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1.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4229, 2020 08 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32843631

RESUMO

Scarlet fever has resurged in China starting in 2011, and the environment is one of the potential reasons. Nationwide data on 655,039 scarlet fever cases and six air pollutants were retrieved. Exposure risks were evaluated by multivariate distributed lag nonlinear models and a meta-regression model. We show that the average incidence in 2011-2018 was twice that in 2004-2010 [RR = 2.30 (4.40 vs. 1.91), 95% CI: 2.29-2.31; p < 0.001] and generally lower in the summer and winter holiday (p = 0.005). A low to moderate correlation was seen between scarlet fever and monthly NO2 (r = 0.21) and O3 (r = 0.11). A 10 µg/m3 increase of NO2 and O3 was significantly associated with scarlet fever, with a cumulative RR of 1.06 (95% CI: 1.02-1.10) and 1.04 (95% CI: 1.01-1.07), respectively, at a lag of 0 to 15 months. In conclusion, long-term exposure to ambient NO2 and O3 may be associated with an increased risk of scarlet fever incidence, but direct causality is not established.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Escarlatina/diagnóstico , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , China/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Geografia , Humanos , Incidência , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Dinâmica não Linear , Ozônio/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Fatores de Risco , Escarlatina/epidemiologia , Escarlatina/etiologia , Estações do Ano , Análise Espaço-Temporal
2.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 507, 2020 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32660436

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Group A streptococcus (GAS) is an important human pathogen responsible for a broad range of infections. Epidemiological surveillance has been crucial to detect changes in the geographical and temporal variation of the disease pattern. The objective of this study was to investigate the molecular epidemiological characteristics and antimicrobial resistance of GAS isolates from patients in Children's Hospital in Beijing. METHODS: From 2016 to 2017, pharyngeal swab samples were collected from the outpatients in Children's Hospital, Capital Institute of Pediatrics, who were diagnosed with scarlet fever. Antimicrobial susceptibility test was performed according to the distribution of conventional antibiotics and Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) recommendations. The distribution of the macrolide-resistance genes (ermB, ermA, mefA), emm (M protein-coding gene) typing, and superantigens (SAg) gene profiling were examined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). RESULTS: A total of 297 GAS isolates were collected. The susceptibility of the isolates to penicillin, ceftriaxone, and levofloxacin was 100%. The resistance rate to erythromycin and clindamycin was 98.3 and 96.6%, respectively. The dominant emm types were emm12 (65.32%), emm1 (27.61%), emm75 (2.69%), and emm89 (1.35%). Of the 297 isolates, 290 (97.64%) carried the ermB gene, and 5 (1.68%) carried the mefA gene, while none carried the ermA gene. The most common superantigen genes identified from GAS isolates were smeZ (96.97%), speC (92.59%), speG (91.58%), ssa (85.52%), speI (54.55%), speH (52.19%), and speA (34.34%). Isolates with the genotype emm1 possessed speA, speC, speG, speJ, speM, ssa, and smeZ, while emm12 possessed speC, speG, speH, speI, speM, ssa, and smeZ superantigens. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalent strain of GAS isolates in Beijing has a high resistance rate to macrolides; however, penicillin can still be the preferred antibiotic for treatment. Erythromycin resistance was predominantly mediated by ermB. The common emm types were emm12 and emm1. There was a correlation between emm and the superantigen gene. Thus, long-term monitoring and investigation of the emm types and superantigen genes of GAS prevalence are imperative.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Penicilinas/uso terapêutico , Escarlatina/tratamento farmacológico , Escarlatina/epidemiologia , Streptococcus pyogenes/imunologia , Adolescente , Antígenos de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Pequim/epidemiologia , Reanimação Cardiopulmonar , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Eritromicina/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Hospitais Pediátricos , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Escarlatina/microbiologia , Streptococcus pyogenes/isolamento & purificação , Superantígenos/genética
6.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 54(5): 568-571, 2020 May 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32388961

