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4.
Parasitol Res ; 120(2): 411-422, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33415391

RESUMO

Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is an important neglected parasitic disease according to the World Health Organization. In this study, we aimed to determine the prevalence of human LF in Asia using a systematic review and meta-analysis approach. Records from 1990 to 2018 in reputable databases including PubMed, Science Direct, Embase, and Cochrane Library were searched using a panel of related keywords. All 48 countries of Asia were searched one by one in combination with the keywords. In all, 41,742 cases identified in this study were included in the analysis. According to our findings, the pooled prevalence of LF in Asia was estimated at 3% (95% CI: [1.7, 5.2]). There was no major trend in the cumulative prevalence of LF over time. Some countries in Asia including China, Japan, Vietnam, and South Korea succeeded in eliminating LF as a public health problem, but others still need to monitor the disease. Based on the initiative of the WHO starting in 2000, some countries in Asia succeeded in eliminating LF as a public health problem. Other countries have taken steps to eliminate the disease with variable degrees of success. These efforts might be affected by issues such as climate change.


Assuntos
Filariose Linfática/epidemiologia , Doenças Negligenciadas/epidemiologia , Ásia/epidemiologia , Erradicação de Doenças/estatística & dados numéricos , Erradicação de Doenças/tendências , Filariose Linfática/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Doenças Negligenciadas/prevenção & controle , Prevalência , Saúde Pública/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde Pública/tendências
6.
Int Health ; 13(Supplement_1): S55-S59, 2020 Dec 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33349882

RESUMO

Since the launch of the Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (GPELF) in 2000, more than 910 million people have received preventive chemotherapy for lymphatic filariasis (LF) and many thousands have received care for chronic manifestations of the disease. To achieve this, millions of community drug distributors (CDDs), community members and health personnel have worked together each year to ensure that at-risk communities receive preventive chemotherapy through mass drug administration (MDA). The successes of 20 y of partnership with communities is celebrated, including the application of community-directed treatment, the use of CDDs and integration with other platforms to improve community access to healthcare. Important challenges facing the GPELF moving forward towards 2030 relate to global demographic, financing and programmatic changes. New innovations in research and practice present opportunities to encourage further community partnership to achieve the elimination of LF as a public health problem. We stress the critical need for community ownership in the current Covid-19 pandemic, to counter concerns in relaunching MDA programmes for LF.


Assuntos
Participação da Comunidade , Erradicação de Doenças/organização & administração , Filariose Linfática/prevenção & controle , Saúde Global , Erradicação de Doenças/tendências , Filariose Linfática/epidemiologia , Filaricidas/uso terapêutico , Previsões , Humanos , Administração Massiva de Medicamentos
7.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 32(4): 436-440, 2020 May 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32935526

RESUMO

With the joint efforts of countries and global non-state actors, great achievements have been made in the global malaria control programme; however, malaria remains a serious threat to human health. As the global leader for combating malaria, WHO formulated The Global Technical Strategy for Malaria 2016-2030, and the Global Malaria Programme, under the leadership of WHO, is responsible for implementing 5 key projects to achieve the goal proposed in The Global Technical Strategy for Malaria 2016-2030. In addition, the Global Fund, the U.S. President's Malaria Initiative and Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation also play an important role in global malaria elimination programme. This review describes the currently main non-state actors participating in the global malaria elimination programme, and calls for the enhanced inter-actor coordination and close collaboration with state governments to achieve the great goal of malaria elimination in the world.


