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1.
J Affect Disord ; 277: 977-985, 2020 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33065842

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In February 2020 the first cases of COVID-19 were identified in Kuwait. Inevitably as many countries worldwide, the general public were negatively affected by the pandemic. Unemployment, uncertainty, distress, increasing deaths, lockdown measures all of which are potential burdens on mental health. AIM: To assess the impact of COVID19 outbreak on mental health in Kuwait, and to explore the potential influencing risk factors. METHODS: We conducted an online questionnaire-based study in Kuwait between 25th May 2020 to 30th May 2020. Questions were based on demographics, lifestyle during outbreak, depression and anxiety assessment. Total PHQ9 and GAD7 scores were calculated for each responder. RESULTS: We had 4132 responders. Most were females (69.31%), married (59.37%), between the age of 21-30 (23.84%) and non-smokers (81.46%). Only (7.96%) had a positive past psychiatric history, (32.04%) had a past history of a chronic medical disease. During the outbreak most of the responders lost their jobs (39.21%) and only (12.83%) were attending work regularly, only (6.82%) worked in the healthcare sector. 59.27% report increased social media use compared to before the lockdown. When asked about their daily time spent following COVID19-related news, most (37.8%) spend more than 2 hours and (7.74%) spend more than 4 hours. The overall prevalence of depressive symptoms was (30.13%) and the prevalence of anxiety symptoms was (25.28%). LIMITATIONS: In the cross-sectional nature of the study. CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 pandemic caused a burden on mental health. Psychological support and mental health awareness should be implemented and made accessible to all individuals during pandemics.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Quarentena/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Kuweit/epidemiologia , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Mídias Sociais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Desemprego , Adulto Jovem
2.
Transl Psychiatry ; 10(1): 337, 2020 10 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33009366

RESUMO

Data are scarce regarding the comorbid mental disorders and their management among COVID-19 patients. This study described the clinical characteristics and management of COVID-19 patients treated in psychiatric inpatient settings due to comorbid first-onset mental disorders in Wuhan, China. This electronic medical records-based study included 25 COVID-19 patients with first-onset mental disorders and 55 patients with first-onset mental disorders without COVID-19 (control group). Data collected included ICD-10 diagnoses of mental disorders, psychiatric and respiratory symptoms, treatments, and outcomes. Adjustment disorder (n = 11, 44.0%) and acute and transient psychotic disorders, with associated acute stress (n = 6, 24.0%) were main clinical diagnoses in the COVID-19 group while serious mental illnesses (i.e., schizophrenia, 24.5%) and alcohol use disorders (10.9%) were overrepresented in the control group. On admission, the most common psychiatric symptom in COVID-19 patients was insomnia symptoms (n = 18, 72.0%), followed by aggressive behaviors (n = 16, 64.0%), delusion (n = 10, 40.0%), and severe anxiety (n = 9, 36.0%). In addition to respiratory treatments, 76.0% COVID-19 patients received antipsychotics, 40.0% sedative-hypnotics, and 24.0% mood stabilizers. At the end of inpatient treatment, 4 (16.0%) COVID-19 patients were transferred to other hospitals to continue respiratory treatment after their psychiatric symptoms were controlled while the remaining 21 (84.0%) all recovered. Compared to the control group, COVID-19 group had significantly shorter length of hospital stay (21.2 vs. 37.4 days, P < 0.001). Adjustment disorder and acute and transient psychotic disorders are the main clinical diagnoses of COVID-19 patients managed in psychiatric inpatient settings. The short-term prognosis of these patients is good after conventional psychotropic treatment.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Mentais , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Psicotrópicos , China/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/fisiopatologia , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Administração dos Cuidados ao Paciente/métodos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Prognóstico , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Psicotrópicos/classificação , Psicotrópicos/uso terapêutico , Avaliação de Sintomas/métodos , Avaliação de Sintomas/estatística & dados numéricos
3.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33081449

