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1.
Molecules ; 26(19)2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34641502

RESUMO

Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) have recently been attracting the attention of plant biologists as a prospective tool for modulation of photosynthesis in higher plants. However, the exact mode of action of SWCNT on the photosynthetic electron transport chain remains unknown. In this work, we examined the effect of foliar application of polymer-grafted SWCNT on the donor side of photosystem II, the intersystem electron transfer chain and the acceptor side of photosystem I. Analysis of the induction curves of chlorophyll fluorescence via JIP test and construction of differential curves revealed that SWCNT concentrations up to 100 mg/L did not affect the photosynthetic electron transport chain. SWCNT concentration of 300 mg/L had no effect on the photosystem II donor side but provoked inactivation of photosystem II reaction centres and slowed down the reduction of the plastoquinone pool and the photosystem I end acceptors. Changes in the modulated reflection at 820 nm, too, indicated slower re-reduction of photosystem I reaction centres in SWCNT-treated leaves. We conclude that SWCNT are likely to be able to divert electrons from the photosynthetic electron transport chain at the level of photosystem I end acceptors and plastoquinone pool in vivo. Further research is needed to unequivocally prove if the observed effects are due to specific interaction between SWCNT and the photosynthetic apparatus.


Assuntos
Nanotubos de Carbono , Ervilhas/efeitos dos fármacos , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema I/metabolismo , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II/metabolismo , Clorofila/metabolismo , Transporte de Elétrons/efeitos dos fármacos , Fluorescência , Nanotubos de Carbono/química , Ervilhas/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Polímeros/química
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445676

RESUMO

Starch is the most abundant storage carbohydrate and a major component in pea seeds, accounting for about 50% of dry seed weight. As a by-product of pea protein processing, current uses for pea starch are limited to low-value, commodity markets. The globally growing demand for pea protein poses a great challenge for the pea fractionation industry to develop new markets for starch valorization. However, there exist gaps in our understanding of the genetic mechanism underlying starch metabolism, and its relationship with physicochemical and functional properties, which is a prerequisite for targeted tailoring functionality and innovative applications of starch. This review outlines the understanding of starch metabolism with a particular focus on peas and highlights the knowledge of pea starch granule structure and its relationship with functional properties, and industrial applications. Using the currently available pea genetics and genomics knowledge and breakthroughs in omics technologies, we discuss the perspectives and possible avenues to advance our understanding of starch metabolism in peas at an unprecedented level, to ultimately enable the molecular design of multi-functional native pea starch and to create value-added utilization.


Assuntos
Metabolismo dos Carboidratos/fisiologia , Ervilhas/metabolismo , Amido/metabolismo , Ervilhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/metabolismo , Amido/isolamento & purificação
3.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 167: 607-618, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34464827

RESUMO

This study investigates the impacts of zinc oxide nanoparticles: bare (ZnO NPs) and ZnO NPs coated with silicon shell (ZnO-Si NPs), on Pisum sativum L. under physiological and salt stress conditions. The experimental results revealed that the foliar spray with ZnO-Si NPs and 200 mg/L ZnO NPs did not influence the stomata structure, the membrane integrity, and the functions of both photosystems under physiological conditions, while 400 mg/L ZnO-Si NPs had beneficial effects on the effective quantum yield of photosystem II (PSII) and the photochemistry of photosystem I (PSI). On the contrary, small phytotoxic effects were registered after spraying with 400 mg/L ZnO NPs accompanied by stimulation of the cyclic electron flow around PSI and an increase of the non-photochemical quenching (NPQ). The results also showed that both types of NPs (with exception of 400 mg/L ZnO NPs) decrease the negative effects of 100 mM NaCl on the photochemistry of PSI (P700 photooxidation) and PSII (qp, Fv/Fm, Fv/Fo, ΦPSII, Φexc), as well as on the pigment content, stomata closure and membrane integrity. The protective effect was stronger after spraying with ZnO-Si NPs in comparison to ZnO NPs, which could be due to the presence of Si coating shell. The role of Si shell is discussed.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas , Óxido de Zinco , Clorofila , Nanopartículas/toxicidade , Ervilhas/metabolismo , Fotossíntese , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Estresse Salino , Óxido de Zinco/farmacologia
4.
J Chem Ecol ; 47(8-9): 740-746, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34347235