Assuntos
Erradicação de Doenças , Malária , Erradicação de Doenças/economia , Erradicação de Doenças/organização & administração , Erradicação de Doenças/tendências , Saúde Global , Programas Governamentais , Humanos , Malária/prevenção & controle , Organizações
8.
Pan Afr Med J ; 35(Suppl 1): 7, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32373258

RESUMO

Introduction: The Expanded Program on Immunisation (EPI) has been operational in Eritrea since 1980. Eritrea has endorsed the resolution of the Regional Committee of the World Health Organisation African region, committing to a measles elimination goal for 2020 in the African Region. The country is implementing the recommended strategies. Methods: We reviewed administrative coverage and WHO UNICEF coverage estimates for Diphtheria-Pertussis-Tetanus (DPT) and measles routine vaccination, as well as for measles supplemental immunization activities. We reviewed national surveillance performance and analyzed the epidemiological trends of measles as reported in the case-based surveillance database. Results: Eritrea has maintained more than 90% coverage with the first dose of measles vaccine at national level since 2001 and 88% MCV2 coverage from 2015 - 2017 according to the WHO-UNICEF coverage estimates. Since 2011, the country has not met the surveillance performance target of at least 80% districts reporting suspected measles cases with blood specimen. Measles incidence was between 16.8 - 24.7 cases per million population in the period 2015 - 2018. The mean and median age of confirmed measles cases was more than 10 years in 8 of the 14 years covered by the analysis. In 2017, Eritrea reported 1,199 cases of measles which differs significantly from the 185 suspected cases in the case based surveillance database for the same year. Eritrea has maintained high coverage for MCV1 and MCV2 and made progress towards measles elimination. However, the country has gaps in surveillance performance which may mask the true incidence of measles. Conclusion: In order to attain elimination of measles, Eritrea needs to implement measures to improve surveillance quality, to conduct regular risk assessment and implement targeted measures to close immunity gaps. In addition, setting up a national committee for the verification of measles elimination will help the country document progress and also to highlight and advocate for addressing issues related to data quality and performance gaps.


Assuntos
Erradicação de Doenças/tendências , Programas de Imunização , Vacina contra Sarampo/uso terapêutico , Sarampo/prevenção & controle , Cobertura Vacinal/estatística & dados numéricos , Cobertura Vacinal/tendências , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Vacina contra Difteria, Tétano e Coqueluche/uso terapêutico , Erradicação de Doenças/métodos , Erradicação de Doenças/estatística & dados numéricos , Eritreia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Programas de Imunização/métodos , Programas de Imunização/organização & administração , Programas de Imunização/tendências , Esquemas de Imunização , Incidência , Lactente , Sarampo/epidemiologia , Vigilância da População , Estudos Retrospectivos
9.
Pan Afr Med J ; 35(Suppl 1): 14, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32373265

RESUMO

Introduction: Beginning with the 1960s, this review analyzes trends in publications on measles indexed by the National Library of Medicine from January 1960 to mid-2018. It notes both the growth in numbers of published papers, and the increasing number and proportion of publications, in the current century, of articles on such items as costing, measles elimination, and determinants of coverage. Methods: A two-person team extracted from the National Library of Medicine (NLM) homepage all citations on measles beginning in 1960 and continuing through mid-2018. These were then classified both by overall number and by subject matter, with tabular summaries of both by decade and by subject matter. The tabular presentation forms the basis for a discussion of the ten most frequently cited subjects, and publication trends, with a special emphasis on the current century. Results: As in the past, the most often currently published items have been on coverage and its determinants, measles elimination, outbreak reports, SSPE, and SIAs. The putative relationship between vaccination and autism saw a spurt of articles in the 1990s, rapidly declining after the IOM report rejecting the causative hypothesis. Conclusion: There is a discussion on the sequencing of polio and measles eradication, the former unlikely before 2022, and an examination of likely research priorities as the world moves from measles control to measles eradication. There is a key role for social science in combatting vaccination reticence. The role of technical innovations, such as micropatch vaccination, is discussed.


