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1.
Carbohydr Polym ; 260: 117801, 2021 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33712149

RESUMO

Slowly digestible starches have received interest due to their lower increase of postprandial blood glucose and insulin levels and, hence, modification of starches towards slower digestibility has commercial interest. However, chemical characteristics driving enzymatic (digestive) degradation are not fully unraveled. The digestion properties of starches have been linked to their crystalline type, chain length distribution, amylose content or degree of branching, but content and length of relatively long side-chains in amylopectin has not been paid attention to. Therefore, this research focusses on the unique content and length of amylopectin side-chains from conventional and new starch sources (potato, corn, pea, and tulip) correlated to the enzymatic digestion. The rate of hydrolysis was found to be correlated with the crystalline type of starch, as previously suggested, however, the complete hydrolysis of all starches, independent of the crystalline type and source, was shown to be governed by the content of longer amylopectin chains.


Assuntos
Gelatina/química , Glucana 1,4-alfa-Glucosidase/metabolismo , Amido/metabolismo , alfa-Amilases/metabolismo , Cristalização , Digestão , Hidrólise , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Ervilhas/metabolismo , Solanum tuberosum/metabolismo , Amido/química , Zea mays/metabolismo
2.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(1)2021 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33430107

RESUMO

Foreign body (FB) aspiration occurs less frequently in adults than in children. Among the complications related to FB aspiration, pneumothorax is rarely reported in adults. Although the majority of FB aspiration cases can be diagnosed easily and accurately by using radiographs and bronchoscopy, some patients are misdiagnosed with endobronchial tumors. We describe a case of airway FB that mimicked an endobronchial tumor presenting with pneumothorax in an adult. A 77-year-old man was referred to our hospital due to pneumothorax and atelectasis of the right upper lobe caused by an endobronchial nodule. A chest tube was immediately inserted to decompress the pneumothorax. Chest computed tomography with contrast revealed an endobronchial nodule that was seen as contrast-enhanced. Flexible bronchoscopy was performed to biopsy the nodule. The bronchoscopy showed a yellow spherical nodule in the right upper lobar bronchus. Rat tooth forceps were used, because the lesion was too slippery to grasp with ellipsoid cup biopsy forceps. The whole nodule was extracted and was confirmed to be a FB, which was determined to be a green pea vegetable. After the procedure, the chest tube was removed, and the patient was discharged without any complications. This case highlights the importance of suspecting a FB as a cause of pneumothorax and presents the possibility of misdiagnosing an aspirated FB as an endobronchial tumor and selecting the appropriate instrument for removing an endobronchial FB.


Assuntos
Brônquios , Neoplasias Brônquicas/diagnóstico , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Corpos Estranhos/diagnóstico por imagem , Ervilhas , Derrame Pleural/diagnóstico por imagem , Pneumotórax/diagnóstico por imagem , Idoso , Broncoscopia , Corpos Estranhos/complicações , Corpos Estranhos/cirurgia , Humanos , Masculino , Derrame Pleural/etiologia , Derrame Pleural/terapia , Pneumotórax/etiologia , Pneumotórax/terapia , Aspiração Respiratória
3.
Plant Foods Hum Nutr ; 76(1): 37-45, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33387172

RESUMO

Pigeon pea protein isolates (PPI) are an option to obtain a high yield of good quality proteins and represent a great potential for the food industry. In this work, physicochemical and structural properties of albumin (ALB), globulin (GLB), and PPI obtained at different pHs (8, 9, 10, and 11) were studied to deepen the knowledge of these proteins for future application. GLB presented protein aggregates and polypeptides characteristics of 7S vicilin subunits while ALB presented polypeptides with low molecular masses. GLB showed a more compact and less flexible structure than ALB fraction due to the distinct conformational characteristics found in DSC, fluorescence spectroscopy, Ho. These structural characteristics conferred GLB greater conformational stability (∆GH2O) than ALB fraction. The latter presented a higher proportion of ß-strand in aggregated structures. PPI11 showed the highest protein recovery, but the least So with more presence of protein aggregates with the least proportion of ß-strands in aggregated structures. A higher percentage of protein unfolding and exposure of hydrophobic residues to solvent was observed as the extraction pH of the isolates increased. Enthalpy change of transition decreased, and the maximum emission wavelength shifted to red in fluorescence spectroscopy. However, PPI11 showed only a slight increase in Ho (10%) with respect to PPI8. The variation in pH for protein extraction constitutes a simple, rapid, and low-cost method to obtain PPI with physicochemical and structural properties that will determine its functional properties and their use as food ingredients.


