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1.
BMJ Open ; 10(11): e042813, 2020 11 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33243817

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The effects of SARS-CoV-2 in pregnancy are not fully delineated. We will describe the incidence of COVID-19 in pregnancy at population level in Scotland, in a prospective cohort study using linked data. We will determine associations between COVID-19 and adverse pregnancy, neonatal and maternal outcomes and the proportion of confirmed cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection in neonates associated with maternal COVID-19. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Prospective cohort study using national linked data sets. We will include all women in Scotland, UK, who were pregnant on or became pregnant after, 1 March 2020 (the date of the first confirmed case of SARS-CoV-2 infection in Scotland) and all births in Scotland from 1 March 2020 onwards. Individual-level data will be extracted from data sets containing details of all livebirths, stillbirth, terminations of pregnancy and miscarriages and ectopic pregnancies treated in hospital or attending general practice. Records will be linked within the Early Pandemic Evaluation and Enhanced Surveillance of COVID-19 (EAVE II) platform, which includes primary care records, virology and serology results and details of COVID-19 Community Hubs and Assessment Centre contacts and deaths. We will perform analyses using definitions for confirmed, probable and possible COVID-19 and report serology results (where available). Outcomes will include congenital anomaly, miscarriage, stillbirth, termination of pregnancy, preterm birth, neonatal infection, severe maternal disease and maternal deaths. We will perform descriptive analyses and appropriate modelling, adjusting for demographic and pregnancy characteristics and the presence of comorbidities. The cohort will provide a platform for future studies of the effectiveness and safety of therapeutic interventions and immunisations for COVID-19 and their effects on childhood and developmental outcomes. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: COVID-19 in Pregnancy in Scotland is a substudy of EAVE II(, which has approval from the National Research Ethics Service Committee. Findings will be reported to Scottish Government, Public Health Scotland and published in peer-reviewed journals.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Vigilância da População , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Recém-Nascido , Pandemias , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Escócia/epidemiologia
2.
Trials ; 21(1): 935, 2020 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33213530

