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1.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0247642, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33657152

RESUMO

Vaccinations are without doubt one of the greatest achievements of modern medicine, and there is hope that they can constitute a solution to halt the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. However, the anti-vaccination movement is currently on the rise, spreading online misinformation about vaccine safety and causing a worrying reduction in vaccination rates worldwide. In this historical time, it is imperative to understand the reasons of vaccine hesitancy, and to find effective strategies to dismantle the rhetoric of anti-vaccination supporters. For this reason, we analyzed the behavior of anti-vaccination supporters on the platform Twitter. Here we identify that anti-vaccination supporters, in comparison with pro-vaccination supporters, share conspiracy theories and make use of emotional language. We demonstrate that anti-vaccination supporters are more engaged in discussions on Twitter and share their contents from a pull of strong influencers. We show that the movement's success relies on a strong sense of community, based on the contents produced by a small fraction of profiles, with the community at large serving as a sounding board for anti-vaccination discourse to circulate online. Our data demonstrate that Donald Trump, before his profile was suspended, was the main driver of vaccine misinformation on Twitter. Based on these results, we welcome policies that aim at halting the circulation of false information about vaccines by targeting the anti-vaccination community on Twitter. Based on our data, we also propose solutions to improve the communication strategy of health organizations and build a community of engaged influencers that support the dissemination of scientific insights, including issues related to vaccines and their safety.


Assuntos
Movimento contra Vacinação/psicologia , Mídias Sociais/tendências , Vacinação/psicologia , Movimento contra Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Movimento contra Vacinação/tendências , Escala de Avaliação Comportamental , Comunicação , Humanos , Saúde Pública , /patogenicidade , Vacinas/imunologia
2.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1848, 2021 03 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33758193

RESUMO

Neuroligin 3 (NLGN3) and neurexins (NRXNs) constitute a canonical transsynaptic cell-adhesion pair, which has been implicated in autism. In autism spectrum disorder (ASD) development of sociality can be impaired. However, the molecular mechanism underlying NLGN3-mediated social development is unclear. Here, we identify non-canonical interactions between NLGN3 and protein tyrosine phosphatase δ (PTPδ) splice variants, competing with NRXN binding. NLGN3-PTPδ complex structure revealed a splicing-dependent interaction mode and competition mechanism between PTPδ and NRXNs. Mice carrying a NLGN3 mutation that selectively impairs NLGN3-NRXN interaction show increased sociability, whereas mice where the NLGN3-PTPδ interaction is impaired exhibit impaired social behavior and enhanced motor learning, with imbalance in excitatory/inhibitory synaptic protein expressions, as reported in the Nlgn3 R451C autism model. At neuronal level, the autism-related Nlgn3 R451C mutation causes selective impairment in the non-canonical pathway. Our findings suggest that canonical and non-canonical NLGN3 pathways compete and regulate the development of sociality.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/genética , Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio/metabolismo , Moléculas de Adesão Celular Neuronais/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Moléculas de Adesão de Célula Nervosa/metabolismo , Neurônios/metabolismo , Proteínas Tirosina Fosfatases Classe 2 Semelhantes a Receptores/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/metabolismo , Escala de Avaliação Comportamental , Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio/química , Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio/genética , Moléculas de Adesão Celular Neuronais/química , Moléculas de Adesão Celular Neuronais/genética , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana/química , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Camundongos Transgênicos , Mutação , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/química , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Moléculas de Adesão de Célula Nervosa/química , Moléculas de Adesão de Célula Nervosa/genética , Domínios Proteicos , Processamento de Proteína , Proteínas Tirosina Fosfatases Classe 2 Semelhantes a Receptores/química , Proteínas Tirosina Fosfatases Classe 2 Semelhantes a Receptores/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Comportamento Social , Sinapses/genética
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(5)2021 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33669004

RESUMO

The circadian rhythms of body functions in mammals are controlled by the circadian system. The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) in the hypothalamus orchestrates subordinate oscillators. Time information is conveyed from the retina to the SCN to coordinate an organism's physiology and behavior with the light/dark cycle. At the cellular level, molecular clockwork composed of interlocked transcriptional/translational feedback loops of clock genes drives rhythmic gene expression. Mice with targeted deletion of the essential clock gene Bmal1 (Bmal1-/-) have an impaired light input pathway into the circadian system and show a loss of circadian rhythms. The red house (RH) is an animal welfare measure widely used for rodents as a hiding place. Red plastic provides light at a low irradiance and long wavelength-conditions which affect the circadian system. It is not known yet whether the RH affects rhythmic behavior in mice with a corrupted circadian system. Here, we analyzed whether the RH affects spontaneous locomotor activity in Bmal1-/- mice under standard laboratory light conditions. In addition, mPER1- and p-ERK-immunoreactions, as markers for rhythmic SCN neuronal activity, and day/night plasma corticosterone levels were evaluated. Our findings indicate that application of the RH to Bmal1-/- abolishes rhythmic locomotor behavior and dampens rhythmic SCN neuronal activity. However, RH had no effect on the day/night difference in corticosterone levels.