RESUMO

Aphids are destructive pests, and alarm pheromones play a key role in their chemical ecology. Here, we conducted a detailed analysis of terpenoids in the vetch aphid, Megoura viciae, and its host plant Pisum sativum using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Four major components, (-)-ß-pinene (49.74%), (E)-ß-farnesene (32.64%), (-)-α-pinene (9.42%) and ( +)-limonene (5.24%), along with trace amounts of ( +)-sabinene, camphene and α-terpineol) (3.14%) were found in the aphid. In contrast, few terpenoids were found in the host plant, consisting mainly of squalene (66.13%) and its analog 2,3-epoxysqualene (31.59%). Quantitative analysis of the four major terpenes in different developmental stages of the aphid showed that amounts of the monoterpenes increased with increasing stage, while the sesquiterpene amount peaked in the 3rd instar. (-)-ß-Pinene was the most abundant terpene at all developmental stages. Behavioral assays using a three-compartment olfactometer revealed that the repellency of single compounds varied in a concentration-dependent manner, but two mixtures [(-)-α-pinene: (-)-ß-pinene: (E)-ß-farnesene: ( +)-limonene = 1:44.4:6.5:2.2 or 1:18.4:1.3:0.8], were repellent at all concentrations tested. Our results suggest that (-)-α-pinene and (-)-ß-pinene are the major active components of the alarm pheromone of M. viciae, but that mixtures play a key role in the alarm response. Our study contributes to the understanding of the chemical ecology of aphids and may help design new control strategies against this aphid pest.


Assuntos
Afídeos/fisiologia , Ervilhas/química , Feromônios/química , Terpenos/química , Animais , Afídeos/química , Afídeos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Monoterpenos Bicíclicos/isolamento & purificação , Monoterpenos Bicíclicos/farmacologia , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Controle de Insetos/métodos , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida , Ervilhas/metabolismo , Ervilhas/parasitologia , Feromônios/análise , Feromônios/farmacologia , Sesquiterpenos/isolamento & purificação , Sesquiterpenos/farmacologia , Terpenos/análise , Terpenos/farmacologia
5.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 15881, 2021 08 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34354102

RESUMO

Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a disease of the heart muscle that affects both humans and dogs. Certain canine diets have been associated with DCM, but the diet-disease link is unexplained, and novel methods are needed to elucidate mechanisms. We conducted metabolomic profiling of 9 diets associated with canine DCM, containing ≥ 3 pulses, potatoes, or sweet potatoes as main ingredients, and in the top 16 dog diet brands most frequently associated with canine DCM cases reported to the FDA (3P/FDA diets), and 9 non-3P/FDA diets. We identified 88 named biochemical compounds that were higher in 3P/FDA diets and 23 named compounds that were lower in 3P/FDA diets. Amino acids, amino acid-derived compounds, and xenobiotics/plant compounds were the largest categories of biochemicals that were higher in 3P/FDA diets. Random forest analyses identified the top 30 compounds that distinguished the two diet groups with 100% predictive accuracy. Four diet ingredients distinguished the two diet groups (peas, lentils, chicken/turkey, and rice). Of these ingredients, peas showed the greatest association with higher concentrations of compounds in 3P/FDA diets. Moreover, the current foodomics analyses highlight relationships between diet and DCM in dogs that can identify possible etiologies for understanding diet-disease relationships in dogs and humans.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/etiologia , Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/metabolismo , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Ração Animal/efeitos adversos , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/veterinária , Dieta/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/etiologia , Cães , Ecocardiografia , Lens (Planta)/metabolismo , Metabolômica , Oryza/metabolismo , Ervilhas/metabolismo
6.
Biochemistry (Mosc) ; 86(7): 878-886, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34284711

RESUMO

The effects of superoxide dismutase (SOD) inhibitors, diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC), triethylenetetramine (trien), and their combination with glucose on cells of the epidermis from pea leaves of different age (rapidly growing young leaves and slowly growing old leaves) was investigated. DDC and trien caused death of the guard cells as determined by destruction of their nuclei. Glucose did not affect destruction of the nuclei induced by SOD inhibitors in the cells from old leaves, but intensified it in the cells from young leaves. 2-Deoxyglucose, an inhibitor of glycolysis, and propyl gallate, SOD-mimic and antioxidant, suppressed destruction of the nuclei that was caused by SOD inhibitors and glucose in cells of the epidermis from the young, but not from the old leaves. Glucose and trien stimulated, and propyl gallate reduced generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the pea epidermis as determined by the fluorescence of 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein (DCF). Carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP), a protonophoric uncoupler of oxidative and photosynthetic phosphorylation, suppressed the DCF fluorescence in the guard cells. Treatment of the cells with CCCP followed by its removal with washing increased destruction of the nuclei caused by SOD inhibitors and glucose. In young leaves, CCCP was less effective than in old ones. The findings demonstrate the effects of SOD inhibitors and glucose on the cell death and generation of ROS and could indicate glycolysis-dependent ROS production.


