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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(38): e21970, 2020 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32957315

RESUMO

The main objective of this study was to evaluate the outcomes of extremely elderly patients receiving orotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation after planned extubation. This retrospective cohort study included extremely elderly patients (>90 years) who received mechanical ventilation and passed planned extubation. We reviewed all intensive care unit patients in a medical center between January 1, 2010, and December 31, 2017. There were 19,518 patients (aged between 20 and 105 years) during the study period. After application of the exclusion criteria, there were 213 patients who underwent planned extubation: 166 patients survived, and 47 patients died. Compared with the mortality group, the survival group had lower Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II scores and higher Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) scores, with scores of 19.7 ±â€Š6.5 (mean ±â€Šstandard deviation) vs 22.2 ±â€Š6.0 (P = .015) and 9.5 ±â€Š3.5 vs 8.0 ±â€Š3.0 (P = .007), respectively. The laboratory data revealed no significant difference between the survival and mortality groups except for blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and hemoglobin. After multivariate logistic regression analysis, a lower GCS, a higher BUN level, weaning beginning 3 days after intubation and reintubation during hospitalization were associated with poor prognosis. In this cohort of extremely elderly patients undergoing planned extubation, a lower GCS, a higher BUN level, weaning beginning 3 days after intubation and reintubation during hospitalization were associated with mortality.


Assuntos
Extubação/mortalidade , Intubação Intratraqueal/estatística & dados numéricos , Respiração Artificial/estatística & dados numéricos , Desmame do Respirador/estatística & dados numéricos , APACHE , Fatores Etários , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Nitrogênio da Ureia Sanguínea , Índice de Massa Corporal , Comorbidade , Escala de Coma de Glasgow , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais
2.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 100(37): 2924-2928, 2020 Oct 13.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32993252

RESUMO

Objective: To explore the the effectiveness of using short-latency somatosensory evoked potential(SLSEP) combined with electroencephalogram(EEG) reactivity to predict the prognosis of severe brain injury(SBI) patients. Methods: Consecutive patients with SBI admitted in neurosurgery intensive care unit(NSICU) at Xiangya Hospital of Central South University from July 2018 to January 2019 were prospectively collected. SLSEP and EEG were recorded in these patients in NSICU within two weeks after injury onset. EEG reactivity(EEG-R) was tested during EEG signal stabilization. In addition, the concentrations of serum neuron-specific enolase (NSE) and S100 protein were also detected. All patients were evaluated with Glasgow Outcome Scale(GOS) during 12 months' follow-up. GOS grade 3 to 5 was defined as favorable group, and GOS grade 1 to 2 was defined as unfavorable group. The association of relevant predictors with patient's prognosis was assessed. The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) was used to evaluate each potential predictor. Results: Forty-three patients were included in the study, with 26 patients of favorable outcomes and 17 patients with unfavorable prognosis. Univariate analysis revealed that the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score, the concentration of serum NSE, EEG-R, the amplitude of SLSEP were all associated with the prognosis after 12 months' follow-up. Moreover, the AUC for prediction of favorable prognosis by GCS, NSE, EEG-R, SLSEP was 0.661(95%CI: 0.493-0.829), 0.697(95%CI: 0.531-0.862), 0.718(95%CI: 0.557-0.879) and 0.758(95%CI: 0.609-0.907) respectively. However, there was no significant difference of age, gender, pupillary light reflex and S100 protein between the two groups. Furthermore, multiple logistic regression analysis showed that only SLSEP amplitude (OR=2.058, 95%CI: 0.867-4.888) and EEG-R(OR=3.748, 95%CI: 0.857-16.394) were independent predictors of favorable prognosis, and the prognostic model containing these two variables yielded an predictive performance with an AUC of 0.798. Conclusion: The higher amplitude of SLSEP and the existence of EEG-R are predictors of good prognosis in SBI patients, and the combined use of SLSEP and EEG-R in predicting the prognosis of SBI patients is more reliable.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas , Potenciais Somatossensoriais Evocados , Eletroencefalografia , Escala de Coma de Glasgow , Humanos , Prognóstico
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(36): e22056, 2020 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32899069