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The GETAFIX trial will test the hypothesis that favipiravir is a more effective treatment for COVID-19 infection in patients who have early stage disease, compared to current standard of care. This study will also provide an important opportunity to investigate the safety and tolerability of favipiravir, the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profile of this drug and mechanisms of resistance in the context of COVID-19 infection, as well as the effect of favipiravir on hospitalisation duration and the post COVID-19 health and psycho-social wellbeing of patients recruited to the study. TRIAL DESIGN: GETAFIX is an open label, parallel group, two arm phase II/III randomised trial with 1:1 treatment allocation ratio. Patients will be randomised to one of two arms and the primary endpoint will assess the superiority of favipiravir plus standard treatment compared to standard treatment alone. PARTICIPANTS: This trial will recruit adult patients with confirmed positive valid COVID-19 test, who are not pregnant or breastfeeding and have no prior major co-morbidities. This is a multi-centre trial, patients will be recruited from in-patients and outpatients from three Glasgow hospitals: Royal Alexandra Hospital; Queen Elizabeth University Hospital; and the Glasgow Royal Infirmary. Patients must meet all of the following criteria: 1. Age 16 or over at time of consent 2. Exhibiting symptoms associated with COVID-19 3. Positive for SARS-CoV-2 on valid COVID-19 test 4. Point 1, 2, 3, or 4 on the WHO COVID-19 ordinal severity scale at time of randomisation. (Asymptomatic with positive valid COVID-19 test, Symptomatic Independent, Symptomatic assistance needed, Hospitalized, with no oxygen therapy) 5. Have >=10% risk of death should they be admitted to hospital as defined by the ISARIC4C risk index: https://isaric4c.net/risk 6. Able to provide written informed consent 7. Negative pregnancy test (women of childbearing potential*) 8. Able to swallow oral medication Patients will be excluded from the trial if they meet any of the following criteria: 1. Renal impairment requiring, or likely to require, dialysis or haemofiltration 2. Pregnant or breastfeeding 3. Of child bearing potential (women), or with female partners of child bearing potential (men) who do not agree to use adequate contraceptive measures for the duration of the study and for 3 months after the completion of study treatment 4. History of hereditary xanthinuria 5. Other patients judged unsuitable by the Principal Investigator or sub-Investigator 6. Known hypersensitivity to favipiravir, its metabolites or any excipients 7. Severe co-morbidities including: patients with severe hepatic impairment, defined as: • greater than Child-Pugh grade A • AST or ALT > 5 x ULN • AST or ALT >3 x ULN and Total Bilirubin > 2xULN 8. More than 96 hours since first positive COVID-19 test sample was taken 9. Unable to discontinue contra-indicated concomitant medications This is a multi-centre trial, patients will be recruited from in-patients and outpatients from three Glasgow hospitals: Royal Alexandra Hospital; Queen Elizabeth University Hospital; and the Glasgow Royal Infirmary. INTERVENTION AND COMPARATOR: Patients randomised to the experimental arm of GETAFIX will receive standard treatment for COVID-19 at the discretion of the treating clinician plus favipiravir. These patients will receive a loading dose of favipiravir on day 1 of 3600mg (1800mg 12 hours apart). On days 2-10, patients in the experimental arm will receive a maintenance dose of favipiravir of 800mg 12 hours apart (total of 18 doses). Patients randomised to the control arm of the GETAFIX trial will receive standard treatment for COVID-19 at the discretion of the treating clinician. MAIN OUTCOMES: The primary outcome being assessed in the GETAFIX trial is the efficacy of favipiravir in addition to standard treatment in patients with COVID-19 in reducing the severity of disease compared to standard treatment alone. Disease severity will be assessed using WHO COVID 10 point ordinal severity scale at day 15 +/- 48 hours. All randomised participants will be followed up until death or 60 days post-randomisation (whichever is sooner). RANDOMISATION: Patients will be randomised 1:1 to the experimental versus control arm using computer generated random sequence allocation. A minimisation algorithm incorporating a random component will be used to allocate patients. The factors used in the minimisation will be: site, age (16-50/51-70/71+), history of hypertension or currently obsess (BMI>30 or obesity clinically evident; yes/no), 7 days duration of symptoms (yes/no/unknown), sex (male/female), WHO COVID-19 ordinal severity score at baseline (1/2or 3/4). BLINDING (MASKING): No blinding will be used in the GETAFIX trial. Both participants and those assessing outcomes will be aware of treatment allocation. NUMBERS TO BE RANDOMISED (SAMPLE SIZE): In total, 302 patients will be randomised to the GETAFIX trial: 151 to the control arm and 151 to the experimental arm. There will be an optional consent form for patients who may want to contribute to more frequent PK and PD sampling. The maximum number of patients who will undergo this testing will be sixteen, eight males and eight females. This option will be offered to all patients who are being treated in hospital at the time of taking informed consent, however only patients in the experimental arm of the trial will be able to undergo this testing. TRIAL STATUS: The current GETAFIX protocol is version 4.0 12th September 2020. GETAFIX opened to recruitment on 26th October 2020 and will recruit patients over a period of approximately six months. TRIAL REGISTRATION: GETAFIX was registered on the European Union Drug Regulating Authorities Clinical Trials (EudraCT) Database on 15th April 2020; Reference number 2020-001904-41 ( https://www.clinicaltrialsregister.eu/ctr-search/trial/2020-001904-41/GB ). GETAFIX was registered on ISRCTN on 7th September 2020; Reference number ISRCTN31062548 ( https://www.isrctn.com/ISRCTN31062548 ). FULL PROTOCOL: The full protocol is attached as an additional file, accessible from the Trials website (Additional file 1). In the interest in expediting dissemination of this material, the familiar formatting has been eliminated; this Letter serves as a summary of the key elements of the full protocol. The study protocol has been reported in accordance with the Standard Protocol Items: Recommendations for Clinical Interventional Trials (SPIRIT) guidelines (see Additional file 2).


Assuntos
Amidas/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pirazinas/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Amidas/administração & dosagem , Amidas/farmacocinética , Amidas/farmacologia , Antivirais/administração & dosagem , Antivirais/farmacocinética , Antivirais/farmacologia , Betacoronavirus/genética , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Infecções por Coronavirus/classificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias/classificação , Pneumonia Viral/classificação , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Pirazinas/administração & dosagem , Pirazinas/farmacocinética , Pirazinas/farmacologia , Segurança , Escócia/epidemiologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Resultado do Tratamento
3.
BMJ ; 371: m3582, 2020 10 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33115726