Assuntos
Ditiocarb/farmacologia , Glucose/metabolismo , Ervilhas/efeitos dos fármacos , Epiderme Vegetal/efeitos dos fármacos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Superóxido Dismutase/antagonistas & inibidores , Trientina/farmacologia , Morte Celular , Quelantes/farmacologia , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Glucose/farmacologia , Ervilhas/enzimologia , Ervilhas/metabolismo , Ervilhas/fisiologia , Epiderme Vegetal/enzimologia , Epiderme Vegetal/metabolismo , Epiderme Vegetal/fisiologia , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/enzimologia , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia
7.
J Plant Physiol ; 262: 153446, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34051591

RESUMO

The shoot epidermal cell wall in land-plants is associated with a polyester, cutin, which controls water loss and possibly organ expansion. Covalent bonds between cutin and its neighbouring cell-wall polysaccharides have long been proposed. However, the lack of biochemical evidence makes cutin-polysaccharide linkages largely conjectural. Here we optimised a portfolio of radiochemical assays to look for cutin-polysaccharide ester bonds in the epidermis of pea epicotyls, ice-plant leaves and tomato fruits, based on the hypothesis that a transacylase remodels cutin in a similar fashion to cutin synthase and cutin:cutin transacylase activities. Through in-situ enzyme assays and chemical degradations coupled with chromatographic analysis of the 3H-labelled products, we observed that among several wall-related oligosaccharides tested, only a xyloglucan oligosaccharide ([3H]XXXGol) could acquire ester-bonds from endogenous cutin, suggesting a cutin:xyloglucan transacylase (CXT). CXT activity was heat-labile, time-dependent, and maximal at near-neutral pH values. In-situ CXT activity peaked in nearly fully expanded tomato fruits and ice-plant leaves. CXT activity positively correlated with organ growth rate, suggesting that it contributes to epidermal integrity during rapid expansion. This study uncovers hitherto unappreciated re-structuring processes in the plant epidermis and provides a step towards the identification of CXT and its engineering for biotechnological applications.


Assuntos
Aciltransferases/metabolismo , Parede Celular/metabolismo , Glucanos/metabolismo , Lipídeos de Membrana/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Polissacarídeos/metabolismo , Xilanos/metabolismo , Lycopersicon esculentum/metabolismo , Mesembryanthemum/metabolismo , Ervilhas/metabolismo
8.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(18): 5392-5404, 2021 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33843218

RESUMO

Resistant starches (RSs) with different structural features were isolated from both native and pullulanase-debranched and acid-hydrolyzed pea starches. Their microscopic changes, short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) composition, microbiota communities, and structural characteristics of the corresponding fermenta residues by the end of 24 h of the in vitro fermentation period were investigated. The microbial fermentation clearly caused numerous cracks and erosion on the RS granule surface. In comparison to the positive control, significantly higher levels of butyrate, propionate, and total SCFA were produced after 24 h of in vitro fecal fermentation when resistant starches were used as substrates. The RS substrates with different structural characteristics enabled varying growth of Bifidobacterium spp., Eubacterium spp., and Faecalibacterium spp. The discrepancy in microbiota communities associated with the differences in SCFA from the fermentation of RS with different structural features would be critical toward the rational design of foods containing resistant starch with targeted health benefits.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Amido Resistente , Anaerobiose , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis , Fezes , Fermentação , Ervilhas/metabolismo , Amido/metabolismo
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(9)2021 Apr 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33925728