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: With the development of social economy, transportation and various infrastructures have also developed, but it has objectively increased the number of patients with head injury. Although the current craniocerebral medicine technology continues to advance, long-term bed rest and other complications have led to an insignificant decrease in the mortality rate of coma patients. It is not uncommon for patients with disturbance of consciousness caused by head injury in major hospitals. METHODS/DESIGN: This will be a retrospective, single-blind clinical observational study. We will select 50 cases that meet the subject's selection criteria. According to whether they received acupuncture treatment or not, they will be randomly divided into 2 groups, namely treatment group and control group. The control group will be given conventional Western medicine treatment, and the treatment group will be given acupuncture method of removing-stasis and resuscitating treatment on the basis of the control group. DISCUSSION: Our purpose is to observe the role of acupuncture method of removing-stasis and resuscitating in promoting the recovery of patients with severe head injury. We aim to provide more evidence-based medical evidence for acupuncture treatment of this disease. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, ChiCTR2000034732, Registered on 19 July 2020.


Assuntos
Terapia por Acupuntura/métodos , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/complicações , Coma/terapia , Estado Vegetativo Persistente/terapia , Ressuscitação/métodos , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Coma/etiologia , Coma/mortalidade , Terapia Combinada , Estado de Consciência , Feminino , Escala de Coma de Glasgow , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medicamentos sob Prescrição , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Método Simples-Cego
4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(37): e22074, 2020 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925745

RESUMO

Hematological abnormalities at admission are common after traumatic brain injuries and are associated with poor outcomes. The objective of this study was to identify the predictive factors of mortality among patients who underwent emergency surgery for the evacuation of epidural hematoma (EDH) or subdural hematoma (SDH).This was a single-center retrospective cohort study of 200 patients who underwent emergency surgical evacuation of EDH or SDH between September 2010 and December 2018. Data on hematological parameters and clinical and intraoperative features were collected. The primary end-point was 1-year mortality after surgery. Univariate and multivariate analysis were performed, and the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were assessed.Of the 200 patients included in this study, 102 (51%) patients died within 1 year of emergency surgery. Lymphocyte count at admission, creatinine levels, activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), age, intraoperative epinephrine use, and Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score were significantly associated with mortality in the multivariate analysis. The areas under the ROC curve for the GCS score, aPTT, and lymphocyte counts were 0.677 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.602-0.753), 0.644 (95% CI 0.567-0.721), and 0.576 (95% CI 0.496-0.656), respectively.Patients with elevated lymphocyte counts on admission showed a higher rate of 1-year mortality following emergency craniectomy for EDH or SDH. In addition, prolonged aPTT and a lower GCS score were also related to poor survival.


Assuntos
Hematoma Epidural Craniano/sangue , Hematoma Epidural Craniano/cirurgia , Hematoma Subdural Intracraniano/sangue , Hematoma Subdural Intracraniano/cirurgia , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Craniotomia , Creatinina/sangue , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Epinefrina/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Escala de Coma de Glasgow , Hematoma Epidural Craniano/mortalidade , Hematoma Subdural Intracraniano/mortalidade , Humanos , Período Intraoperatório , Contagem de Linfócitos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tempo de Tromboplastina Parcial , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Vasoconstritores/uso terapêutico
6.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32759922

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This research is aimed to study the clinical and MRI predictors of coma duration, the intensity of critical care, and outcome of traumatic brain injury (TBI). MATERIAL AND METHODS: The data from 309 patients with TBI of varying severity were included in the analysis, of whom 257 (86.7%) were treated in the intensive care unit (ICU), including 196 (63.4%) patients admitted in a comatose state lasting longer than 1 day. All patients underwent brain MRI within 21 days after the injury. MRI findings were classified according to MRI grading scale of brain damage level and localization proposed previously. RESULTS: The proposed MRI grading significantly correlated with the Glasgow coma (GCS, r=-0.67; p<0.0001) and Glasgow outcome (0.69; p<0.001) scores in the entire group. In a subgroup of comatose patients (GCS<9) it correlated with coma duration (r=0.52; p<0.0001). Spearman correlation analysis showed a significant relationship between the MRI classification and a number of parameters: ICU length of stay (r=0.62; p<0.0001), the duration of artificial ventilation (r=0.47; p<0.0001), the rate of artificial ventilation, sedatives, analgesics, mannitol, hypertonic saline and vasopressors usage (p<0.01). These data confirm the relationship between higher grades of MRI classification (deep brain damage) and the need for the escalation of intensive care main components. CONCLUSION: Our results support the hypothesis that the levels and localization of brain damage, estimated by the proposed MRI grading scale, might be predictors of coma duration, intensity and duration of intensive care, and TBI outcomes. A prognosis based on clinical and neuroimaging data comparison can be valuable for planning and efficient use of the hospital beds and ICU resources, for optimizing the patient flow and timing of patient transfer to neurorehabilitation facilities.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/terapia , Coma/diagnóstico por imagem , Coma/terapia , Cuidados Críticos , Escala de Coma de Glasgow , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
Stroke ; 51(9): 2674-2682, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32755348