Assuntos
Cajanus , Globulinas , Animais , Columbidae , Ervilhas , Peptídeos
4.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 106(3): 536-544, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33506325

RESUMO

An experiment was conducted to study the effects of co-composted products of municipal solid waste (MSW) and pigeon pea biochar (PPB) on heavy metal mobility in soil and its uptake by spinach. Application of municipal solid waste biochar co-compost (MSWBC) significantly (p ≤ 0.05) reduced the heavy metal content in spinach leaves and roots compared to municipal solid waste compost (MSWC) amended soil. The percent decrease in spinach leaf following the application of MSWBC-10% PPB compared to MSWC was 20.62%, 28.95%, 36.02%, 41.88%, 41.50%, and 41.23% for Cu, Cd, Pb, Cr, Ni, and Zn, respectively. The dry matter yield of spinach and soil organic carbon (SOC) content in soil amended with MSWBC-10% PPB was significantly increased by 32.75% and 47.73%; and 17.62% and 27.45% relative to control and MSWC amended soil. The study concludes that co-composted product, MSWBC, stabilized heavy metals in MSW, reduced their uptake by spinach and thus making it a viable option for safe disposal of MSW.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Metais Pesados , Poluentes do Solo , Animais , Carbono , Carvão Vegetal , Columbidae , Metais Pesados/análise , Ervilhas , Folhas de Planta/química , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Resíduos Sólidos/análise , Spinacia oleracea , Verduras
5.
Planta ; 253(1): 10, 2021 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33389194

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: The plasma membrane H+-ATPase can be considered as a redox-dependent enzyme, because diamide-mediated inhibition of its hydrolytic and transport activities is accompanied by alkalization of the rhizosphere and retardation of root growth. Plasma membranes were isolated from roots of etiolated pea seedlings treated in the presence of an oxidant-diamide and an inhibitor of redox-sensitive protein phosphatase-phenylarsine oxide. Hydrolytic and proton transport activities of H+-ATPase were determined. The effects of diamide appeared in inhibition of both ATP hydrolysis and the proton transport. However, root treatment with phenylarsine oxide only slightly reduced Vmax, but did not affect ATP-dependent proton transport. The thiol groups of cysteines in the proteins can act as molecular targets for both compounds. However, treatment of isolated membranes with diamide or dithiothreitol did not have any effect on the H+ transport. It can be assumed that water-soluble diamide acts indirectly and its effects are not associated with oxidation of H+-ATPase cysteines. Therefore, plasmalemma was subjected to PEGylation-process where reduced cysteines available for PEG maleimide (5 kDa) were alkylated. Detection of such cysteines was carried out by Western blot analysis with anti-ATPase antibodies. It was found that shifts in the apparent molecular weight were detected only for denaturated proteins. These data suggest that available thiols are not localized on the enzyme surfaces. BN-PAGE analysis showed that the molecular weights of the ATPase complexes are almost identical in all samples. Therefore, oligomerization is probably not the reason for the inhibition of ATPase activity. Roots treated with these inhibitors in vivo exhibited stunted growth; however, a strong alkaline zone around the roots was formed only in the presence of diamide. Involvement of H+-ATPase redox regulation in this process is discussed.


Assuntos
Diamida , Ervilhas , Raízes de Plantas , ATPases Translocadoras de Prótons , Membrana Celular/enzimologia , Diamida/farmacologia , Ervilhas/enzimologia , Raízes de Plantas/enzimologia , ATPases Translocadoras de Prótons/metabolismo , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Plântula/enzimologia
6.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 212: 111984, 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33517036

RESUMO

As a natural enemy of green peach aphids, harlequin ladybirds, Harmonia axyridis Pallas (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), are also indirectly affected by azadirachtin. In this study, we evaluated the effects of ladybird exposure to azadirachtin through azadirachtin-treated aphids. About 2 mg/L azadirachtin treated aphid can deliver the azadirachtin to ladybird larvae in 12 and 24 h. And azadirachtin treatment affected the rate at which fourth instar larvae and adult ladybirds preyed on aphids. Furthermore, the antifeedant effect increased with increasing azadirachtin concentrations. Twelve hours after exposing fourth instar ladybird larvae to aphids treated with 10 mg/L azadirachtin, the antifeedant effect was 47.70%. Twelve hours after exposing adult ladybirds to aphids treated with 2 mg/L azadirachtin, the antifeedant effect was 67.49%. Forty-eight hours after exposing ladybird larvae to azadirachtin-treated aphids, their bodyweights were 8.37 ± 0.044 mg (2 mg/L azadirachtin), 3.70 ± 0.491 mg (10 mg/L azadirachtin), and 2.39 ± 0.129 mg (50 mg/L azadirachtin). Treatment with azadirachtin affected the ability of ladybirds to prey on aphids. The results indicated that the instant attack rate of ladybird larvae and adults and the daily maximum predation rate were reduced by azadirachtin treatment. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), and peroxide (CAT) enzyme activities of ladybirds were affected after feeding on aphids treated with azadirachtin. Azadirachtin has certain antifeedant effects on ladybirds and affects the ability of ladybirds to prey on aphids and the activities of SOD, POD, and CAT enzymes, which results in inhibition of normal body development.