RESUMO

In angiosperms, the mature seed consists of embryo, endosperm, and a maternal plant-derived seed coat (SC). The SC plays a role in seed filling, protects the embryo, mediates dormancy and germination, and facilitates the dispersal of seeds. SC properties have been modified during the domestication process, resulting in the removal of dormancy, mediated by SC impermeability. This study compares the SC anatomy and histochemistry of two wild (JI64 and JI1794) and two domesticated (cv. Cameor and JI92) pea genotypes. Histochemical staining of five developmental stages: 13, 21, 27, 30 days after anthesis (DAA), and mature dry seeds revealed clear differences between both pea types. SC thickness is established early in the development (13 DAA) and is primarily governed by macrosclereid cells. Polyanionic staining by Ruthenium Red indicated non homogeneity of the SC, with a strong signal in the hilum, the micropyle, and the upper parts of the macrosclereids. High peroxidase activity was detected in both wild and cultivated genotypes and increased over the development peaking prior to desiccation. The detailed knowledge of SC anatomy is important for any molecular or biochemical studies, including gene expression and proteomic analysis, especially when comparing different genotypes and treatments. Analysis is useful for other crop-to-wild-progenitor comparisons of economically important legume crops.


Assuntos
Ervilhas/genética , Ervilhas/metabolismo , Sementes/genética , Domesticação , Endosperma , Genótipo , Germinação , Magnoliopsida/genética , Magnoliopsida/metabolismo , Proteômica , Sementes/metabolismo
10.
J Sci Food Agric ; 101(14): 5792-5806, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33792043

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Significant amounts of nutrients, including dietary fibers, proteins, minerals, and vitamins are present in legumes, but the presence of anti-nutritional factors (ANFs) like phytic acid, tannins, and enzyme inhibitors impact the consumption of legumes and nutrient availability. In this research, the effect of a physical process (sonication or precooking) and fermentation with Lactobacillus plantarum and Pediococcus acidilactici on the ANFs of some legumes was evaluated. RESULTS: Total phenolic content was significantly (P < 0.05) reduced for modified and fermented substrates compared with non-fermented controls. Trypsin inhibitory activity (TIA) was reduced significantly for all substrates except for unsonicated soybean and lentils fermented with L. plantarum and P. acidilactici. When physical processing was done, there was a decrease in TIA for all the substrate. Phytic acid content decreased for physically modified soybean and lentil but not significantly for green pea. Even though there was a decrease in ANFs, there was no significant change in in vitro protein digestibility for all substrates except for unsonicated L. plantarum fermented soybean flour and precooked L. plantarum fermented lentil. Similarly, there was a change in amino acid content when physically modified and fermented. CONCLUSION: Both modified and unmodified soybean flour, green pea flour, and lentil flour supported the growth of L. plantarum and P. acidilactici. The fermentation of this physically processed legume and pulse flours influenced the non-nutritive compounds, thereby potentially improving nutritional quality and usage. © 2021 The Authors. Journal of The Science of Food and Agriculture published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Farinha/microbiologia , Lactobacillus plantarum/metabolismo , Lens (Planta)/microbiologia , Ervilhas/microbiologia , Fermentação , Farinha/análise , Manipulação de Alimentos , Lactobacillus plantarum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lens (Planta)/química , Lens (Planta)/metabolismo , Avaliação Nutricional , Ervilhas/química , Ervilhas/metabolismo , Ácido Fítico/análise , Ácido Fítico/metabolismo , Sementes/química , Sementes/metabolismo , Sementes/microbiologia
11.
Plant Cell Physiol ; 62(5): 784-797, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33826728

RESUMO

The use of pulses as ingredients for the production of food products rich in plant proteins is increasing. However, protein fractions prepared from pea or other pulses contain significant amounts of saponins, glycosylated triterpenes that can impart an undesirable bitter taste when used as an ingredient in foodstuffs. In this article, we describe the identification and characterization of a gene involved in saponin biosynthesis during pea seed development, by screening mutants obtained from two Pisum sativum TILLING (Targeting Induced Local Lesions IN Genomes) populations in two different genetic backgrounds. The mutations studied are located in a gene designated PsBAS1 (ß-amyrin synthase1), which is highly expressed in maturing pea seeds and which encodes a protein previously shown to correspond to an active ß-amyrin synthase. The first allele is a nonsense mutation, while the second mutation is located in a splice site and gives rise to a mis-spliced transcript encoding a truncated, nonfunctional protein. The homozygous mutant seeds accumulated virtually no saponin without affecting the seed nutritional or physiological quality. Interestingly, BAS1 appears to control saponin accumulation in all other tissues of the plant examined. These lines represent a first step in the development of pea varieties lacking bitterness off-flavors in their seeds. Our work also shows that TILLING populations in different genetic backgrounds represent valuable genetic resources for both crop improvement and functional genomics.