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the risk of hospital admission for coronavirus disease 2019 (covid-19) among patient facing and non-patient facing healthcare workers and their household members. DESIGN: Nationwide linkage cohort study. SETTING: Scotland, UK, 1 March to 6 June 2020. PARTICIPANTS: Healthcare workers aged 18-65 years, their households, and other members of the general population. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Admission to hospital with covid-19. RESULTS: The cohort comprised 158 445 healthcare workers, most of them (90 733; 57.3%) being patient facing, and 229 905 household members. Of all hospital admissions for covid-19 in the working age population (18-65 year olds), 17.2% (360/2097) were in healthcare workers or their households. After adjustment for age, sex, ethnicity, socioeconomic deprivation, and comorbidity, the risk of admission due to covid-19 in non-patient facing healthcare workers and their households was similar to the risk in the general population (hazard ratio 0.81 (95% confidence interval 0.52 to 1.26) and 0.86 (0.49 to 1.51), respectively). In models adjusting for the same covariates, however, patient facing healthcare workers, compared with non-patient facing healthcare workers, were at higher risk (hazard ratio 3.30, 2.13 to 5.13), as were household members of patient facing healthcare workers (1.79, 1.10 to 2.91). After sub-division of patient facing healthcare workers into those who worked in "front door," intensive care, and non-intensive care aerosol generating settings and other, those in front door roles were at higher risk (hazard ratio 2.09, 1.49 to 2.94). For most patient facing healthcare workers and their households, the estimated absolute risk of hospital admission with covid-19 was less than 0.5%, but it was 1% and above in older men with comorbidity. CONCLUSIONS: Healthcare workers and their households contributed a sixth of covid-19 cases admitted to hospital. Although the absolute risk of admission was low overall, patient facing healthcare workers and their household members had threefold and twofold increased risks of admission with covid-19.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Família , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Betacoronavirus , Estudos de Coortes , Comorbidade , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde/classificação , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Fatores de Risco , Escócia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
4.
PLoS Med ; 17(10): e1003290, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33048945

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neurodevelopmental conditions commonly coexist in children, but compared to adults, childhood multimorbidity attracts less attention in research and clinical practice. We previously reported that children treated for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and depression have more school absences and exclusions, additional support needs, poorer attainment, and increased unemployment. They are also more likely to have coexisting conditions, including autism and intellectual disability. We investigated prevalence of neurodevelopmental multimorbidity (≥2 conditions) among Scottish schoolchildren and their educational outcomes compared to peers. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We retrospectively linked 6 Scotland-wide databases to analyse 766,244 children (390,290 [50.9%] boys; 375,954 [49.1%] girls) aged 4 to 19 years (mean = 10.9) attending Scottish schools between 2009 and 2013. Children were distributed across all deprivation quintiles (most to least deprived: 22.7%, 20.1%, 19.3%, 19.5%, 18.4%). The majority (96.2%) were white ethnicity. We ascertained autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and intellectual disabilities from records of additional support needs and ADHD and depression through relevant encashed prescriptions. We identified neurodevelopmental multimorbidity (≥2 of these conditions) in 4,789 (0.6%) children, with ASD and intellectual disability the most common combination. On adjusting for sociodemographic (sex, age, ethnicity, deprivation) and maternity (maternal age, maternal smoking, sex-gestation-specific birth weight centile, gestational age, 5-minute Apgar score, mode of delivery, parity) factors, multimorbidity was associated with increased school absenteeism and exclusion, unemployment, and poorer exam attainment. Significant dose relationships were evident between number of conditions (0, 1, ≥2) and the last 3 outcomes. Compared to children with no conditions, children with 1 condition, and children with 2 or more conditions, had more absenteeism (1 condition adjusted incidence rate ratio [IRR] 1.28, 95% CI 1.27-1.30, p < 0.001 and 2 or more conditions adjusted IRR 1.23, 95% CI 1.20-1.28, p < 0.001), greater exclusion (adjusted IRR 2.37, 95% CI 2.25-2.48, p < 0.001 and adjusted IRR 3.04, 95% CI 2.74-3.38, p < 0.001), poorer attainment (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 3.92, 95% CI 3.63-4.23, p < 0.001 and adjusted OR 12.07, 95% CI 9.15-15.94, p < 0.001), and increased unemployment (adjusted OR 1.57, 95% CI 1.49-1.66, p < 0.001 and adjusted OR 2.11, 95% CI 1.83-2.45, p < 0.001). Associations remained after further adjustment for comorbid physical conditions and additional support needs. Coexisting depression was the strongest driver of absenteeism and coexisting ADHD the strongest driver of exclusion. Absence of formal primary care diagnoses was a limitation since ascertaining depression and ADHD from prescriptions omitted affected children receiving alternative or no treatment and some antidepressants can be prescribed for other indications. CONCLUSIONS: Structuring clinical practice and training around single conditions may disadvantage children with neurodevelopmental multimorbidity, who we observed had significantly poorer educational outcomes compared to children with 1 condition and no conditions.


Assuntos
Escolaridade , Multimorbidade/tendências , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/epidemiologia , Absenteísmo , Adolescente , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/epidemiologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Bases de Dados Factuais , Depressão/epidemiologia , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Hospitalização , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Razão de Chances , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Instituições Acadêmicas , Escócia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
5.
Public Health ; 188: 4-7, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33039678