RESUMO

Descriptive epidemiological methods were adopted to analyze the epidemiological characteristics of scarlet fever in Hubei Province from 2009 to 2018. During this study, the epidemiological data was obtained from the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention Information System. The results showed that there were 7 329 cases of scarlet fever reported in Hubei Province from 2009 to 2018 and the annual average incidence was 1.25 per 10 000. The number of cases was increased by years, and in 2018 it was the highest peak during these ten years and up to 1 758 which was account for 24% in these ten years, and the incidence was 2.98 per 10 000. The number of reported cases of male and female was 4 473 and 2 856, respectively, and both of the incidence rates were on the rise. The reported cases were distributed in 0-60 year-old group, mainly in the <15-year-old group (98.4%, 7 214/7 329). The season with the highest incidence rates were summer and winter. There were cases in all cities and prefectures, and the number of cases were the highest in Wuhan (n=2 105), Yichang (n=1 390), Jingzhou (n=954) and Enshi (n=1 090). Hence, it was very necessary to be on guard for the outbreak of scarlet fever and strengthen the surveillance in summer and winter for the people who were younger than 15 years old, especially in Wuhan, Yichang, Jingzhou and Enshi.


Assuntos
Escarlatina/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Cidades , Surtos de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estações do Ano , Adulto Jovem
7.
BMJ ; 369: m1043, 2020 04 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-27675

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To outline which infectious diseases in the pre-covid-19 era persist in children and adolescents in China and to describe recent trends and variations by age, sex, season, and province. DESIGN: National surveillance studies, 2008-17. SETTING: 31 provinces in mainland China. PARTICIPANTS: 4 959 790 Chinese students aged 6 to 22 years with a diagnosis of any of 44 notifiable infectious diseases. The diseases were categorised into seven groups: quarantinable; vaccine preventable; gastrointestinal and enteroviral; vectorborne; zoonotic; bacterial; and sexually transmitted and bloodborne. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Diagnosis of, and deaths from, 44 notifiable infectious diseases. RESULTS: From 2008 to 2017, 44 notifiable infectious diseases were diagnosed in 4 959 790 participants (3 045 905 males, 1 913 885 females) and there were 2532 deaths (1663 males, 869 females). The leading causes of death among infectious diseases shifted from rabies and tuberculosis to HIV/AIDS, particularly in males. Mortality from infectious diseases decreased steadily from 0.21 per 100 000 population in 2008 to 0.07 per 100 000 in 2017. Quarantinable conditions with high mortality have effectively disappeared. The incidence of notifiable infectious diseases in children and adolescents decreased from 280 per 100 000 in 2008 to 162 per 100 000 in 2015, but rose again to 242 per 100 000 in 2017, largely related to mumps and seasonal influenza. Excluding mumps and influenza, the incidence of vaccine preventable diseases fell from 96 per 100 000 in 2008 to 7 per 100 000 in 2017. The incidence of gastrointestinal and enterovirus diseases remained constant, but typhoid, paratyphoid, and dysentery continued to decline. Vectorborne diseases all declined, with a particularly noticeable reduction in malaria. Zoonotic infections remained at low incidence, but there were still unpredictable outbreaks, such as pandemic A/H1N1 2009 influenza. Tuberculosis remained the most common bacterial infection, although cases of scarlet fever doubled between 2008 and 2017. Sexually transmitted diseases and bloodborne infections increased significantly, particularly from 2011 to 2017, among which HIV/AIDS increased fivefold, particularly in males. Difference was noticeable between regions, with children and adolescents in western China continuing to carry a disproportionate burden from infectious diseases. CONCLUSIONS: China's success in infectious disease control in the pre-covid-19 era was notable, with deaths due to infectious diseases in children and adolescents aged 6-22 years becoming rare. Many challenges remain around reducing regional inequalities, scaling-up of vaccination, prevention of further escalation of HIV/AIDS, renewed efforts for persisting diseases, and undertaking early and effective response to highly transmissible seasonal and unpredictable diseases such as that caused by the novel SARS-CoV-2 virus.