Assuntos
Transferases Intramoleculares/metabolismo , Ervilhas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Saponinas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Transferases Intramoleculares/genética , Mutação com Perda de Função , Ervilhas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Saponinas/química , Saponinas/genética , Sementes/genética , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/metabolismo , Análise Espaço-Temporal
12.
Carbohydr Polym ; 263: 117932, 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33858566

RESUMO

According to the high interest in agro-industrial waste reutilisation, underutilised lignocellulosic materials, such as walnut shell (WS) and pea pod (PP), come in focus. The aim of this paper was to evaluate WS and PP as sources for the production of xylooligosaccharides (XOS). Hemicelluloses from WS and PP were recovered by combining varying parameters of delignification and alkaline extraction. At optimal recovery conditions, the fractions were further hydrolysed to XOS using GH11 endo-xylanase, by varying time and enzyme concentration. Xylose was predominant in the monomeric composition of the obtained hemicelluloses, building low-branched (arabino)glucuronoxylan, in WS exclusively, while in PP some xyloglucan as well. Delignification was essential for high recovery of total xylose from the materials, up to at least 70 %. High xylan conversions were obtained for 24 h hydrolysis, resulting in xylobiose and xylotriose when using low enzyme concentration, while in xylose and xylobiose with high enzyme concentration.


Assuntos
Fracionamento Químico/métodos , Glucuronatos/química , Juglans/química , Juglans/metabolismo , Oligossacarídeos/química , Ervilhas/química , Ervilhas/metabolismo , Glucuronatos/isolamento & purificação , Hidrólise , Juglans/anatomia & histologia , Oligossacarídeos/isolamento & purificação , Ervilhas/anatomia & histologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Polissacarídeos/química , Polissacarídeos/metabolismo , Açúcares/análise , Xilanos/química , Xilanos/isolamento & purificação , Xilose/análise , Xilose/isolamento & purificação , Xilose/metabolismo
13.
Cells ; 10(4)2021 04 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33923901

RESUMO

The accumulation of proline is one of the defense mechanisms of plants against the harmful effects of adverse environmental conditions; however, when pea plants were treated for 12 h with CdCl2, the proline concentration decreased in the youngest A (not expanded) and B1 (expanded) leaves, and did not change significantly in the B2 (mature, expanded) or C (the oldest) leaves. After 24 h of cadmium (Cd) stress, the proline concentration remained low in A and B1 leaves, while in B2 and C leaves, it increased, and after 48 h, an increase in the proline concentration in the leaves at each stage of development was observed. The role of proline in the different phases of plant response to the Cd treatment is discussed. Changes in proline accumulation corresponded closely with changes in the transcript levels of PsP5CS2, a gene encoding D1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase involved in proline synthesis, and PsPDH1, a gene encoding proline dehydrogenase engaged in proline degradation. CdCl2 application induced the expression of PsProT1 and PsProT2, genes encoding proline transporters, especially during the first 12 h of treatment in A and B1 leaves. When the time courses of abscisic acid (ABA) and proline accumulation were compared, it was concluded that an increase in the proline concentration in the leaves of Cd-treated pea plants was more related to a decrease in chlorophyll concentration (leaves B2 and C) and an increase in the malondialdehyde level (A and B1 leaves) than with an increase in ABA concentration alone. Exogenous application of ABA (0.5, 5, 50 µM) significantly increased the proline concentration in the A leaves of pea plants only, and was accompanied by an elevated and repressed expression of PsP5CS2 and PsPDH1 in these leaves, respectively. The presented results suggest that under Cd stress, the accumulation of proline in leaves of pea plants may take place independently of the ABA signaling.


Assuntos
Ácido Abscísico/farmacologia , Cádmio/toxicidade , Ervilhas/metabolismo , Ervilhas/fisiologia , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Prolina/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico , Sequência de Bases , Transporte Biológico/genética , Clorofila/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Genes de Plantas , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Ervilhas/efeitos dos fármacos , Ervilhas/genética , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Prolina/farmacologia , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/efeitos dos fármacos
15.
Carbohydr Polym ; 260: 117801, 2021 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33712149

RESUMO

Slowly digestible starches have received interest due to their lower increase of postprandial blood glucose and insulin levels and, hence, modification of starches towards slower digestibility has commercial interest. However, chemical characteristics driving enzymatic (digestive) degradation are not fully unraveled. The digestion properties of starches have been linked to their crystalline type, chain length distribution, amylose content or degree of branching, but content and length of relatively long side-chains in amylopectin has not been paid attention to. Therefore, this research focusses on the unique content and length of amylopectin side-chains from conventional and new starch sources (potato, corn, pea, and tulip) correlated to the enzymatic digestion. The rate of hydrolysis was found to be correlated with the crystalline type of starch, as previously suggested, however, the complete hydrolysis of all starches, independent of the crystalline type and source, was shown to be governed by the content of longer amylopectin chains.