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Governments and health policymakers are now looking for strategies to lift the COVID-19 lockdown, while reducing risk to the public. METHODS: We propose the population attributable risk (PAR) as an established epidemiological tool that could support decision-making through quickly estimating the main benefits and costs of various exit strategies. RESULTS: We demonstrate the feasibility of use of PAR using pandemic data, that were publicly available in mid-May 2020 from Scotland and the US, to estimate the proportion of COVID-19 hospital admissions which might be avoided, and the proportion of adverse labour market effects - for various scenarios - based on maintaining the lockdown for those of certain ages with and without comorbidities. CONCLUSION: These calculations could be refined and applied in different countries to inform important COVID-19 policy decisions, using routinely collected data.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Política Pública , Medição de Risco/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Emprego/economia , Estudos de Viabilidade , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Quarentena/legislação & jurisprudência , Escócia/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
6.
Euro Surveill ; 25(42)2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33094713

RESUMO

BackgroundThe progression and geographical distribution of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in the United Kingdom (UK) and elsewhere is unknown because typically only symptomatic individuals are diagnosed. We performed a serological study of blood donors in Scotland in the spring of 2020 to detect neutralising antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 as a marker of past infection and epidemic progression.AimOur objective was to determine if sera from blood bank donors can be used to track the emergence and progression of the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic.MethodsA pseudotyped SARS-CoV-2 virus microneutralisation assay was used to detect neutralising antibodies to SARS-CoV-2. The study comprised samples from 3,500 blood donors collected in Scotland between 17 March and 18 May 2020. Controls were collected from 100 donors in Scotland during 2019.ResultsAll samples collected on 17 March 2020 (n = 500) were negative in the pseudotyped SARS-CoV-2 virus microneutralisation assay. Neutralising antibodies were detected in six of 500 donors from 23 to 26 March. The number of samples containing neutralising antibodies did not significantly rise after 5-6 April until the end of the study on 18 May. We found that infections were concentrated in certain postcodes, indicating that outbreaks of infection were extremely localised. In contrast, other areas remained comparatively untouched by the epidemic.ConclusionAlthough blood donors are not representative of the overall population, we demonstrated that serosurveys of blood banks can serve as a useful tool for tracking the emergence and progression of an epidemic such as the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Doadores de Sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Vigilância da População , Adulto , Análise por Conglomerados , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Geografia Médica , Humanos , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Masculino , Modelos Imunológicos , Testes de Neutralização , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Prevalência , Escócia/epidemiologia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , População Urbana
7.
J Glob Health ; 10(2): 020103, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33110502

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has put health systems, economies and societies under unprecedented strain, calling for innovative approaches. Scotland's government, like those elsewhere, is facing difficult decisions about how to deploy digital technologies and data to help contain, control and manage the disease, while also respecting citizens' rights. This paper explores the ethical challenges presented by these methods, with particular emphasis on mobile apps associated with contact tracing. Drawing on UK and international experiences, it examines issues such as public trust, data privacy and technology design; how changing disease threats and contextual factors can affect the balance between public benefits and risks; and the importance of transparency, accountability and stakeholder participation for the trustworthiness and good-governance of digital systems and strategies. Analysis of recent technology debates, controversial programmes and emerging outcomes in comparable countries implementing contact tracing apps, reveals sociotechnical complexities and unexpected paradoxes that warrant further study and underlines the need for holistic, inclusive and adaptive strategies. The paper also considers the potential role of these apps as Scotland transitions to the 'new normal', outlines challenges and opportunities for public engagement, and poses a set of ethical questions to inform decision-making at multiple levels, from software design to institutional governance.


Assuntos
Busca de Comunicante/ética , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/ética , Direitos Humanos/ética , Aplicativos Móveis/ética , Pandemias/ética , Betacoronavirus , Busca de Comunicante/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Governo , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Escócia/epidemiologia , Participação dos Interessados , Tecnologia/ética
8.
BMC Nephrol ; 21(1): 419, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004002

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Infection with the severe acute respiratory coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has led to a worldwide pandemic with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the disease caused by SARS-CoV-2, overwhelming healthcare systems globally. Preliminary reports suggest a high incidence of infection and mortality with SARS-CoV-2 in patients receiving kidney replacement therapy (KRT). The aims of this study are to report characteristics, rates and outcomes of all patients affected by infection with SARS-CoV-2 undergoing KRT in Scotland. METHODS: Study design was an observational cohort study. Data were linked between the Scottish Renal Registry, Health Protection Scotland and the Scottish Intensive Care Society Audit Group national data sets using a unique patient identifier (Community Health Index (CHI)) for each individual by the Public Health and Intelligence unit of Public Health, Scotland. Descriptive statistics and survival analyses were performed. RESULTS: During the period 1st March 2020 to 31st May 2020, 110 patients receiving KRT tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 amounting to 2% of the prevalent KRT population. Of those affected, 86 were receiving haemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis and 24 had a renal transplant. Patients who tested positive were older and more likely to reside in more deprived postcodes. Mortality was high at 26.7% in the dialysis patients and 29.2% in the transplant patients. CONCLUSION: The rate of detected SARS-CoV-2 in people receiving KRT in Scotland was relatively low but with a high mortality for those demonstrating infection. Although impossible to confirm, it appears that the measures taken within dialysis units coupled with the national shielding policy, have been effective in protecting this population from infection.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/organização & administração , Infecções por Coronavirus , Falência Renal Crônica , Transplante de Rim/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Terapia de Substituição Renal , Comorbidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Falência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Falência Renal Crônica/cirurgia , Falência Renal Crônica/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade , Avaliação de Processos e Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Saúde Pública/métodos , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Terapia de Substituição Renal/métodos , Terapia de Substituição Renal/estatística & dados numéricos , Escócia/epidemiologia
9.
PLoS Med ; 17(10): e1003374, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33079969

