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1.
Food Chem ; 334: 127589, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32707366

RESUMO

Postharvest, pea vine field residue (haulm) was steam-sterilised and then juiced; a chloroplast-rich fraction (CRF) was recovered from the juice by centrifugation. The stability of selected nutrients (ß-carotene, lutein, and α-tocopherol) in the freeze-dried CRF material was measured over 84 days; the impact of temperature (-20 °C, 4 °C, 25 °C and 40 °C), light and air on nutrient stability was established. All three nutrients were stable at -20 °C and 4 °C in the presence or absence of air; this stability was lost at higher temperatures in the presence of air. The extent and rate of nutrient breakdown significantly increased when the CRF samples were exposed to light. ß-Carotene appeared to be more susceptible to degradation than lutein and α-tocopherol at 40 °C in the presence of air, but when CRF was exposed to light all three nutrients measured were significantly broken down during storage at 25 °C or 40 °C, whether exposed to air or not.


Assuntos
Cloroplastos/química , Nutrientes/química , Ervilhas/química , Caules de Planta/química , Esterilização/métodos , Ar , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Liofilização , Luteína/análise , Luteína/química , Nutrientes/análise , Vapor , Temperatura , alfa-Tocoferol/análise , alfa-Tocoferol/química , beta Caroteno/análise , beta Caroteno/química
2.
Food Chem ; 338: 128010, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32932084

RESUMO

Potential improvements to the physical properties of brittle, self-assembled zein networks through microbial transglutaminase crosslinking were investigated. The formation of crosslinked heteropolymers was also explored with networks containing zein and either soy or pea protein isolates as supplemented lysine sources. The observed SDS-PAGE bands did not show any evidence of zein crosslinking. Soy and pea isolates underwent extensive crosslinking on their own, but heteropolymers were not observed in multiprotein networks with zein. Despite the lack of crosslinking observed, rheological and textural analysis revealed that the enzymatic treatment of zein produced a weaker, more brittle structure. With no significant changes in secondary structure, determined through FTIR, the observed behaviour was primarily attributed to glutamine deamidation by microbial transglutaminase in the absence of sufficient lysine through changes to the hydrophobicity of the protein such that non-covalent bonding within network was modified.


Assuntos
Transglutaminases/metabolismo , Zeína/química , Reagentes para Ligações Cruzadas/química , Eletroforese em Gel de Poliacrilamida , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Lisina/química , Ervilhas/química , Estrutura Secundária de Proteína , Reologia , Proteínas de Soja/química , Proteínas de Soja/metabolismo , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Transglutaminases/química , Zeína/metabolismo
3.
Food Chem ; 335: 127602, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32739807

RESUMO

Bioactive phenolics primarily contribute to versatile health benefits of pigeon pea. For the first time, an UPLC-QqQ-MS/MS method was developed for the quantitative analysis of eleven bioactive phenolic compounds in pigeon pea natural resources (seeds, leaves, and roots) and in vitro cultures (calli and hairy roots). The proposed method could be achieved within 6 min of running time, and displayed the satisfactory linearity, sensitivity, precision, accuracy, and stability. According to analytical results, the distribution of eleven target compounds in different organs of pigeon pea was clarified. Also, it was surprisingly found that pigeon pea in vitro cultures exhibited superiority in contents of genistin and cajaninstilbene acid as compared with natural resources. Overall, the present work provided a rapid and sensitive analysis approach, which could be useful not only for quality control of pigeon pea natural resources, but also for applicability and safety evaluation of pigeon pea in vitro cultures.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Ervilhas/química , Fenóis/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Controle de Qualidade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sementes/química
4.
Food Chem ; 336: 127711, 2021 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32777656

RESUMO

Wrinkled and round peas (two varieties each type) cultivated in two locations were milled to obtain fine and coarse wrinkled (WPF) and round pea flour (RPF). WPF exhibited markedly increased pasting viscosities at 120 and 140 °C compared with 95 °C. Overall, the pasting properties of WPF were considerably lower than those of RPF. Resistant starch (RS) contents of cooked WPF (17.2-22.2%, dsb) were significantly larger than those of RPF (7.9-11.4%), resulting from higher starch gelatinization temperatures, greater amylose contents, and presence of more protein and fiber in WPF. The two particle sizes affected the water-holding capacity (WHC) of WPF, gelatinization enthalpy changes (ΔH) of WPF and RPF, and pasting properties and starch digestibility of RPF. Pearson correlation and principal component analysis (PCA) were conducted to reveal the relationships among the techno-functional parameters of pea flours. Wrinkled pea showed promise to generate new pea flours with distinct functionality and enhanced nutritional value.