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: No studies have reported the effect of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic on patients with preexisting stroke. We aim to study the clinical course of COVID-19 patients with preexisting stroke and to investigate death-related risk factors. METHODS: We consecutively included 651 adult inpatients with COVID-19 from the Central Hospital of Wuhan between January 2 and February 15, 2020. Data on the demography, comorbidities, clinical manifestations, laboratory findings, treatments, complications, and outcomes (ie, discharged or death) of the participants were extracted from electronic medical records and compared between patients with and without preexisting stroke. The association between risk factors and mortality was estimated using a Cox proportional hazards regression model for stroke patients infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. RESULTS: Of the 651 patients with COVID-19, 49 with preexisting stroke tended to be elderly, male, had more underlying comorbidities and greater severity of illness, prolonged length of hospital stay, and greater hospitalization expenses than those without preexisting stroke. Cox regression analysis indicated that the patients with stroke had a higher risk of developing critical pneumonia (adjusted hazard ratio, 2.01 [95% CI, 1.27-3.16]) and subsequent mortality (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.73 [95% CI, 1.00-2.98]) than the patients without stroke. Among the 49 stroke patients, older age and higher score of Glasgow Coma Scale or Sequential Organ Failure Assessment were independent risk factors associated with in-hospital mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Preexisting stroke patients infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 were readily predisposed to death, providing an important message to individuals and health care workers that preventive measures must be implemented to protect and reduce transmission in stroke patients in this COVID-19 crisis.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/mortalidade , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , China/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Progressão da Doença , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Feminino , Escala de Coma de Glasgow , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Insuficiência de Múltiplos Órgãos/epidemiologia , Insuficiência de Múltiplos Órgãos/etiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia/etiologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
Lancet Neurol ; 19(8): 670-677, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32702336

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Large-scale studies are required to better characterise traumatic brain injury (TBI) and to identify the most effective treatment approaches for TBI. However, evidence is scarce and mostly originates from high-income countries. We aimed to describe the existing care for patients with TBI and the outcomes in China. METHODS: The Collaborative European NeuroTrauma Effectiveness Research in TBI (CENTER-TBI) China registry is a prospective, multicentre, longitudinal, observational study done in 56 neurosurgical centres across China. We collected data of patients who were admitted to hospital with a clinical diagnosis of TBI and an indication for CT. Patients who were discharged directly from the emergency room were excluded. The primary endpoint was survival on discharge. Prognostic analyses were applied to identify predictors of mortality. Variations in mortality were compared between centres and provinces within China. Mortality was compared with expected mortality, estimated using the CRASH basic model. This study was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02210221. FINDINGS: From Dec 22, 2014, to Aug 1, 2017, 13 627 patients with TBI from 56 centres were enrolled in the registry. Data from 13 138 patients from 52 hospitals in 22 provinces of China were analysed. Most patients were male (9782 [74%]), with a median age of 48 years (IQR 33-61). The median Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score was 13 (IQR 9-15), and the leading cause of injury was road-traffic incident (6548 [50%]). Overall, 637 (5%) patients died, including 552 (20%) patients with severe TBI. Age, GCS score, injury severity score, pupillary light reflex, CT findings (compressed basal cistern and midline shift ≥5 mm), presence of hypoxia, systemic hypotension, altitude higher than >500 m, and GDP per capita were significantly associated with survival in all patients with TBI. Variation in mortality existed between centres and regions. The expected 14-day mortality was 1116 (13%), but 544 (7%) deaths within 14 days were observed (observed to expected ratio 0·49 [95% CI 0·45-0·53]). INTERPRETATION: The results show differences in mortality between centres and regions across China, which indicates potential for identifying best practices through comparative effectiveness research. The risk factors identified in prognostic analyses might contribute to developing benchmarks for assessing quality of care. FUNDING: None.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/mortalidade , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/diagnóstico , China , Feminino , Escala de Coma de Glasgow , Hospitalização , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
10.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0234881, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32614835