Assuntos
Fatores de Transcrição ARNTL/metabolismo , Ritmo Circadiano/efeitos da radiação , Fatores de Transcrição ARNTL/genética , Animais , Escala de Avaliação Comportamental , Corticosterona/sangue , MAP Quinases Reguladas por Sinal Extracelular/metabolismo , Feminino , Imuno-Histoquímica , Luz , Locomoção/efeitos da radiação , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Proteínas Circadianas Period/metabolismo , Fotoperíodo
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(1)2021 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33401689

RESUMO

The sodium-activated potassium channel Slack (KNa1.1, Slo2.2, or Kcnt1) is highly expressed in populations of sensory neurons, where it mediates the sodium-activated potassium current (IKNa) and modulates neuronal activity. Previous studies suggest that Slack is involved in the processing of neuropathic pain. However, mechanisms underlying the regulation of Slack activity in this context are poorly understood. Using whole-cell patch-clamp recordings we found that Slack-mediated IKNa in sensory neurons of mice is reduced after peripheral nerve injury, thereby contributing to neuropathic pain hypersensitivity. Interestingly, Slack is closely associated with ATP-sensitive P2X3 receptors in a population of sensory neurons. In vitro experiments revealed that Slack-mediated IKNa may be bidirectionally modulated in response to P2X3 activation. Moreover, mice lacking Slack show altered nocifensive responses to P2X3 stimulation. Our study identifies P2X3/Slack signaling as a mechanism contributing to hypersensitivity after peripheral nerve injury and proposes a potential novel strategy for treatment of neuropathic pain.


Assuntos
Trifosfato de Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Cálcio/farmacologia , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Neuralgia/metabolismo , Canais de Potássio Ativados por Sódio/metabolismo , Receptores Purinérgicos P2X3/metabolismo , Células Receptoras Sensoriais/fisiologia , Trifosfato de Adenosina/farmacologia , Animais , Escala de Avaliação Comportamental , Gânglios Espinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Gânglios Espinais/fisiologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Técnicas de Patch-Clamp , Nervos Periféricos/patologia , Canais de Potássio/metabolismo , Canais de Potássio/fisiologia , Canais de Potássio Ativados por Sódio/genética , Receptores Purinérgicos P2X3/fisiologia , Células Receptoras Sensoriais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Receptoras Sensoriais/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia
5.
Health Qual Life Outcomes ; 19(1): 26, 2021 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33472654

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The Autism Behavior Inventory (ABI) is an observer-reported outcome scale measuring core and associated features of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Extensive scale development (reported elsewhere) took place, in alignment with the Food and Drug Administration's patient-reported outcome guidance, to address the need for instruments to measure change and severity of ASD symptoms. METHODS: Cognitive interviewing was used to confirm understanding and content validity of the scale prior to its use in clinical trials. Respondents were caregivers of individuals with ASD (N = 50). Interviews used a hybrid of the "think-aloud" and verbal probing approach to assess ABI's content validity and participant understanding of the instrument, including: item clarity and relevance; item interpretation; appropriateness of response scales; and clarity of instructions. Audio-recordings of the interviews were transcribed for qualitative data analysis. The scale was revised based on participant feedback and tested in a second round of interviews (round 1 N = 38, round 2 N = 12). RESULTS: In total, 67/70 items reached ≥ 90% understandability across participants. Caregivers were able to select an appropriate response from the options available and reported finding the examples helpful. Based on participant feedback, instructions were simplified, 8 items were removed, and 10 items were reworded. The final revised 62-item scale was presented in round 2, where caregivers reported readily understanding the instructions, response options, and 61/62 items reached ≥ 90% understandability. CONCLUSIONS: Cognitive interviews with caregivers of a diverse sample of individuals with ASD confirm the content validity and relevance of the ABI to assess core and associated symptoms of ASD.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/diagnóstico , Cuidadores/psicologia , Compreensão , Estudos de Avaliação como Assunto , Adolescente , Adulto , Escala de Avaliação Comportamental , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
7.
Nutrients ; 13(1)2020 Dec 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33379359

RESUMO

Beer is a popular beverage and some beneficial effects have been attributed to its moderate consumption. We carried out a pilot study to test if beer and non-alcoholic beer consumption modify the levels of a panel of 53 cardiometabolic microRNAs in plasma and macrophages. Seven non-smoker men aged 30-65 with high cardiovascular risk were recruited for a non-randomised cross-over intervention consisting of the ingestion of 500 mL/day of beer or non-alcoholic beer for 14 days with a 7-day washout period between interventions. Plasma and urine isoxanthohumol were measured to assess compliance with interventions. Monocytes were isolated and differentiated into macrophages, and plasma and macrophage microRNAs were analysed by quantitative real-time PCR. Anthropometric, biochemistry and dietary parameters were also measured. We found an increase in plasma miR-155-5p, miR-328-3p, and miR-92a-3p after beer and a decrease after non-alcoholic beer consumption. Plasma miR-320a-3p levels decreased with both beers. Circulating miR-320a-3p levels correlated with LDL-cholesterol. We found that miR-17-5p, miR-20a-5p, miR-145-5p, miR-26b-5p, and miR-223-3p macrophage levels increased after beer and decreased after non-alcoholic beer consumption. Functional analyses suggested that modulated microRNAs were involved in catabolism, nutrient sensing, Toll-like receptors signalling and inflammation. We concluded that beer and non-alcoholic beer intake modulated differentially plasma and macrophage microRNAs. Specifically, microRNAs related to inflammation increased after beer consumption and decreased after non-alcoholic beer consumption.