Assuntos
Farinha , Ervilhas/química , Amilose/química , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Digestão , Farinha/análise , Valor Nutritivo , Tamanho da Partícula , Proteínas de Vegetais Comestíveis/análise , Amido/química , Amido/farmacocinética , Temperatura , Viscosidade
5.
Food Chem ; 337: 127606, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32799168

RESUMO

To explore the effect of digestion on pea hull phenolics, an in vitro model consisting sequential oral, gastric, small and large intestinal digestions was applied to pea hulls. The phenolic content and antioxidant activity of the samples collected from these digestion steps were determined. The phenolics in these samples generally decreased in the order of sequential digestions in both red and yellow hull series, and no significant increase of total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC) and individual phenolics were found in most digested groups compared with the corresponding control groups. The antioxidant activity of the samples generally changed according to their TPC and strong correlations (r > 0.92, p < 0.001) existed between them in red hull series. The present study implies that phenolics are released gradually from pea hulls during in vitro digestion and their release was mainly due to the pH of the digestion.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Ervilhas/química , Fenóis/análise , Sementes/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cor , Flavonoides/análise , Flavonoides/química , Flavonoides/farmacocinética , Fenóis/química , Fenóis/farmacocinética
6.
Food Chem ; 338: 128074, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32950011

RESUMO

A separation and analysis method of fosthiazate stereoisomers was established utilizing supercritical fluid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (SFC-MS/MS) with a CHIRALPAK AD-3 column. The determination of the four fosthiazate stereoisomers could be completed within 6 min. The environmental behaviors of fosthiazate stereoisomers were studied in legume vegetables. After applying fosthiazate granules to soil, the concentrations of fosthiazate stereoisomers in the legume vegetables increased with time, reached maximum values in 7-10 days, and then decreased gradually in all legumes except for in Glycine max. No obvious dissipation behaviors were observed in Glycine max. Interestingly, the stereoselective behaviors were species-specific. A-(-), B-(-) and B-(±)-fosthiazate were preferentially enriched in Phaseolus vulgaris Linn and Vigna unguiculata, while A-(+) and A-(±)-fosthiazate preferentially accumulated in Vicia faba Linn, Pisum sativum Linn and G. max. The opposite stereoselectivity of B-(±)-fosthiazate was observed in different growth stage of G. max. No stereoselective dissipation occurred in soil.


Assuntos
Fabaceae/química , Compostos Organofosforados/química , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Tiazolidinas/química , Cromatografia com Fluido Supercrítico , Fabaceae/metabolismo , Ervilhas/química , Ervilhas/metabolismo , Phaseolus/química , Phaseolus/metabolismo , Soja/química , Soja/metabolismo , Estereoisomerismo , Vicia faba/química , Vicia faba/metabolismo
7.
J Sci Food Agric ; 101(1): 167-178, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32613616

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Peas are an inexpensive yet nutritious and sustainable source of protein. However, it is challenging to incorporate pea proteins into food formulations owing to their beany or green off-flavours and their limited water solubility. RESULTS: Vacuum microwave dehydration (VMD) of pea protein with an initial moisture content of 425% (dry basis, db) at 2 W g-1 specific microwave energy and 200 Torr vacuum level for 88 min led to an 83% reduction in total volatile compound concentration. VMD processing at high initial moisture contents facilitated the Maillard reaction, enhancing the extent of protein cross-linking, leading to a marked decrease in soluble protein content, to 11 g kg-1 . Reducing the initial moisture content to 56% db greatly retained protein solubility (112-113 g kg-1 ), but it only led to a minor reduction in total volatile compound concentration (2-11% reduction). A high microwave energy (20 W g-1 )-short time (2 min) treatment at 200 Torr vacuum level was found optimal, reducing both volatile levels and soluble protein content by ~50%. CONCLUSION: Evidently, it is difficult to employ VMD without reduction of pea protein solubility and corresponding changing in functionality. Yet, if optimized, VMD has the capability to decrease volatile concentrations while retaining protein solubility. Future sensory analysis should be conducted to determine whether the aforementioned reductions in total volatile compound concentration may have a notable effect on consumer palatability. © 2020 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Dessecação/métodos , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Ervilhas/efeitos da radiação , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Sementes/química , Dessecação/instrumentação , Aromatizantes/química , Manipulação de Alimentos/instrumentação , Micro-Ondas , Ervilhas/química , Sementes/efeitos da radiação , Vácuo
8.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232425, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32365065