Assuntos
Gelatina/química , Glucana 1,4-alfa-Glucosidase/metabolismo , Amido/metabolismo , alfa-Amilases/metabolismo , Cristalização , Digestão , Hidrólise , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Ervilhas/metabolismo , Solanum tuberosum/metabolismo , Amido/química , Zea mays/metabolismo
16.
Plant Sci ; 305: 110846, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33691972

RESUMO

Legume nodules are a unique plant organ that contain nitrogen-fixing rhizobial bacteria. For this interaction to be mutually beneficial, plant and bacterial metabolism must be precisely co-ordinated. Plant hormones are known to play essential roles during the establishment of legume-rhizobial symbioses but their role in subsequent nodule metabolism has not been explored in any depth. The plant hormones brassinosteroids, ethylene and gibberellins influence legume infection, nodule number and in some cases nodule function. In this paper, the influence of these hormones on nodule metabolism was examined in a series of well characterised pea mutants with altered hormone biosynthesis or response. A targeted set of metabolites involved in nutrient exchange and nitrogen fixation was examined in nodule tissue of mutant and wild type plants. Gibberellin-deficiency had a major negative impact on the level of several major dicarboxylates supplied to rhizobia by the plant and also led to a significant deficit in the amino acids involved in glutamine-aspartate transamination, consistent with the limited bacteroid development and low fixation rate of gibberellin-deficient na mutant nodules. In contrast, no major effects of brassinosteroid-deficiency or ethylene-insensitivity on the key metabolites in these pathways were found. Therefore, although all three hormones influence infection and nodule number, only gibberellin is important for the establishment of a functional nodule metabolome.


Assuntos
Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Fixação de Nitrogênio/efeitos dos fármacos , Ervilhas/genética , Ervilhas/metabolismo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Nodulação/efeitos dos fármacos , Nódulos Radiculares de Plantas/metabolismo , Simbiose/efeitos dos fármacos , Brassinosteroides/metabolismo , Etilenos/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Giberelinas/metabolismo , Mutação , Ervilhas/microbiologia , Rhizobium/fisiologia
17.
Microbiol Res ; 248: 126736, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33740672

RESUMO

Comparative proteome analysis of Erysiphe pisi-infected pea genotypes; JI-2480 carrying er2 resistant gene and Arkel, the susceptible genotype by liquid chromatography- mass spectrometry (LCMS/MS QTOF) at 72 h post inoculation (hpi) revealed several differentially abundant proteins (DAPs) of both the host and the pathogen. The functional annotation of proteins through gene enrichment and KEGG pathway analyses revealed strong up-regulation of pathogenesis related protein NPR1, proteins related to defense, transportation and signal transduction, hypersensitive response, cell wall modifications, phenylpropanoid and metabolic pathways in J-72. Significant abundance of membrane-related polypeptides, kinase domains and small GTPase signal transduction-related proteins suggested their major role in plant defense. The abundance of cellular antioxidant protein, catalase and its isozyme along with calreticulin-1 and 2 in J-72 confirmed their intervention in maintaining a redox balance in powdery mildew defense. High abundance levels of Glycolysis-related proteins indicated it as a major pathway for energy source during fungal growth. The majority of pathogenicity and virulence genes were downregulated in J-72 compared to A-72, while four EKA (Effectors homologues to Avk1 and Avra10) like avirulence proteins were significantly upregulated in incompatible interaction suggesting their role in eliciting hypersensitive response in pea against E. pisi.