Assuntos
Cerveja , Bebidas Gaseificadas , Macrófagos/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Plasma , Adulto , Idoso , Antropometria , Escala de Avaliação Comportamental , Biomarcadores , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Estudos Cross-Over , Humanos , Inflamação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Monócitos , Projetos Piloto , Fatores de Risco , Xantonas/urina
8.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0243566, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33351799

RESUMO

Children with severe motor and intellectual disabilities experience chronic pain but cannot communicate verbally. However, no Japanese tool currently exists for assessing pain in this population. This study aimed to develop and evaluate the reliability and validity of a Japanese version of the Paediatric Pain Profile, which is a behavioral rating scale to assess pain in children with severe neurological disabilities. The sample comprised 30 children with severe motor and intellectual disabilities at three hospitals in Japan. Three specialist nurses rated low and high pain video scenes of the children (twice at 1-week intervals) using the Face, Legs, Activity, Cry, Consolability behavioral scale and a translated Japanese version of the Paediatric Pain Profile. On the basis of their ratings, we calculated the internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and intra- and inter-observer reliabilities of the Paediatric Pain Profile. Additionally, we assessed concurrent validity using the Face, Legs, Activity, Cry, Consolability behavioral scale and construct validity using low versus high pain scenes. Both internal consistency (low pain: alpha = 0.735; high pain: alpha = 0.928) and test-retest reliability (r = 0.846) of the Japanese version of the Paediatric Pain Profile were good. Intra-observer reliability was substantial (r = 0.748), whereas inter-observer reliability was only moderate (r = 0.529). However, the concurrent validity with Face, Legs, Activity, Cry, Consolability scores was good (r = 0.629) and construct validity was confirmed (p < 0.001). We confirmed the validity of the Japanese version of the Paediatric Pain Profile, but reliable pain assessment may require repeated ratings by the same person. To accurately assess pain in children with severe motor and intellectual disabilities, healthcare staff must be properly trained and become more skilled in using the Japanese version of the Paediatric Pain Profile.


Assuntos
Escala de Avaliação Comportamental/normas , Medição da Dor/métodos , Psicometria/métodos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual , Japão , Masculino , Transtornos Motores , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Dor/metabolismo , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tradução
9.
Rev. esp. drogodepend ; 45(4): 14-28, oct.-dic. 2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-199683

RESUMO

El abuso de videojuegos es una conducta de prevalencia creciente que podría variar en función del tipo de videojuego, y que además podría concurrir con otras adicciones como el trastorno de juego o el abuso de sustancias. Por tanto, este estudio tiene como objetivo medir la co-ocurrencia del abuso de videojuegos con estas conductas en función del sexo, rendimiento académico y edad, y analizar estos perfiles en función del tipo de videjuego predominante (Fortnite, FIFA, u otros videojuegos). La muestra estuvo compuesta por 393 usuarios de videojuegos de entre 18 y 36 años (21.6% de mujeres y un 76.8% de hombres). Los resultados mostraron un mayor nivel de trastorno de juego en el grupo de hombres y mayores niveles de abuso de videojuegos y sustancias en el grupo de repetidores de 2 cursos o más. En cuanto a la edad, a mayor edad se halló mayor uso de cartas y apuestas deportivas offline, lotería online, cocaína, y speed, y a menor edad mayor uso de bebidas energéticas y mayor nivel de abuso de videojuegos, especialmente en el caso de los usuarios de Fortnite, en los que también se relacionó con el abuso de sustancias. En el caso de los usuarios de FIFA, se encontró una relación significativa del abuso de videojuegos con el trastorno juego. En este grupo, el trastorno de juego y el abuso de sustancias mostraron una relación significativa con las apuestas deportivas. Estos resultados delimitan perfiles diferenciales de interés para la prevención y la intervención


Video games abuse is a behaviour of increasing prevalence that may vary depending on the type of video game, and may co-occur with other addictions such as gambling disorder or substance use disorder. Therefore, this study aims to analyse the co-occurrence of video game abuse with these behaviours as a function of age, sex, and academic performance, and to analyse these profiles depending on which the main video game that used is (Fornite, FIFA, or other video games). The sample comprised 393 video game users (18-36 years old; 21.6% were female and 76.8% male). The results showed greater degrees of gambling disorder in males and greater degrees of video game and substance abuse in repeaters of 2 or more courses. Regarding age, older participants showed a greater use of offline card and sports betting, online lottery, cocaine, and speed, and younger participants showed greater use of energy drinks and video games, especially in Fortnite users, in which video game abuse was related with substance abuse. In the case of FIFA users, there was a significant relationship of video game abuse with gambling disorder. In this group, gambling disorder and substance abuse showed a significant relationship with sports betting. These results draw differential profiles which are of interest for prevention and intervention


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Comportamento Aditivo/epidemiologia , Jogo de Azar/epidemiologia , Jogos de Vídeo/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Comportamento Aditivo/psicologia , Jogos de Vídeo/psicologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Etários , Fatores de Tempo , Inquéritos e Questionários , Escala de Avaliação Comportamental , Fatores de Risco , Desempenho Acadêmico , Espanha/epidemiologia
10.
Rev. esp. drogodepend ; 45(4): 29-48, oct.-dic. 2020. graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-199684

