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1.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 31(1): e012421, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35043872

RESUMO

We present a case of Sarcoptes and canine distemper virus (CDV) infection in a white-nosed coati (Nasua narica) that was trapped in the dry tropical forest of Cerro Blanco reserve, located in the coastal region of Ecuador. Sarcoptic mange is a highly contagious and zoonotic disease with worldwide distribution that causes epidemics. Mange is produced by Sarcoptes mites that causes severe epidermal damage. Secondary infections and physiological constrictions without treatment can lead to death of the host. In addition, cooccurrence of canine distemper virus was detected via iiRT-PCR from serum samples. Physical analyses showed that 90% of the skin was affected by severe alopecia due to the sarcoptic mange infection. The presence of mites and histopathological analyses confirmed the diagnosis of infection. This coati was taken to a veterinary clinic and was fed every day, but it died after four days. This is the first report of sarcoptic mange and the first report of CDV in white-nosed coatis in South America. Further studies are needed in this region, to seek out other suspected cases, given the high capacity for disease transmission. Preventive actions to avoid epidemic and zoonotic episodes are needed.


Assuntos
Vírus da Cinomose Canina , Procyonidae , Escabiose , Animais , Equador/epidemiologia , Escabiose/veterinária , Pele
2.
Bol. micol. (Valparaiso En linea) ; 36(2): 20-31, dic. 2021. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1352757

RESUMO

En esta revisión de la literatura se describen aspectos epidemiológicos, fisiopatológicos, clínicos y terapéuticos sobre una presentación atípica y grave de escabiosis, la sarna costrosa o noruega. Esta presentación de escabiosis destaca por afectar principalmente a personas con condiciones de inmunodepresión o sociales que las hacen susceptibles de una alta carga parasitaria, además se asocia a un peor pronóstico y a riesgo de complicaciones. Desde el punto de vista terapéutico, sus estrategias difieren del manejo de la escabiosis clásica.(AU)


This literature review describes epidemiological, pathophysiological, clinical and therapeutic aspects of an atypical and severe presentation of scabies, Norwegian or crusty scabies. This presentation of scabies stands out because it mainly affects people with immunosuppressive or social conditions that make them susceptibleto a high parasite load, it is also associated with a worse prognosis and risk of complications. From a therapeutic point of view, their strategies differ from the management of classic scabies.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Escabiose/fisiopatologia , Ectoparasitoses/etiologia , Sistema Imunitário/patologia , Sarcoptes scabiei/patogenicidade , Escabiose/diagnóstico , Escabiose/tratamento farmacológico , Ivermectina/administração & dosagem , Higiene
3.
Clin Dermatol ; 39(5): 890-899, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34785018

RESUMO

St. Gallicanus Hospital in Rome, Italy, created by the will of Pope Benedict XIII (1649-1730) in 1725, was the first dermatologic hospital in the world. The strong bond between science and faith, humanitarian spirit and scientific research, and the profoundness and legacy of its entire history have all contributed to its legacy. We have traced its development by examining archival documents to understand the life of the institute and the diseases that were diagnosed and treated from the 18th century to the first half of the 20th century. Some of the main diseases were leprosy, mange, scabies, ringworm, and syphilis, which were widespread in Rome during the 18th and 19th centuries and were creating a mortal threat for much of the population. St. Gallicanus Hospital was dedicated to the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of these diseases where possible. Special attention has been directed to syphilis and the use of penicillin therapy after its introduction in 1943, especially for curbing the extensive problems created by prostitution.


Assuntos
Escabiose , Sífilis , Academias e Institutos , História do Século XV , História do Século XVI , História do Século XVII , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , História Antiga , História Medieval , Hospitais , Humanos , Cidade de Roma , Sífilis/diagnóstico , Sífilis/tratamento farmacológico , Sífilis/epidemiologia
4.
Exp Appl Acarol ; 85(1): 41-48, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34557977

RESUMO

Among the skin disorders of dogs, scabies is notable for its high occurrence rate and the need for veterinary interventions. There are two obstacles to making this diagnosis through direct investigation under a microscope (DIM): the continual need to make new slides when the results are negative and the long time needed for reading these slides. Thus, the objective of the present study was to compare efficacy between DIM and the technique of centrifugation-flotation in sucrose solution (CFSS) in samples from dogs in the semiarid region of the state of Paraíba, Brazil. Samples from 136 dogs were used, and three slides were made for each examination (DIM and CFSS). The readings were halted in cases of positivity. Positive samples were obtained from 56.6% of the dogs (77/136), of which 76.6% (59/77) were positive through both techniques, 13% (10/77) only through DIM and 10.4% (8/77) only through CFSS. The positivity rate did not differ statistically between the techniques. CFSS showed higher quality of readings, due to the considerably fewer artifacts on the slides, thereby optimizing the reading time. Sensitivity (85.6%), specificity (88.1%), accuracy (86.8%), positive predictive value (88.1%) and negative predictive value (85.1%) were obtained and the kappa coefficient (0.73) was considered substantial. It was concluded that CFSS showed high diagnostic capacity for scabies, similar to that of DIM, with optimized reading time, fewer artifacts and better display of mites.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão , Escabiose , Animais , Centrifugação , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Cães , Sarcoptes scabiei , Sacarose
5.
Turkiye Parazitol Derg ; 45(3): 190-194, 2021 08 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34346874