RESUMO

The aim of this work was to evaluate the impact of incorporating different legume flours (faba bean, lentil or split pea flours) on the pasta protein network and its repercussion on in vitro protein digestibility, in comparison with reference dairy proteins. Kinetics and yields of protein hydrolysis in legume enriched pasta and, for the first time, the peptidomes generated by the pasta at the end of the in vitro gastric and intestinal phases of digestion are presented. Three isoproteic (21%) legume enriched pasta with balanced essential amino acids, were made from wheat semolina and 62% to 79% of legume flours (faba bean or F-pasta; lentil or L-pasta and split pea or P-pasta). Pasta were prepared following the conventional pastification steps (hydration, mixing, extrusion, drying, cooking). Amino acid composition and protein network structure of the pasta were determined along with their culinary and rheological properties and residual trypsin inhibitor activity (3-5% of the activity initially present in raw legume flour). F- and L-pasta had contrasted firmness and proportion of covalently linked proteins. F-pasta had a generally weaker protein network and matrix structure, however far from the weakly linked soluble milk proteins (SMP) and casein proteins, which in addition contained no antitrypsin inhibitors and more theoretical cleavage sites for digestive enzymes. The differences in protein network reticulation between the different pasta and between pasta and dairy proteins were in agreement in each kinetic phase with the yield of the in vitro protein hydrolysis, which reached 84% for SMP, and 66% for casein at the end of intestinal phase, versus 50% for L- and P-pasta and 58% for F-pasta. The peptidome of legume enriched pasta is described for the first time and compared with the peptidome of dairy proteins for each phase of digestion. The gastric and intestinal phases were important stages of peptide differentiation between legumes and wheat. However, peptidome analysis revealed no difference in wheat-derived peptides in the three pasta diets regardless of the digestion phase, indicating that there was a low covalent interaction between wheat gluten and legume proteins.


Assuntos
Proteínas na Dieta/química , Proteínas na Dieta/farmacocinética , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Proteínas de Plantas/farmacocinética , Animais , Culinária , Digestão/fisiologia , Fabaceae/química , Farinha/análise , Alimentos Fortificados/análise , Humanos , Hidrólise , Técnicas In Vitro , Cinética , Lens (Planta)/química , Proteínas do Leite/química , Proteínas do Leite/farmacocinética , Valor Nutritivo , Ervilhas/química , Agregados Proteicos , Triticum/química , Vicia faba/química
9.
J Appl Microbiol ; 129(5): 1287-1296, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32330366

RESUMO

AIM: To express amylomaltase from Thermus filiformis (TfAM) in a generally recognized as safe (GRAS) organism and to use the enzyme in starch modification. METHODS AND RESULTS: TfAM was expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, using 2% (w/v) galactose inducer under GAL1 promoter. The enzyme was thermostable with high disproportionation and cyclization activities. The main large-ring cyclodextrin (CD) products were CD24-CD29, with CD26 as maximum at all incubation times. TfAM was used to modify cassava and pea starches, the amylose content decreased 18% and 30%, respectively, when 5% (w/v) starch was treated with 0·5 U TfAM g-1 starch. The increase in short branched chain (DP, degree of polymerization, 1-5) and the broader chain length distribution pattern which extended to the longer chain (DP40) after TfAM treatment were observed. The thermal property was changed, with an increase in retrogradation of starch as suggested by a lower enthalpy. CONCLUSIONS: TfAM was successfully expressed in S. cerevisiae and was used to make starches with new functionality. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: This is the first report on the expression of AM in the GRAS yeast and the production of a modified starch gel from pea starch to improve the versatility of starch for food use.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Sistema da Enzima Desramificadora do Glicogênio/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Amido/metabolismo , Thermus/enzimologia , Amilose/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Ciclodextrinas/biossíntese , Ciclodextrinas/química , Sistema da Enzima Desramificadora do Glicogênio/genética , Manihot/química , Ervilhas/química , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Temperatura , Thermus/genética
10.
Food Chem ; 318: 126485, 2020 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32135424