RESUMO

El Trastorno de juego en Internet (IGD) se ha convertido en objeto de estudio en todo el mundo para ofrecer servicios especializados de salud mental a las personas afectadas. Sin embargo, prima la escasez de estudios relacionados con la efectividad de los tratamientos psicológicos para el IGD. El objetivo principal del presente estudio es evaluar los cambios psicológicos producidos durante el proceso de intervención del "Programa Individualizado Psicoterapéutico para la Adicción a las Tecnologías de la Información y la Comunicación" (PIPATIC) en adolescentes con IGD. MÉTODO: La muestra se compone de 31 adolescentes (de 12 a 18 años) de dos centros públicos de salud mental, asignados a (I) grupo experimental de intervención PIPATIC o (II) grupo de control de Terapia Cognitivo Conductual estándar (TCC). La intervención se evaluó en las fases pre, durante y post-tratamiento. RESULTADOS: No se encontraron diferencias significativas entre ninguno de los grupos en la fase de pretratamiento. En relación con las diferentes intervenciones examinadas, se encontraron diferencias significativas en las pruebas previas y posteriores en las siguientes variables: trastornos comórbidos, habilidades interpersonales y medidas de los terapeutas. Ambos grupos experimentaron una reducción significativa de los síntomas relacionados con el IGD, aunque el grupo PIPATIC experimentó mejoras significativas más relevantes tanto en el IGD cómo en el resto de variables examinadas. DISCUSIÓN Y CONCLUSIONES: Los resultados sugieren que el programa PIPATIC ha estimulado cambios más significativos en el tratamiento del IGD y sus síntomas comórbidos y habilidades sociales que la TCC. Por otro lado, cabe remarcar que la TCC estándar también consiguió mejoras en los participantes respecto al uso de videojuegos y la sintomatología del IGD. En consecuencia, el uso de un enfoque integrador que cuyo foco de intervención refiera tanto al IGD cómo a los síntomas comórbidos, las habilidades intrapersonales e interpersonales y la psicoterapia familiar parece resultar más efectivo en facilitar cambios psicológicos en adolescente que un foco de intervención únicamente centrado en abordar el trastorno adictivo


Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) has become the subject of study all around the world in order to provide specialist mental health services for affected persons. Nevertheless, there is a definite shortage of studies on the effectiveness of psychological treatments for IGD. The main objective of this paper is to assess the psychological changes that take place during the intervention process on the "Individualised Psycho-therapy Program for Addiction to Information and Communication Technologies" (IPPAICT) in adolescents with IGD. METHOD: The sample consisted of 31 adolescents (aged 12 to 18) from two public mental health centres, assigned to (I) experimental IPPAICT group, or (II) Standard Behavioural Cognitive Therapy (SBCT). Interventional was assessed in the pre, during and post treatment stages. RESULTS: There were no significant differences between either of the groups in the pre-treatment stage. In regard to the different types of intervention, significant differences were observed in tests before and after in relation to the following variables: comorbid disorders, interpersonal skills and therapy measures. Both groups reported a significant reduction in the symptoms related to IGD, although the IPPAICT group reported more relevant significant improvements in IGD and the rest of the variables. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that the IPPAICT programme brought about more significant changes in IGD treatment and comorbid symptoms and social skills than SBCT. On the other hand, attention is also brought to the fact that standard SBCT also reported improvements in the participants in regard to the use of videogames and IGD symptoms. Consequently, an integrating approach focussing on IGD and comorbid symptoms, intrapersonal and interpersonal skills and family psychotherapy appear to be more effective in bringing about psychological changes than an approach that exclusively focusses on treating the addiction disorder


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adolescente , Jogo de Azar/psicologia , Internet/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Aditivo/psicologia , Comportamento Aditivo/terapia , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/métodos , Jogo de Azar/epidemiologia , Comportamento Aditivo/epidemiologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Inquéritos e Questionários , Escala de Avaliação Comportamental , Relações Familiares , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inteligência Emocional , Habilidades Sociais , Distribuição por Idade , Espanha/epidemiologia
11.
An. psicol ; 36(3): 427-435, oct. 2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-195658

RESUMO

La evaluación de la eficacia del tratamiento de maltratadores en los Registros Oficiales o los Informes de las parejas no es válida, al tiempo que las intervenciones eficaces se dirigen a dotarlos de competencia cognitiva y conductual. Por ello diseñamos un estudio de campo para medir los efectos de la intervención en la competencia cognitiva. Un total de 100 condenados por violencia de género que completaron un programa penitenciario de tratamiento en la comunidad fueron evaluados pre- y post-tratamiento en la competencia cognitiva, esto es, auto-concepto, inteligencia emocional, atribución de responsabilidad, destrezas cognitivas para el afrontamiento de eventos estresantes en pareja, expresión y control de la ira, y creencias irracionales y pensamientos distorsionados. Los resultados mostraron un efecto significativo del tratamiento en la adquisición de las destrezas cognitivas. Sucintamente, el tratamiento potenció el auto-concepto general el 18.2% y las dimensiones internas del auto-concepto auto-satisfacción el 33.5% y comportamiento el 25.6%; y la claridad para discriminar las emociones el 31.8%. Además, el tratamiento incrementó la asunción interna de responsabilidad el 31.8%; el control de la ira el 19.1%; y el uso de estrategias adaptativas para el afrontamiento de eventos estresantes en pareja entre el 48.9% y el 61.3%. Finalmente, el tratamiento redujo el uso de estrategias desadaptativas entre el 25.6% y el 35.1%; y las creencias irracionales y pensamientos distorsionados relacionados con el uso de la violencia, rol de género y dependencia emocional, en el 78.2%, 48.2% y 63.6%, respectivamente. No obstante, no todos los maltratadores se beneficiaron del tratamiento


