Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 4.707
Filtrar
1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e245865, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339368

RESUMO

Abstract Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) is a tremendous threat to vegetables across the globe, including in Pakistan. The present work was conducted to investigate the genetic variability of CMV isolates infecting pea and spinach vegetables in the Pothwar region of Pakistan. Serological-based surveys during 2016-2017 revealed 31.70% overall CMV disease incidence from pea and spinach crops. Triple-antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (TAS-ELISA) revealed that all the positive isolates belong to CMV subgroup II. Two selected cDNA from ELISA-positive samples representing each pea and spinach crops were PCR-amplified (ca.1100 bp) and sequenced corresponding to the CMV CP gene which shared 93.7% nucleotide identity with each other. Both the sequences of CMV pea (AAHAP) and spinach (AARS) isolates from Pakistan were submitted to GenBank as accession nos. MH119071 and MH119073, respectively. BLAST analysis revealed 93.4% sequence identity of AAHAP isolate with SpK (KC763473) from Iran while AARS isolate shared maximum identity (94.5%) with the strain 241 (AJ585519) from Australia and clustered with some reference isolates of CMV subgroup II from UK (Z12818) and USA (AF127976) in a Neighbour-joining phylogenetic reconstruction. A total of 59 polymorphic (segregating) sites (S) with nucleotide diversity (π) of 0.06218 was evident while no INDEL event was observed in Pakistani isolates. The evolutionary distance of Pakistani CMV isolates was recorded as 0.0657 with each other and 0.0574-0.2964 with other CMV isolates reported elsewhere in the world. A frequent gene flow (Fst = 0.30478 <0.33) was observed between Pakistani and earlier reported CMV isolates. In genetic differentiation analysis, the value of three permutation-based statistical tests viz; Z (84.3011), Snn (0.82456), and Ks* (4.04042) were non-significant. The statistical analysis revealed the values 2.02535, 0.01468, and 0.71862 of Tajima's D, Fu, & Li's F* and D* respectively, demonstrating that the CMV population is under balancing selection.


Resumo Cucumber mosaic cucumovirus (CMV) é uma tremenda ameaça aos vegetais em todo o mundo, inclusive no Paquistão. O presente trabalho foi conduzido para investigar a variabilidade genética de isolados de CMV infectando vegetais de ervilha e espinafre na região de Pothwar, Paquistão. Pesquisas com base em sorologia durante 2016-2017 revelaram 31,70% da incidência geral da doença por CMV em safras de ervilha e espinafre. O ensaio de imunoabsorção enzimática em sanduíche de anticorpo triplo (TAS-ELISA) revelou que todos os isolados positivos pertencem ao subgrupo II do CMV. Dois cDNA selecionados de amostras positivas para ELISA representando cada safra de ervilha e espinafre foram amplificados por PCR (ca.1100 pb) e sequenciados correspondendo ao gene CMV CP que compartilhou 93,7% de identidade de nucleotídeo um com o outro. Ambas as sequências de isolados de ervilha CMV (AAHAP) e espinafre (AARS) do Paquistão foram submetidas ao GenBank como nos de acesso. MH119071 e MH119073, respectivamente. A análise BLAST revelou 93,4% de identidade de sequência do isolado AAHAP com SpK (KC763473) do Irã, enquanto o isolado AARS compartilhou a identidade máxima (94,5%) com a cepa 241 (AJ585519) da Austrália e agrupada com alguns isolados de referência do subgrupo II de CMV do Reino Unido (Z12818) e EUA (AF127976) em uma reconstrução filogenética vizinha. Um total de 59 sítios polimórficos (segregantes) (S) com diversidade de nucleotídeos (π) de 0,06218 foi evidente, enquanto nenhum evento INDEL foi observado em isolados do Paquistão. A distância evolutiva de isolados de CMV do Paquistão foi registrada como 0,0657 entre si e 0,0574-0,2964 com outros isolados de CMV relatados em outras partes do mundo. Um fluxo gênico frequente (Fst = 0,30478 < 0,33) foi observado entre os isolados de CMV do Paquistão e relatados anteriormente. Na análise de diferenciação genética, os valores de três testes estatísticos baseados em permutação viz, Z (84,3011), Snn (0,82456) e Ks * (4,04042) não foram significativos. A análise estatística revelou os valores 2,02535, 0,01468 e 0,71862 de Tajima's D, Fu, & Li's F * e D * respectivamente, demonstrando que a população de CMV está sob seleção de balanceamento.