RESUMO

Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the post-pandemic changes in the frequency of scabies and determined the clues that may indicate a possible outbreak of scabies in the future. Methods: All patients diagnosed with scabies in the University of Health Sciences Turkey, Erzurum Regional Training and Research Hospital and Palandöken State Hospital between January 2019 and September 2020 were evaluated. Results: The frequency of scabies of 1.87% was remarkable in the first quarter of 2020, which corresponds to the pre-pandemic, and >50% (n=442) of all patients with scabies in 2019 (n=769) were encountered only in the first 3 months. The frequency of scabies seen in the first 3 quarters of 2020 was significantly higher than in 2019 (p<0.001). Significant decreases were found in the 0-14 years age groups (infant, preschool and school period) compared to 2019 (p<0.001, p<0.001 and p=0.015, respectively). No significant increase or decrease was determined in the frequency of scabies in 2020 (p=0.205). In addition, an increase in the number and rates of scabies patients are observed after the first month of normalisation period followed by the increase in the number of Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) daily cases. Conclusion: Applications for scabies to polyclinics after the pandemic were determined to be too low compared to previous periods, especially in school-age children, and showed an increasing trend over time. Patients with scabies that reach treatment late or not due to the pandemic may cause outbreak aftermath COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Escabiose , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Surtos de Doenças , Humanos , Lactente , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Escabiose/epidemiologia
7.
Vet Parasitol ; 298: 109553, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34388422

RESUMO

The entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana has been successfully used for the control of phytopathogenic arthropods and there are a growing number of studies suggesting that this kind of fungus could also be used for the control of ectoparasites in mammals. This study evaluated for the first time the efficacy of different Beauveria strains against the eggs of Sarcoptes scabiei collected from experimentally infected pigs. Eggs were exposed to fungal conidia and monitored for hatching over 10 days. The strongest effect (28.75 % of hatching inhibition) was obtained with a commercial B. bassiana strain. Furthermore, the detection of fungal genomic within the surface-cleaned eggs demonstrated the ability of B. bassiana to penetrate and proliferate in the egg-shell of S. scabiei. This study provides the first evidence, using molecular techniques, that the development of mycoacaricides may be of interest for the control of S. scabiei infection.


Assuntos
Beauveria , Controle Biológico de Vetores , Sarcoptes scabiei , Animais , Beauveria/fisiologia , Óvulo/microbiologia , Sarcoptes scabiei/microbiologia , Escabiose/prevenção & controle , Esporos Fúngicos , Suínos
8.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(7): e0009577, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34297724

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Crusted scabies is endemic in some remote Aboriginal communities in the Northern Territory (NT) of Australia and carries a high mortality risk. Improvement in active case detection (ACD) for crusted scabies is hampered by a lack of evidence about best practice. We therefore conducted a systematic review of ACD methods for leprosy, a condition with similar ACD requirements, to consider how findings could be informative to crusted scabies detection. METHODS AND PRINCIPLE FINDINGS: We conducted systematic searches in MEDLINE, CINAHL, Scopus and the Cochrane Database for Systematic Reviews for studies published since 1999 that reported at least one comparison rate (detection or prevalence rate) against which the yield of the ACD method could be assessed. The search yielded 15 eligible studies from 511. Study heterogeneity precluded meta-analysis. Contact tracing and community screening of marginalised ethnic groups yielded the highest new case detection rates. Rapid community screening campaigns, and those using less experienced screening personnel, were associated with lower suspect confirmation rates. There is insufficient data to assess whether ACD campaigns improve treatment outcomes or disease control. CONCLUSION: This review demonstrates the importance of ACD campaigns in communities facing the highest barriers to healthcare access and within neighbourhoods of index cases. The potential benefit of ACD for crusted scabies is not quantified, however, lessons from leprosy suggest value in follow-up with previously identified cases and their close contacts to support for scabies control and to reduce the likelihood of reinfection in the crusted scabies case. Skilled screening personnel and appropriate community engagement strategies are needed to maximise screening uptake. More research is needed to assess ACD cost effectiveness, impact on disease control, and to explore ACD methods capable of capturing the homeless and highly mobile who may be missed in household centric models.


