching that of the natural substrate for the E. coli enzyme. This work represents a first step toward the development of phosphonyl MEP antimetabolites to modulate early isoprenoid biosynthesis in human pathogens.


Assuntos
Aldose-Cetose Isomerases/antagonistas & inibidores , Aldose-Cetose Isomerases/metabolismo , Inibidores Enzimáticos/síntese química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Eritritol/análogos & derivados , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Complexos Multienzimáticos/antagonistas & inibidores , Complexos Multienzimáticos/metabolismo , Oxirredutases/antagonistas & inibidores , Oxirredutases/metabolismo , Aldose-Cetose Isomerases/química , Alquilação , Domínio Catalítico , Técnicas de Química Sintética , Desenho de Fármacos , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/metabolismo , Eritritol/síntese química , Eritritol/química , Eritritol/metabolismo , Eritritol/farmacologia , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/química , Humanos , Modelos Moleculares , Complexos Multienzimáticos/química , Oxirredutases/química , Estereoisomerismo
13.
J Oral Implantol ; 44(2): 94-101, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29303415

RESUMO

To achieve re-osseointegration on implant surfaces exposed to peri-implant infections, treatment should re-establish biocompatibility. The aim of this study was to test whether air powder abrasive treatment (APA) using osteoconductive powders can, in addition to cleaning, increase the biocompatibility of the contaminated implant surface. Ninety-six in vitro Ca-precipitated, organic film layer-coated sandblasted and acid-etched titanium discs were treated by APA using erythritol, hydroxylapatite (HA), and biocalcium phosphate (BioCaP) powders (n = 16 per group). Six treatment modalities were created (HA or erythritol cleaning with/without BioCaP coating). MC3T3-E1cells were seeded on discs, and cell attachment, viability, proliferation, and differentiation were evaluated. Pristine discs were used as control (control 1). Contaminated and nontreated discs were used as control (control 2). The cells were stretched and attached in all test groups. The cell viability and proliferation (DNA amount) in all test groups were significantly higher than in the pristine and contaminated disc groups. There was no significant difference between the test groups. The differentiation (alkaline phosphatase activity) of the cells on treated discs was significantly higher than on the contaminated discs but lower than in the pristine group. The cell viability in control 2 was significantly lower than the control 1. The APA with osteoconductive powder on contaminated titanium surfaces promoted the cell viability, proliferation, and differentiation of the MC3T3-E1 cells. The biocompatibility of the surface was higher than that of the contaminated discs. The tested aspects of cell response, with the exception of differentiation, reached to the level of the pristine surface. The in vitro results showed that APA with osteoconductive powders could be a promising method for implant surface treatment.


Assuntos
Abrasão Dental por Ar/métodos , Materiais Biocompatíveis/farmacologia , Regeneração Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Implantes Dentários , Titânio/química , Células 3T3/efeitos dos fármacos , Condicionamento Ácido do Dente , Fosfatase Alcalina/análise , Animais , Fosfatos de Cálcio/farmacologia , Adesão Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Durapatita/farmacologia , Eritritol/farmacologia , Humanos , Teste de Materiais , Camundongos , Osseointegração/efeitos dos fármacos , Peri-Implantite/prevenção & controle , Pós , Propriedades de Superfície
14.
Adv Dent Res ; 29(1): 110-116, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29355418