Assuntos
Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Programas de Imunização , Vacinação , Doenças Preveníveis por Vacina , Adolescente , Betacoronavirus , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/normas , Infecções por Coronavirus , Surtos de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1 , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Malária/economia , Malária/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Estudos Retrospectivos , Escarlatina/epidemiologia , Escarlatina/prevenção & controle , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Tuberculose/prevenção & controle , Doenças Preveníveis por Vacina/prevenção & controle
8.
BMJ ; 369: m1043, 2020 04 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32241761

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To outline which infectious diseases in the pre-covid-19 era persist in children and adolescents in China and to describe recent trends and variations by age, sex, season, and province. DESIGN: National surveillance studies, 2008-17. SETTING: 31 provinces in mainland China. PARTICIPANTS: 4 959 790 Chinese students aged 6 to 22 years with a diagnosis of any of 44 notifiable infectious diseases. The diseases were categorised into seven groups: quarantinable; vaccine preventable; gastrointestinal and enteroviral; vectorborne; zoonotic; bacterial; and sexually transmitted and bloodborne. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Diagnosis of, and deaths from, 44 notifiable infectious diseases. RESULTS: From 2008 to 2017, 44 notifiable infectious diseases were diagnosed in 4 959 790 participants (3 045 905 males, 1 913 885 females) and there were 2532 deaths (1663 males, 869 females). The leading causes of death among infectious diseases shifted from rabies and tuberculosis to HIV/AIDS, particularly in males. Mortality from infectious diseases decreased steadily from 0.21 per 100 000 population in 2008 to 0.07 per 100 000 in 2017. Quarantinable conditions with high mortality have effectively disappeared. The incidence of notifiable infectious diseases in children and adolescents decreased from 280 per 100 000 in 2008 to 162 per 100 000 in 2015, but rose again to 242 per 100 000 in 2017, largely related to mumps and seasonal influenza. Excluding mumps and influenza, the incidence of vaccine preventable diseases fell from 96 per 100 000 in 2008 to 7 per 100 000 in 2017. The incidence of gastrointestinal and enterovirus diseases remained constant, but typhoid, paratyphoid, and dysentery continued to decline. Vectorborne diseases all declined, with a particularly noticeable reduction in malaria. Zoonotic infections remained at low incidence, but there were still unpredictable outbreaks, such as pandemic A/H1N1 2009 influenza. Tuberculosis remained the most common bacterial infection, although cases of scarlet fever doubled between 2008 and 2017. Sexually transmitted diseases and bloodborne infections increased significantly, particularly from 2011 to 2017, among which HIV/AIDS increased fivefold, particularly in males. Difference was noticeable between regions, with children and adolescents in western China continuing to carry a disproportionate burden from infectious diseases. CONCLUSIONS: China's success in infectious disease control in the pre-covid-19 era was notable, with deaths due to infectious diseases in children and adolescents aged 6-22 years becoming rare. Many challenges remain around reducing regional inequalities, scaling-up of vaccination, prevention of further escalation of HIV/AIDS, renewed efforts for persisting diseases, and undertaking early and effective response to highly transmissible seasonal and unpredictable diseases such as that caused by the novel SARS-CoV-2 virus.


Assuntos
Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Programas de Imunização , Vacinação , Doenças Preveníveis por Vacina , Adolescente , Betacoronavirus , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/normas , Infecções por Coronavirus , Surtos de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1 , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Malária/economia , Malária/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Estudos Retrospectivos , Escarlatina/epidemiologia , Escarlatina/prevenção & controle , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Tuberculose/prevenção & controle , Doenças Preveníveis por Vacina/prevenção & controle
9.
Int J Infect Dis ; 93: 245-251, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31972290

