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3.
Korean J Parasitol ; 58(3): 315-319, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32615745

RESUMO

In November 2019 a 5-month-old mixed-breed rabbit presented to Chungbuk National University Veterinary Teaching Hospital, Cheongju-si, Chungbuk, Republic of Korea (Korea) with symptoms comprising pruritus, crusts on skin, poor appetite and reduced defecation. The rabbit was purchased 2 months prior from a pet shop located in a big market, and that the symptoms were first observed about 2 weeks prior to the hospital visit. Physical examination revealed that the patient had crust formation and alopecia on the nose together with lesions on the digits. A skin scraping test was performed using mineral oil and a high density of mites was observed by microscopy. Each mite showed a round, tortoise-like body with 4 comparatively short pairs of legs. The anus was located at the terminal unlike with suspected pathogen, Notoedres cati. Based on morphological characteristics, we identified the mite as Sarcoptes sp. Ivermectin was administered weekly by subcutaneous injection at a dosage of 0.4 mg/kg, and 4 weeks of follow-up study revealed the patient was fully recovered. And no more mites were detected from the case. This is the first case report of sarcoptic mange in a pet rabbit in Korea.


Assuntos
Coelhos , Doenças dos Roedores/parasitologia , Escabiose/parasitologia , Escabiose/veterinária , Animais , Ivermectina/administração & dosagem , Ácaros , República da Coreia , Sarcoptes scabiei , Escabiose/tratamento farmacológico , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(6): e0008423, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32589632

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is unclear whether individual treatment of scabies is similarly effective compared to household treatment. This study compared these two treatment strategies with topical benzyl benzoate for treating scabies in Lambaréné, Gabon. METHODS: Participants presenting with uncomplicated scabies were randomized into either the Individual Treatment group, where only the affected participants received treatment, or the Household Treatment group, where all family members were treated in parallel to the affected participants regardless of signs and symptoms. The primary endpoint was clinical cure after 28 days; the secondary endpoint was the proportion of affected household members per household after 28 days. RESULTS: After 28 days, from a total of 79 participants assessed, 67% (n = 53) were clinically cured; 59% (20/34) in the Individual Treatment group and 73% (33/45) in the Household Treatment group. Participants in the Household Treatment group had about twice the odds of being cured (odds ratio 1.9, 95% confidence interval: 0.8-4.9; p = 0.17). For the secondary outcome, an effect of similar size was observed. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings show that treating close contacts of persons affected by scabies may be beneficial to patients and contacts, however, the benefit was less pronounced than anticipated and further research is needed to definitively answer this question.


Assuntos
Características da Família , Inseticidas/uso terapêutico , Escabiose/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Benzoatos/uso terapêutico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Gabão , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
5.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 380, 2020 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32460770

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Scabies is an infectious disease that affects the skin caused by the mite Sarcoptes scabiei and it transmitted through close personal contact. Even though it is easily treatable disease, its prevalence is high and continuous as neglected tropical disease of resource-poor settings, and particularly affects young age groups. Despite of these facts, studies conducted in Ethiopia regarding to the prevalence and associated factors for scabies infestation have been highly variable and didn't well compiled. Due to that, the aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to estimates the overall prevalence of scabies and associated factors in all age groups in Ethiopia. METHODS: International databases (PubMed/PMC/Midline, EMBASE, CINAHL, Web of Science, Google Scholar, Google and Science Direct) were systematically searched from December 1, 2019, to January 18, 2020. All observational studies noted the prevalence of human scabies and associated factors in Ethiopia were included. Two authors (AG and G.T) independently extracted all necessary data using a standardized data extraction format. The data which is extracted each study were analyzed using STATA Version 14.1. Heterogeneity among the included studies was assessed through the Cochrane Q test statistics and I2 test. Lastly, a random effects meta-analysis model was computed to fix overall prevalence and associated factors of scabies. RESULTS: Twelve studies were included in this meta-analysis after 410 articles retrieved. Of these, eight studies were analyzed for prevalence estimation. The overall prevalence of scabies infestation was 14.5% (95%CI: 1.5, 27.6%) in Ethiopia. Furthermore, the subgroup analysis revealed the highest prevalence was 19.6% in Amhara region. A person from a large family size (OR: 3.1, 95% CI: 1.76, 5.67), and sharing a bed (OR: 3.59, 95%CI: 2.88, 4.47) were significantly associated with scabies. CONCLUSION: This study revealed the prevalence of scabies infestation was 14.5% in Ethiopia which was high. Persons from high family size and any contact with scabies case were factors associated with scabies.