Assuntos
Afídeos/fisiologia , Besouros/enzimologia , Limoninas/toxicidade , Comportamento Predatório/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Besouros/efeitos dos fármacos , Besouros/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Besouros/fisiologia , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ervilhas
7.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2261: 535-547, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33421013

RESUMO

Comprehensive knowledge of the proteome is a crucial prerequisite to understand dynamic changes in biological systems. Particularly low-abundance proteins are of high relevance in these processes as these are often proteins involved in signal transduction and acclimation responses. Although technological advances resulted in a tremendous increase in protein identification sensitivity by mass spectrometry (MS), the dynamic range in protein abundance is still the most limiting problem for the detection of low-abundance proteins in complex proteomes. These proteins will typically escape detection in shotgun MS experiments due to the presence of high-abundance proteins. Therefore, specific enrichment strategies are still required to overcome this technical limitation of MS-based protein discovery. We have searched for novel signal transduction proteins, more specifically kinases and calcium-binding proteins, and here we describe different approaches for enrichment of these low-abundance proteins from isolated chloroplasts from pea and Arabidopsis for subsequent proteomic analysis by MS. These approaches could be extended to include other signal transduction proteins and target different organelles.


Assuntos
Fracionamento Celular , Cloroplastos/metabolismo , Cromatografia de Afinidade , Proteínas de Plantas/análise , Proteoma , Proteômica , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/análise , Espectrometria de Massas , Ervilhas/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(2)2021 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33445801

RESUMO

This study focused on the interactions of pea (Pisum sativum L.) plants with phytopathogenic and beneficial fungi. Here, we examined whether the lysin-motif (LysM) receptor-like kinase PsLYK9 is directly involved in the perception of long- and short-chain chitooligosaccharides (COs) released after hydrolysis of the cell walls of phytopathogenic fungi and identified in arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal exudates. The identification and analysis of pea mutants impaired in the lyk9 gene confirmed the involvement of PsLYK9 in symbiosis development with AM fungi. Additionally, PsLYK9 regulated the immune response and resistance to phytopathogenic fungi, suggesting its bifunctional role. The existence of co-receptors may provide explanations for the potential dual role of PsLYK9 in the regulation of interactions with pathogenic and AM fungi. Co-immunoprecipitation assay revealed that PsLYK9 and two proposed co-receptors, PsLYR4 and PsLYR3, can form complexes. Analysis of binding capacity showed that PsLYK9 and PsLYR4, synthesized as extracellular domains in insect cells, were able to bind the deacetylated (DA) oligomers CO5-DA-CO8-DA. Our results suggest that the receptor complex consisting of PsLYK9 and PsLYR4 can trigger a signal pathway that stimulates the immune response in peas. However, PsLYR3 seems not to be involved in the perception of CO4-5, as a possible co-receptor of PsLYK9.


Assuntos
Quitina/análogos & derivados , Ervilhas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Parede Celular/metabolismo , Parede Celular/microbiologia , Quitina/metabolismo , Hidrólise , Insetos/metabolismo , Micorrizas/metabolismo , Ervilhas/microbiologia , Imunidade Vegetal/fisiologia , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Células Sf9 , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Simbiose/fisiologia
9.
Food Chem ; 335: 127602, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32739807