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Currently, oxidative stress as part of the pathogenesis of schizophrenia attracts much attention. In this regard, it becomes relevant to assess the level of redox imbalance in patients with schizophrenia, its impact on existing symptoms and the possibility of its treatment. The antioxidant N-acetylcysteine is one of the potential drugs that affects oxidative stress. OBJECTIVE: To study the possibilities of the use of N-acetylcysteine in patients with schizophrenia. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study included 20 patients diagnosed with paranoid schizophrenia with the disease duration of less than 3 years, randomly assigned to the main group (taking N-acetylcysteine at a dose of 2000 mg per day for 60 days) and a comparison group (placebo) in a double-blinded manner. At the beginning and end of the study, cognitive functions were evaluated using the specialized instrument BACS, the severity of psychopathological symptoms was evaluated using PANSS, and blood was collected to determine the level of glutathione (GSH), which is a metabolite of N-acetylcysteine. RESULTS: There was a significant decrease in positive PANSS score (p=0.013), negative PANSS score (p=0.002) and the general pathology PANSS score (p=0.004) in the main group. Compared with the comparison group, the dynamics of the negative PANSS score (p=0.005) and the general psychopathology PANSS score (p=0.004) was significantly different. When assessing the dynamics of cognitive functions in the main group, a significant improvement in indicators was established in the task for a sequence of numbers that characterizes working memory (p=0.037). The level of GSH significantly increased in the main group (p=0.01), however, there were no statistically significant differences between groups at the final visit. CONCLUSION: N-acetylcysteine has a positive effect on the negative, general psychopathology PANSS scores, some cognitive functions, in particular, working memory, that allows considering this drug as a promising method of augmentation of schizophrenia therapy and requires further attentive study.


Assuntos
Acetilcisteína , Antipsicóticos , Esquizofrenia , Acetilcisteína/uso terapêutico , Antipsicóticos/uso terapêutico , Quimioterapia Combinada , Humanos , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Esquizofrenia/tratamento farmacológico , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1395, 2020 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32928180

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 poses the greatest challenge for the entire world since the Second World War. Governments are forced to define strict measures to avoid the spreading of the virus, which may further impose psychological burden for the majority of the population. The aim of this study was to evaluate the psychological distress in Austria during the initial stage of the COVID-19 outbreak. METHODS: From 25 March to 3 April 2020, an anonymous online survey was conducted. Target group included all members of the Austrian population older than 16 years. The survey addressed the following areas (1) and sociodemographic data, (2) physical and mental health; (3) knowledge and concerns about COVID-19; (4) contact with infected people; (5) prevention efforts; (6) need for further information. The Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) and the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21) were used to assess mental health. Analyses were based on 4126 individuals (74% female, age: M = 38.68, SD = 13.36). RESULTS: 43.3% rated the psychological impact as moderate (5.6%) or severe (37.7%). 26.5% reported moderate (13.3%) to severe (13.2%) depression; 20.3% moderate (8.9%) to severe (11.4%) anxiety and 21.2% reported to suffer from moderate (10.5%) or severe stress (10.7%). Being female, higher age, lower levels of education, concern about family members, internet as main source of information, student or pupil status, poor self-rated health, and downplaying the seriousness of the problem were significantly associated with higher psychological burden. Protective factors were the possibility to work in home office, frequent (indirect) contact with family or friends, the availability of virus-specific information, confidence in the diagnosis capability, and physical activity during the crisis. CONCLUSION: This study is among the first in Europe on the psychological correlates of the COVID-19 pandemic. 37.7% of the Austrian study population reported a severe psychological impact on the event and 1 in 10 is considered to suffer from severe depression, anxiety or stress. The present findings inform about the identification of protective factors, psychologically vulnerable groups and may guide the development of psychological interventions.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Adulto , Áustria/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica
5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(38): e22260, 2020 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32957375

RESUMO

We explored the psychological changes in suspected patients during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic and obtained evidence for early psychological guidance and intervention in this group. A total of 31 inpatients with suspected COVID-19 were identified at our hospital. The depression module of the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), the General Anxiety Disorder (GAD)-7 scale, and the Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20) mental health self-assessment questionnaire were used to assess depression, anxiety, and overall mental health. Among the patients, 32.3% had symptoms of depression and 19.4% had symptoms of anxiety. Levels of anxiety and fear varied. In comparing the PHQ-9 and 7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale scores of suspected and confirmed patients, there was no significant difference in the distribution of severity of anxiety or depression in the 2 groups. The PHQ-9 scores indicated mild depression symptoms in 25.8% of suspected patients, moderate symptoms in 0%, and severe symptoms in 6.5%. Overall, 50% of confirmed patients had symptoms, with 30.8% classified as mild, 15.4% classified as moderate, and 3.8% classified as severe. The 7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale scores in the group of suspected patients showed that 9.7% had mild symptoms, 0% had moderate symptoms, and 9.7% had severe symptoms. In the group of confirmed patients, 38.4% had symptoms (34.6% mild, 0% moderate, and 3.8% severe). Diagnosed patients had more visible symptoms of depression and different total PHQ-9 scores. During the COVID-19 epidemic, suspected and diagnosed patients had different levels of mental health problems. Diagnosed patients had more visible symptoms. The performance of suspected patients was higher, but their mental state was more polarized. It may thus be important to monitor the psychological state of suspected patients as early as possible to enable timely interventions that promote psychological rehabilitation.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Depressão/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/virologia , China/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/virologia , Medo/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Inquéritos e Questionários
6.
BMC Psychol ; 8(1): 99, 2020 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32962764