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The objectives of this study were to identify risk factors for severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and to lay the basis for risk stratification based on demographic data and health records. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The design was a matched case-control study. Severe COVID-19 was defined as either a positive nucleic acid test for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in the national database followed by entry to a critical care unit or death within 28 days or a death certificate with COVID-19 as underlying cause. Up to 10 controls per case matched for sex, age, and primary care practice were selected from the national population register. For this analysis-based on ascertainment of positive test results up to 6 June 2020, entry to critical care up to 14 June 2020, and deaths registered up to 14 June 2020-there were 36,948 controls and 4,272 cases, of which 1,894 (44%) were care home residents. All diagnostic codes from the past 5 years of hospitalisation records and all drug codes from prescriptions dispensed during the past 240 days were extracted. Rate ratios for severe COVID-19 were estimated by conditional logistic regression. In a logistic regression using the age-sex distribution of the national population, the odds ratios for severe disease were 2.87 for a 10-year increase in age and 1.63 for male sex. In the case-control analysis, the strongest risk factor was residence in a care home, with rate ratio 21.4 (95% CI 19.1-23.9, p = 8 × 10-644). Univariate rate ratios for conditions listed by public health agencies as conferring high risk were 2.75 (95% CI 1.96-3.88, p = 6 × 10-9) for type 1 diabetes, 1.60 (95% CI 1.48-1.74, p = 8 × 10-30) for type 2 diabetes, 1.49 (95% CI 1.37-1.61, p = 3 × 10-21) for ischemic heart disease, 2.23 (95% CI 2.08-2.39, p = 4 × 10-109) for other heart disease, 1.96 (95% CI 1.83-2.10, p = 2 × 10-78) for chronic lower respiratory tract disease, 4.06 (95% CI 3.15-5.23, p = 3 × 10-27) for chronic kidney disease, 5.4 (95% CI 4.9-5.8, p = 1 × 10-354) for neurological disease, 3.61 (95% CI 2.60-5.00, p = 2 × 10-14) for chronic liver disease, and 2.66 (95% CI 1.86-3.79, p = 7 × 10-8) for immune deficiency or suppression. Seventy-eight percent of cases and 52% of controls had at least one listed condition (51% of cases and 11% of controls under age 40). Severe disease was associated with encashment of at least one prescription in the past 9 months and with at least one hospital admission in the past 5 years (rate ratios 3.10 [95% CI 2.59-3.71] and 2.75 [95% CI 2.53-2.99], respectively) even after adjusting for the listed conditions. In those without listed conditions, significant associations with severe disease were seen across many hospital diagnoses and drug categories. Age and sex provided 2.58 bits of information for discrimination. A model based on demographic variables, listed conditions, hospital diagnoses, and prescriptions provided an additional 1.07 bits (C-statistic 0.804). A limitation of this study is that records from primary care were not available. CONCLUSIONS: We have shown that, along with older age and male sex, severe COVID-19 is strongly associated with past medical history across all age groups. Many comorbidities beyond the risk conditions designated by public health agencies contribute to this. A risk classifier that uses all the information available in health records, rather than only a limited set of conditions, will more accurately discriminate between low-risk and high-risk individuals who may require shielding until the epidemic is over.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Nível de Saúde , Hospitalização , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Betacoronavirus , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Comorbidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Tratamento Farmacológico , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Fatores de Risco , Escócia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33036327