Assuntos
Cucumovirus/genética , Cucumis sativus , Paquistão , Filogenia , Doenças das Plantas , Variação Genética , Spinacia oleracea , Ervilhas
2.
Food Chem ; 398: 133936, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36027659

RESUMO

This study investigated the impact of seed coats from peas (PC) and chickpeas (CC) (at 15 % and 30 % levels) on rice-based co-extruded snacks. Using PC and CC reduced the content of soluble (29 %) and cell-wall bound phenolic acids (21 %), but it enhanced the amount and the profile of flavonoids of rice-based snacks (up to 16 times with PC), resulting in significantly higher antioxidant activity (134 %). Snacks with 15 % CC showed a higher section area (about 335 versus 191 mm2) and a lower average pore radius (20.1 versus 23.9 mm) than PC-snacks; however, such features did not affect either texture or porosity. At 30 % level, PC resulted in a more porous structure (porosity: 73.1 versus 66.7 %) with smaller pores (17.2 versus 27.3 mm) and high firmness (55.9 versus 40.1 N). Consumers' acceptability evaluation revealed that samples containing pulse seed coat were comparable and preferred to the control (i.e., 100 % polished rice).


Assuntos
Cicer , Oryza , Cicer/química , Oryza/química , Ervilhas/química , Fenóis/metabolismo , Sementes , Lanches
3.
Nutrients ; 14(17)2022 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36079868

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inflammatory bowel disease remains a global burden with rapidly increasing incidence and prevalence in both industrialized countries and developing countries. In this study, we prepared pea albumin from pea seeds and determined its beneficial effects being anti-inflammatory and on gut microbiota modulation in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-challenged mice. METHOD: Six-week-old C57BL/6N male mice received an equivalent volume (200 µL) of sterile phosphate balanced solution, 0.375, 0.75, or 1.50 g/kg body weight (BW) of pea albumin that was subjected to 2.0% DSS for 7 days to induce colitis. On day 17 of the experiment, all mice were sacrificed after blood sample collection, and colon tissue and colon contents were collected. BW change curve, colon length, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, mucus staining, immunofluorescence staining of T cells and macrophages, cytokines, pro-inflammatory genes expression, nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and signal transducer, and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling pathways as well as 16S DNA sequence were measured. RESULTS: Our results show that pea albumin alleviates DSS-induced BW loss, colon length shortening, enhanced MPO activity, cytokines secretion, mucus deficiency, and inflammatory cell infiltration, as well as enhanced pro-inflammatory genes expression. In addition, the overactivation of NF-κB and STAT3 following DSS exposure is attenuated by pea albumin administration. Of particular interest, pea albumin oral administration restored gut microbiota dysbiosis as evidenced by enhanced α-diversity, restored ß-diversity, and promoted relative abundance of Lactobacillus and Lachnospiraceae_NK4A136_group. CONCLUSION: Taken together, the data provided herein demonstrated that pea albumin plays a protective role in DSS-induced colitis by reducing inflammatory cell infiltration, pro-inflammatory genes expression and pro-inflammatory cytokines release, inactivation of NF-κB signal, and gut microbiota modulation.


Assuntos
Colite , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Albuminas/farmacologia , Animais , Colite/induzido quimicamente , Colite/tratamento farmacológico , Colo/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Sulfato de Dextrana/efeitos adversos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Ervilhas/metabolismo
4.
Molecules ; 27(17)2022 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36080475

RESUMO

The photosystem II (PSII) reaction centre is the critical supramolecular pigment-protein complex in the chloroplast which catalyses the light-induced transfer of electrons from water to plastoquinone. Structural studies have demonstrated the existence of an oligomeric PSII. We carried out radiation inactivation target analysis (RTA), together with sucrose gradient ultracentrifugation (SGU) of PSII, to study the functional size of PSII in diverse plant species under physiological and stress conditions. Two PSII populations, made of dimeric and monomeric core particles, were revealed in Pisum sativum, Spinacea oleracea, Phaseulus vulgaris, Medicago sativa, Zea mais and Triticum durum. However, this core pattern was not ubiquitous in the higher plants since we found one monomeric core population in Vicia faba and a dimeric core in the Triticum durum yellow-green strain, respectively. The PSII functional sizes measured in the plant seedlings in vivo, as a decay of the maximum quantum yield of PSII for primary photochemistry, were in the range of 75-101 ± 18 kDa, 2 to 3 times lower than those determined in vitro. Two abiotic stresses, heat and drought, imposed individually on Pisum sativum, increased the content of the dimeric core in SGU and the minimum functional size determined by RTA in vivo. These data suggest that PSII can also function as a monomer in vivo, while under heat and drought stress conditions, the dimeric PSII structure is predominant.