The evaluation of the efficacy of treatment of batterers in Official or Couple Records is not valid, whilst the efficient interventions are focused on the empowerment of cognitive and behavioural competence. A field study for measuring the effects of the treatment on the cognitive competence was designed. A total of 100 batterers who had completed a community penitentiary intervention programme, were assessed pre- and post-treatment in cognitive competence i.e., self-concept, emotional intelligence, attribution of responsivity, cognitive skills to cope intimate-partner-related stressful events, expression and control of anger, and irrational beliefs and distorted thoughts. The results showed a significant effect of the treatment in the acquisition of cognitive competence skills. Succinctly, treatment empowered the general self-concept in 18.2%, and the internal dimensions of self-concept self-satisfaction in 33.5% and behaviour in 25.6%; and clarity to discriminate among moods in 31.8%. Moreover, treatment increased the assumption of internal responsivity in 31.8%; anger control in 19.1%; and the use of adaptive strategies to cope intimate-partner-related stressful events between 48.9% and 61.3%. Finally, treatment involved a fall in the use of maladaptive strategies to cope intimate-partner-related stressful events between 25.6% and 35.1%; and in the irrational beliefs and distorted thoughts related with the use of violence, in 78.2%, 48.2% y 63.6%, for use of violence, gender roles and emotional dependence, respectively. Nonetheless, not all the batterers benefited from treatment


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Criminosos/psicologia , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/métodos , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/prevenção & controle , Escala de Avaliação Comportamental , Inquéritos e Questionários , Cognição , Análise Multivariada , Resultado do Tratamento , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Autoimagem
12.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236548, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32813722

RESUMO

In the Late Middle Paleolithic of Central Europe, two main cultural complexes have been distinguished: the Micoquian or Keilmessergruppe (KMG), and the Mousterian. Their differences mainly consist in the frequence of some retouched tools and the presence of bifacial technology. When these industries coexist, one element of discussion is the application of different concepts to manufacture tools with the same techno-functionality. This is particularly true for backed artifacts, such as Keilmesser (backed, asymmetrical bifacially-shaped knives) opposed to flake-tools equipped with a natural or knapped back. We conducted a techno-functional analysis of the backed tools from the G-Layer-Complex of Sesselfelsgrotte, one of the main Late Middle Paleolithic sequences in Central Europe, characterized by a combination of KMG and Mousterian aspects. In order to better understand the morpho-metrical data, 3D scans were used for recording technical features and performing semi-automatic geometric morphometrics. Results indicate that the techno-functional schemes of Keilmesser show a moderate variability and often overlap with the schemes of other typological groups. Within bifacial backed knives, a process of imitation of unifacial flake tools' functionaly was recognized particularly in the cutting edge manufacturing. Keilmesser proved to be the long-life, versatile version of backed flake-tools, also due to the recurrent valence as both tool and core. This is why Keilmesser represent an ideal strategic blank when a mobile and multi-functional tool is needed. Based on these data, it is assumed that the relationship between Mousterian and KMG is deeply rooted and the emergence of KMG aspects could be related to constrained situations characterizing the long cold stages of the Early Weichselian. A higher regional mobility caused by the comparably low predictability of resources characterized the subsistence tactics of Neanderthal groups especially at the borders of their overall distribution. For this reason, Keilmesser could have represented an ecological answer before possibly becoming a marker of cultural identity.


Assuntos
Arqueologia/instrumentação , Fósseis/diagnóstico por imagem , Paleontologia/instrumentação , Tecnologia/instrumentação , Animais , Artefatos , Escala de Avaliação Comportamental , Humanos , Homem de Neandertal , Comportamento de Utilização de Ferramentas/classificação
13.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236271, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32726318

RESUMO

Behavioral development in domestic dogs has been investigated for predicting suitability for service dog work or for matching with the "right" families as well as for identifying predispositions to behavioral problems. Findings from the scientific literature seem to confirm that conducting behavioral tests at 7 weeks of age is too early to reliably predict the temperament and personality of a dog. However, this period for domestic dogs is sensitive for early life learning and conditions during this time could have important consequences in adulthood. The aims of this study were to evaluate inter-rater reliability of a simple standardized test and to investigate which factors influence the behavioral reaction of puppies. 105 seven-week old puppies were exposed to five subtests: social attraction, following, retrieving, sudden appearance, noise. During each task, the behaviour of each pup was scored on a 3-5 point scale that reflected the suitability of the pup's reaction to the task. Scores were evaluated for a single subtest and for two aggregate indicators (i.e. response to a person: social attraction subtest and following subtest and response to object and noise: retrieving subtest, sudden appearance subtest and noise subtest). Three assessors independently scored the dogs' reactions for each task. Inter-rater reliability of the three assessors were analyzed with Fleiss' Kappa and Kendall's coefficient, which showed a high inter-rater reliability in 4 of 5 tasks. The ordered logistic regression was carried out to obtain a proportional odds model that was used to model the relationship between sex, litter size, stimulating environment, parity of mother, adequate maternal behavior and high scores. Litter size and maternal parity were associated with test performance in response to a person. The variance of effect of litter was high in response to object and noise. Taken together, our results suggest that using this scoring system there is sufficient inter-rater reliability in the test and litter size and mother experience influences task performances related to dog-human interaction.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Personalidade/fisiologia , Animais , Escala de Avaliação Comportamental/normas , Cães , Feminino , Masculino , Ruído/efeitos adversos , Comportamento Social
14.
CuidArte, Enferm ; 14(2): 213-218, jul.-dez.2020.
Artigo em Português | BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1147219