RESUMO

Exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS) in the home is largely associated with socio-economic disadvantage. Disadvantaged parents face specific challenges creating a smoke-free home, often caring for children in accommodation without access to outdoor garden space. Existing smoke-free home interventions largely fail to accommodate these constraints. Innovative approaches are required to address this inequality. In this two-phase study, we engaged with parents living in disadvantaged areas of Edinburgh, Scotland, to explore tailored approaches to creating a smoke-free home and develop and pilot-test an intervention based on their views and preferences. In Phase 1, qualitative interviews with 17 parents recruited from Early Years Centres explored alternative approaches to smoke-free home interventions. In Phase 2, an intervention based on parents' views and preferences was pilot-tested with parents recruited through Early Years and Family Nurse Partnership centres. Seventeen parents took part in an interview to share their views/experiences of the intervention. Data from both study phases were thematically analysed. Phase 1 findings suggested that parents associated nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) with quit attempts but supported the idea of NRT use for temporary abstinence to create a smoke-free home, viewing this as a safer option than using e-cigarettes indoors. In Phase 2, 54 parents expressed an interest in accessing NRT to create a smoke-free home, 32 discussed NRT product choice during a home visit from a smoking adviser, and 20 collected their free NRT prescription from the pharmacy. NRT was used for up to 12 weeks in the home, with ongoing advice available from pharmacy staff. During qualitative interviews (n = 17), parents self-reported successfully creating a smoke-free home, quitting smoking, and reduced cigarette consumption, often exceeding their expectations regarding changes made. The intervention was acceptable to parents, but the multi-step process used to access NRT was cumbersome. Some participants were lost to this process. Parents living in disadvantaged circumstances may benefit from access to NRT for temporary abstinence in the home to assist them to protect their children from SHS exposure. Further research using a more streamlined approach to NRT access is required to determine the feasibility and cost-effectiveness of this approach.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/prevenção & controle , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina/estatística & dados numéricos , Exposição Ambiental/prevenção & controle , Pais/psicologia , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Prevenção do Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/prevenção & controle , Populações Vulneráveis , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Habitação , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Escócia/epidemiologia , Dispositivos para o Abandono do Uso de Tabaco
11.
Am J Psychiatry ; 177(10): 917-927, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32998551

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Death by suicide is a highly preventable yet growing worldwide health crisis. To date, there has been a lack of adequately powered genomic studies of suicide, with no sizable suicide death cohorts available for analysis. To address this limitation, the authors conducted the first comprehensive genomic analysis of suicide death using previously unpublished genotype data from a large population-ascertained cohort. METHODS: The analysis sample comprised 3,413 population-ascertained case subjects of European ancestry and 14,810 ancestrally matched control subjects. Analytical methods included principal component analysis for ancestral matching and adjusting for population stratification, linear mixed model genome-wide association testing (conditional on genetic-relatedness matrix), gene and gene set-enrichment testing, and polygenic score analyses, as well as single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) heritability and genetic correlation estimation using linkage disequilibrium score regression. RESULTS: Genome-wide association analysis identified two genome-wide significant loci (involving six SNPs: rs34399104, rs35518298, rs34053895, rs66828456, rs35502061, and rs35256367). Gene-based analyses implicated 22 genes on chromosomes 13, 15, 16, 17, and 19 (q<0.05). Suicide death heritability was estimated at an h2SNP value of 0.25 (SE=0.04) and a value of 0.16 (SE=0.02) when converted to a liability scale. Notably, suicide polygenic scores were significantly predictive across training and test sets. Polygenic scores for several other psychiatric disorders and psychological traits were also predictive, particularly scores for behavioral disinhibition and major depressive disorder. CONCLUSIONS: Multiple genome-wide significant loci and genes were identified and polygenic score prediction of suicide death case-control status was demonstrated, adjusting for ancestry, in independent training and test sets. Additionally, the suicide death sample was found to have increased genetic risk for behavioral disinhibition, major depressive disorder, depressive symptoms, autism spectrum disorder, psychosis, and alcohol use disorder compared with the control sample.


Assuntos
Herança Multifatorial/genética , Suicídio Consumado/psicologia , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Genoma Humano/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação/genética , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Análise de Componente Principal , Escócia/epidemiologia , Fatores Sexuais , Suicídio Consumado/prevenção & controle , Suicídio Consumado/estatística & dados numéricos , Utah/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
12.
J Transl Med ; 18(1): 354, 2020 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32933530