Assuntos
Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II , Sacarose , Ervilhas , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II/química , Plastoquinona , Spinacia oleracea/química , Ultracentrifugação
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(17)2022 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36077139

RESUMO

Aphanomyces root rot, caused by Aphanomyces euteiches, causes severe yield loss in field pea (Pisum sativum). The identification of a pea germplasm resistant to this disease is an important breeding objective. Polygenetic resistance has been reported in the field pea cultivar '00-2067'. To facilitate marker-assisted selection (MAS), bulked segregant RNA-seq (BSR-seq) analysis was conducted using an F8 RIL population derived from the cross of 'Carman' × '00-2067'. Root rot development was assessed under controlled conditions in replicated experiments. Resistant (R) and susceptible (S) bulks were constructed based on the root rot severity in a greenhouse study. The BSR-seq analysis of the R bulks generated 44,595,510~51,658,688 reads, of which the aligned sequences were linked to 44,757 genes in a reference genome. In total, 2356 differentially expressed genes were identified, of which 44 were used for gene annotation, including defense-related pathways (jasmonate, ethylene and salicylate) and the GO biological process. A total of 344.1 K SNPs were identified between the R and S bulks, of which 395 variants were located in 31 candidate genes. The identification of novel genes associated with partial resistance to Aphanomyces root rot in field pea by BSR-seq may facilitate efforts to improve management of this important disease.


Assuntos
Aphanomyces , Aphanomyces/genética , Ervilhas/genética , Ervilhas/metabolismo , Melhoramento Vegetal , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas
6.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0273499, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36112614

RESUMO

Garden pea (Pisum sativum L.) is a self-pollinated plant species which played an important role for the foundation of modern genetics. Genetic diversity among 56 garden pea genotypes was assessed using 12 morphological descriptors, 19 quantitative traits and 8 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. Eight morphological descriptors were found polymorphic, and highest Shannon diversity index was recorded for pod curvature (1.18). Mahalanobis D2 illustrating genetic divergence arranged 56 genotypes into six clusters, with the highest inter-cluster distance between clusters IV and VI (18.09). The average values of Na (number of alleles), Ne (effective number of alleles), I (Shannon's Information index), PIC (polymorphism information content), Ho (observed heterozygosity) and He (expected heterozygosity) were 3.13, 1.85, 0.71, 0.36, 0.002 and 0.41, respectively. Pair wise genetic distance among all pairs of the genotypes varied from 0.33 to 1.00 with an average of 0.76. Based on genetic distance, the genotypes were classified into two main clusters (A and B) by cluster analysis, whereas structure analysis divided the genotypes into four sub-populations. The SSR makers indicated that present of genetic variability among the studied genotypes. When, we compared the groups formed by agro-morphological and molecular data, no genotypes were observed, indicating that both stages of characterization are crucial for a better understanding of the genetic variability. Hybridization between genetically diverse genotypes can be exploited to expend the genetic variability and introduce new traits in the pea breeding program.


Assuntos
Variação Genética , Ervilhas , Marcadores Genéticos , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Biologia Molecular , Ervilhas/genética , Melhoramento Vegetal
7.
Adv Food Nutr Res ; 101: 71-127, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35940709

RESUMO

The demand for proteins continues to increase due to their nutritional benefits, the growing world population, and rising protein deficiency. Plant-based proteins represent a sustainable source to supplement costly animal proteins. Pea (Pisum sativum L.) is one of the most produced plant legume crops in the world and contributes to 26% of the total pulse production. The average protein content of pea is about 20%-25%. The commercial utilization of pea proteins is limited, partially due to its less desirable functionalities and beany off-flavor. Protein modification may change these properties and broaden the application of pea proteins in the food industry. Functional properties such as protein solubility, water and oil holding capacity, emulsifying/foaming capacity and stability, and gelation can be altered and improved by enzymatic, chemical, and physical modifications. These modifications work by affecting protein chemical structures, hydrophobicity/hydrophilicity balance, and interactions with other food constituents. Modifiers, reaction conditions, and degree of modifications are critical variables for protein modifications and can be controlled to achieve desirable functional attributes that may meet applications in meat analogs, baking products, dressings, beverages, dairy mimics, encapsulation, and emulsions. Understanding pea protein characteristics will allow us to design better functional ingredients for food applications.