Assuntos
Hanseníase/diagnóstico , Escabiose/diagnóstico , Escabiose/patologia , Austrália/epidemiologia , Humanos , Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Escabiose/epidemiologia
10.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(6): e0009386, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34061851

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Scabies is a neglected tropical disease of the skin, causing severe itching, stigmatizing skin lesions and systemic complications. Since 2015, the DerMalawi project provide an integrated skin diseases clinics and Tele-dermatology care in Malawi. Clinic based data suggested a progressive increase in scabies cases observed. To better identify and treat individuals with scabies in the region, we shifted from a clinic-based model to a community based outreach programme. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: From May 2015, DerMalawi project provide integrated skin diseases and Tele-dermatological care in the Nkhotakota and Salima health districts in Malawi. Demographic and clinical data of all patients personally attended are recorded. Due to a progressive increase in the number of cases of scabies the project shifted to a community-based outreach programme. For the community outreach activities, we conducted three visits between 2018 to 2019 and undertook screening in schools and villages of Alinafe Hospital catchment area. Treatment was offered for all the cases and school or household contacts. Scabies increased from 2.9% to 39.2% of all cases seen by the DerMalawi project at clinics between 2015 to 2018. During the community-based activities approximately 50% of the population was assessed in each of three visits. The prevalence of scabies was similar in the first two rounds, 15.4% (2392) at the first visit and 17.2% at the second visit. The prevalence of scabies appeared to be lower (2.4%) at the third visit. The prevalence of impetigo appeared unchanged and was 6.7% at the first visit and 5.2% at the final visit. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Prevalence of scabies in our setting was very high suggesting that scabies is a major public health problem in parts of Malawi. Further work is required to more accurately assess the burden of disease and develop appropriate public health strategies for its control.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde Comunitária , Escabiose/diagnóstico , Escabiose/epidemiologia , Acaricidas/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Malaui/epidemiologia , Masculino , População Rural , Escabiose/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto Jovem
11.
Curr Opin Pediatr ; 33(4): 410-415, 2021 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34074914

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: This review will update pediatric providers on the recent data regarding the epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment of common skin infestations affecting children and adolescents. RECENT FINDINGS: Standard superficial skin biopsy for scabies and the vacuum method for head lice can increase diagnostic accuracy and efficiency. There is growing resistance to some of the traditional treatments for scabies and head lice, and progress has been made in finding newer and potentially more effective treatments, such as oral moxidectin for scabies and abametapir for head lice. Recent studies have established the safety of traditional treatments, such as permethrin and oral ivermectin in infants and small children. SUMMARY: Permethrin and ivermectin are both considered safe and effective for children and adolescents with scabies. Permethrin is generally considered safe in infants less than two months of age. Proper application of permethrin is critical, and providers should emphasize proper application technique. Treatment of head lice should only be initiated with active infestations. Resistance to permethrin continues to increase and other options are now available, including an over-the-counter topical ivermectin formulation. Identification and eradication of bed bug infestations are crucial in preventing bedbug bites.


Assuntos
Percevejos-de-Cama , Inseticidas , Infestações por Piolhos , Pediculus , Escabiose , Adolescente , Animais , Criança , Humanos , Infestações por Piolhos/diagnóstico , Infestações por Piolhos/tratamento farmacológico , Infestações por Piolhos/epidemiologia , Escabiose/diagnóstico , Escabiose/tratamento farmacológico , Escabiose/epidemiologia
12.
13.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(6): e0009485, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34125837

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Scabies outbreaks are common in nursing homes in the Netherlands. In October 2018, a local public health service (PHS) in The Hague was notified of a new scabies outbreak in a nursing home in that region. The PHS initiated an outbreak investigation. Cases were defined as: possible (reported symptoms), probable (scabies-like lesions) and confirmed (PCR or microscopy in skin flakes). Head-to-toe examinations were performed of all residents and those staff members who reported symptoms suggestive of scabies. Skin scrapings of lesions were tested either with microscopy or by PCR. Experimentally for case finding, skin flakes from bed linens of residents who reported symptoms of itchiness but did not have primary lesions were sent for PCR testing. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: All residents (41) and 37/44 staff were included in this outbreak investigation. We identified 30 possible, four probable and six confirmed cases. The overall attack rate for probable/confirmed cases was 10/78 (13%). Of the six confirmed cases, two were confirmed by PCR, three by microscopy, and one showed positive findings with both techniques. Two out of the three bed-linen specimens were PCR-positive. CONCLUSIONS: In this outbreak of scabies in a nursing home, PCR was used on skin flakes from bed linens, which led to the detection of two additional cases. This illustrates the potential of PCR during the investigation of scabies outbreaks.