Assuntos
Escabiose/epidemiologia , Animais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Características da Família , Humanos , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Sarcoptes scabiei/genética , Escabiose/parasitologia , Pele/parasitologia
6.
Hautarzt ; 71(6): 447-454, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32430543

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of scabies has become surprisingly frequent in Germany in recent years and the use of scabicides has risen significantly. OBJECTIVE: The aim of our survey was to determine whether this trend can also be detected among military personnel of the German Armed Forces (Bundeswehr). METHODS: The study was conducted as a retrospective single-center study over a period of 8 years from 2012 to 2019 in the Department of Dermatology of the Armed Forces Hospital Berlin, Germany. Data were generated from the hospital information system (KIS), which was searched for all scabies-coded diagnoses according to ICD10 code B86 both as outpatients and inpatients. Only first presentations with scabies diagnosis confirmed by dermoscopy or microscopy by a dermatologist were included. Inpatient treatment was required if a patient was not cured after at least three antiscabies treatment cycles in the outpatient setting. RESULTS: The data show that there has been a steady increase in the diagnosis of scabies in Bundeswehr personnel. Moreover, our data show that the number of unsuccessfully treated outpatients increased and required in-hospital treatment. CONCLUSION: We observed an increase of scabies among German military personnel who represent a typical at-risk group. These results support the observations of an increased incidence of scabies in Germany in general and especially in an at-risk population. With the general increase in scabies cases, there are also increasing numbers of German military personnel who are refractory to treatment, which was largely attributed to inadequate treatment of contact persons and individual treatment errors. Nevertheless, the data also emphasize the low overall prevalence of scabies; therefore, all diagnoses should be confirmed by dermoscopy or microscopy after 14 days whenever possible to rule out the bias of overreporting due to false-positive cases diagnosed only by clinical examination.


Assuntos
Antiparasitários/administração & dosagem , Ivermectina/administração & dosagem , Militares/estatística & dados numéricos , Escabiose/epidemiologia , Administração Tópica , Animais , Antiparasitários/uso terapêutico , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Ivermectina/uso terapêutico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Escabiose/diagnóstico , Escabiose/tratamento farmacológico , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
Praxis (Bern 1994) ; 109(6): 411-417, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32345172

RESUMO

CME Dermatology 21: Scabies - Clinical Manifestation, Diagnosis and Therapy Abstract. Scabies is a common contagious skin infestation found in all parts of the world affecting individuals of all ages. Its worldwide prevalence is estimated at about 200 million people at any one time. Typical manifestations consist of severe itch that is aggravated at night, and disseminated, excoriated, erythematous papules on the trunk and limbs. Diagnosis can be confirmed by microscopic examination of skin scrapings taken from skin lesions. Recommended treatments consist of Permethrin 5 % cream applied once with repetition after 7-14 days or oral ivermectin 200 µg/kg as two doses 1 week apart. Additionally, written instructions on how to behave, decontaminate textiles and apply medications should be provided to suspected cases, and all the patient's close personal contacts should be treated simultaneously. As the disease can be sexually transmitted, screening for sexually transmitted diseases is recommended in sexually active patients.


Assuntos
Inseticidas , Escabiose , Humanos , Inseticidas/uso terapêutico , Ivermectina/uso terapêutico , Permetrina/uso terapêutico , Escabiose/complicações , Escabiose/diagnóstico , Escabiose/tratamento farmacológico
8.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(4): e0008229, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32255795

RESUMO

Scabies is a highly contagious parasitic disease associated with long-term residence in nursing homes, and it is a public health burden worldwide. However, atypical skin manifestations are frequent and the widely used diagnostic test based on microscopic examinations has limited sensitivity. We evaluated the diagnostic value of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) from skin scraping in patients with suspected scabies. Adult patients with suspected scabies, unrelated diseases or healthy volunteers were enrolled at a tertiary hospital, in Seoul, South Korea, from December 2017 through October 2018. We classified participants based on the consensus criteria established by the International Alliance for the Control of Scabies in 2018; confirmed (microscopic mite detection), clinical (scabies burrow or typical lesions with two history features including itch and close contact with scabies patients), suspected scabies (typical lesion with one history feature or atypical lesion with two history features), or no scabies. PCR was performed on the skin scrapings to target the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene of Sarcoptes scabiei. A total of 47 participants, 33 with suspected scabies, 10 with unrelated diseases, and 4 healthy volunteers were enrolled. Of the 33 patients, 22 were classified as confirmed scabies, 2 as clinical scabies, 6 as suspected scabies, and 3 as no scabies. The sensitivities of the microscopic examination were 100%, 92%, and 73% in confirmed scabies; confirmed and clinical scabies; and confirmed, clinical, and suspected scabies, respectively (p = 0.006). The sensitivities of PCR were 86%, 83%, and 80% in confirmed scabies; confirmed and clinical scabies; and confirmed, clinical, and suspected scabies, respectively (p = 0.59). The specificity of the scabies PCR in the no scabies control was 100% (95% CI = 80-100).PCR testing for scabies may be helpful in the improvement of sensitivity for the diagnosis of scabies by clinical criteria.