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pregnancy as a sensitive period of a woman's life can be affected by various psychological factors that can have adverse effects on the woman, her fetus and future baby. Since COVID-19 is a new phenomenon with limited information available, it may have adverse psychological effects on pregnant women. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the status of depression, stress, anxiety and their predictors in Iranian pregnant women during the outbreak of COVID-19. METHODS: This descriptive-analytical cross-sectional study was performed on 205 pregnant women covered by Tabriz health centers in Iran. The sampling method used was cluster sampling. The data collection tool was the socio-demographic characteristics questionnaire and the DASS-21 (Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale-21), which were completed online by pregnant women. The general linear model was used to determine the predictive factors of depression, anxiety and stress. RESULTS: The mean (SD) score of depression, stress, and anxiety were 3.91 (3.9), 6.22 (4.25), and 3.79 (3.39), respectively; the score range of 0 to 21. Depression, stress, and anxiety symptoms were observed in 32.7, 32.7, and 43.9% of the participants, respectively, with varying degrees from mild to very severe. Based on the adjusted general linear model, variables of education level, spouse's job and marital life satisfaction were the predictors of depressive symptoms. Variables of spouse's education level, spouse's support, marital life satisfaction and the number of pregnancies were the predictive factors of anxiety symptoms and the variables of spouse's education level, household income sufficiency, spouse's support and marital life satisfaction were predictors of stress symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Considering the role of marital life satisfaction, high level of spouse's education and income in reducing symptoms of stress, anxiety, and depression in pregnant women in critical situations such as the prevalence of COVID-19, it seems that using strategies to promote marital life satisfaction and socio-economic status can play an effective role in controlling anxiety and reducing stress and depression in pregnant women.


Assuntos
Ansiedade , Infecções por Coronavirus , Depressão , Casamento , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Complicações na Gravidez , Estresse Psicológico , Adulto , Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/prevenção & controle , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/diagnóstico , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Complicações na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Complicações na Gravidez/psicologia , Prevalência , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estresse Psicológico/diagnóstico , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Estresse Psicológico/prevenção & controle
8.
Psychiatr Danub ; 32(Suppl 1): 70-74, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32890366

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The present retrospective study is aimed at exploring the impact of gender differences in a sample of inpatients with dual diagnosis. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The study was carried out at the Psychiatric Service of the General Hospital/University of Perugia (Italy). Patients were recruited from January 2015 until December 2018. The sample consists of patients with dual diagnosis, divided into two subgroups based on gender; descriptive and bivariate statistics were performed (p<0.05). Male and females were compared according to socio-demographic, clinical and psychopathological features, measured by Clinical Global Impressions (CGI) and factor models of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS). RESULTS: In our sample (n=157), no significant differences in socio-demographic features were found between male (n=108, 68.8%) and female subjects (n=49, 31.2%). Women displayed a higher frequency of involuntary hospitalizations (53.1% vs 32.4%, p=0.022) and a higher score on the general psychopathology scale of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) (41.86±8.96 vs 36.54±10.38, p=0.041). CONCLUSIONS: Our study confirms the prevalence of dual diagnosis in the male gender. Female sex appears more frequently connected to some indices of clinical severity. We expect to enlarge our sample to confirm these results and further clarify the knowledge on the subject.