Assuntos
Sarampo , Publicações/estatística & dados numéricos , Publicações/tendências , Erradicação de Doenças/métodos , Erradicação de Doenças/organização & administração , Erradicação de Doenças/estatística & dados numéricos , Erradicação de Doenças/tendências , Geografia , Saúde Global/história , Saúde Global/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde Global/tendências , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Programas de Imunização/história , Programas de Imunização/organização & administração , Programas de Imunização/estatística & dados numéricos , Programas de Imunização/tendências , Sarampo/epidemiologia , Sarampo/história , Sarampo/prevenção & controle , Vacina contra Sarampo/uso terapêutico , Poliomielite/epidemiologia , Poliomielite/prevenção & controle , Publicações/história
10.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 103(3): 947-954, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32458790

RESUMO

Fifteen years of investment in malaria control on Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea (EG), dramatically reduced malaria-associated morbidity and mortality, but the impact has plateaued. To progress toward elimination, EG is investing in the development of a malaria vaccine. We assessed the unique public-private partnership that has had such a significant impact on malaria on Bioko Island and now added a major effort on malaria vaccine development. As part of a $79M commitment, the EG government (75%) and three American energy companies (25%) have invested since 2012 greater than $55M in the Equatoguinean Malaria Vaccine Initiative (EGMVI) to support clinical development of Sanaria® PfSPZ vaccines (Sanaria Inc., Rockville, MD). In turn, the vaccine development program is building human capital and physical capacity. The EGMVI established regulatory and ethical oversight to ensure compliance with the International Conference on Harmonization and Good Clinical Practices for the first importation of investigational product, ethical approval, and conduct of a clinical trial in Equatoguinean history. The EGMVI has completed three vaccine trials in EG, two vaccine trials in Tanzania, and a malaria incidence study, and initiated preparations for a 2,100-volunteer clinical trial. Personnel are training for advanced degrees abroad and have been trained in Good Clinical Practices and protocol-specific methods. A new facility has established the foundation for a national research institute. Biomedical research and development within this visionary, ambitious public-private partnership is fostering major improvements in EG. The EGMVI plans to use a PfSPZ Vaccine alongside standard malaria control interventions to eliminate Pf malaria from Bioko, becoming a potential model for elimination campaigns elsewhere.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica/organização & administração , Vacinas Antimaláricas/administração & dosagem , Malária Falciparum/epidemiologia , Malária Falciparum/prevenção & controle , Parcerias Público-Privadas/organização & administração , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Erradicação de Doenças/tendências , Guiné Equatorial/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Mosquiteiros Tratados com Inseticida/provisão & distribuição , Ilhas , Malária Falciparum/parasitologia , Malária Falciparum/transmissão , Masculino , Plasmodium falciparum/patogenicidade
11.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 32(3): 219-221, 2020 May 11.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32468780

RESUMO

Hunan Province occupies a particular position in the history of the national schistosomiasis control programme of China. The province is hyperendemic for schistosomiasis, and achieves great successes and many experiences at various stages of the national schistosomiasis control programme of China. Recently, remarkable schistosomiasis control benefits have been achieved in Hunan Province because of the strong political will, increased financial support, intensification of the integrated control strategy and sustainable implementation of the four projects, including management of livestock and humans as sources of Schistosoma japonicum infections, snail control and capability building of schistosomiasis control institutions. In addition, a series of schistosomiasis control models have been created from the schistosomiasis control programme, and the concept of control-research combination and research serving for field control has been achieved, which provides the "Hunan experience" for the natonal schistosomiasis control programme of China. Based on the government-led multisectoralcollaboration principle, further actions are required with scientific control and joint prevention and control, implementation of the integrated strategy with emphases on controlling sources of S. japonicum infections and snails, adequate financial support, improved professional capability building, and innovative medical treatment-prevention combination patterns, so as to achieve the goal of schistosomiasis elimination in Hunan Province as soon as possible.


Assuntos
Erradicação de Doenças , Esquistossomose Japônica , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Erradicação de Doenças/tendências , Humanos , Lagos , Modelos Teóricos , Esquistossomose Japônica/prevenção & controle , Caramujos/parasitologia
12.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 32(3): 225-229, 2020 Apr 29.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32468782

RESUMO

This paper describes the current epidemic characteristics and endemic status of schistosomiasis, analyzes the main challenges of schistosomiasis control and proposes the emphasis and interventions for future schistosomiasis control activities in Hunan Province, so as to provide insights into the elimination of schistosomiasis in Hunan Province.