RESUMO

Traumatic meningeal enhancement (TME) is a novel biomarker observed on post-contrast fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) in patients who undergo contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) after suspected traumatic brain injury (TBI). TME may be seen on acute MRI despite the absence of other trauma-related intracranial findings. In this study we compare conspicuity of TME on FLAIR post-contrast and T1 weighted imaging (T1WI) post-contrast, and investigate if TME is best detected by FLAIR post-contrast or T1WI post-contrast sequences. Subjects selected for analysis enrolled in the parent study (NCT01132937) in 2016 and underwent contrast-enhanced MRI within 48 hours of suspected TBI. Two blinded readers reviewed pairs of pre- and post-contrast T1WI and FLAIR images for presence or absence of TME. Discordant pairs between the two blinded readers were reviewed by a third reader. Cohen's kappa coefficient was used to calculate agreement. Twenty-five subjects (15 males, 10 females; median age 48 (Q1:35-Q3:62; IQR: 27)) were included. The blinded readers had high agreement for presence of TME on FLAIR (Kappa of 0.90), but had no agreement for presence of TME on T1WI (Kappa of -0.24). The FLAIR and T1WI scans were compared among all three readers and 62% of the cases positive on FLAIR could be seen on T1WI. However, 38% of the cases who were read positive on FLAIR for TME were read negative for TME on T1WI. Conspicuity of TME is higher on post-contrast FLAIR MRI than on post-contrast T1WI. TME as seen on post-contrast FLAIR MRI can aid in the identification of patients with TBI.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/patologia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Meninges/patologia , Neuroimagem/métodos , Adulto , Meios de Contraste , Feminino , Escala de Coma de Glasgow , Humanos , Masculino , Meglumina/análogos & derivados , Meninges/lesões , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Compostos Organometálicos , Método Simples-Cego , Técnica de Subtração
11.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(27): e21020, 2020 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32629724

RESUMO

As a catabolic product of hemoglobin, bilirubin has been confirmed playing an important role in the development of various central nervous system disease. The aim of this study is to explore the correlation between serum bilirubin level and mortality in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI).Patients admitted with traumatic brain injury (TBI) in our hospital between January 2015 and January 2018 were enrolled in this study. Clinical and laboratory data of 361 patients were retrospectively collected to explore the independent risk factors of mortality.The comparison of baseline characteristics showed that non-survivors had lower Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) (P < .001) and higher level of serum total bilirubin (TBIL) (P < .001) and direct bilirubin (DBIL) (P < .001). We found that only GCS (P < .001), glucose (P < .001), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) (P = .042) and DBIL (P = .005) were significant risk factors in multivariate logistic regression analysis. GCS and DBIL had comparable AUC value (0.778 vs 0.750, P > .05) on predicting mortality in TBI patients. The AUC value of the combination of GCS and DBIL is higher than the single value of these two factors (P < .05). Moreover, predictive model 1 consisted of GCS, glucose, LDH and DBIL had the highest AUC value of 0.894.DBIL is a significant risk factor of mortality in TBI patients. Assessing the level of DBIL is beneficial for physicians to evaluate severity and predict outcome for TBI patients.


Assuntos
Bilirrubina/sangue , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/sangue , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/mortalidade , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Central/metabolismo , Adulto , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos de Casos e Controles , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Escala de Coma de Glasgow/tendências , Humanos , L-Lactato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
12.
S Afr Med J ; 110(5): 400-402, 2020 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32657725