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Group A ß-hemolytic Streptococcus (GAS), also known as Streptococcus pyogenes, is responsible for an annual 600 million cases of acute pharyngitis globally, with 92% of those infections occurring in low-resource settings. Further knowledge of the acute streptococcal pharyngitis burden in low-resource settings is essential if serious post-streptococcal complications - rheumatic fever (RF) and its long-term sequel rheumatic heart disease (RHD) - are to be prevented. METHODS: Two studies were conducted in school-aged children (5-16 years): a cross-sectional study of streptococcal pharyngeal carriage followed by a prospective cohort study of streptococcal sore throat over 4 weeks from March to April 2017. RESULTS: The cross-sectional study revealed an overall prevalence of GAS carriage of 15.9% (79/496, 95% confidence interval 12.8-19.5%). Among 532 children enrolled in the prospective cohort study, 358 (67%) reported 528 sore throats, with 221 (41.1%) experiencing at least one GAS-positive sore throat. The overall GAS-positive rate for sore throat was 41.8% (221/528). CONCLUSIONS: The GAS pharyngeal carriage rates seen in Uganda (15.9%, 95% confidence interval 12.8-19.5%) are higher than the most recent pooled results globally, at 12% (range 6-28%). Additionally, pilot data suggest a substantially higher percentage of sore throat that was GAS-positive (41.8%) compared to pooled global rates when active recruitment is employed.


Assuntos
Faringite/epidemiologia , Infecções Estreptocócicas/epidemiologia , Streptococcus pyogenes , Adolescente , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Faringite/microbiologia , Faringe/microbiologia , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Febre Reumática/prevenção & controle , Escarlatina/prevenção & controle , Uganda/epidemiologia
10.
Chemosphere ; 246: 125826, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31918112

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The emerging cases of childhood scarlet fever (SF) and worsening air pollution problems in Chinese cities suggests a potential linkage between them. However, few studies had explored this association in a large childhood population. METHODS: We conducted a time-series analysis using the daily count of SF and the daily concentrations of particulate matters with an aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 (PM2.5) and 10 (PM10), as well as nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in Hangzhou, China from 2014 to 2018. Distributed lag nonlinear models were used to estimate the lag effects of PM2.5, PM10 and NO2 for a maximum lag of 10 days, which were quantified using relative risk (RR) comparing the adjusted risks at the 2.5th (extremely low effect) and 97.5th (extremely high effect) percentiles of concentration of the three air pollutants to that at the median. Stratified RRs by sex were also reported. RESULTS: Using the median concentration as reference, for extremely high effect, the RR was the highest on lag days 5, 6, and 3 for PM2.5, PM10, and NO2 respectively. While on lag day 0, the RR of PM2.5, PM10, and NO2 were 1.04 (95%CI: 0.90-1.20), 1.07 (95%CI: 0.92-1.24), and 1.08 (95%CI: 0.92-1.26) respectively, the RRs increased constantly and cumulatively to the maximum values of 1.88 (95%CI: 1.33-2.66), 1.82 (95%CI: 1.29-2.55), and 2.19 (95%CI: 1.47-3.27) for PM2.5, PM10, and NO2 respectively on lag day 10. Subgroup analyses showed that females appeared to be more vulnerable to the three pollutants than males. CONCLUSION: Our study provides evidence that PM2.5, PM10, and NO2 exert delayed effects on SF infection.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Escarlatina/epidemiologia , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Cidades , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Risco
12.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 1074, 2019 Dec 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31864293

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Since 2011, there has been an increase in the incidence of scarlet fever across China. The main objective of this study was to depict the spatiotemporal epidemiological characteristics of the incidence of scarlet fever in Shenyang, China, in 2018 so as to provide the scientific basis for effective strategies of scarlet control and prevention. METHODS: Excel 2010 was used to demonstrate the temporal distribution at the month level and ArcGIS10.3 was used to demonstrate the spatial distribution at the district/county level. Moran's autocorrelation coefficient was used to examine the spatial autocorrelation and the Getis-Ord statistic was used to determine the hot-spot areas of scarlet fever. RESULTS: A total of 2314 scarlet fever cases were reported in Shenyang in 2018 with an annual incidence of 31.24 per 100,000. The incidence among males was higher than that among females(p<0.001). A vast majority of the cases (96.89%) were among children aged 3 to 11 years. The highest incidence was 625.34/100,000 in children aged 5-9 years. In 2018 there were two seasonal peaks of scarlet fever in June (summer-peak) and December (winter-peak). The incidence of scarlet fever in urban areas was significantly higher than that in rural areas(p<0.001). The incidence of scarlet fever was randomly distributed in Shenyang. There are hotspot areas located in seven districts. CONCLUSIONS: Urban areas are the hot spots of scarlet fever and joint prevention and control measures between districts should be applied. Children aged 3-11 are the main source of scarlet fever and therefore the introduction of prevention and control into kindergarten and primary schools may be key to the control of scarlet fever epidemics.