RESUMO

Dental caries is a disease that results from microbiome dysbiosis with the involvement of multiple cariogenic species, including mutans streptococci (MS), lactobacilli, Scardovia wiggsiae, and several Actinomyces species that have the cariogenic traits of acid production and acid tolerance. Sugar consumption also plays an important role interacting with microbiome dysbiosis, determining the fate of caries development. In addition, the MS transmission that encompasses multiple sources can have long-term impacts on the oral microbiome and caries development in children. Intervention in MS transmission in early childhood may promote effective long-term caries prevention. Anticaries regimens aimed against the above mechanisms will be important for successful caries management. Xylitol and erythritol may serve as good components of anticaries regimens as oral microbiome modifiers, sugar substitutes, and agents to prevent MS transmission in early childhood with both oral and systemic benefits. Further studies are needed to elucidate the mechanism of the anticaries effects of xylitol and erythritol with consideration of their impacts on the microbiome and bacterial virulence, in addition to cariogenic bacteria levels as well as their benefits for overall health. On the other hand, the anticaries agent C16G2, specifically targeting Streptococcus mutans, the most common cariogenic bacterial species, has shown good safety for short-term oral topical use and promising effects in reducing S. mutans in vitro and in vivo with the promotion of oral commensal bacteria. Future study on its anticaries effect will need to include its long-term impact on the oral microbiome and effects on other important cariogenic bacteria.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Cariostáticos/farmacologia , Cárie Dentária/microbiologia , Cárie Dentária/prevenção & controle , Disbiose/prevenção & controle , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Álcoois Açúcares/farmacologia , Edulcorantes/farmacologia , Eritritol/farmacologia , Humanos , Virulência , Xilitol/farmacologia
15.
Adv Dent Res ; 29(1): 104-109, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29355425

RESUMO

Erythritol belongs chemically to the family of polyols (or sugar alcohols), yet it is metabolized by animals and humans very differently compared to all other polyols. While polyols have been used traditionally (for about 80 y) to replace sugar in sweet foods to reduce demineralization of tooth enamel and to reduce postprandial blood glucose levels, benefits achieved merely through the absence of sugar, emerging evidence shows that erythritol can play a number of functional roles to actively support maintenance of oral and systemic health. Oral health studies revealed that erythritol can reduce dental plaque weight, reduce dental plaque acids, reduce counts of mutans streptococci in saliva and dental plaque, and reduce the risk for dental caries better than sorbitol and xylitol, resulting in fewer tooth restorations by dentist intervention. Systemic health studies have shown that erythritol, unlike other polyols, is readily absorbed from the small intestine, not systemically metabolized, and excreted unchanged within the urine. This metabolic profile renders erythritol to be noncaloric, to have a high gastrointestinal tolerance, and not to increase blood glucose or insulin levels. Published evidence also shows that erythritol can act as an antioxidant and that it may improve endothelial function in people with type 2 diabetes. This article reviews the key research demonstrating erythritol's oral and systemic health functionalities and underlying mechanisms.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária/prevenção & controle , Eritritol/farmacologia , Saúde Bucal , Edulcorantes/farmacologia , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Eritritol/metabolismo , Humanos , Edulcorantes/metabolismo
16.
Clin Oral Investig ; 22(6): 2149-2160, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29280076

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study is to evaluate the effects of treatment modalities on titanium surface characteristics and surrounding tissues. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighteen participants each had four titanium healing caps (HC) attached to four newly inserted implants. After healing, each HC was randomly assigned to either (1) titanium curettes (TC), (2) stainless steel ultrasonic tip (PS), (3) erythritol air-polishing powder (EP), or (4) only rubber cup polishing (CON). Probing depths (PD), bleeding on probing (BOP), matrix metalloproteinase 8 (MMP-8), and periopathogens were recorded before and 3 months following instrumentation. After final assessments, HCs were removed, cleaned, and subjected to (a) bacterial colonization (Streptococcus gordonii, 24 h; mixed culture, 24 h) and (b) gingival fibroblasts (5 days). HC surfaces were analyzed with a scanning electron microscope (SEM). RESULTS: No significant differences between the groups were evident before or after instrumentation for PD and BOP (except TC showed a significant decrease in PD; p = 0.049). MMP-8 levels and bacterial loads were always very low. MMP-8 decreased further after instrumentation, while bacteria levels showed no change. No significant differences (p > 0.05) were evident in bacterial colonization or fibroblast attachment. A comparison of the overall mean SEM surface roughness scores showed a significant difference between all groups (p < 0.0001) with the lowest roughness after EP. CONCLUSIONS: All treatments performed yielded comparable outcomes and may be implemented safely. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Clinicians may fear implant surface damage, but all instrumentation types are safe and non-damaging. They can be implemented as needed upon considering the presence of staining and soft and hard deposits.