Assuntos
Fabaceae , Proteínas de Ervilha , Animais , Emulsões , Fabaceae/química , Ervilhas/química , Proteínas de Plantas/química
8.
Viruses ; 14(8)2022 07 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36016314

RESUMO

The genus Polerovirus contains positive-sense, single-stranded RNA plant viruses that cause significant disease in many agricultural crops, including vegetable legumes. This study aimed to identify and determine the abundance of Polerovirus species present within Tasmanian pea crops and surrounding weeds that may act as virus reservoirs. We further sought to examine the genetic diversity of TuYV, the most commonly occurring polerovirus identified. Pea and weed samples were collected during 2019-2020 between October and January from thirty-four sites across three different regions (far northwest, north, and midlands) of Tasmania and tested by RT-PCR assay, with selected samples subject to next-generation sequencing. Results revealed that the presence of polerovirus infection and the prevalence of TuYV in both weeds and pea crops varied across the three Tasmanian cropping regions, with TuYV infection levels in pea crops ranging between 0 and 27.5% of tested plants. Overall, two species members from each genus, Polerovirus and Potyvirus, one member from each of Luteovirus, Potexvirus, and Carlavirus, and an unclassified virus from the family Partitiviridae were also found as a result of NGS data analysis. Analysis of gene sequences of the P0 and P3 genes of Tasmanian TuYV isolates revealed substantial genetic diversity within the collection, with a few isolates appearing more closely aligned with BrYV isolates. Questions remain around the differentiation of TuYV and BrYV species. Phylogenetic inconsistency in the P0 and P3 ORFs supports the concept that recombination may have played a role in TuYV evolution in Tasmania. Results of the evolutionary analysis showed that the selection pressure was higher in the P0 gene than in the P3 gene, and the majority of the codons for each gene are evolving under purifying selection. Future full genome-based analyses of the genetic variations will expand our understanding of the evolutionary patterns existing among TuYV populations in Tasmania.


Assuntos
Luteoviridae , Produtos Agrícolas , Variação Genética , Ervilhas , Filogenia , Doenças das Plantas , Plantas Daninhas
9.
J Agric Food Chem ; 70(33): 10221-10228, 2022 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35951551

RESUMO

Pea protein hydrolysates (PPHs) possess good hypoglycemic effects; however, their dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitory activity is poorly understood, and none of the DPP-4 inhibitory peptides have been identified from PPHs. This paper aims to rapidly screen these peptides from PPHs by combining peptidomics and molecular docking. In this study, 543 peptides were identified by peptidomics, and four peptides (IPYWTY, IPYWT, LPNYN, and LAFPGSS) with DPP-4 half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values <100 µM were screened for the first time. Significantly, peptide IPYWTY exhibited the most potent DPP-4 inhibitory activity (IC50 = 11.04 µM) mainly because it formed hydrophobic interactions with the S1 pocket in DPP-4. These results indicated that combining peptidomics and molecular docking is an effective strategy for rapidly screening DPP-4 inhibitory peptides.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Dipeptidil Peptidase IV , Ervilhas , Dipeptidil Peptidase 4/química , Inibidores da Dipeptidil Peptidase IV/química , Inibidores da Dipeptidil Peptidase IV/farmacologia , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Ervilhas/metabolismo , Peptídeos/química , Peptídeos/farmacologia , Hidrolisados de Proteína/química
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(15)2022 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35955926