RESUMO

Type 3 resistant starch (RS3) was developed from native pea starch through acid thinning, debranching and recrystallization, and the resultant pea RS3 was then characterized and compared with that generated from native normal maize starch. Starting from the respective native starches, the modification method yielded 68.1% of RS3 from pea and 59.6% from normal maize. The particles of pea and normal maize RS3 showed a coarse surface and irregular shapes and sizes. Both pea and normal maize RS3 displayed the B-type X-ray diffraction pattern, with 41.0% and 37.7% relative crystallinity, respectively. In vitro starch digestibility assay revealed that pea RS3 - in both uncooked and cooked states - was less digestible by amylolytic enzymes than normal maize RS3 because the former possessed double-helical crystallites of a more compact structure. The information presented in the study is valuable for the development of RS ingredient from pea starch for food applications.


Assuntos
Ervilhas/química , Amido/química , Zea mays/química , Digestão , Manipulação de Alimentos , Temperatura Alta , Peso Molecular , Amido/metabolismo , Difração de Raios X
11.
Food Chem ; 316: 126282, 2020 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32062576

RESUMO

The present study examines the foaming behavior of pea and faba bean protein concentrates and isolates and explores the impact of pH and protein-polysaccharide complexation on overrun and foam stability. Foams were prepared with 5 wt% proteins with and without 0.25 wt% xanthan gum (XG) at pH 3, 5, 7 and 9. Most foams were unstable without XG. With XG foaming properties of protein concentrates were better than isolates. Irrespective of protein type and content, all protein-XG foams at pH 3 destabilized due to large insoluble complexes, however, at pH 5 foams were stable due to smaller size of insoluble complexes. Both the protein concentrate-XG foams were stable at pH 7 and 9 due to optimum viscosity and surface tension of the soluble complexes. Overall, the study revealed that the overrun and stability of pulse protein foams can be significantly improved by adding XG and controlling their intermolecular interactions as a function of pH.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Plantas/química , Polissacarídeos Bacterianos/química , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Ervilhas/química , Vicia faba/química , Viscosidade
12.
J Nutr ; 150(5): 1178-1185, 2020 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32006007

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Legumes are an excellent plant source of the limiting indispensable amino acid (IAA) lysine in vegetarian, cereal-based diets. However, their digestibility is poor largely because of their antiprotease content. Extrusion can enhance digestibility by inactivating trypsin inhibitors and thus potentially improve the protein quality of legumes. OBJECTIVE: We measured the digestibility of extruded chickpea and yellow pea protein with use of a dual stable isotope method in moderately stunted South Indian primary school children. METHODS: Twenty-eight moderately stunted children (height-for-age z scores <-2.0 SD and >-3.0 SD) aged 6-11 y from low to middle socioeconomic status were randomly assigned to receive a test protein (extruded intrinsically [2H]-labeled chickpea or yellow pea) along with a standard of U-[13C]-spirulina protein to measure amino acid (AA) digestibility with use of a dual stable isotope method. Individual AA digestibility in the test protein was calculated by the ratios of AA enrichments in the test protein to the standard protein in the food and their appearance in blood plasma collected at 6 and 6.5 h during the experiment, representing a plateau state. RESULTS: The mean AA digestibility of extruded chickpea and yellow pea protein in moderately stunted children (HAZ; -2.86 to -1.2) was high and similar in both extruded test proteins (89.0% and 88.0%, respectively, P = 0.83). However, lysine and proline digestibilities were higher in extruded chickpea than yellow pea (79.2% compared with 76.5% and 75.0% compared with 72.0%, respectively, P < 0.02). CONCLUSION: Extruded chickpea and yellow pea protein had good IAA digestibility in moderately stunted children, which was 20% higher than an earlier report of their digestibility when pressure-cooked, measured by the same method in adults. Higher digestibility of lysine and proline highlights better retention of these AA in chickpea during extrusion-based processing. Extrusion might be useful for developing high-quality protein foods from legumes. This trial was registered at www.ctri.nic.in as CTRI/2018/03/012439.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Cicer/química , Digestão , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Transtornos do Crescimento/metabolismo , Ervilhas/química , Aminoácidos/sangue , Isótopos de Carbono , Criança , Deutério , Feminino , Humanos , Índia , Lisina/metabolismo , Masculino , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Prolina/metabolismo , Inibidores da Tripsina
13.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(9): 2718-2727, 2020 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32013424