Assuntos
Roupas de Cama, Mesa e Banho/parasitologia , Escabiose/diagnóstico , Pele/microbiologia , Animais , Surtos de Doenças , Humanos , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Casas de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Sarcoptes scabiei/genética , Sarcoptes scabiei/fisiologia , Escabiose/epidemiologia , Escabiose/parasitologia
14.
Turkiye Parazitol Derg ; 45(2): 133-136, 2021 06 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34103291

RESUMO

Objective: Scabies is caused by an ectoparasite called Sarcoptes scabiei (S. scabiei), which penetrates the epidermis through skin folds and burrows in the stratum corneum, following the development of tunnels (sillion). The disease is specifically characterised by keratosis, allergy and itching that increases at night-time. This study aimed to investigate the frequency of S. scabiei in patients with a pro-diagnosis of scabies. Objective: Between January 2012 and December 2019, a total of 746 [n=388 (52%), female; n=358 (48%) male] patients aged 0-80 years were admitted to Firat University Hospital Parasitology-mycology Laboratory. Skin scrapings were taken from suspected lesions on anatomic regions such as the hands (wrist, interdigital skin, fingertip and palm), abdomen, penis and legs (thigh and bottom foot). They were examined under a light microscope after adding 15% potassium hydroxide solution. Results: S. scabiei was positive in 139 (18.63%) of 746 patients including a mother and her daughter and a married couple, where 68 (9.11%) were female and 71 (9.52%) were male. Conclusion: To our best knowledge, this is the first comprehensive study of scabies in Elazig. Despite the recent socio-economic and cultural developments observed in our country, scabies and all other parasitic infestations still remain to be important problems. We believe that improvement of the public vigilance together with early diagnosis will improve sanitation and provide protection against scabies and parasitic infestations.


Assuntos
Sarcoptes scabiei , Escabiose/epidemiologia , Animais , Epiderme/parasitologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Prurido/parasitologia , Sarcoptes scabiei/citologia , Escabiose/diagnóstico , Escabiose/parasitologia , Escabiose/patologia , Pele/parasitologia
17.
BMC Pediatr ; 21(1): 249, 2021 05 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34034686

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Scabies is a neglected tropical disease caused by the mite Sarcoptes scabiei that burrows under the skin. It is a major health problem in tropical areas, largely affecting children. Scabies is common and highly contagious and in schoolchildren spreads quite rapidly, due to overcrowding and close contact within the schools. This study aimed to determine the risk factors associated with scabies infestation among primary schoolchildren in Bashagard County, one of the low socio-economic areas in southeast of Iran. METHODS: To conduct this community-based, descriptive, and cross-sectional study, four primary schools were randomly selected in the Bashagard County. All students in these schools were selected and examined for scabies. Clinical examination and sociodemographic profile of students were assessed using a pre-tested structured questionnaire. Chi-square test, and binary logistic regression were used to analyse the factors associated with scabies infestation by SPSS version 21 software. RESULTS: Out of 480 studied schoolchildren, 15 cases of scabies with a prevalence of 3.1 % were observed. The frequency of infestation in males was 1.6 % and it was 4.7 % in females. Independent factors associated with a high risk of scabies infestation in unadjusted analysis were being student of grade 5-6 (cOR = 13.12, 95 % CI 2.92-58.89, p = 0.0001), low educational level of father (cOR = 4.37, 95 % CI 0.97-19.59, p = 0.036), low educational level of mother (cOR = 4.14, 95 % CI 1.92-18.57, p = 0.045), joblessness of father (cOR = 14.77, 95 % CI 4.97-43.89, p = 0.0001), employment of mother (cOR = 5.28, 95 % CI 1.38-20.16, p = 0.007), large family size (cOR = 3.34, 95 % CI 1.05-10.64, p = 0.031), use of shared articles (cOR = 33.37, 95 % CI 10.82-102.90, p = 0.0001), and absence of bathroom in the house (cOR = 11.77, 95 % CI 2.16-63.94, p = 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Results of this study confirmed that scabies is still one of the most important health problems in the primary schools of the Bashagard County. Low socioeconomic status and personal hygiene of the schoolchildren were the most important factors influencing the prevalence of scabies. Improvement of socioeconomic conditions and implementation of appropriate educational programs and active surveillance system to quickly detect and treat scabies cases are necessary in order to reduce the prevalence of scabies in schoolchildren in this area.


Assuntos
Escabiose , Animais , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Sarcoptes scabiei , Escabiose/epidemiologia
19.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(6): 1693-1696, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34013873

RESUMO

To validate anecdotal evidence on scabies infestations, we analyzed inpatient and outpatient claims data in Germany. Scabies diagnoses increased 9-fold and treatment failure 4-fold during 2009-2018, driven mainly by persons 15-24 years of age. Prevention and control in young adults appear key because of these persons' high mobility and social connectivity.


Assuntos
Inseticidas , Escabiose , Adolescente , Alemanha , Humanos , Falha de Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
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