Assuntos
Implantação Dentária Endo-Óssea , Implantes Dentários , Profilaxia Dentária/instrumentação , Titânio/farmacologia , Adulto , Idoso , Eritritol/farmacologia , Fibroblastos , Humanos , Metaloproteinase 8 da Matriz/análise , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mucosite/microbiologia , Mucosite/prevenção & controle , Peri-Implantite/microbiologia , Peri-Implantite/prevenção & controle , Índice Periodontal , Pós/farmacologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Aço Inoxidável/farmacologia , Streptococcus gordonii , Propriedades de Superfície , Cicatrização
17.
Eur J Nutr ; 57(7): 2431-2444, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28770335

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Studies have reported that erythritol, a low or non-glycemic sugar alcohol possesses anti-hyperglycemic and anti-diabetic potentials but the underlying mode of actions is not clear. This study investigated the underlying mode of actions behind the anti-hyperglycemic and anti-diabetic potentials of erythritol using different experimental models (experiment 1, 2 and 3). METHODS: Experiment 1 examined the effects of increasing concentrations (2.5-20%) of erythritol on glucose absorption and uptake in isolated rat jejunum and psoas muscle, respectively. Experiments 2 and 3 examined the effects of a single oral dose of erythritol (1 g/kg bw) on intestinal glucose absorption, gastric emptying and postprandial blood glucose increase, glucose tolerance, serum insulin level, muscle/liver hexokinase and liver glucose-6 phosphatase activities, liver and muscle glycogen contents and mRNA and protein expression of muscle Glut-4 and IRS-1 in normal and type 2 diabetic animals. RESULTS: Experiment 1 revealed that erythritol dose dependently enhanced muscle glucose ex vivo. Experiment 2 demonstrated that erythritol feeding delayed gastric emptying and reduced small intestinal glucose absorption as well as postprandial blood glucose rise, especially in diabetic animals. Experiment 3 showed that erythritol feeding improved glucose tolerance, muscle/liver hexokinase and liver glucose-6 phosphatase activities, glycogen storage and also modulated expression of muscle Glut-4 and IRS-1 in diabetic animals. CONCLUSION: Data suggest that erythritol may exert anti-hyperglycemic effects not only via reducing small intestinal glucose absorption, but also by increasing muscle glucose uptake, improving glucose metabolic enzymes activity and modulating muscle Glut-4 and IRS-1 mRNA and protein expression. Hence, erythritol may be a useful dietary supplement for managing hyperglycemia, particularly for T2D.


Assuntos
Glicemia/metabolismo , Eritritol/farmacologia , Absorção Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Animais , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/metabolismo , Glucose , Transportador de Glucose Tipo 4/metabolismo , Insulina , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
18.
J Insect Physiol ; 101: 178-184, 2017 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28764953

RESUMO

Previously, we studied various combinations of non-nutritive sugars including erythritol and erythrose having a potentially insecticidal effect on Drosophila suzukii. The study suggested two potential physiological changes causing fly mortality: 1) starvation from the feeding of non-metabolizable erythritol and erythrose; 2) abnormal osmotic pressure increased in the hemolymph with erythritol transported from the midgut. In the present study, sucrose and erythritol were applied to blueberries and effects of these combinations on fly mortality and fecundity were monitored in the lab and greenhouse. In the lab, two sucrose/erythritol formulations (0.5M sucrose/2M erythritol, 1M sucrose/2M erythritol) resulted in the highest mortality and the lowest fecundity among D. suzukii adults. Two formulations, therefore, were selected for further evaluation with blueberry bushes and fruits in the greenhouse; fly survival with 0.5M sucrose/2M erythritol was significantly lower than 1M sucrose/2M erythritol for 7days. Unlike the smaller container, mortality occurred faster in the greenhouse probably because flies moved more in the bigger cage accelerating the exhaustion of energy reserves in the body. We examined presence of erythritol in the hemolymph and frass to determine the nutritional metabolism and absorption of erythritol in D. suzukii. Unlike sucrose, a large amount of erythritol was observed in the hemolymph of the fly that ingested 0.5M sucrose/0.5M erythritol. Erythritol was also found in the frass of the same fly. The results imply that erythritol might be directly transported from the midgut without being metabolized and stored, but is accumulated in the hemolymph which in turn elevates the osmotic pressure in the fly hemolymph. For practical application, the sucrose/erythritol combination would be more effective than erythritol alone because the combination tastes sweeter to elicit more feeding. This erythritol formulation can be a potential insecticide used alone or as a delivery agent combined with conventional or biological insecticides to enhance their efficacy.