Assuntos
Diagnóstico Duplo (Psiquiatria) , Esquizofrenia , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica Breve , Feminino , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Estudos Retrospectivos , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico
9.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(35): e21697, 2020 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32871885

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to examine the effect of a critical thinking intervention (CTI) on stress management among undergraduates of adult education and extramural studies programs. METHOD: A total of 44 undergraduates were randomly sorted into experimental and waitlist control groups. We used the Perceived Stress Scale for data collection at the pre-test, post-test, and follow-up stages. We used unpaired t and paired t-tests to analyze the data collected. SPSS version 22.0 was used for the data analyses (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL). RESULTS: It was shown that the CTI was effective in reducing the mean stress of the participants compared to the control group both in the post-test (t[42] = -22.453, P < .001) and follow-up periods (t[42] = -34.292, P < .001). There were statistically significant changes in the mean stress of participants in the experimental group from the pre-test to post-test phases (t[23] = 26.30, P = .000, r = .08], and from pre-test to follow-up(t[23] = 37.10, P = .000, r = .30). The mean stress of the participants in the experimental group from post-test to follow-up signified the sustained positive influence of the CTI on the mean stress (t[23] = 2.41, P = .000, r = .46) of the undergraduates. CONCLUSION: This study adds to the literature by showing that a CTI is a valuable strategy for stress reduction in a university environment. Given that the CTI demonstrated the ability to reduce stress among undergraduates enrolled in adult education and extramural studies programs, we hope that similar interventions will be adopted to manage and prevent stress among students in other departments and disciplines.


Assuntos
Estresse Psicológico/terapia , Estudantes/psicologia , Pensamento , Universidades , Adulto , Estudos Controlados Antes e Depois , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Adulto Jovem
10.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32929919

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To test the general hypothesis about executive deficits in language production in schizophrenia as well as more specific hypothesis that this deficit would be more pronounced in the case of higher demand on executive functions. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty-five patients with schizophrenia and twenty-seven healthy controls were asked to tell a story based on a series of pictures and then to give an oral composition on the given topic. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Schizophrenia patients, compared to controls, demonstrated poorer programming as well as shorter text and phrase length in both tasks. Oral composition on the given topic in patients was characterized by the presence of agrammatism, need for leading questions due to the difficulties of story plot generation as well as higher variance in syntactic complexity and text length. Therefore, the authors revealed executive deficit in language production, more pronounced in the task with less numerous external cues for planning and sequential text explication, in schizophrenia patients.


Assuntos
Função Executiva , Esquizofrenia , Humanos , Idioma , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica
11.
Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci ; 29: e173, 2020 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32988427

RESUMO

AIMS: The United Nations warned of COVID-19-related mental health crisis; however, it is unknown whether there is an increase in the prevalence of mental disorders as existing studies lack a reliable baseline analysis or they did not use a diagnostic measure. We aimed to analyse trends in the prevalence of mental disorders prior to and during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We analysed data from repeated cross-sectional surveys on a representative sample of non-institutionalised Czech adults (18+ years) from both November 2017 (n = 3306; 54% females) and May 2020 (n = 3021; 52% females). We used Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) as the main screening instrument. We calculated descriptive statistics and compared the prevalence of current mood and anxiety disorders, suicide risk and alcohol-related disorders at baseline and right after the first peak of COVID-19 when related lockdown was still in place in CZ. In addition, using logistic regression, we assessed the association between COVID-19-related worries and the presence of mental disorders. RESULTS: The prevalence of those experiencing symptoms of at least one current mental disorder rose from a baseline of 20.02 (95% CI = 18.64; 21.39) in 2017 to 29.63 (95% CI = 27.9; 31.37) in 2020 during the COVID-19 pandemic. The prevalence of both major depressive disorder (3.96, 95% CI = 3.28; 4.62 v. 11.77, 95% CI = 10.56; 12.99); and suicide risk (3.88, 95% CI = 3.21; 4.52 v. 11.88, 95% CI = 10.64; 13.07) tripled and current anxiety disorders almost doubled (7.79, 95% CI = 6.87; 8.7 v. 12.84, 95% CI = 11.6; 14.05). The prevalence of alcohol use disorders in 2020 was approximately the same as in 2017 (10.84, 95% CI = 9.78; 11.89 v. 9.88, 95% CI = 8.74; 10.98); however, there was a significant increase in weekly binge drinking behaviours (4.07% v. 6.39%). Strong worries about both, health or economic consequences of COVID-19, were associated with an increased odds of having a mental disorder (1.63, 95% CI = 1.4; 1.89 and 1.42, 95% CI = 1.23; 1.63 respectively). CONCLUSIONS: This study provides evidence matching concerns that COVID-19-related mental health problems pose a major threat to populations, particularly considering the barriers in service provision posed during lockdown. This finding emphasises an urgent need to scale up mental health promotion and prevention globally.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Adulto , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Álcool/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Álcool/etiologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/etiologia , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , República Tcheca/epidemiologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/epidemiologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/etiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos do Humor/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Humor/etiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(33): e21451, 2020 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32871992