RESUMO

Induced mutation is useful for improving the disease resistance of various crops. Fusarium wilt and powdery mildew are two important diseases which severely influence pea production worldwide. In this study, we first evaluated Fusarium wilt and powdery mildew resistance of mutants derived from two elite vegetable pea cultivars, Shijiadacaiwan 1 (SJ1) and Chengwan 8 (CW8), respectively. Nine SJ1 and five CW8 M3 mutants showed resistant variations in Fusarium wilt, and the same five CW8 mutants in powdery mildew. These resistant variations were confirmed in M4 and M5 mutants as well. Then, we investigated the genetic variations and relationships of mutant lines using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. Among the nine effective SSR markers, the genetic diversity index and polymorphism information content (PIC) values were averaged at 0.55 and 0.46, which revealed considerable genetic variations in the mutants. The phylogenetic tree and population structure analyses divided the M3 mutants into two major groups at 0.62 genetic similarity (K = 2), which clearly separated the mutants of the two cultivars and indicated that a great genetic difference existed between the two mutant populations. Further, the two genetic groups were divided into five subgroups at 0.86 genetic similarity (K = 5) and each subgroup associated with resistant phenotypes of the mutants. Finally, the homologous PsMLO1 cDNA of five CW8 mutants that gained resistance to powdery mildew was amplified and cloned. A 129 bp fragment deletion was found in the PsMLO1 gene, which was in accord with er1-2. The findings provide important information on disease resistant and molecular variations of pea mutants, which is useful for pea production, new cultivar breeding, and the identification of resistance genes.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos , Resistência à Doença , Resistência à Doença/genética , Ervilhas/genética , Filogenia , Melhoramento Vegetal , Doenças das Plantas/genética
11.
Molecules ; 27(15)2022 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35956788

RESUMO

This work demonstrates the preparation of high-surface-area activated carbon (AC) from Pisum sativum pods using ZnCl2 and KOH as activating agents. The influence of CO2 and N2 gases during the carbonization process on the porosity of AC were studied. The highest specific surface area of AC was estimated at 1300 to 1500 m2/g, which presented characteristics of microporous materials. SEM micrographs revealed that chemical activation using an impregnation reagent ZnCl2 increases the porosity of the AC, which in turn leads to an increase in the surface area, and the SEM image showed that particle size diameter ranged between 48.88 and 69.95 nm. The performance of prepared AC for adsorption of Acid Orange 7 (AO7) dye was tested. The results showed that the adsorption percentage by AC (2.5 g/L) was equal to 94.76% after just 15 min, and the percentage of removal increased to be ~100% after 60 min. The maximum adsorption capacity was 473.93 mg g-1. A Langmuir model (LM) shows the best-fitted equilibrium isotherm, and the kinetic data fitted better to the pseudo-second-order and Film diffusion models. The removal of AO7 dye using AC from Pisum sativum pods was optimized using a response factor model (RSM), and the results were reported.


Assuntos
Carvão Vegetal , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Adsorção , Compostos Azo , Benzenossulfonatos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Cinética , Ervilhas , Água , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
12.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 186: 242-251, 2022 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35930936

RESUMO

Biotic and abiotic stress tolerant crops are required for sustainable agriculture as well as ensuring global food security. In a previous study, we have reported that heterologous overexpression of pea DNA helicase (PDH45), a DEAD-box family member protein, provides salinity stress tolerance in rice. The improved management of photosynthetic machinery and scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS) are associated with PDH45 mediated salinity stress tolerance. However, the role of PDH45 in biotic and other abiotic stress (drought) tolerance remains unexplored. In the present study, we have generated marker-free transgenic IR64 rice lines that overexpress PDH45 under the CaMV35S promoter. The transgenic rice lines exhibited a significant level of tolerance against sheath blight disease, caused by Rhizoctonia solani, a polyphagous necrotrophic fungal pathogen. The defense as well as antioxidant responsive marker genes were significantly upregulated in the PDH45 overexpressing (OE) rice lines, upon pathogen infection. Moreover, the OE lines exhibited tolerance to drought stress and various antioxidant as well as drought responsive marker genes were significantly upregulated in them, upon drought stress. Overall, the current study emphasizes that heterologous overexpression of PDH45 provides abiotic as well as biotic stress tolerance in rice. Tolerance against drought as well as sheath blight disease by overexpression of a single gene (PDH45) signifies the practical implication of the present study. Moreover, considering the conserved nature of the gene in different plant species, we anticipate that PDH45 can be gainfully deployed to impart tolerance against multiple stresses in agriculturally important crops.