RESUMO

Bioactive phenolics primarily contribute to versatile health benefits of pigeon pea. For the first time, an UPLC-QqQ-MS/MS method was developed for the quantitative analysis of eleven bioactive phenolic compounds in pigeon pea natural resources (seeds, leaves, and roots) and in vitro cultures (calli and hairy roots). The proposed method could be achieved within 6 min of running time, and displayed the satisfactory linearity, sensitivity, precision, accuracy, and stability. According to analytical results, the distribution of eleven target compounds in different organs of pigeon pea was clarified. Also, it was surprisingly found that pigeon pea in vitro cultures exhibited superiority in contents of genistin and cajaninstilbene acid as compared with natural resources. Overall, the present work provided a rapid and sensitive analysis approach, which could be useful not only for quality control of pigeon pea natural resources, but also for applicability and safety evaluation of pigeon pea in vitro cultures.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Ervilhas/química , Fenóis/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Controle de Qualidade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sementes/química
10.
Food Chem ; 336: 127711, 2021 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32777656

RESUMO

Wrinkled and round peas (two varieties each type) cultivated in two locations were milled to obtain fine and coarse wrinkled (WPF) and round pea flour (RPF). WPF exhibited markedly increased pasting viscosities at 120 and 140 °C compared with 95 °C. Overall, the pasting properties of WPF were considerably lower than those of RPF. Resistant starch (RS) contents of cooked WPF (17.2-22.2%, dsb) were significantly larger than those of RPF (7.9-11.4%), resulting from higher starch gelatinization temperatures, greater amylose contents, and presence of more protein and fiber in WPF. The two particle sizes affected the water-holding capacity (WHC) of WPF, gelatinization enthalpy changes (ΔH) of WPF and RPF, and pasting properties and starch digestibility of RPF. Pearson correlation and principal component analysis (PCA) were conducted to reveal the relationships among the techno-functional parameters of pea flours. Wrinkled pea showed promise to generate new pea flours with distinct functionality and enhanced nutritional value.


Assuntos
Farinha , Ervilhas/química , Amilose/química , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Digestão , Farinha/análise , Valor Nutritivo , Tamanho da Partícula , Proteínas de Vegetais Comestíveis/análise , Amido/química , Amido/farmacocinética , Temperatura , Viscosidade
11.
Food Chem ; 337: 127606, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32799168

RESUMO

To explore the effect of digestion on pea hull phenolics, an in vitro model consisting sequential oral, gastric, small and large intestinal digestions was applied to pea hulls. The phenolic content and antioxidant activity of the samples collected from these digestion steps were determined. The phenolics in these samples generally decreased in the order of sequential digestions in both red and yellow hull series, and no significant increase of total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC) and individual phenolics were found in most digested groups compared with the corresponding control groups. The antioxidant activity of the samples generally changed according to their TPC and strong correlations (r > 0.92, p < 0.001) existed between them in red hull series. The present study implies that phenolics are released gradually from pea hulls during in vitro digestion and their release was mainly due to the pH of the digestion.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Ervilhas/química , Fenóis/análise , Sementes/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cor , Flavonoides/análise , Flavonoides/química , Flavonoides/farmacocinética , Fenóis/química , Fenóis/farmacocinética
12.
Food Chem ; 338: 128074, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32950011

RESUMO

A separation and analysis method of fosthiazate stereoisomers was established utilizing supercritical fluid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (SFC-MS/MS) with a CHIRALPAK AD-3 column. The determination of the four fosthiazate stereoisomers could be completed within 6 min. The environmental behaviors of fosthiazate stereoisomers were studied in legume vegetables. After applying fosthiazate granules to soil, the concentrations of fosthiazate stereoisomers in the legume vegetables increased with time, reached maximum values in 7-10 days, and then decreased gradually in all legumes except for in Glycine max. No obvious dissipation behaviors were observed in Glycine max. Interestingly, the stereoselective behaviors were species-specific. A-(-), B-(-) and B-(±)-fosthiazate were preferentially enriched in Phaseolus vulgaris Linn and Vigna unguiculata, while A-(+) and A-(±)-fosthiazate preferentially accumulated in Vicia faba Linn, Pisum sativum Linn and G. max. The opposite stereoselectivity of B-(±)-fosthiazate was observed in different growth stage of G. max. No stereoselective dissipation occurred in soil.


Assuntos
Fabaceae/química , Compostos Organofosforados/química , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Tiazolidinas/química , Cromatografia com Fluido Supercrítico , Fabaceae/metabolismo , Ervilhas/química , Ervilhas/metabolismo , Phaseolus/química , Phaseolus/metabolismo , Soja/química , Soja/metabolismo , Estereoisomerismo , Vicia faba/química , Vicia faba/metabolismo
13.
Food Chem ; 334: 127589, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32707366

RESUMO

Postharvest, pea vine field residue (haulm) was steam-sterilised and then juiced; a chloroplast-rich fraction (CRF) was recovered from the juice by centrifugation. The stability of selected nutrients (ß-carotene, lutein, and α-tocopherol) in the freeze-dried CRF material was measured over 84 days; the impact of temperature (-20 °C, 4 °C, 25 °C and 40 °C), light and air on nutrient stability was established. All three nutrients were stable at -20 °C and 4 °C in the presence or absence of air; this stability was lost at higher temperatures in the presence of air. The extent and rate of nutrient breakdown significantly increased when the CRF samples were exposed to light. ß-Carotene appeared to be more susceptible to degradation than lutein and α-tocopherol at 40 °C in the presence of air, but when CRF was exposed to light all three nutrients measured were significantly broken down during storage at 25 °C or 40 °C, whether exposed to air or not.