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mental health is closely related to the occurrence of hypertension, particularly the prognosis of hypertension patients. The role of psychotherapy in the occurrence, development, prevention, and prognosis of hypertension, remains to be clarified. METHODS/DESIGN: We will conduct a prospective, double-blind, randomized, multiple-centers study. Eighty patients enrolled in this trial will be randomized at 1:1 ratio. The primary endpoint is will be the reduction of the patient psychological scale (PHQ-9) score. Secondary endpoints will be the drop in blood pressure, awareness of physical and mental health and self-efficacy scale. Measurements will be performed at baseline, 5-week (questionnaires only), 10-week (primary endpoint), using the Anxiety Screening Questionnaire (GAD-7) and Depression Scale (PHQ-9). Data analysis will be carried out using the SPSS v.25 software assuming a level of significance of 5%. Results will be analyzed using multilevel, regression analysis and hierarchical linear models. DISCUSSION: We hope to provide some insight in the understanding the underlying mechanism of the novel mindfulness in the management of hypertension related psychological stress/disturbance, and will enable us to develop novel approach to manage essential hypertension and its related psychological disorders. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRY:: http://www.chictr.org.cn (ChiCTR1900028258).


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/terapia , Transtorno Depressivo/psicologia , Transtorno Depressivo/terapia , Hipertensão/psicologia , Hipertensão/terapia , Psicoterapia/métodos , Método Duplo-Cego , Humanos , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
13.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(9): e21915, 2020 09 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32931444

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic is associated with common mental health problems. However, evidence for the association between fear of COVID-19 and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is limited. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine if fear of negative events affects Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) scores in the context of a COVID-19-fear-invoking environment. METHODS: All participants were medical university students and voluntarily completed three surveys via smartphone or computer. Survey 1 was conducted on February 8, 2020, following a 2-week-long quarantine period without classes; survey 2 was conducted on March 25, 2020, when participants had been taking online courses for 2 weeks; and survey 3 was conducted on April 28, 2020, when no new cases had been reported for 2 weeks. The surveys comprised the Y-BOCS and the Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS); additional items included questions on demographics (age, gender, only child vs siblings, enrollment year, major), knowledge of COVID-19, and level of fear pertaining to COVID-19. RESULTS: In survey 1, 11.3% of participants (1519/13,478) scored ≥16 on the Y-BOCS (defined as possible OCD). In surveys 2 and 3, 3.6% (305/8162) and 3.5% (305/8511) of participants had scores indicative of possible OCD, respectively. The Y-BOCS score, anxiety level, quarantine level, and intensity of fear were significantly lower at surveys 2 and 3 than at survey 1 (P<.001 for all). Compared to those with a lower Y-BOCS score (<16), participants with possible OCD expressed greater intensity of fear and had higher SAS standard scores (P<.001). The regression linear analysis indicated that intensity of fear was positively correlated to the rate of possible OCD and the average total scores for the Y-BOCS in each survey (P<.001 for all). Multiple regressions showed that those with a higher intensity of fear, a higher anxiety level, of male gender, with sibling(s), and majoring in a nonmedicine discipline had a greater chance of having a higher Y-BOCS score in all surveys. These results were redemonstrated in the 5827 participants who completed both surveys 1 and 2 and in the 4006 participants who completed all three surveys. Furthermore, in matched participants, the Y-BOCS score was negatively correlated to changes in intensity of fear (r=0.74 for survey 2, P<.001; r=0.63 for survey 3, P=.006). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that fear of COVID-19 was associated with a greater Y-BOCS score, suggesting that an environment (COVID-19 pandemic) × psychology (fear and/or anxiety) interaction might be involved in OCD and that a fear of negative events might play a role in the etiology of OCD.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Universidades , Adolescente , Adulto , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , Medo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/psicologia , Pandemias , Estudos Prospectivos , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Adulto Jovem
14.
Soc Work Public Health ; 35(7): 603-616, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32970545