RESUMO

Gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) coupled with GC-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and aroma recombination-omission experiments led to the identification of the key aroma compounds responsible for the different flavors of raw and roasted peas. The results demonstrated that a total of 30 odorants were identified in raw and roasted peas. Nine and twenty compounds were identified as important odorants in raw and roasted peas with odor activity values (OAVs) greater than 1, respectively. Aroma recombination-omission experiments demonstrated that six aroma compounds significantly contributed to the characteristic aroma of peas (p < 0.05). Among these, 3-methylbutanoic acid (OAV = 382) and hexanal (OAV = 280) significantly contributed to the aroma of peas. Fifteen aroma compounds significantly contributed to the characteristic aroma of roasted peas (p < 0.05). Among these, pyrazines and pyranones showed important contribution to the aroma of roasted peas. Roasting increased the variety of key aroma compounds significantly and contributed a nutty flavor to peas. The comprehensive aroma characterization of peas and determination of the effect of roasting on key aroma compound alteration will be helpful for new pea products' flavor quality control.


Assuntos
Aromatizantes/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química , Adulto , Culinária , Feminino , Frutas/química , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Masculino , Odorantes/análise , Olfatometria , Ervilhas/química , Olfato , Adulto Jovem
14.
J Food Sci ; 85(2): 316-323, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31968398

RESUMO

This work proposes a novel approach based on the real-time monitoring of the fining process of apple juices by static multiple light scattering. The change in transmission was used to determine the fining effectiveness of three vegetable proteins, respectively, red lentil, green lentil, and green pea proteins. Further treatment with gelatin-bentonite was used as a control. The modified Gompertz function was applied to fit the transmission signals. According to (1) the rate of flocculation and (2) the rate of sedimentation, the best fining efficiency was achieved by red lentil, which was similar to that of gelatin-bentonite and higher than green lentil and green pea proteins. This ranking was obtained at any dose from 60 to 900 mg per liter of juice. The results suggest the use of red lentil as a potential fining agent for apple juices and highlight the advantages of using static multiple light scattering technique as a quality control tool for studying the kinetics of the fining process. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: The study proposed the use of vegetable proteins as fining agents for apple juices. Their efficiency was ably monitored in real time by static multiple light scattering.


Assuntos
Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/análise , Malus/química , Proteínas de Vegetais Comestíveis/química , Manipulação de Alimentos/instrumentação , Lens (Planta)/química , Ervilhas/química
15.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(6): 1698-1706, 2020 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31986048

RESUMO

Proteins of pea whey were separated by 1-D electrophoresis and 2-D electrophoresis and identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS. In addition to lectin, pea albumin 2 (PA2) and pea albumin 1a (PA1a) were identified as the main 2S albumins. The complex behavior of pea whey proteins with chitosan as a function of pH and protein to polysaccharide ratio was studied by turbidimetric titration, zeta potential, and Tricine-SDS-PAGE. During pH titration, the zeta potential reveals that at maximum turbidity (pHmax), charge neutrality was fulfilled. The maximal protein recovery was obtained at a mass ratio of 1:1. After coacervation with chitosan, lectin was not involved in the formation of complexes and PA2 transferred into complex preferentially as compared to PA1a. The weak binding affinity and high hydrophilicity of PA1a made it selectively dissolve out from the PA2/PA1a complex at acidic pH conditions. After removal of chitosan and small molar weight peptides, high-purity PA2 and PA1a (>90% by SEC-HPLC) could be obtained. This work provides a novel strategy for the purification of proteins from a multiprotein pea whey system.