Assuntos
Esquistossomose , China/epidemiologia , Erradicação de Doenças/tendências , Humanos , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose/prevenção & controle
16.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32185920

RESUMO

Following the concerted efforts for nearly 70 years, great successes have been achieved in the national schistosomiasis control programme in China. Currently, the national schistosomiasis control programme in China is facing the challenges to solve the problems during the"final mile"stage towards schistosomiasis elimination, and contribute Chinese experiences, Chinese strategy and Chinese wisdom to the global schistosomiasis control programmes, so as to facilitate the transformation of the joint efforts in the Belt and Road Initiative to a high-quality development, thereby well supporting the activities on global health security. This paper analyzes the current global status of schistosomiasis and the challenges of the global schistosomiasis control programmes, describes the basis for the cooperation on schistosomiasis control among the countries along the Belt and Road Initiative, illustrates the challenges for translation of Chinese experiences and techniques in schistosomiasis control to other diseaseendemic countries, and proposes the patterns and prospects of the South-South cooperation on schistosomiasis control under the Belt and Road Initiative.


Assuntos
Erradicação de Doenças/estatística & dados numéricos , Esquistossomose , China , Erradicação de Doenças/tendências , Saúde Global , Humanos , Programas Nacionais de Saúde , Esquistossomose/prevenção & controle
17.
Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis ; 1866(5): 165689, 2020 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32001300

RESUMO

This review is a perspective on the history of Chagas disease, and it adopts a novel approach from literary studies, historical documents and the science and epidemiology of the nature of the disease. From this analysis, comes the review's working definition of the Contact Zone (CZ): "the space in which geographically and historically separated people come into contact with each other and establish long-lasting relationships, which usually involve coercive conditions, radical inequality and intolerable conflict." In the Patient-Physician CZ, we verified the triple transition phenomena: the American trypanosomiasis shifted from a rural, acute, and vectorial transmitted disease to an urban, chronic and non-vectorial disease. In the Academic CZ, we describe the original disagreements which denied the existence of the disease and the current controversies about pathogenic mechanisms and etiological treatment. From the News from Latin America, and in the Original CZ, we will review the evolution of different forms of transmission. As in any good story, research across broad disciplines is necessary to reveal historical perspectives, scientific approaches, and the epidemiology of the disease, which has a prequel of 9000 years and an open ending: thus, we explore across the Global CZ, with its multiple and unexpected actors.


Assuntos
Doença de Chagas/história , Erradicação de Doenças/organização & administração , Doenças Endêmicas/história , Doenças Negligenciadas/história , Trypanosoma cruzi/patogenicidade , Animais , Restos Mortais/parasitologia , Doença de Chagas/epidemiologia , Doença de Chagas/prevenção & controle , Doença de Chagas/transmissão , DNA de Protozoário/isolamento & purificação , Erradicação de Doenças/história , Erradicação de Doenças/tendências , Vetores de Doenças , Doenças Endêmicas/prevenção & controle , Antropologia Forense/história , Carga Global da Doença , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , História Antiga , Humanos , Doenças Negligenciadas/epidemiologia , Doenças Negligenciadas/parasitologia , Doenças Negligenciadas/prevenção & controle , Triatoma/parasitologia , Trypanosoma cruzi/genética , Trypanosoma cruzi/isolamento & purificação
18.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 31(6): 573-575, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32064797

RESUMO

Schistosomiasis was once hyper-endemic in Jiangsu Province. During the past seven decades, the professionals working in schistosomiasis control from Jiangsu Province insisted on scientific and precision control all the time, created a series of replicable and generalizable "Jiangsu experiences". These practices have developed a number of tools and approaches that have been employed in schistosomiasis control programs in main endemic foci of China. More importantly, the successful experiences from national schistosomiasis control programs of China have been firstly transferred to Africa by professionals from Jiangsu Province, and remarkable achievements have been obtained for the control of schistosomiasis haematobia in Zanzibar.