RESUMO

The uncertainty which is threatening and stressful prevents a person's perception of control and leads to maladaptive psychological reactions such as anxiety. We aimed to define the relationship between the state/trait anxiety levels and perceived social support in the COVID-19 pandemic as a global crisis and stressor. Our main hypothesis was that perceived social support would negatively affect the levels of anxiety. A cross-sectional community-based study was carried out using the relational screening model. The data were collected between March 20 and April 15, 2020, by using an online survey (N = 630). Anxiety levels of individuals, particularly the state anxiety were high during the pandemic. Also, perceived social support and state/trait anxiety levels were analyzed for various variable categories. Anxiety levels decreased significantly when perceived social support increased. Perceived social support as a determinant of state and trait anxiety should be the focus of social work practices in this period.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/psicologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Apoio Social , Adulto , Idoso , Betacoronavirus , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Turquia/epidemiologia , Incerteza
15.
An. psicol ; 36(2): 188-199, mayo 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-192055

RESUMO

El objetivo de este trabajo es evaluar empíricamente la eficacia de un programa de intervención con mujeres víctimas de violencia de género. El programa en conjunto se enmarca dentro de las Terapias Contextuales, específicamente se ha utilizado la Psicoterapia Analítica Funcional, combinada con la Terapia de Aceptación y Compromiso y la Activación Conductual. Se ha llevado a cabo en formato grupal, durante 11 sesiones de 2 horas cada una. Participaron un total de 21 mujeres (de una media de edad de 45 años), que habían sufrido violencia física y/o abuso emocional por parte de sus parejas, en diferente grado e intensidad, y en diferentes momentos en sus vidas. Se ha utilizado un diseño intragrupo con medidas pre-post. Se realizaron tres grupos de tratamiento en diferentes ciudades con 6 a 8 mujeres cada uno. Para medir la intervención se ha aplicado el cuestionario Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation-Outcome Measure (CORE-OM). Los resultados han mostrado una disminución estadísticamente significativa en la severidad del malestar, han disminuido los indicadores de riesgo de suicidio, y han mejorado las conductas problemáticas dentro y fuera de las sesiones, además de incrementarse la apertura hacia los demás. Se discute la utilidad de las terapias contextual es para mejorar la calidad de vida de mujeres maltratadas, y su utilidad de aplicación en grupos en las instituciones públicas


The goal of this study is to empirically evaluate the efficacy of an intervention program with women victims of gender violence. Specifically, Functional Analytical Psychotherapy has been used, combined with Acceptance and Commitment Therapy, and Behavioral Activation. It has been carried out in group format, during 11 sessions of 2 hours each. A total of 21 women participated (an average of 45 years-old), who had suffered physical violence and/or emotional abuse by their partners, with different degrees and intensity, and at different moments of their lives. An intra-group design with pre-post measures was used. Three treatment groups were carried out in different cities with 6 to 8 women each one. To measure the intervention, the Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation-Outcome Measure (CORE-OM) questionnaire was applied. The results has shown a statistically significant decrease in the severity of discomfort, decreased suicide risk indicators, improved problem behavior inside and outside sessions, and increased openness to others. The usefulness of contextual therapies to improve the quality of life of battered women and their usefulness for application in groups in public institutions are discussed


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Violência de Gênero/psicologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Psicoterapia de Grupo/métodos , Psicometria/instrumentação , Inquéritos e Questionários , Abuso Físico/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Apoio Social , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica/normas , Análise de Variância , Maus-Tratos Conjugais/psicologia
16.
An. psicol ; 36(2): 210-219, mayo 2020. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-192057

RESUMO

Sexting is a recent phenomenon in which people send and receive photos, videos and/or text messages of sexual nature via smartphones or similar devices. Similar to other developed countries, it is becoming an increasingly popular practice among teenagers in Spain. Provided it has appeared very recently, scarce research has focused on examining in-depth factors involved in its initiation and maintenance. Therefore, the two main aims of this study were to determine its prevalence and to analyse the explanatory variables of the sexting behaviours. The sample consisted of 784 Spanish adolescents (52% boys and 48% girls) between 12 and 18 years of age (M = 14.44; SD = 1.61). The results showed that 24.4% have practised sexting at some time, with an average of 2.32 people (SD = 2.70). The regression analysis revealed that positive attitudes towards sexting, level of impulsivity, age, being male and having a partner are variables that predict engagement in sexting. These results are very important for designing and implementing preventive strategies that emphasise the responsible use of ICTs and social networks