Assuntos
Albuminas/química , Quitosana/química , Proteínas de Ervilha/química , Ervilhas/química , Eletroforese em Gel de Poliacrilamida , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Cinética , Ligação Proteica
16.
Carbohydr Polym ; 231: 115738, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31888846

RESUMO

The chemical structure of pea pectin was delineated using pectin-degrading enzymes and biochemical methods. The molecular weight of the pea pectin preparation was 488,000, with 50 % arabinose content, and neutral sugar side chains attached to approximately 60 % of the rhamnose residues in rhamnogalacturonan-I (RG-I). Arabinan, an RG-I side chain, was highly branched, and the main chain was comprised of α-1,5-l-arabinan. Galactose and galactooligosaccharides were attached to approximately 35 % of the rhamnose residues in RG-I. Long chain ß-1,4-galactan was also present. The xylose substitution rate in xylogalacturonan (XGA) was 63 %. The molar ratio of RG-I/homogalacturonan (HG)/XGA in the backbone of the pea pectin was approximately 3:3:4. When considering neutral sugar side chain content (arabinose, galactose, and xylose), the molar ratio of RG-I/HG/XGA regions in the pea pectin was 7:1:2. These data will help understand the properties of pea pectin.


Assuntos
Estrutura Molecular , Ervilhas/química , Pectinas/química , Arabinose/química , Galactanos/química , Galactose/química , Glicosídeo Hidrolases/química , Ácidos Hexurônicos/química , Ervilhas/ultraestrutura , Pectinas/ultraestrutura , Polissacarídeos/química , Ramnose/química , Xilose/química
17.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(7): 7639-7646, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31889276

RESUMO

Like other vegetables, Pisum sativum L. also faces storage and degradation problems. To enhance their resistance and make them enable to cope with the deterioration problems during storage, the current study was designed to develop two resistant lines of P. sativum in terms of phenolic contents and genotypes. The phenolic compounds generally have antioxidant properties and deterioration during storage which are usually due to oxidation caused by free radicals. Thus, if a variety has high phenolic contents these problems will be coped in a better way. The genotype of a plant is also important in this regard, and the best adopted species would survive in unfavorable conditions. First, the phenolic and flavonoid contents were determined in the crude extract using the Folin-Ciocalteu method. Then, the identification and quantification of phenolic compounds were carried out in the developed lines of selected plants PL-04 and PL-05, as well as in the parental varieties [Climax (female) and Falan (male)] via HPLC. DPPH assay was used to determine the free radical scavenging capabilities of the extracts of the developed verities. The genotypic differences were confirmed by DNA fingerprinting using advanced simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. The HPLC analysis of PL-04 confirmed the presence of three phenolic compounds in an appreciable amount which exhibited a higher antioxidant activity against DPPH radicals, while in the parental varieties, two phenolic compounds were identified and exhibited lower antioxidant activities. PL-04 was found rich in phenolic compounds and affectively scavenge-free radicals which would therefore be resistant to oxidation and degradation caused by free radicals. Comparing the present findings with our previous one, P-04 was found to be resistant to powdery mildew; it was concluded that the most probable reason of the resistance was the high phenolic contents and thus long shelf life.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Ervilhas/química , Fenóis/química , Impressões Digitais de DNA , Flavonoides/química , Repetições de Microssatélites , Oxirredução , Extratos Vegetais/química
18.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(6): 1691-1697, 2020 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31951402

RESUMO

This study aimed to demonstrate the feasibility of improving the properties of pea protein isolate (PPI) related to food applications via deamidation with glutaminase. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) profiling revealed that the current glutaminase treatment did not change the basic protein subunit composition. However, it allowed a certain extent of protein unfolding and conformational reorganization to generate more flexible and extended proteins with reduced average particle size and more hydrophobic groups exposed. The underlying mechanisms might include the reduction of ß-sheets and antiparallel ß-sheets and the increase of the ß-turn structure. Moreover, the treatment time was of importance. A 12 h treatment was generally better than a 24 h treatment, and PPI treated with glutaminase at 50 °C for 12 h to a degree of deamidation of 56.1% exhibited significantly improved solubility, homogeneity, dispersibility, and suspendability with reduced beany flavor, grittiness, and lumpiness (compared to those of the untreated PPI). Thus, the glutaminase treatment offers a promising approach for enhancing the usability and applicability of pea proteins.