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hanging is a common form of self-harm, and emergency care physicians will not infrequently be called upon to manage a survivor.Despite the relative frequency of the injury, there is a paucity of literature on the topic and the spectrum and incidence of associated injuries are poorly described. OBJECTIVES: To review experience with management of victims of hanging at a major trauma centre in South Africa. METHODS: All patients treated by the Pietermaritzburg Metropolitan Trauma Service following a hanging incident between December 2012 and December 2018 were identified from the Hybrid Electronic Medical Registry. Basic demographics were recorded, and the management and outcome of each patient were noted. RESULTS: During the 6-year period under review, a total of 154 patients were seen following a hanging incident. The mean age was 29.4 years. There were 24 females (15.6%) and 130 males (84.4%). The vast majority (n=150; 97.5%) had attempted suicide, and only 4 hangings (2.5%) were accidental. A total of 92 patients (60.9%) had consumed alcohol prior to the incident. There were 23 patients with a Glasgow Coma Score (GCS) <9 (severe traumatic brain injury (TBI)), 14 with a GCS of 9 - 12 (moderate TBI) and 117 with a GCS >12 (mild TBI). A total of 7 patients (4.5%) required intensive care unit admission, and 25 (16.2%) required intubation. The following extracranial injuries were documented on computed tomography scans: hyoid bone fractures (n=2), cervical spine fracture (n=10), mandible fracture (n=4) and oesophageal injury (n=1). Intracranial pathology was evident on 27.0% of scans, with the most common finding being global cerebral ischaemia. The mortality rate was 2.5% (4/154). CONCLUSIONS: Hanging is a common mechanism of self-harm. It is associated with significant injuries and mortality. The acute management of hanging should focus on airway protection followed by detailed imaging of the head and neck. Further work must attempt to include mortuary data on hanging.


Assuntos
Acidentes/estatística & dados numéricos , Asfixia/epidemiologia , Lesões do Pescoço/epidemiologia , Tentativa de Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Isquemia Encefálica/diagnóstico por imagem , Isquemia Encefálica/epidemiologia , Vértebras Cervicais/diagnóstico por imagem , Vértebras Cervicais/lesões , Esôfago/diagnóstico por imagem , Esôfago/lesões , Feminino , Fraturas Ósseas/diagnóstico por imagem , Fraturas Ósseas/epidemiologia , Escala de Coma de Glasgow , Humanos , Osso Hioide/diagnóstico por imagem , Osso Hioide/lesões , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Intubação Intratraqueal/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Fraturas Mandibulares/diagnóstico por imagem , Fraturas Mandibulares/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Distribuição por Sexo , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Centros de Traumatologia
13.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(29): e20883, 2020 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32702829

RESUMO

OX40 ligand (OX40L) is a member of tumor necrosis factors (TNF)/TNFR superfamily and is mainly expressed in activated T cells and participates in various inflammatory reactions. However, it remains unclear about the role of serum OX40L as a biomarker of cerebral infarction (CI). This study aimed to explore the possibility of serum OX40L as a meaningful predictor in mortality of CI. Severe CI patients were included to collect clinicopathological and laboratory data and measure serum OX40L level. Patients were followed up after discharge and 60-day survival rate was used as the study endpoint. The results showed that of all 294 patients, 123 (41.8%) died within 60 days after admission. Serum OX40L levels were significantly higher in patients with severe CI compared to healthy controls, and were significantly higher in nonsurvivors compared to survivors (P < .05). The levels of OX40L were correlated with Glasgow Coma Scale score, serum creatinine and high-sensitive C-reactive protein. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that serum OX40L level was an independent prognostic factor for 60-day mortality, after control of pulmonary infection, glasgow coma scale score and high-sensitive C-reactive protein (odds ratio = 1.089; 95% confidence interval = 1.053-1.126; P < .001). The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to predict the best cut-off of serum OX40L for 60-day survival as 35.5 ng/mL. Patients with high serum OX40L levels (>35.5 ng/mL) had a significantly higher mortality within 60 days (hazard ratio = 2.885; 95% confidence interval = 1.901-4.378). In conclusion, OX40L is a serum biomarker of patients with CI and associated with severity and mortality of this disease.


Assuntos
Infarto Cerebral/sangue , Infarto Cerebral/mortalidade , Ligante OX40/sangue , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Creatinina/sangue , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Seguimentos , Escala de Coma de Glasgow , Humanos , Contagem de Leucócitos , Masculino , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
14.
J Clin Ethics ; 31(2): 111-125, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32585654