El sexting es un fenómeno que consiste en el envío y la recepción de fotos, videos y/o mensajes de texto de naturaleza sexual a través de smartphones. Como en todos los demás países desarrollados, se está convirtiendo en una práctica cada vez más popular entre los adolescentes de España. Al tratarse de un fenómeno muy reciente todavía no existen muchos trabajos que hayan estudiado con profundidad su entidad y sus factores implicados. Por tanto, los dos objetivos de este estudio fueron determinar la prevalencia y analizar las variables explicativas del inicio y del mantenimiento de las conductas de sexting. La muestra estuvo formada por 784 adolescentes españoles (52% chicos y 48% chicas) con edades comprendidas entre los 12 y los 18 años (M = 14.44; DT = 1.61). Los resultados indican que el 24.4% ha practicado sexting en alguna ocasión, realizando esta conducta con una media de 2.32 personas (DT = 2.70). El análisis de regresión reveló que las actitudes positivas hacia el sexting, el nivel de impulsividad, la edad, ser hombre y el mantener una relación de pareja son variables que predicen la práctica del sexting. Estos resultados son muy importantes en la elaboración e implementación de estrategias preventivas que enfaticen el uso responsable de las TICS y las redes sociales


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adolescente , Parceiros Sexuais , Envio de Mensagens de Texto , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Atitude , Motivação , Psicometria/instrumentação , Análise de Regressão , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica/normas , Inquéritos e Questionários , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia
18.
Lancet Psychiatry ; 7(9): 775-787, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32828167

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maternal depression has a recurring course that can influence offspring outcomes. Evidence on how to treat maternal depression to improve longer-term maternal outcomes and reduce intergenerational transmission of psychopathology is scarce, particularly for task-shifted, low-intensity, and scalable psychosocial interventions. We evaluated the effects of a peer-delivered, psychosocial intervention on maternal depression and child development at 3 years postnatal. METHODS: 40 village clusters in Pakistan were randomly allocated using a computerised randomisation sequence to receive a group-based, psychosocial intervention and enhanced usual care for 36 months, or enhanced usual care alone. Pregnant women (≥18 years) were screened for moderate or severe symptoms of depression (patient health questionnaire-9 [PHQ-9] score ≥10) and were recruited into the trial (570 participants), and a cohort without depression (PHQ-9 score <10) was also enrolled (584 participants). Including the non-depressed dyads enabled us to determine how much of the excess risk due to maternal depression exposure the intervention could mitigate. Research teams responsible for identifying, obtaining consent, and recruiting trial participants were blind to the allocation status throughout the duration of the study, and principal investigators, site coordinators, statisticians, and members of the trial steering committee were also blinded to the allocation status until the analysis of 6-month data for the intervention. Primary outcomes were maternal depression symptoms and remission (PHQ-9 score <10) and child socioemotional skills (strengths and difficulties questionnaire [SDQ-TD]) at 36-months postnatal. Analyses were by intention to treat. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02658994. FINDINGS: From Oct 15, 2014 to Feb 25, 2016 46 village clusters were assessed for eligibility, of which 40 (including 1910 mothers were enrolled. After exclusions, 288 women were randomly assigned to the enhanced usual care group and 284 to the intervention group, and 1159 women were included in a group without prenatal depression. At 36-months postnatal, complete data were available from 889 mother-child dyads: 206 (72·5%) in the intervention group, 216 (75·3%) in the enhanced usual care group, and 467 (80·0%) women who did not have prenatal-depression. We did not observe significant outcome differences between the intervention group and the enhanced usual care group for the primary outcomes. The standardised mean difference of PHQ-9 total score was -0·13 (95% CI -0·33 to 0·07), relative risk of patient health questionnaire-9 remission was 1·00 (95% CI 0·88 to 1·14), and the SDQ-TD treatment estimate was -0·10 (95% CI -1·39 to 1·19). INTERPRETATION: Reduced symptom severity and high remission rates were seen across both the intervention and enhanced usual care groups, possibly masking any effects of the intervention. A multi-year, psychosocial intervention can be task-shifted via peers but might be susceptible to reductions in fidelity and dosage over time (which were not among the outcomes of this trial). Early intervention efforts might need to rely on multiple models (eg, collaborative care), be of greater intensity, and potentially targeted at mothers who are at high risk for depression to reduce the intergenerational transmission of psychopathology from mothers to children. FUNDING: National Institutes of Health.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil , Depressão Pós-Parto/terapia , Relações Mãe-Filho , Mães/psicologia , Grupo Associado , Psicoterapia de Grupo/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Comportamento Infantil , Pré-Escolar , Depressão Pós-Parto/diagnóstico , Depressão Pós-Parto/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Paquistão , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
19.
Ann Afr Med ; 19(3): 164-169, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32820727