RESUMO

Introdução: A depressão tem aumentado, inclusive na população de idosos, prejudicando a qualidade de vida. Tristeza persistente, falta de interesse e reduzida energia, sintomas clássicos da depressão, afetam o funcionamento cotidiano e devem ser identificados e tratados. Objetivos: Identificar a prevalência dos sintomas depressivos entre idosos e correlacionar a concordância entre os métodos de rastreamento utilizados; apresentar o perfil sociográfico dos participantes do estudo; identificar o grau de independência ou não para a realização de atividades básicas de vida diária. Material e Método: Estudo descritivo, de corte transversal com população constituída por idosos institucionalizados. A coleta de dados foi feita por meio da aplicação dos instrumentos: Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), Inventário de Depressão de Beck-II (BDI-II), um instrumento semiestruturado para identificação sociográfica, Escala de Avaliação de Atividades Básicas de Vida Diária de Katz e o Mini Exame do Estado Mental. Resultados: Participaram do estudo 65 idosos com idade média de 70 anos, 22 (33,8%) mulheres, 43 (66,2%) homens, 40 (61,5%) casados, morando com o companheiro, 52 (80%) com ensino fundamental incompleto, 51 (78%) negaram ter vícios. Pela escala BDI-II, 14,5% (10) apresentaram depressão leve, 4,34% (3) depressão moderada e 2,9% (2) depressão grave. Pela escala PHQ-9, 10,8% (7) foram avaliados positivamente para depressão. A correlação de Pearson verificou grande concordância (52,5%) entre os métodos de rastreio utilizados. O BDI-II possui maior sensibilidade e o PHQ-9 é mais específico, sendo mais prático para ser aplicado à beira-leito. Conclusão: Embora os métodos utilizados nesta pesquisa sejam eficientes, o BDI-II possui maior vantagem por avaliar o declínio cognitivo e físico do idoso.(AU)


Introduction: Depression has increased, including in the elderly population, harming the quality of life. Persistent sadness, lack of interest and reduced energy, classic symptoms of depression, affect everyday functioning and should be identified and treated. Objectives: To identify the prevalence of depressive symptoms among the elderly and correlate the agreement between the screening methods used; to present the sociographic profile of the study participants; identify the degree of independence or not to perform basic activities of daily living. Material and Method: Descriptive cross-sectional study with population constituted by institutionalized elderly. Data collection was performed using the following instruments: Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), Beck-II Depression Inventory (BDI-II), a semistructured instrument for sociographic identification, Katz's Basic Activities of Daily Life Assessment Scale and the Mini Mental State Examination. Results: Sixty-five elderly individuals with a mean age of 70 years, 22 (33.8%) women, 43 (66.2%) men, 40 (61.5%) married, living with a partner, 52 (80%) with incomplete elementary school, 51 (78%) denied having addictions. On the BDI-II scale, 14.5% (10) presented mild depression, 4.34% (3) moderate depression and 2.9% (2) severe depression. On the PHQ-9 scale, 10.8% (7) were positively evaluated for depression. Pearson's correlation showed great agreement (52.5%) between the screening methods used. The BDI-II has greater sensitivity and the PHQ-9 is more specific, being more practical to be applied to the bedside. Conclusion: Although the methods used in this research are efficient, the BDI-II has a greater advantage in assessing the cognitive and physical decline of the elderly.(AU)


Introducción: La depresión ha aumentado, incluso en la población anciana, afectando la calidad de vida. La tristeza persistente, el desinterés y la reducción de energía, síntomas clásicos de la depresión, afectan el funcionamiento diario y deben ser identificados y tratados. Objetivos: Identificar la prevalencia de síntomas depresivos entre los ancianos y correlacionar la concordancia entre los métodos de detección utilizados; presentar el perfil sociográfico de los sujetos de estudio; Identificar el grado de independencia o no para realizar las actividades básicas de la vida diaria. Material y Método: Estudio descriptivo, transversal con una población de ancianos institucionalizados. La recolección de datos se realizó mediante los siguientes instrumentos: Cuestionario de Salud del Paciente-9 (PHQ-9), Inventario de Depresión de Beck-II (BDI-II), instrumento semiestructurado para la identificación sociográfica, la Escala de Evaluación de las Actividades Básicas de la vida diaria de Katz y el Mini Examen del Estado Mental (MMSE). Resultados: El estudio incluyó a 65 ancianos con una edad promedio de 70 años, 22 (33,8%) mujeres, 43 (66,2%) hombres, 40 (61,5%) casados, conviviendo en pareja, 52 (80%) con educación primaria incompleta, 51 (78%) negaron tener adicciones. Según la escala BDI-II, el 14,5% (10) presentó depresión leve, el 4,34% (3) depresión moderada y el 2,9% (2) depresión severa. Utilizando la escala PHQ-9, el 10,8% (7) fueron evaluados positivamente para la depresión. La correlación de Pearson encontró una gran concordancia (52,5%) entre los métodos de detección utilizados. BDI-II tiene mayor sensibilidad y PHQ-9 es más específico, siendo más práctico para ser aplicado a pie de cama. Conclusión: Aunque ambos métodos utilizados en esta investigación son eficientes, el BDI-II tiene una mayor ventaja para evaluar el deterioro cognitivo y físico de los ancianos.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Envelhecimento , Saúde do Idoso , Depressão , Enfermagem Geriátrica , Qualidade de Vida , Estudos Transversais , Escala de Avaliação Comportamental
15.
Referência ; serV(3): 1-10, jul. 2020. tab
Artigo em Português | BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1143609