Assuntos
Oryza , Antioxidantes , Secas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Oryza/genética , Oryza/metabolismo , Ervilhas/genética , Ervilhas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/genética
13.
J Agric Food Chem ; 70(36): 11377-11390, 2022 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36026466

RESUMO

The present study compared the modulatory effects of different resistant starches (RSs) isolated from native (NP-RS), acid-hydrolyzed (AHP-RS), and pullulanase debranched (PDP-RS) pea starches on the corresponding in vivo metabolic responses in high fat (HF)-diet-induced obese mice. The biochemical studies on serum lipid profile and antioxidant enzyme activities were supported by histological and gene expression analyses, which suggested a potential therapeutic role for RS in regulating obesity, possibly through the production of short-chain fatty acids and the proliferation of some beneficial colonic bacteria, including Allobaculum, Bifidobacterium, Odoribacter, Clostridium, and Prevotella. Particularly, a more pronounced effect of AHP-RS with a higher proportion of the crystalline region and a more ordered double-helical alignment on improving the hyperlipidemic symptoms in obese mice induced by a HF diet was observed. Our analysis revealed that the RS3 samples seemed to be more effective than RS2 in terms of attenuating obesity in mice that were fed a HF diet.


Assuntos
Dieta Hiperlipídica , Amido Resistente , Animais , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Camundongos , Camundongos Obesos , Obesidade/metabolismo , Ervilhas/metabolismo , Amido/química
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(16)2022 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36012479

RESUMO

Faba beans are a promising emerging plant-based protein source to be used as a quality alternative to peas and soy. In this study, the potential health beneficial activities of three Canadian faba bean varieties (Fabelle, Malik and Snowbird) were investigated after in vitro gastrointestinal digestion and compared to two commonly used legumes (peas and soy). The results revealed that the faba beans had a higher antioxidant activity than peas when assessed with the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and the 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) assays, except for the Fabelle variety. In the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and the iron chelating assays, the faba beans had a lower antioxidant activity than soy. Interestingly, Fabelle and Snowbird showed a higher antioxidant effect than the peas and soy at the cellular level. The antihypertensive properties of Fabelle and Malik varieties were significantly higher than peas but lower than soy. The in vitro antidiabetic activity was higher for soy, but no differences were found at the cellular level. The faba bean peptides were further fractionated and sequenced by mass spectrometry. Eleven peptides with in silico predicted bioactivities were successfully identified in the faba bean digestate and support validating the health-promoting properties of peptides. The results demonstrate the bioactive potential of faba beans as a health-promoting food ingredient against non-communicable diseases.


Assuntos
Fabaceae , Vicia faba , Antioxidantes/análise , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Canadá , Ervilhas/química , Peptídeos , Soja
15.
Molecules ; 27(16)2022 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36014591

RESUMO

Pea (Pisum sativum) is an important source of nutritional components and is rich in protein, starch, and fiber. Pea protein is considered a high-quality protein and a functional ingredient in the global industry due to its low allergenicity, high protein content, availability, affordability, and deriving from a sustainable crop. Moreover, pea protein has excellent functional properties such as solubility, water, and oil holding capacity, emulsion ability, gelation, and viscosity. Therefore, these functional properties make pea protein a promising ingredient in the food industry. Furthermore, several extraction techniques are used to obtain pea protein isolate and concentrate, including dry fractionation, wet fractionation, salt extraction, and mild fractionation methods. Dry fractionation is chemical-free, has no loss of native functionality, no water use, and is cost-effective, but the protein purity is comparatively low compared to wet extraction. Pea protein can be used as a food emulsifier, encapsulating material, a biodegradable natural polymer, and also in cereals, bakery, dairy, and meat products. Therefore, in this review, we detail the key properties related to extraction techniques, chemistry, and structure, functional properties, and modification techniques, along with their suitable application and health attributes.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ervilha , Fibras na Dieta , Indústria Alimentícia , Ervilhas/química , Amido
16.
Environ Pollut ; 310: 119908, 2022 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35963392