Assuntos
Cloroplastos/química , Nutrientes/química , Ervilhas/química , Caules de Planta/química , Esterilização/métodos , Ar , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Liofilização , Luteína/análise , Luteína/química , Nutrientes/análise , Vapor , Temperatura , alfa-Tocoferol/análise , alfa-Tocoferol/química , beta Caroteno/análise , beta Caroteno/química
14.
Food Chem ; 338: 128010, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32932084

RESUMO

Potential improvements to the physical properties of brittle, self-assembled zein networks through microbial transglutaminase crosslinking were investigated. The formation of crosslinked heteropolymers was also explored with networks containing zein and either soy or pea protein isolates as supplemented lysine sources. The observed SDS-PAGE bands did not show any evidence of zein crosslinking. Soy and pea isolates underwent extensive crosslinking on their own, but heteropolymers were not observed in multiprotein networks with zein. Despite the lack of crosslinking observed, rheological and textural analysis revealed that the enzymatic treatment of zein produced a weaker, more brittle structure. With no significant changes in secondary structure, determined through FTIR, the observed behaviour was primarily attributed to glutamine deamidation by microbial transglutaminase in the absence of sufficient lysine through changes to the hydrophobicity of the protein such that non-covalent bonding within network was modified.


Assuntos
Transglutaminases/metabolismo , Zeína/química , Reagentes para Ligações Cruzadas/química , Eletroforese em Gel de Poliacrilamida , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Lisina/química , Ervilhas/química , Estrutura Secundária de Proteína , Reologia , Proteínas de Soja/química , Proteínas de Soja/metabolismo , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Transglutaminases/química , Zeína/metabolismo
15.
J Sci Food Agric ; 101(1): 167-178, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32613616

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Peas are an inexpensive yet nutritious and sustainable source of protein. However, it is challenging to incorporate pea proteins into food formulations owing to their beany or green off-flavours and their limited water solubility. RESULTS: Vacuum microwave dehydration (VMD) of pea protein with an initial moisture content of 425% (dry basis, db) at 2 W g-1 specific microwave energy and 200 Torr vacuum level for 88 min led to an 83% reduction in total volatile compound concentration. VMD processing at high initial moisture contents facilitated the Maillard reaction, enhancing the extent of protein cross-linking, leading to a marked decrease in soluble protein content, to 11 g kg-1 . Reducing the initial moisture content to 56% db greatly retained protein solubility (112-113 g kg-1 ), but it only led to a minor reduction in total volatile compound concentration (2-11% reduction). A high microwave energy (20 W g-1 )-short time (2 min) treatment at 200 Torr vacuum level was found optimal, reducing both volatile levels and soluble protein content by ~50%. CONCLUSION: Evidently, it is difficult to employ VMD without reduction of pea protein solubility and corresponding changing in functionality. Yet, if optimized, VMD has the capability to decrease volatile concentrations while retaining protein solubility. Future sensory analysis should be conducted to determine whether the aforementioned reductions in total volatile compound concentration may have a notable effect on consumer palatability. © 2020 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Dessecação/métodos , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Ervilhas/efeitos da radiação , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Sementes/química , Dessecação/instrumentação , Aromatizantes/química , Manipulação de Alimentos/instrumentação , Micro-Ondas , Ervilhas/química , Sementes/efeitos da radiação , Vácuo
16.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(1): 368-376, 2021 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33356225

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate six food-grade peptidase preparations, namely, Flavourzyme 1000L, Protease P "Amano" 6SD, DeltazymAPS-M-FG, Promod278, ProteAX-K, and Peptidase R, regarding their use for the hydrolysis of soy, pea, and canola protein. The relationship between the specific peptidase activities and, first, the degree of hydrolysis, second, the free amino acid profiles of the hydrolysates, and, third, the corresponding taste of the hydrolysates was analyzed using a random forest model. The taste attributes bitter and umami were of special interest. The peptidase ProteAX-K was the biocatalyst most suited for the high umami and low bitter taste of the plant-based protein hydrolysates based on the experimental results and the random forest model.