RESUMO

Enquadramento: A avaliação do empowerment poderá ser um indicador determinante para a obtenção de ganhos em saúde. Objetivos: Construir e validar uma escala de empowerment individual no contexto da pessoa com doença crónica. Metodologia: O instrumento foi construído e aplicado a uma amostra de conveniência de 271 pessoas com doença crónica, com idades compreendidas entre os 18 e os 65 anos residentes em Lisboa. Para avaliar as propriedades métricas da escala recorreu-se à validação da fiabilidade do instrumento. Resultados: Obteve-se uma escala de 25 itens com 7 dimensões: Autoperceção; Participação nas decisões em saúde; Mestria; Determinação; Identidade; Autonomia e poder; Relação com os profissionais de saúde. A análise fatorial (componentes principais-Varimax) revelou que os que os 25 itens se organizaram em 7 fatores com uma variância explicada total de 65,28% e alfa de Cronbach total de 0,803. Conclusão: A criação de uma medida válida e fiável de empowerment no contexto da doença crónica poderá ajudará os profissionais de saúde a explorar o impacto deste resultado na autogestão dos regimes terapêuticos.


Background: The assessment of empowerment can contribute to obtaining gains in health. Objectives: To develop and validate a scale for assessing the individual empowerment of chronically ill people. Methodology: The instrument was developed and applied to a convenience sample of 271 chronically ill people, between 18 and 65 years old, residing in Lisbon. The validation of the reliability of the instrument was carried out to assess the metric properties of the scale. Results: A 25-item scale was developed with 7 dimensions: Self-perception, Participation in health-related decisions, Mastery, Determination, Identity, Autonomy and power, and Relationship with health professionals. The factor analysis (principal components analysis with Varimax rotation) revealed that the 25 items were organized into seven factors with a total variance explained of 65.28% and a total Cronbach's alpha of 0.803. Conclusion: The creation of a valid and reliable measure of the empowerment of chronically ill people may assist health professionals in exploring the impact of this outcome on treatment regimen self-management.


Marco contextual: La evaluación del empoderamiento puede ser un indicador determinante para obtener beneficios en la salud. Objetivos: Construir y validar una escala de empoderamiento individual en el contexto de la persona con enfermedad crónica. Metodología: El instrumento se construyó y se aplicó a una muestra de conveniencia de 271 personas con enfermedad crónica y con edades comprendidas entre los 18 y los 65 años que vivían en Lisboa. Para evaluar las propiedades métricas de la escala, se recurrió a la validación de la fiabilidad del instrumento. Resultados: Se obtuvo una escala de 25 ítems con 7 dimensiones, Autopercepción; Participación en las decisiones de salud; Dominio; Determinación; Identidad; Autonomía y poder; Relación con los profesionales de la salud. El análisis factorial (componentes principales-Varimax) reveló que los 25 artículos se organizaron en 7 factores, con una varianza explicada total del 65,28% y un alfa de Cronbach total de 0,803. Conclusión: La creación de una medida válida y fiable de empoderamiento en el contexto de la enfermedad crónica podrá ayudar a los profesionales de la salud a explorar el impacto de este resultado en la autogestión de los regímenes terapéuticos.


Assuntos
Doença Crônica , Empoderamento para a Saúde , Escala de Avaliação Comportamental
16.
Sci Total Environ ; 734: 139372, 2020 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32480229

RESUMO

Toxic agents such as pharmaceuticals and pesticides are continuously dispersed especially in the aquatic environment, as a result of human use. Their presence in the environment presents serious concerns, since these compounds interfere with the normal function of the central nervous system (CNS), causing behavior alterations, whose consequences are difficult to predict. However, behavioral responses, even those that occur after exposure to neurotoxic agents, might be modulated by the release of neurotransmitters in the brain of exposed organisms, making even more difficult to ascertain the real consequences of pollution by neurotoxic or neuroactive agents. This study aimed to understand the potential of dopamine as neuromodulator in cases of acute exposure to a pesticide (the carbamate carbofuran) and to a therapeutic agent (the benzodiazepinic drug diazepam) in the freshwater fish Gambusia holbrooki. After acute exposure to both carbofuran and to diazepam it was possible to observe deleterious alterations in the motor function, reflected by significant reductions of both average speed and distance in exposed animals. These changes were later diminished and reverted by dopamine exposure. Despite the indications obtained from our experiments, more research is needed to clarify the consequences of these behavior alterations in a more integrative perspective, namely by adding behavioral endpoints of increased ecological relevance to the adopted experimental design.


Assuntos
Escala de Avaliação Comportamental , Animais , Ciprinodontiformes , Neurotransmissores , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Poluentes Químicos da Água
17.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231742, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32298391

RESUMO

Domestic dogs have assisted humans for millennia. However, the extent to which these helpful behaviors are prosocially motivated remains unclear. To assess the propensity of pet dogs to actively rescue distressed humans without explicit training, this study tested whether sixty pet dogs would release their seemingly trapped owners from a large box. To examine the causal mechanisms that shaped this behavior, the readiness of each dog to open the box was tested in three conditions: 1) the owner sat in the box and called for help (distress test), 2) an experimenter placed high-value food rewards in the box (food test), and 3) the owner sat in the box and calmly read aloud (reading test). Dogs were as likely to release their distressed owner as to retrieve treats from inside the box, indicating that rescuing an owner may be a highly rewarding action for dogs. After accounting for opening ability, dogs released the owner more often when the owner called for help than when the owner read aloud calmly. In addition, opening latencies decreased with test number in the distress test but not the reading test. Thus, rescuing the owner could not be attributed solely to social facilitation, stimulus enhancement, or social contact-seeking behavior. Dogs displayed more stress behaviors in the distress test than in the reading test, and stress scores decreased with test number in the reading test but not in the distress test. This evidence of emotional contagion supports the hypothesis that rescuing the distressed owner was an empathetically-motivated prosocial behavior. Success in the food task and previous (in-home) experience opening objects were both strong predictors of releasing the owner. Thus, prosocial behavior tests for dogs should control for physical ability and previous experience.