RESUMO

Sewage sludges are rich in organic matter and several essential nutrients for plant growth, making them very appealing for application in agricultural soils. However, they may also contain a wide range of emerging pollutants, which has raised concerns about the potential risks of this practice to crops, the environment, and public health - accumulation in soils and/or plant uptake and translocation of contaminants. Therefore, there is a need to study plant-soil interactions and assess the uptake potential of these contaminants by food crops to better understand these risks. The main aim of this work was to assess the possible drawbacks of sludge application to cropland, by observing the impact on the growth and yield of a model crop (pea plant - Pisum sativum) grown over an 86-day greenhouse experiment and by assessing the uptake potential of synthetic musk fragrances. Different sewage sludge application rates (4-30-ton ha-1) and initial concentrations of contaminants were tested. The application of sludge yielded benefits to the cultivated plants, finding improved crop productivity with an application rate of 30-ton ha-1. At the end of the experiment, soil samples and plants separated into sections were analysed using a QuEChERS extraction methodology followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) quantification. Galaxolide (HHCB) and tonalide (AHTN) underwent uptake by the plant roots, having been detected in concentrations up to 346 ng g-1 on a dry weight basis (dw), but only HHCB was detected in above ground tissues. At the end, a decrease in the levels of synthetic musks in the amended soils (>80% in several instances) was observed. Assuming the worst-case scenario, no risk to human health was observed from the ingestion of peas grown on sewage sludge-amended soils. However, a soil hazard quotient analysis yielded worryingly high quotient values for AHTN in nearly all tested conditions.


Assuntos
Perfumes , Poluentes do Solo , Ácidos Graxos Monoinsaturados , Humanos , Odorantes , Ervilhas , Plantas , Receptores Proteína Tirosina Quinases , Receptores Colinérgicos , Esgotos , Solo
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(15)2022 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35955617

RESUMO

G-quadruplexes (G4s) have been long considered rare and physiologically unimportant in vitro curiosities, but recent methodological advances have proved their presence and functions in vivo. Moreover, in addition to their functional relevance in bacteria and animals, including humans, their importance has been recently demonstrated in evolutionarily distinct plant species. In this study, we analyzed the genome of Pisum sativum (garden pea, or the so-called green pea), a unique member of the Fabaceae family. Our results showed that this genome contained putative G4 sequences (PQSs). Interestingly, these PQSs were located nonrandomly in the nuclear genome. We also found PQSs in mitochondrial (mt) and chloroplast (cp) DNA, and we experimentally confirmed G4 formation for sequences found in these two organelles. The frequency of PQSs for nuclear DNA was 0.42 PQSs per thousand base pairs (kbp), in the same range as for cpDNA (0.53/kbp), but significantly lower than what was found for mitochondrial DNA (1.58/kbp). In the nuclear genome, PQSs were mainly associated with regulatory regions, including 5'UTRs, and upstream of the rRNA region. In contrast to genomic DNA, PQSs were located around RNA genes in cpDNA and mtDNA. Interestingly, PQSs were also associated with specific transposable elements such as TIR and LTR and around them, pointing to their role in their spreading in nuclear DNA. The nonrandom localization of PQSs uncovered their evolutionary and functional significance in the Pisum sativum genome.


Assuntos
Quadruplex G , Regiões 5' não Traduzidas , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Elementos de DNA Transponíveis/genética , Genoma de Planta , Humanos , Ervilhas/genética
18.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0271887, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35925911

RESUMO

The existing variation among pea protein isolates' functionality limits their application in food formulations. The source and extent of variations among yellow pea protein profiles was assessed in 10 single seeds of two varieties with different size and weight. A new approach was developed to analyze proteins of yellow pea combining three analytical methods of size exclusion chromatography (SEC), reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC), and microfluidic SDS-PAGE, to achieve the highest separation resolution. A high variation of protein concentration was observed not only between varieties, but also among seeds of the same variety. Vicilin to legumin ratio was between 2.72-4.19, and 1.70-2.22 among the individual seeds of AC Agassiz and CDC Saffron varieties, respectively. V/L ratio was significantly different among the individual seeds for both varieties. The amount of some protein fractions/subunits were correlated with seeds' size and weight for AC Agassiz, while such correlations were not observed for CDC Saffron.