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In highly developed countries, as many as 16 percent of children are physically abused each year. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the most common injury in non-accidental trauma (NAT) and is responsible for 80 percent of fatal NAT cases, with most deaths occurring in children younger than three years old. Cases of abusers who refuse withdrawal of life-sustaining medical treatment (LSMT) to avoid criminal charges have previously been reported. Therefore, we hypothesized that NAT is associated with a lower risk for withdrawal LSMT in pediatric TBI. METHODS: The pediatric Trauma Quality Improvement Program database was analyzed (2014 to 2016) for patients aged 16 and younger with TBI and Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) of 8 and lower on admission. Patients with a head Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) of 2 or less or who died within 48 hours were excluded. A multivariable logistic regression model was used for analysis. RESULTS: Of 2,209 TBI patients, 92 (4.2 percent) had withdrawal of LSMT. Compared to those without withdrawal of LMST, those with LMST had statistically similar median age (three years of age versus seven years) and a higher rate of NAT (33.7 percent versus 13.5 percent). The most common specified perpetrator was a father/stepfather/male partner (70 percent). After adjusting for covariates, factors associated with higher risk for withdrawal of LSMT included age of less than three years (OR 2.38, CI 1.34-4.23) and NAT (OR 1.86, CI 1.02-3.41). CONCLUSION: NAT is associated with increased risk for withdrawal of LSMT in pediatric TBI. Age of less than three years is similarly associated with a higher risk for withdrawal of LSMT. Future research in this population is needed to determine what other factors predict withdrawal of LSMT and what resources, such as social workers and/or ethics consults, are utilized.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas , Lesões Encefálicas , Cuidados para Prolongar a Vida , Suspensão de Tratamento , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Escala de Coma de Glasgow , Humanos , Cuidados para Prolongar a Vida/ética , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Suspensão de Tratamento/ética
16.
Georgian Med News ; (301): 13-20, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32535556

RESUMO

The aim of the study is to justify the "balanced" approach to brain debridement (BD) in surgical treatment of combat-related penetrating craniocerebral gunshot wound (PCGW) patients and assess immediate and long-term treatment results. The analysis of applied surgical BD techniques was performed in PCGW military personnel with admission Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score of 4 or above. The study included 81 injured patients. Average GCS score at admission was 10±3. Blunt injuries were predominant (n=51, 62.9%). Bone fragments were removed in 78 (92.8%) and metal foreign bodies were removed in 32 (38.1%)cases. Demographic and clinical characteristics, nature of brain injury, presence of foreign bodies and depth of their location, surgery extent, and occurrence of complications in postoperative period were taken into account. The outcome data included a Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) score at discharge, in 6 and 12 months, grade of speech disorders, extremities strength, and occurrence of convulsive attacks from the time of admission to 12 months. Meningitis developed in 11 (13.6%) cases. 11 (13.6%) patients died. Good recovery (GOS score 4-5) in 12 months was in 8 (38.1%) patients, moderate disability (GOS score 4) in 10 (47.6%) patients. Adverse outcome (GOS score 1-3) was associated with axial dislocation (p=0.015), diametric wound (p<0.001), and purulent-septic complications (PSC) (p<0.05). Intracranial PSCs are statistically significantly associated with duration of subdural space inflow and outflow drainage of 4+ days (p<0.05), bone fragments left in the brain matter (p=0.008), and ventricular hemorrhage on HCT (p=0.016). The choice of a BD technique depended on severity of patient's condition, brain injury, and presence of foreign bodies. Availability of an equipped operating room allowed for thorough surgery. Good outcome indicators testify to appropriateness of the chosen tactic.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas , Traumatismos Craniocerebrais , Ferimentos por Arma de Fogo , Escala de Coma de Glasgow , Humanos , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
BMC Neurol ; 20(1): 226, 2020 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32498710

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The time from injury to surgery (TIS) is critical in the functional recovery of individuals with traumatic acute subdural hematoma (TASDH). However, only few studies have confirmed such notion. METHODS: The data of TASDH patients who were surgically treated in Chia-Yi Christian Hospital between January 2008 and December 2015 were collected. The significance of variables, including age, sex, traumatic mechanism, coma scale, midline shift on brain computed tomography (CT) scan, and TIS, in functional recovery was assessed using the student's t-test, Mann-Whitney U test, chi-square test, univariate and multivariate models, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. RESULTS: A total of 37 patients achieved functional recovery (outcome scale score of 4 or 5) and 33 patients had poor recovery (outcome scale score of 1-3) after at least 1 year of follow-up. No significant difference was observed in terms of age, sex, coma scale score, traumatic mechanism, or midline shift on brain CT scan between the functional and poor recovery groups. TIS was found to be significantly shorter in the functional recovery group than in the poor recovery group (145.5 ± 27.0 vs. 181.9 ± 54.5 min, P-value = 0.002). TIS was a significant factor for functional outcomes in the univariate and multivariate regression models. The analysis of TIS with the ROC curve between these two groups showed that the threshold time for functional recovery in comatose patients and those with TASDH who were surgically treated was 2 h and 57.5 min. CONCLUSIONS: TIS is an important factor l for the functional recovery of comatose TASDH patients who underwent surgery.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas/cirurgia , Hematoma Subdural Agudo/cirurgia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Escala de Coma de Glasgow , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
18.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 29(7): 104893, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32414584