Assuntos
Cães , Emoções , Motivação , Animais , Escala de Avaliação Comportamental , Comportamento Animal , Empatia , Alimentos , Humanos , Angústia Psicológica , Análise de Regressão , Recompensa
18.
J Sports Sci Med ; 19(1): 10-19, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32132823

RESUMO

The coach-rating scale for Achievement-Motivated Behavior in Individual Sports (AMBIS-I) was constructed to measure achievement motivation, not from athletes' own views but from coaches' perspectives. The tool was already checked for reliability as well as content, factorial, and concurrent criterion validity (Zuber and Conzelmann, 2019). To further establish construct and criterion validity, two different samples were involved. Sample 1 included 67 experienced coaches rating their 278 athletes on the three AMBIS-I dimensions proactivity, ambition and commitment. In sample 2, 157 athletes completed self-report questionnaires measuring motivational and volitional concepts. Congruent and discriminant construct validity were assessed using the QCV-procedure (Westen and Rosenthal, 2003) by comparing experts' predicted and empirically observed correlations between the coaches' ratings on the AMBIS-I with the self-ratings of validated instruments. Consistent with theoretical expectations, achievement goal orientations, self-determination and self-optimization show significant positive relationships to the AMBIS-I scales, the negatively formulated volitional concepts, negative ones. As indicated by the 0.87 ≤ ralerting-CV ≤ 0.95, the general patterns of the expert's predictions triangulate consistently with the observed correlations. The findings concerning absolute agreement were mixed. Even though the ICCs suggest sufficient to good consistency, the values of rcontrast-CV are considerably lower. To indicate criterion validity, AMBIS-I display medium to large correlations with the actual performance level estimated by the coaches and small to medium correlations with the assigned potential for subsequent success one year later. In summary, we found solid indications, that AMBIS-I is a valid measure of achievement-motivated behavior in individual sports from coaches' perspective.


Assuntos
Logro , Escala de Avaliação Comportamental , Tutoria , Motivação/fisiologia , Esportes/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Aptidão , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Autorrelato
19.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0221541, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32210448

RESUMO

Stimulus-specific adaptation (SSA) is the reduction in responses to a common stimulus that does not generalize, or only partially generalizes, to other stimuli. SSA has been studied mainly with sounds that bear no behavioral meaning. We hypothesized that the acquisition of behavioral meaning by a sound should modify the amount of SSA evoked by that sound. To test this hypothesis, we used fear conditioning in rats, using two word-like stimuli, derived from the English words "danger" and "safety", as well as pure tones. One stimulus (CS+) was associated with a foot shock whereas the other stimulus (CS-) was presented without a concomitant foot shock. We recorded neural responses to the auditory stimuli telemetrically, using chronically implanted multi-electrode arrays in freely moving animals before and after conditioning. Consistent with our hypothesis, SSA changed in a way that depended on the behavioral role of the sound: the contrast between standard and deviant responses remained the same or decreased for CS+ stimuli but increased for CS- stimuli, showing that SSA is shaped by experience. In most cases the sensory responses underlying these changes in SSA increased following conditioning. Unexpectedly, the responses to CS+ word-like stimuli showed a specific, large decrease, which we interpret as evidence for substantial inhibitory plasticity.


Assuntos
Estimulação Acústica/métodos , Adaptação Fisiológica/fisiologia , Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Som , Vigília/fisiologia , Animais , Córtex Auditivo/fisiologia , Escala de Avaliação Comportamental , Condicionamento Clássico/fisiologia , Potenciais Evocados Auditivos/fisiologia , Medo/fisiologia , Feminino , Interneurônios/fisiologia , Ratos
20.
Sci China Life Sci ; 63(9): 1-10, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32201927

RESUMO

Optic neuropathies lead to blindness; the common pathology is the degeneration of axons of the retinal ganglion cells. In this study, we used a rat model of retinal ischemia-reperfusion and a one-time intravitreal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) injection; then we examined axon transportation function, continuity, physical presence of axons in different part of the optic nerve, and the expression level of proteins involved in axon transportation. We found that in the disease model, axon transportation was the most severely affected, followed by axon continuity, then the number of axons in the distal and proximal optic nerve. BDNF treatment relieved all reductions and significantly restored function. The molecular changes were more minor, probably due to massive gliosis of the optic nerve, so interpretation of protein expression data should be done with some caution. The process in this acute model resembles a fast-forward of changes in the chronic model of glaucoma. Therefore, impairment in axon transportation appears to be a common early process underlying different optic neuropathies. This research on effective intervention can be used to develop interventions for all optic neuropathies targeting axon transportation.


Assuntos
Transporte Axonal/efeitos dos fármacos , Axônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/metabolismo , Pressão Intraocular/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Escala de Avaliação Comportamental , Cegueira/prevenção & controle , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/administração & dosagem , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Glaucoma/metabolismo , Injeções Intraoculares , Masculino , Nervo Óptico/metabolismo , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Retina/metabolismo , Células Ganglionares da Retina/metabolismo
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