Assuntos
Erysiphe/genética , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Ervilhas/genética , Ervilhas/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Erysiphe/química , Erysiphe/metabolismo , Erysiphe/patogenicidade , Proteínas Fúngicas/química , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Ervilhas/química , Ervilhas/metabolismo , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Proteômica , Virulência
18.
J Exp Bot ; 72(7): 2611-2626, 2021 03 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33558872

RESUMO

Pea is a legume crop producing protein-rich seeds and is increasingly in demand for human consumption and animal feed. The aim of this study was to explore the proteome of developing pea seeds at three key stages covering embryogenesis, the transition to seed-filling, and the beginning of storage-protein synthesis, and to investigate how the proteome was influenced by S deficiency and water stress, applied either separately or combined. Of the 3184 proteins quantified by shotgun proteomics, 2473 accumulated at particular stages, thus providing insights into the proteome dynamics at these stages. Differential analyses in response to the stresses and inference of a protein network using the whole proteomics dataset identified a cluster of antioxidant proteins (including a glutathione S-transferase, a methionine sulfoxide reductase, and a thioredoxin) possibly involved in maintaining redox homeostasis during early seed development and preventing cellular damage under stress conditions. Integration of the proteomics data with previously obtained transcriptomics data at the transition to seed-filling revealed the transcriptional events associated with the accumulation of the stress-regulated antioxidant proteins. This transcriptional defense response involves genes of sulfate homeostasis and assimilation, thus providing candidates for targeted studies aimed at dissecting the signaling cascade linking S metabolism to antioxidant processes in developing seeds.


Assuntos
Ervilhas , Proteômica , Antioxidantes , Desidratação , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Ervilhas/genética , Ervilhas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Sementes/metabolismo , Enxofre/metabolismo
19.
J Sci Food Agric ; 101(9): 3551-3563, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33417241

RESUMO

Biofortification refers to an approach to increase micronutrient concentrations in the edible parts of plants with increased bioavailability to the human population. Conventional, agronomic and transgenic breeding methods can be used to develop these biofortified crops, offering sustainable and cost-effective strategies. Pea has long been recognized as a valuable, nutritious food for the human diet, but there is a limited amount of information about it, which prevents the full micronutrient enrichment potential of this pulse crop to be reached. Considerations must include not only micronutrient concentrations but also the amount of the nutrient that can be absorbed by the consumer, after processing and cooking. Development of biofortified pea that retains nutrients during cooking and processing is not only essential for fighting micronutrient malnutrition, but also necessary to improve agricultural productivity. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Alimentos Fortificados/análise , Ervilhas/química , Animais , Biofortificação , Humanos , Micronutrientes/análise , Micronutrientes/metabolismo , Ervilhas/metabolismo , Sementes/química , Sementes/metabolismo
20.
J Sci Food Agric ; 101(11): 4464-4472, 2021 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33432585

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Owing to recent changes in consumer eating behaviours as well as potential cost savings for processors, pulse ingredients are finding more application in the meat processing industry. In this study, pea ingredients (pea fibre, FB; pea starch, ST; pea flour, PF) and chickpea flour (CF) were used, at 4% addition level, as fat replacers in low-fat breakfast sausages. The impact of these substitutions on processing and sensory characteristics of breakfast sausage was evaluated. RESULTS: While reduction in fat content in breakfast sausage resulted in some detrimental changes in cooking as well as textural characteristics of the product, addition of binders significantly improved these attributes in low-fat breakfast sausages. Overall, treatment formulation did not significantly affect the pH and the instrumental colour attributes of cooked breakfast sausage. Addition of all binders resulted in reduced cooking loss and increased moisture retention in low-fat breakfast sausage (P < 0.05), whereas, FB and ST were significantly more effective in improving water holding capacity of low-fat breakfast sausage. Furthermore, while both FB and ST increased the hardness, cohesiveness and chewiness parameters of low-fat breakfast sausage (P < 0.05), PF and CF had no impact. Generally, the consumer overall liking and flavour acceptability of FB and ST in low-fat breakfast sausage were significantly higher than those of PF and CF. CONCLUSION: The use of ST or FB as a fat replacer in breakfast sausages offers processors improved cook yield without negatively impacting the important sensory attributes of breakfast sausages. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Consumidor , Substitutos da Gordura/metabolismo , Aditivos Alimentares/metabolismo , Produtos da Carne/análise , Animais , Desjejum , Cicer/química , Cicer/metabolismo , Cor , Substitutos da Gordura/análise , Gorduras/análise , Gorduras/metabolismo , Farinha/análise , Aditivos Alimentares/análise , Preferências Alimentares , Humanos , Ervilhas/química , Ervilhas/metabolismo , Amido/análise , Amido/metabolismo , Suínos , Paladar
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