Assuntos
Brassica napus/química , Aromatizantes/química , Ervilhas/química , Peptídeo Hidrolases/química , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Soja/química , Humanos , Hidrólise , Paladar
17.
Plant Foods Hum Nutr ; 75(4): 642-650, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33097987

RESUMO

Recently, legume protein isolates are increasingly of interest as ingredients for the food industry; however, in spite of their health benefits, there is a limited information about the presence of bioactive compounds in the protein isolates. The objective of this study was to establish the phytochemical composition and selected techno-functional properties of pea and bean flours and their protein isolates obtained applying different drying methods. Regarding proximate composition, bean flour contained higher amounts of total protein (23%) and fat (44%) than pea flour; bean protein isolate (BPI) contained higher total and soluble protein, fat and starch than the pea protein isolate (PPI). Both protein isolates showed a similar emulsifying capacity (around 27%). Emulsion stability and foaming capacity were higher in the PPI (around 36%). Bean flour contained lower amounts of α-galactosides (31.64 mg/g) but a higher trypsin inhibitors content (21.95 TIU/mg) than pea flour. The preparation procedure of the protein isolates affected the bioactive compound content. The PPI showed a reduction of inositol phosphates (13%), galactosides (76%), trypsin inhibitors (90%) and total phenolic compounds (35%) compared to its whole flour. The BPI contained higher amounts of inositol phosphates (137%) and total phenolic compounds (135%) than its flour, while it showed a lower content of galactosides (54%) and a similar amount of trypsin inhibitors. Thus, the bioactive compound content and the functional properties studied indicate that protein isolates can be used as ingredients with added-value in the development of new formulated food products, allowing their increasing use in the food industry.


Assuntos
Fabaceae , Farinha , Ervilhas , Compostos Fitoquímicos , Inibidores da Tripsina
18.
Elife ; 92020 09 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32909941

RESUMO

In 2016 we reported evidence for associative learning in plants (Gagliano et al., 2016). In view of the far-reaching implications of this finding we welcome the attempt made by Markel to replicate our study (Markel, 2020). However, as we discuss here, the protocol employed by Markel was unsuitable for testing for associative learning.


Assuntos
Condicionamento Clássico , Ervilhas
19.
Elife ; 92020 09 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32909944

RESUMO

In 2016 Gagliano et al. reported evidence for associative learning in plants (Gagliano et al., 2016). A subsequent attempt to replicate this finding by the present author was not successful (Markel, 2020). Gagliano et al. attribute this lack of replication to differences in the experimental set-ups used in the original work and the replication attempt (Gagliano et al., 2020). Here, based on a comparison of the two set-ups, I argue that these differences are unable to explain the lack of replication in Markel, 2020.


Assuntos
Condicionamento Clássico , Ervilhas
20.
Chemosphere ; 258: 127411, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32947668

RESUMO

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs as an important group of emerging environmental contaminants in irrigation water and soils can influence biochemical and physiological processes essential for growth and development in plants as non-target organisms. Plants are able to take up, transport, transform, and accumulate drugs in the roots. Root biomass in ten-days old pea plants was lowered by 6% already under 0.1 mg/L naproxen (NPX) due to a lowered number of lateral roots, although 0.5 mg/L NPX stimulated the total root length by 30% as against control. Higher section area (by 40%) in root tip, area of xylem (by 150%) or stele-to-section ratio (by 10%) in zone of maturation, and lower section area in zone of lateral roots (by 18%) prove the changes in primary root anatomy and its earlier differentiation at 10 mg/L NPX. Accumulated NPX (up to 10 µg/g DW at 10 mg/L) and products of its metabolization in roots increased the amounts of hydrogen peroxide (by 33%), and superoxide (by 62%), which was reflected in elevated lipid peroxidation (by 32%), disruption of membrane integrity (by 89%) and lowering both oxidoreductase and dehydrogenase activities (by up to 40%). Elevated antioxidant capacity (SOD, APX, and other molecules) under low treatments decreased at 10 mg/L NPX (both by approx. 30%). Naproxen was proved to cause changes at both cellular and tissue levels in roots, which was also reflected in their anatomy and morphology. Higher environmental loading through drugs thus can influence even the root function.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/toxicidade , Naproxeno/toxicidade , Ervilhas/fisiologia , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ervilhas/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas
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