Assuntos
Glutaminase/química , Proteínas de Ervilha/química , Ervilhas/química , Adulto , Biocatálise , Estabilidade Enzimática , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estrutura Secundária de Proteína , Solubilidade , Paladar , Adulto Jovem
19.
Food Chem ; 314: 126184, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31954939

RESUMO

In this study, pulse protein isolates (PPIs) were extracted from 0, 1, 3, and 5 days germinated chickpea, lentil, and yellow pea flours by alkaline extraction-isoelectric precipitation method. The germination time had negligible impact on the proximate composition of PPIs. In total, 67 volatiles in PPIs were identified via HS-SPME-GC-MS/O. Among all the identified volatile components, seven of them, including hexanal (11), (E)-2-octen-1-ol (7), (E,Z)-2,6-nonadienal (17), 3-octen-2-one (33), 3,5-octadien-2-one (34), 2-methoxy-3-isopropylpyrazine (56), and 2-methoxy-3-(1-methylpropyl)pyrazine (57), contributed to the beany-related odor of PPIs but much less than that in raw flours. However, the overall beany-related odor of PPIs increased when the germination time exceeded 1 day. Both the activity of lipoxygenase and the free radical populations in PPIs were positively related to the overall beany-related odor. Our findings are crucial for the preparation of germinated pulse proteins with improved functionality but without increasing undesirable odor.


Assuntos
Cicer/química , Lens (Planta)/química , Odorantes/análise , Ervilhas/química , Proteínas de Vegetais Comestíveis/isolamento & purificação , Cicer/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Farinha/análise , Radicais Livres/metabolismo , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Germinação , Humanos , Lens (Planta)/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lipoxigenase/metabolismo , Ervilhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Vegetais Comestíveis/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
20.
BMC Vet Res ; 16(1): 2, 2020 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31900155

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hyperlipidaemia is considered a cause of other diseases that are clinically important and potentially life threatening. Combination of pea and barley as exclusive starch sources is known to interfere with glycemic control in diabetic dogs, but their effect on lipid profile of hiperlipidaemic dogs is yet to be evaluated. Twelve adult diabetic dogs were fed three dry extruded diets with different starch sources and different fat levels: peas and barley (PB), maize (Mi), and peas, barley and rice (Ba) with 15.7, 15.6 and 9.0% of their dry matter as fat, respectively. Plasmatic cholesterol and triglycerides concentration curves over 10 h were obtained after 60 days on each diet and with the same NPH insulin dose. ANOVA test or Friedman test were used to compare the dietary effects on triglycerides and cholesterol variables among the diets. RESULTS: Dogs presented lower mean (p = 0.05), fasting (p = 0.03), and time 8-h postprandial (p = 0.05) triglyceridemia after PB diet period than Ba diet period and time 4-h postprandial (p = 0.02) lower after PB than Mi diet. Cholesterolemia mean, minimum, maximum, area under the cholesterol curve and times points: 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10-h postprandial, had lower values after PB ingestion in comparison to Mi, without difference to Ba diet. CONCLUSION: Inclusion of pea and barley, as exclusive starch sources, in therapeutic diets for diabetic dogs can minimize plasmatic triglycerides and cholesterol concentration at fasting and at different postprandial time, compared to the maize diet or diet with lesser fat content.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Diabetes Mellitus/veterinária , Dieta/veterinária , Hiperlipidemias/veterinária , Animais , Colesterol/sangue , Carboidratos da Dieta , Gorduras na Dieta , Cães , Hordeum/química , Hiperlipidemias/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Oryza/química , Ervilhas/química , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Zea mays/química
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