Assuntos
Escarlatina/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Epidemiológicos , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Estações do Ano , Análise Espaço-Temporal
13.
Wiad Lek ; 72(9 cz 2): 1802-1808, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31622270

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Introduction: The level of childhood bacterial diseases incidence does not have a downward trend. The aim: Conduction of a sociological analysis of medical cards for children with pertussis, meningococcal infection (MI), scarlet fever, and evaluation of consumed pharmacotherapy according to real clinical practice in Ukraine. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: 1215 medical cards of inpatients; methods: sociological - document analysis, retrospective frequency. RESULTS: Results: Among the cards of children with pertussis: 50.2% - female, 49.8%- male; by age children up to 1 year (49.3%) were prevailed. In 79.6% incidence - medium-hard form pertussis, 42.2% with complications. Among patients with MI by sex there were: 50.5 % - boys and 49.5% - girls; by age - children aged 1-4 (40.2%); the structure of generalized forms of MI: 40.2% - meningococcemia, 11.4% - meningitis, 48.4% - combination. Scarlet fever was more frequently: boys (56.4%), children aged 5-9 (44.7%), urban residents (79.7%); it was 93.4% of a medium-hard form. Most of medicines were prescribed to children with MI - 15.8 trade names per 1 person, it was prescribed 191 INN, most often - Sodium chloride (90.0%), Ascorbic acid (68.5%), Ceftriaxone (65.8%); patients with pertussis - 11.2, 196 INN (Chlorpromazine (69.1%), Dexamethasone (53.2%), Butamirate (51.8%)); scarlet fever - 9.3 medicines, 114 INN (local action Comb drug for throat diseases treatment (94.4%), Ceftriaxone (48.7%), Metamizole sodium (38.1%)). CONCLUSION: Conclusions: Frequency analysis data of consumed pharmacotherapy in real pediatric practice in Ukraine shows the need for its further optimization in accordance with the principles of evidence-based medicine, the results of research on the socio-demographic characteristics of patients, forms and complications of course of the basic disease.


Assuntos
Infecções Meningocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Meningocócicas/epidemiologia , Escarlatina/tratamento farmacológico , Escarlatina/epidemiologia , Coqueluche/tratamento farmacológico , Coqueluche/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Ucrânia/epidemiologia
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31533311

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyze the trends and epidemiological characteristics of scarlet fever in Zhejiang Province in 2004-2018, intending to provide a basis for targeted prevention and control of this disease. METHOD: We collated the epidemiological data for cases of scarlet fever from the China Information System for Disease Control and Prevention (CISDCP) in Zhejiang province between 1 January 2004 and 31 December 2018. Descriptive statistical analysis was used to analyze epidemiological characteristics of scarlet fever, whereas the Getis-Ord Gi* statistic was used to determine the hotspot incidence of scarlet fever. RESULTS: In 2004-2018, a total of 22,194 cases of scarlet fever were reported in Zhejiang Province, with no death reports. The annual average of scarlet fever incidence was 2.82/100,000 (range,1.12 to 6.34/100,000). The male incidence was higher than that among female (χ2 = 999.834, p < 0.05), and a majority of the cases (86.42%) occurred in children aged 3-9 years. Each year, the incidence of scarlet fever in Zhejiang Province appeared two seasonal peaks: the first peak occurred from March to June (the constituent ratio was 49.06%), the second peak was lower than the first one during November and the following January (the constituent ratio was 28.67%). The two peaks were almost in accordance with the school spring semester and autumn-winter semester, respectively. The incidence in the northern regions of the province was generally higher than that in the southern regions. High-value clusters were detected in the central and northern regions, while low-value clusters occurred in the southern regions via the Getis-Ord Gi* statistical analysis. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of scarlet fever in Zhejiang Province showed a marked seasonality variation and mainly clustered in the central and northern regions in 2004-2018. Children under 15 years of age were most susceptible to scarlet fever. Kindergartens and primary schools should be the focus of prevention and control, and targeted strategies and measures should be taken to reduce the incidence.