Assuntos
Erradicação de Doenças , Invenções , Esquistossomose Urinária , China , Erradicação de Doenças/tendências , Humanos , Invenções/tendências , Esquistossomose Urinária/prevenção & controle
19.
Lancet Glob Health ; 8(2): e237-e243, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31981555

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nepal launched a visceral leishmaniasis (also known as kala-azar) elimination initiative in 2005. We primarily aimed to assess whether transmission of Leishmania donovani had decreased since the launch of the initiative. We also assessed the validity of the direct agglutination test (DAT) as a marker of infection, in view of future surveillance systems. METHODS: We did a repeat survey in a population aged 2 years and older for whom baseline serological data were available from 2006. Data were from three districts in the eastern region of Nepal. The primary outcome of interest was prevalent infection with L donovani as measured with DAT (cutoff value ≥1:3200). We compared age group-specific and cluster-specific seroprevalences in 2016 with those in 2006, using χ2 tests, with a specific focus on the comparison of seroprevalences in children born between 1996 and 2005, and those born between 2006 and 2015. To estimate the overall adjusted risk ratio for being seropositive in 2016 compared with 2006, we fitted a Poisson model controlling for age, sex, and cluster. FINDINGS: Between Oct 17, 2016, and Dec 26, 2016, we assessed 6609 individuals. DAT prevalence in children younger than 10 years was 4·1% (95% CI 3·2-5·4) in 2006 versus 0·5% (0·1-1·7) in 2016 (p<0·0001). Seroprevalence was lower in 2016 than in 2006 in all age groups and in all repeated clusters. The overall adjusted risk ratio of being seropositive was 0·44 (95% CI 0·37-0·52) for 2016 compared with 2006, and 0·04 (0·01-0·16) in children younger than 10 years. INTERPRETATION: Our findings show that transmission of L donovani in Nepal has decreased significantly between 2006 and 2016, coinciding with the elimination programme. DAT seems useful for monitoring of L donovani transmission. FUNDING: The Directorate-General for Development Cooperation of Belgium.


Assuntos
Erradicação de Doenças/estatística & dados numéricos , Erradicação de Doenças/tendências , Doenças Endêmicas/prevenção & controle , Leishmania donovani/imunologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/prevenção & controle , Leishmaniose Visceral/transmissão , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Doenças Endêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Previsões , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nepal/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
20.
Intensive Care Med ; 46(2): 202-214, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31773179

RESUMO

Most vaccines are so effective that they could lead to the control/elimination of the diseases they target and directly impact on intensive care admissions or complications. This is best illustrated by the use of vaccines against Haemophilus influenzae type b, Streptococcus pneumoniae, zoster, yellow fever, Ebola virus, influenza or measles-but also by third party strategies such as maternal, toddler and care-giver immunization. However, each of these vaccine-induced protection is threatened by insufficient vaccine uptake. Here, we briefly discuss how vaccine hesitancy has led to the resurgence of diseases that were considered as controlled and explore the effect of vaccine-hesitant healthcare workers on nosocomial infections. As intensive care physicians are in charge of polymorbid patients, we briefly summarize the current recommendations for vaccinations in high-risk patients. We finally give some perspective on ongoing research, and discuss how institutional policies and intensive care physicians could play a role in increasing the impact of vaccination, overall and in intensive care units.


Assuntos
Vacinação/normas , Vacinação/tendências , Movimento contra Vacinação , Cuidados Críticos/métodos , Erradicação de Doenças/história , Erradicação de Doenças/tendências , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Admissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Vigilância da População/métodos , Vacinação/efeitos adversos
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