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Severe COVID-19 infection results in a systemic inflammatory response (SIRS). This SIRS response shares similarities to the changes observed during the peri-operative period that are recognised to be associated with the development of multiple organ failure. METHODS: Electronic patient records for patients who were admitted to an urban teaching hospital during the initial 7-week period of the COVID-19 pandemic in Glasgow, U.K. (17th March 2020-1st May 2020) were examined for routine clinical, laboratory and clinical outcome data. Age, sex, BMI and documented evidence of COVID-19 infection at time of discharge or death certification were considered minimal criteria for inclusion. RESULTS: Of the 224 patients who fulfilled the criteria for inclusion, 52 (23%) had died at 30-days following admission. COVID-19 related respiratory failure (75%) and multiorgan failure (12%) were the commonest causes of death recorded. Age ≥ 70 years (p < 0.001), past medical history of cognitive impairment (p ≤ 0.001), previous delirium (p < 0.001), clinical frailty score > 3 (p < 0.001), hypertension (p < 0.05), heart failure (p < 0.01), national early warning score (NEWS) > 4 (p < 0.01), positive CXR (p < 0.01), and subsequent positive COVID-19 swab (p ≤ 0.001) were associated with 30-day mortality. CRP > 80 mg/L (p < 0.05), albumin < 35 g/L (p < 0.05), peri-operative Glasgow Prognostic Score (poGPS) (p < 0.05), lymphocytes < 1.5 109/l (p < 0.05), neutrophil lymphocyte ratio (p ≤ 0.001), haematocrit (< 0.40 L/L (male)/ < 0.37 L/L (female)) (p ≤ 0.01), urea > 7.5 mmol/L (p < 0.001), creatinine > 130 mmol/L (p < 0.05) and elevated urea: albumin ratio (< 0.001) were also associated with 30-day mortality. On multivariate analysis, age ≥ 70 years (O.R. 3.9, 95% C.I. 1.4-8.2, p < 0.001), past medical history of heart failure (O.R. 3.3, 95% C.I. 1.2-19.3, p < 0.05), NEWS > 4 (O.R. 2.4, 95% C.I. 1.1-4.4, p < 0.05), positive initial CXR (O.R. 0.4, 95% C.I. 0.2-0.9, p < 0.05) and poGPS (O.R. 2.3, 95% C.I. 1.1-4.4, p < 0.05) remained independently associated with 30-day mortality. Among those patients who tested PCR COVID-19 positive (n = 122), age ≥ 70 years (O.R. 4.7, 95% C.I. 2.0-11.3, p < 0.001), past medical history of heart failure (O.R. 4.4, 95% C.I. 1.2-20.5, p < 0.05) and poGPS (O.R. 2.4, 95% C.I. 1.1-5.1, p < 0.05) remained independently associated with 30-days mortality. CONCLUSION: Age ≥ 70 years and severe systemic inflammation as measured by the peri-operative Glasgow Prognostic Score are independently associated with 30-day mortality among patients admitted to hospital with COVID-19 infection.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Hospitalização , Hospitais de Ensino , Hospitais Urbanos , Humanos , Inflamação/fisiopatologia , Linfócitos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Neutrófilos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Prognóstico , Escócia/epidemiologia , Pesquisa Médica Translacional
14.
Palliat Med ; 34(9): 1256-1262, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32794435

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients hospitalised with COVID-19 have increased morbidity and mortality, which requires extensive involvement of specialist Hospital Palliative Care Teams. Evaluating the response to the surge in demand for effective symptom management can enhance provision of Palliative Care in this patient population. AIM: To characterise the symptom profile, symptom management requirements and outcomes of hospitalised COVID-19 positive patients referred for Palliative Care, and to contextualise Palliative Care demands from COVID-19 against a 'typical' caseload from 2019. DESIGN: Service evaluation based on a retrospective cohort review of patient records. SETTING/PARTICIPANTS: One large health board in Scotland. Demographic data, patient symptoms, drugs/doses for symptom control, and patient outcomes were captured for all COVID-19 positive patients referred to Hospital Palliative Care Teams between 30th March and 26th April 2020. RESULTS: Our COVID-19 cohort included 186 patients (46% of all referrals). Dyspnoea and agitation were the most prevalent symptoms (median 2 symptoms per patient). 75% of patients were prescribed continuous subcutaneous infusion for symptom control, which was effective in 78.6% of patients. Compared to a 'typical' caseload, the COVID-19 cohort were on caseload for less time (median 2 vs 5 days; p < 0.001) and had a higher death rate (80.6% vs 30.3%; p < 0.001). The COVID-19 cohort replaced 'typical' caseload; overall numbers of referrals were not increased. CONCLUSIONS: Hospitalised COVID-19 positive patients referred for Palliative Care may have a short prognosis, differ from 'typical' caseload, and predominantly suffer from dyspnoea and agitation. Such symptoms can be effectively controlled with standard doses of opioids and benzodiazepines.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/enfermagem , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/enfermagem , Avaliação de Sintomas/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Cuidados Paliativos/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Escócia/epidemiologia
15.
Int J Law Psychiatry ; 71: 101593, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32768103

RESUMO

A state's real commitment to its international human rights obligations is never more challenged than when it faces emergency situations. Addressing actual and potential resourcing pressures arising from the COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in, amongst other things, modifications to Scottish mental health and capacity law and the issuing of new guidance relating to associated practice. Whether these emergency or ordinary measures are invoked during the crisis there are potential implications for the rights of persons with mental illness, learning disability and dementia notably those relating to individual autonomy and dignity. This article will consider areas of particular concern but how strict adherence to the legal, ethical and human rights framework in Scotland will help to reduce the risk of adverse consequences.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Direitos Humanos/legislação & jurisprudência , Competência Mental/legislação & jurisprudência , Saúde Mental/legislação & jurisprudência , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , Humanos , Pandemias , Escócia/epidemiologia
16.
BMJ Open Qual ; 9(3)2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32855158