Assuntos
Drosophila/efeitos dos fármacos , Drosophila/metabolismo , Eritritol/farmacologia , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Sacarose/farmacologia , Animais , Mirtilos Azuis (Planta) , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Eritritol/metabolismo , Feminino , Fertilidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Hemolinfa/química , Controle de Insetos/métodos , Inseticidas/metabolismo , Masculino , Sacarose/metabolismo
19.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 101(17): 6587-6596, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28608278

RESUMO

Erythritol is a four-carbon sugar alcohol synthesized by osmophilic yeasts, such as Yarrowia lipolytica, in response to osmotic stress. This metabolite has application as food additive due to its sweetening properties. Although Y. lipolytica can produce erythritol at a high level from glycerol, it is also able to consume it as carbon source. This ability negatively affects erythritol productivity and represents a serious drawback for the development of an efficient erythritol production process. In this study, we have isolated by insertion mutagenesis a Y. lipolytica mutant unable to grow on erythritol. Genomic characterization of the latter highlighted that the mutant phenotype is directly related to the disruption of the YALI0F01606g gene. Several experimental evidences suggested that the identified gene, renamed EYK1, encodes an erythrulose kinase. The mutant strain showed an enhanced capacity to produce erythritol as compared to the wild-type strain. Moreover, in specific experimental conditions, it is also able to convert erythritol to erythrulose, another compound of biotechnological interest.


Assuntos
Eritritol/metabolismo , Genes Fúngicos/genética , Yarrowia/genética , Eritritol/biossíntese , Eritritol/farmacologia , Glicerol/metabolismo , Mutagênese Insercional , Mutação , Pressão Osmótica , Fosfotransferases/genética , Tetroses/metabolismo , Yarrowia/efeitos dos fármacos , Yarrowia/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Yarrowia/metabolismo
20.
J Med Entomol ; 54(4): 999-1005, 2017 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28399265

RESUMO

The house fly, Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae), is a disease vector of mechanically transmitted pathogens including bacteria, viruses, and protozoans. Opportunities for pathogen transmission can increase as fly longevity increases. Dietary preferences play an important role in insect longevity; therefore, we investigated house fly preferences, sucrose availability, and caloric constraints on house fly longevity. Experimental goals were: 1) to test the effects of calorie restriction on survival of house flies by manipulating concentrations of erythritol (low caloric content) and sucrose (high caloric content), and comparing commercial sweeteners of differing calorie content, 2) to identify house fly preferences for either erythritol or sucrose, and 3) to evaluate the insecticidal activity or toxicity of erythritol on house flies. Our data show that house flies may prefer high calorie options when given a choice and that house fly longevity likely increases as calorie content increases. Additionally, no significant differences in longevity were observed between the water only control (zero calories) and erythritol treatments. This suggests that decreased survival rates and death could be the result of starvation rather than insecticidal activity. This research furthers our understanding of house fly survival and sugar-feeding behavior.


Assuntos
Eritritol/farmacologia , Moscas Domésticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Sacarose/metabolismo , Edulcorantes/toxicidade , Animais , Restrição Calórica , Comportamento de Escolha , Feminino , Moscas Domésticas/fisiologia , Masculino
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