Assuntos
Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/métodos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Sarcoptes scabiei/enzimologia , Escabiose/diagnóstico , Pele/parasitologia , Manejo de Espécimes/métodos , Idoso , Animais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , República da Coreia , Sarcoptes scabiei/genética , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Centros de Atenção Terciária
10.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(3): e0008106, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32176703

RESUMO

Lymphatic filariasis has remained endemic in Fiji despite repeated mass drug administration using the well-established and safe combination of diethylcarbamazine and albendazole (DA) since 2002. In certain settings the addition of ivermectin to this combination (IDA) remains a safe strategy and is more efficacious. However, the safety has yet to be described in scabies and soil-transmitted helminth endemic settings like Fiji. Villages of Rotuma and Gau islands were randomised to either DA or IDA. Residents received weight-based treatment unblinded with standard exclusions. Participants were actively found and asked by a nurse about their health daily for the first two days and then asked to seek review for the next five days if unwell. Anyone with severe symptoms were reviewed by a doctor and any serious adverse event was reported to the Medical Monitor and Data Safety Monitoring Board. Of 3612 enrolled and eligible participants, 1216 were randomised to DA and 2396 to IDA. Age and sex in both groups were representative of the population. Over 99% (3598) of participants completed 7 days follow-up. Adverse events were reported by 600 participants (16.7%), distributed equally between treatment groups, with most graded as mild (93.2%). There were three serious adverse events, all judged not attributable to treatment by an independent medical monitor. Fatigue was the most common symptom reported by 8.5%, with headache, dizziness, nausea and arthralgia being the next four most common symptoms. Adverse events were more likely in participants with microfilaremia (43.2% versus 15.7%), but adverse event frequency was not related to the presence of scabies or soil-transmitted helminth infection. IDA has comparable safety to DA with the same frequency of adverse events experienced following community mass drug administration. The presence of co-endemic infections did not increase adverse events. IDA can be used in community programs where preventative chemotherapy is needed for control of lymphatic filariasis and other neglected tropical diseases.


Assuntos
Albendazol/efeitos adversos , Antiparasitários/efeitos adversos , Dietilcarbamazina/efeitos adversos , Inseticidas/efeitos adversos , Ivermectina/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Albendazol/administração & dosagem , Antiparasitários/administração & dosagem , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/tratamento farmacológico , Dietilcarbamazina/administração & dosagem , Quimioterapia Combinada/efeitos adversos , Quimioterapia Combinada/métodos , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/patologia , Filariose Linfática/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Fiji , Helmintíase/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Lactente , Inseticidas/administração & dosagem , Ivermectina/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Negligenciadas/tratamento farmacológico , População Rural , Escabiose/tratamento farmacológico , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
11.
Clin Exp Dermatol ; 45(6): 712-715, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32112428

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The correct treatment and management of scabies is expensive and time-consuming, and may have a negative impact on patients and their families. AIM: To investigate the effects of permethrin 5% cream on scabies mites, and explore mite survival times outside the human body. METHODS: We performed a nonrandomized controlled study. In total, 20 petri dishes were coated with permethrin 5% cream (treatment group) and 20 plain petri dishes (control group) each had one scabies mite placed in them, and were then observed at baseline and 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 12 h from baseline. In the second part of our study, 30 scabies mites from infested patients were investigated in an observational experiment in 30 plain petri dishes at days 0, 3 and 4. RESULTS: Our data showed that 65% of scabies mites survived after 8 h in the treatment group compared with 75% of mites in the control group. After 12 h, 25% of mites in the treatment group and 60% in the control group were still alive. Data from the observational survival study showed that one mite was alive on day 3, but all mites were dead by day 4. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed no significant effects of mite survival times with 5% topical permethrin after 8 h, while its efficacy was stronger and significant after 12 h. We recommend the isolation of all mite-infested items for at least 4 days.