RESUMO

Reforming the delivery of outpatient appointments (OPA) was high on the healthcare policy agenda prior to COVID-19. The current pandemic exacerbates the financial and associated resource limitations of OPA. Videoconsulting provides a safe method of real-time contact for some remotely residing patients with hospital-based clinicians. One factor in failing to move from introduction of service change to its general adoption may be lack of patient and public involvement. This project, based in the largest Island in the Inner Hebrides of Scotland, aimed to codesign the use of the NHS Near Me video consulting platform for OPA to take place in the patient's home. A codesign model was used as a framework. This included: step 1-presenting a process flow map of the current system of using Near Me to public participants and establishing their ideas on various steps in the process, step 2-conducting numerous Plan, Do, Study, Act (PDSA) tests and creating a current process flow diagram based on learning and step 3-conducting telephone interviews and thematic analysis of transcripts (n=7) to explore participants' perceptions of being involved in the codesign process. Twenty-five adaptations were made to the Near Me at Home video appointment process from participants' PDSA testing. Four themes were identified from thematic analysis of participants' feedback of the codesign process, namely: altruistic motivation, valuing community voices, the usefulness of the PDSA cycles and the power of 'word of mouth'. By codesigning the use of Near Me with people living in a remote area of Scotland, multiple adaptations were made to the processes to suit the context in which Near Me at Home will be used. Learning from testing and adapting with the public will likely be useful for others embarking on codesign approaches to improve spread and sustainability of quality improvement projects.


Assuntos
Assistência Ambulatorial/organização & administração , Agendamento de Consultas , Serviços de Assistência Domiciliar/organização & administração , Consulta Remota/organização & administração , Comunicação por Videoconferência/organização & administração , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Reforma dos Serviços de Saúde , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Melhoria de Qualidade/organização & administração , Escócia/epidemiologia , Medicina Estatal/organização & administração
17.
Pract Neurol ; 20(5): 396-403, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32862137

RESUMO

Tele-neurology is a neurological consultation at a distance, or not in person, using various technologies to achieve connectivity, including the telephone and the internet. The telephone is ubiquitous and is a standard part of how we manage patients. Video consulting has been used for a long time in some centres, particularly in those where the geography means that patients have to travel long distances. Various technologies can be used, and with the development of various internet-based video-calling platforms, real-time video consulting has become much more accessible. We have provided a tele-neurology service in the North East of Scotland since 2006 using video conferencing with far-end camera control. More recently, we have complemented this using an internet-based platform (NHS Near Me). Here we outline the practicalities of video consulting in 'ordinary' times and comment on its use in the 'extraordinary' times of the coronavirus pandemic.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Exame Neurológico/tendências , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Encaminhamento e Consulta/tendências , Telemedicina/tendências , Comunicação por Videoconferência/tendências , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Exame Neurológico/métodos , Exame Neurológico/normas , Neurologia/métodos , Neurologia/normas , Neurologia/tendências , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Encaminhamento e Consulta/normas , Escócia/epidemiologia , Telemedicina/métodos , Telemedicina/normas , Comunicação por Videoconferência/normas
18.
Int Dent J ; 70(6): 444-454, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32830329

RESUMO

AIM: To address deficits in human resources for oral health data (HROH) in rural and remote areas in Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland by spatially profiling and modelling the distribution pattern of dental practices according to Health Boards. METHODS: National Health Service (NHS) dental practices were located and mapped against population and rural-urban classifications of Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland, using Geographic Information System (GIS) tools. All data collected were at the smallest geographical statistical hierarchy level in each country, and population data were retrieved from the 2011 census. RESULTS: A total of 1,695 NHS dental practices were mapped against 27 Health Board regions. In Scotland, Northern Ireland and Wales, 18.3%, 18.7% and 7.7%, respectively, of the population living in the most remote areas resided within 2.5 km of a dental practice. In each country, the Health Boards with the largest proportion of the population living more than 10 km from a dental practice were the Western Isles (Scotland), Western Health and Social Care Trust (HSCT) (Northern Ireland) and Hywel Dda University Health Board (UHB) (Wales). In each country, the highest practice-to-population (PtP) ratios were found in Forth Valley (1:7,194) (Scotland), Southern HSCT (1:5,115) (Northern Ireland) and Hywel Dda UHB (Wales) (1:7,907). CONCLUSION: Dental services are distributed unequally between urban and rural areas. PtP ratios coupled with GIS analysis are important tools to improve HROH distribution.


Assuntos
População Rural , Medicina Estatal , Humanos , Irlanda do Norte/epidemiologia , Escócia/epidemiologia , País de Gales/epidemiologia
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