Assuntos
Fabaceae , Lathyrus , Proteínas de Ervilha , Proteínas de Ervilha/análise , Ervilhas/química , Proteínas de Plantas/análise , Sementes/química
19.
J Mater Chem B ; 10(33): 6380-6391, 2022 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35968697

RESUMO

Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a new minimally invasive technology for disease diagnosis and treatment. However, the biological tissue attenuation of visible light renders the depth of its penetration in tissues quite modest, which significantly restricts its therapeutic applicability. Therefore, it is an essential but yet a difficult task to enhance the X-ray sensitization impact while concurrently limiting the tissue scattering by the rational design of novel biological vectors. Herein, a novel Lu3Al5O12:Mn/Ca-Ce6@SiO2 nanoparticle system (LAMCCS) based on a pea-shaped LuAG:Mn/Ca nano-scintillator (LAMC) activating photosensitizer agent (Ce6) was designed. Due to the high radiosensitization of LAMC nano-scintillators and efficient energy conversion efficiency between LAMC and Ce6, more singlet oxygen (1O2) could be generated to efficiently damage DNA fragments and reveal a good effect of inhibiting the long-term proliferation of tumor cells in vitro. Significantly, synergistic therapy with PDT/radiotherapy (RT) and from LAMCCS nanocomposites may still maintain a high tumor growth inhibition rate of 72% than single RT of 10% in vivo. Owing to their excellent ability for X-ray sensitization and energy conversion, LAMCCS nanocomposites may have significant tumor growth suppression rates under lower X-ray dose irradiation due to their outstanding X-ray sensitization and energy conversion capabilities, which may open up a new avenue for the advancement of cancer therapy.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Fotoquimioterapia , Humanos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Ervilhas , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/farmacologia , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/uso terapêutico , Dióxido de Silício/uso terapêutico , Raios X
20.
Microbiol Spectr ; 10(4): e0095322, 2022 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35946942

RESUMO

The present study was conducted under the hypothesis that, in field peas, type of plant material, stage of maturity, ensiling, silage additive, and aerobic stress affect the composition and diversity of epiphytic microbial communities. Epiphytic microbial composition and diversity of pea seeds, partial crop peas, and whole crop peas was analyzed at different stages of late maturity, before and after ensiling, and with or without the use of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) as inoculant. Suitable combinations among pea crop variants, maturity stages, and inoculant use for the production of stable silages with sufficient aerobic stability after opening and during feed-out were identified. Genomic DNA was extracted, and 16S and 18S rRNA gene amplicons were sequenced. To assess the quality of the various silages, nutrient concentration, pH value, concentration of lactic acid, short chain fatty acids, and alcohols, and aerobic stability were determined. Pea seeds were barely colonized by epiphytic microorganisms. In partial and whole crop peas, composition and α-diversity (Shannon index) of bacterial communities did not differ between crop variants but differed among maturity stages. Epiphytic eukaryotes were rarely found on partial and whole crop peas. Bacterial composition and α-diversity were affected by ensiling and subsequent aerobic storage. In partial and whole crop peas, plant maturation caused an increase of the relative abundance of naturally occurring LAB (Weissella, Pediococcus, and Lactobacillus spp.). As a possible result, natural LAB support stable ensiling conditions even without the use of inoculants beginning with a maturity of 78 on the BBCH scale. This corresponded with a dry matter (DM) concentration of 341 and 363 g/kg in partial and whole crop peas, respectively. Addition of LAB inoculants, however, reduced ammonia, acetic acid, and butanol concentrations, and supported aerobic stability. Earlier stages of plant maturity (BBCH 76 and 77, 300 g DM/kg or less) were more prone to microbial spoilage. Stable pea seed silages can be produced at a maturity between BBCH 78 (427 g DM/kg) and 79 (549 g DM/kg), but they undoubtedly require LAB inoculation or application of other ensiling agents. IMPORTANCE Field peas are important protein suppliers for human and animal nutrition. They can be grown in many areas of the world, which may reduce imports of protein plants and has beneficial economic and ecological effects. Ensiling is a method of preserving feed that can be implemented easily and cost-effectively at the farm. Peas harvested as seeds, partial crop, or whole crop at different maturities enable a wide range of applications. The study characterized epiphytic microbial communities on peas in terms of composition and diversity depending on the maturity of the plants and feed conservation by ensiling as they play an essential role for the production of silages. Even if this study did not consider year, site, or cultivar effects, the results would show which part of the plant is probably well suited for the production of stable and high-quality silages and at which stage of maturity.


Assuntos
Inoculantes Agrícolas , Ervilhas , Inoculantes Agrícolas/metabolismo , Animais , Bactérias/metabolismo , Fermentação , Humanos , Ácido Láctico/metabolismo , Lactobacillus/metabolismo , Ervilhas/metabolismo , Sementes , Zea mays/química , Zea mays/metabolismo , Zea mays/microbiologia
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...