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND GOAL: Substance P, a neuropeptide of the tachykinin family, is involved in the neuroinflammation of different diseases of the central nervous system. To our knowledge, there is no published data on the level of circulating substance P levels in the prognosis of patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Therefore, the objectives of this observational and prospective study were to determine whether serum substance P levels in ICH patients were associated with early mortality and whether could be used in the mortality prognostic. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We included patients with severe primary supratentorial ICH (defined as Glasgow Coma Scale < 9) from 6 Intensive Care Units of Spanish hospitals. We determined serum substance P levels at the time of severe ICH diagnosis, at fourth and at eighth day. Thirty-day mortality was considered the end-point study. FINDINGS: Non-surviving (n=53) compared to surviving ICH patients (n=64) showed higher serum substance P levels at day 1 (p<0.001), day 4 (p<0.001) and day 8 (p<0.001). The area under the curve for 30-day mortality prediction by serum substance P levels was of 79% (95% CI = 70-86%; p<0.001). Kaplan-Meier analysis showed a higher 30-day mortality in patients with serum substance P levels>503 pg/mL (Hazard ratio=14.7; 95% CI=6.88-31.55; p<0.001). Multiple logistic regression analysis showed an association between serum substance P levels and 30-day mortality (Odds Ratio=1.006; 95% CI=1.002-1.010; p=0.004) controlling for ICH score, midline shift, glycemia, early evacuation of ICH. CONCLUSIONS: Thus, the novel aspects our study include that serum substance P levels in severe primary ICH patients were higher in non-surviving than in surviving patients, that serum substance P levels were associated with early mortality controlling for other variables, and that serum substance P levels could be used as biomarkers of prognosis.


Assuntos
Hemorragia Cerebral/sangue , Hemorragia Cerebral/mortalidade , Substância P/sangue , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Hemorragia Cerebral/diagnóstico , Feminino , Escala de Coma de Glasgow , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Espanha , Fatores de Tempo , Regulação para Cima
19.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1279: 53-59, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32350821

RESUMO

Traumatic brain injury has ripple effect on the physical, cognitive, behavioral, and emotional domains of quality of life and portends a long-term neurological disability in survivors. In this study we evaluated the prognostic role of demographic and clinico-radiological variables on the hospitalization length and mortality in 71 of patients with frontal brain contusions. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) plots were performed, with area under the curve (AUC) values, for graphical comparison of variables that would predict mortality and hospitalization length. We found that the best prognostics of mortality were the Glasgow Coma Scale score, the motor function score, and the Rotterdam CT score, with AUC values of 0.873, 0.836, and 0.711, respectively. Concerning the prediction of hospitalization length, the AUC showed inappreciable differences, with the highest values for the Glasgow Coma Scale score, Rotterdam CT score, and the serum cortisol level in a 0.550-0.600 range. Curve estimation, based on multivariate analysis, showed that the scores of motor function, Glasgow Coma Scale, and Rotterdam CT correlated best with the prediction of both mortality and hospitalization length, along with the upward dynamic changes of serum cortisol for the latter. We conclude that basically simple and non-invasive assessment in survivors of acute traumatic brain contusion is helpful in predicting mortality and the length of hospital stay, which would be of essential value in better allocation of healthcare resources for inpatient treatment and rehabilitation and for post-hospital patient's functioning.


Assuntos
Contusão Encefálica/diagnóstico , Contusão Encefálica/mortalidade , Lobo Frontal/patologia , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Escala de Coma de Glasgow , Humanos , Prognóstico , Qualidade de Vida , Resultado do Tratamento
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