RESUMO

Background: Quality of life (QOL) is a vital outcome measure in people living with epilepsy. The aim of this study is to determine the sociodemographic and clinical factors that predict poor QOL in patients with epilepsy. Materials and Methods: This is a descriptive cross-sectional study that was carried out at the outpatient psychiatric clinic of Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University Teaching Hospital, Bauchi, Nigeria, for 6 months. Seventy-four patients with epilepsy who met the inclusion criteria were recruited to participate in the study. The mental health of these patients and their QOL were assessed using the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview and the short form of the World Health Organization QOL instrument, respectively. Data were analyzed using epi-info version 6.04d, and logistic regression analysis was performed to determine factors that predict poor QOL. Results: Psychiatric disorder was found in 33 (44.6%) of the respondents. The presence of these psychiatric disorders was predictive of poor score on the overall QOL (odds ratio [OR] = 0.382; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.145-0.983; P = 0.0046), physical (OR = 0.269; 95% CI = 0.100-1.722; P = 0.009), and psychological health domain (OR = 0.269; 95% CI = 0.102-0.709; P = 0.008). Longer duration of epilepsy was predictive of a poor score on the health satisfaction item (OR = 0.202; 95% CI = 0.06-0.679; P = 0.010) while being single was predictive of poor score on the social relationship domain (OR = 0.177; 95% CI = 0.065-0.482; P = 0.001). Conclusion: The presence of psychiatric disorder, long duration of epilepsy, and being single were predictive of poor QOL. The importance of social relation, prompt seizure control, and efficient collaboration between psychiatrist and other medical professionals in the care of patients with epilepsy cannot be overemphasized.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/etiologia , Depressão/etiologia , Epilepsia/complicações , Epilepsia/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Adulto , Anticonvulsivantes/uso terapêutico , Ansiedade/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/psicologia , Epilepsia/tratamento farmacológico , Epilepsia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Convulsões/epidemiologia , Convulsões/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Organização Mundial da Saúde
20.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(32): e21493, 2020 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32769884

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Depression, a common psychiatric disorder in elderly, serves as a remarkable precipitating factor for suicide among the elderly people. Here, a randomized double-blinded study was performed to investigate the efficacy of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on improving the clinical symptoms and reducing suicidal ideation in elderly patients with depression. METHODS: In this study, 103 elderly patients with depression and suicidal ideation were randomly divided into 2 groups, 48 cases in the rTMS group and 55 cases in the control group (sham rTMS). Both groups received routine drug therapy with rTMS or sham rTMS. The patients received evaluation by Hamilton depression scale and self-rating idea of suicide scale before treatment and after 2 and 4 weeks of treatment, respectively. RESULTS: The measurement from the present study demonstrated that Hamilton depression scale and self-rating idea of suicide scale scores decreased to varying degrees in the 2 groups after treatment, and the decrease was more significant in rTMS group. The rate of marked effectiveness was much higher in rTMS group after 2 weeks of treatment compared with the control group. Furthermore, the rate of moderate effectiveness at 4 weeks after treatment was significantly higher in rTMS group compared with the control group. CONCLUSION: Together, the present study shows that rTMS with routine drug therapy exhibited effect with quick onset to improve the clinical symptoms and reduce suicidal ideation in elderly patients with depression.


Assuntos
Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Depressão/terapia , Ideação Suicida , Estimulação Magnética Transcraniana/métodos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Terapia Combinada , Depressão/psicologia , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Resultado do Tratamento
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