Assuntos
Inseticidas/farmacologia , Permetrina/farmacologia , Sarcoptes scabiei/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Humanos , Técnicas In Vitro , Inseticidas/administração & dosagem , Pomadas/administração & dosagem , Permetrina/administração & dosagem , Escabiose/tratamento farmacológico , Fatores de Tempo
13.
Hautarzt ; 71(5): 374-379, 2020 May.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32144440

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: According to the current scabies guideline, topical treatment with permethrin 5% cream is the first-line therapy of common scabies in Germany. However, in the course of growing incidence of scabies in recent years there have been increasing numbers of reports of reduced efficacy in standard therapy. OBJECTIVE: To establish a better understanding for the efficacy of scabies therapy under practice conditions, a survey focusing on the first-line therapy with permethrin was conducted in dermatological hospitals, outpatient clinics and dermatology practices. METHODS: The postal survey addressed all dermatologically active physicians in Germany and queried diagnostic methods, the individual initial treatment, the estimated efficacy of permethrin therapy, the frequency and reasons for therapy failures under permethrin and the therapeutic approach in case of failure of the initial therapy. RESULTS: The efficacy of permethrin was rated with 73% by 187 physicians. About 74% reported to treat initially with 5% permethrin cream. The most common reasons identified for treatment failure were application errors, lack of compliance and inadequate hygiene measures. Suspected diminished efficacy or development of resistance against permethrin and re-infestations were also mentioned. In the case of ineffectiveness of initial therapy, most clinicians opt for oral ivermectin, a repetition of permethrin therapy or a combination of both. CONCLUSION: Although there are localized reports of decreased effectiveness of permethrin therapy, results of this survey point towards a persisting high efficacy of first-line standard treatment of scabies with permethrin 5% cream in Germany.


Assuntos
Antiparasitários/uso terapêutico , Escabiose/tratamento farmacológico , Administração Tópica , Inibidores Enzimáticos/uso terapêutico , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Inseticidas , Permetrina , Escabiose/diagnóstico , Escabiose/epidemiologia , Escabiose/patologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(3): e0007918, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32134911

RESUMO

Patients who are immunocompromised or have cognitive or physical disabilities are at a higher risk of being affected with infections such as crusted scabies. This is a rare skin hyperinfestation by Sarcoptes scabiei var. hominis. The main characteristic of this dermatosis is a thick crust due to the high concentration of mites; in addition, other manifestations such as papules, excoriations, and burrows may be absent. In severe cases, thick yellow-brown crusts and plaques with deep fissures are present. Diagnosis can be made by observing mites, ova, or feces from skin scrapings. Multiple therapies can be used in patients with this condition. Management with patient isolation is important to prevent institutional outbreaks. This disease can have high mortality, primarily due to sepsis. Awareness of this condition and its serious consequences is important to reduce its mortality and morbidity.


Assuntos
Sarcoptes scabiei/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Escabiose/diagnóstico , Escabiose/patologia , Pele/patologia , Pele/parasitologia , Adulto , Animais , Feminino , Humanos
15.
J Fam Pract ; 69(1): 10-17, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32017829

RESUMO

Nearly half of all infections are missed when first examined. Attentiveness to specific details, particularly in 3 common scenarios, can help ensure an accurate Dx.


Assuntos
Escabiose/diagnóstico , Escabiose/fisiopatologia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Humanos , Exame Físico/métodos , Escabiose/diagnóstico por imagem
17.
20.
Res Vet Sci ; 128: 224-229, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31837510

RESUMO

The reliance on multiple hosts to survive is what makes the management and control of multi-host infectious agents challenging. Sarcoptes scabiei causes sarcoptic mange in a wide range of mammal species with ungulates being an important host. Little is known about the role different ungulates play in sustaining endemic transmission of the disease and no study has yet to describe the long-term multi-host sarcoptic infestation dynamics in free-ranging wildlife. Here, we explore 24 years of sarcoptic mange infestation data for two Mediterranean ungulate species, red deer and Iberian ibex, living in the Sierras de Cazorla, Segura y Las Villas Natural Park of southern Spain. The temporal analysis showed a clear seasonal pattern of infestation in both ungulates with a peak in early spring and a decline throughout the summer. The spatial analysis, however, showed that caprinae rather than cervidae is the most competent host for sarcoptic mange spreading and persistence. Considering that few studies have described the spatio-temporal pattern of mange outbreaks for long periods of time, the information reported in this work aims to improve our understanding of sarcoptic mange epizootic in wild ruminant populations.


Assuntos
Cervos/parasitologia , Cabras/parasitologia , Escabiose/veterinária , Animais , Animais Selvagens/parasitologia , Surtos de Doenças , Parques Recreativos , Sarcoptes scabiei , Escabiose/epidemiologia , Estações do Ano , Espanha/epidemiologia , Análise Espaço-Temporal
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