Assuntos
Escarlatina/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Clima , Feminino , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Prevalência , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estações do Ano
15.
J Prev Med Public Health ; 52(3): 188-194, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31163954

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Outbreaks of scarlet fever in Mexico in 1999, Hong Kong and mainland China in 2011, and England in 2014-2016 have received global attention, and the number of notified cases in Korean children, including in Jeju Province, has also increased since 2010. To identify relevant hypotheses regarding this emerging outbreak, an age-period-cohort (APC) analysis of scarlet fever incidence was conducted among children in Jeju Province, Korea. METHODS: This study analyzed data from the nationwide insurance claims database administered by the Korean National Health Insurance Service. The inclusion criteria were children aged ≤14 years residing in Jeju Province, Korea who received any form of healthcare for scarlet fever from 2002 to 2016. The age and year variables were categorized into 5 groups, respectively. After calculating the crude incidence rate (CIR) for age and calendar year groups, the intrinsic estimator (IE) method was applied to conduct the APC analysis. RESULTS: In total, 2345 cases were identified from 2002 to 2016. Scarlet fever was most common in the 0-2 age group, and boys presented more cases than girls. Since the CIR decreased with age between 2002 and 2016, the age and period effect decreased in all observed years. The IE coefficients suggesting a cohort effect shifted from negative to positive in 2009. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that the recent outbreak of scarlet fever among children in Jeju Province might be explained through the cohort effect. As children born after 2009 showed a higher risk of scarlet fever, further descriptive epidemiological studies are needed.


Assuntos
Escarlatina/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Surtos de Doenças/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Masculino , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Streptococcus pyogenes/patogenicidade
16.
Int J Infect Dis ; 85: 7-9, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31096050

RESUMO

Staphylococcal scarlet fever (SSF) is characterized by an exanthem without enanthem, bullae, or exfoliation, and is known to be related to Staphylococcus aureus toxins, especially superantigens. It has been reported in children and young adults. Herein, we report the first case of an elderly patient with SSF caused by staphylococcal enterotoxin M (SEM), associated with otitis externa. The patient presented with maculopapular rashes on both arms, thighs, and abdomen and with erythroderma on the face, ears, neck, chest, and back, all of which was followed by desquamation on the face, ears, and trunk. A culture of ear discharge grew methicillin susceptible S. aureus that was only positive for SEM among the superantigens tested.


Assuntos
Enterotoxinas/toxicidade , Escarlatina/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação , Idoso , Enterotoxinas/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Escarlatina/diagnóstico , Staphylococcus aureus/genética , Staphylococcus aureus/metabolismo , Superantígenos/genética , Superantígenos/metabolismo
17.
PLoS One ; 14(4): e0215434, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30990838

RESUMO

A resurgence of scarlet fever has caused many pediatric infections in East Asia and the United Kingdom. Although scarlet fever in Taiwan has not been a notifiable infectious disease since 2007, the comprehensive national health insurance data can still track its trend. Here, we used data from the open data portal of the Taiwan Centers for Disease Control. The scarlet fever trend was measured by outpatient and hospitalization rates from 2009 to 2017. In order to elucidate the spatio-temporal hotspots, we developed a new method named the spatio-temporal Gi* statistic, and applied Joinpoint regression to compute the annual percentage change (APC). The overall APCs in outpatient and hospitalization were 15.1% (95% CI: 10.3%-20.2%) and 7.7% (95%CI: 4.5% -10.9%). The major two infected groups were children aged 5-9 (outpatient: 0.138 scarlet fever diagnoses per 1,000 visits; inpatient: 2.579 per 1,000 visits) and aged 3-4 (outpatient: 0.084 per 1,000 visits; inpatient: 1.469 per 1,000 visits). We found the counties in eastern Taiwan and offshore counties had the most hotspots in the outpatient setting. In terms of hospitalization, the hotspots mostly occurred in offshore counties close to China. With the help of the spatio-temporal statistic, health workers can set up enhanced laboratory surveillance in those hotspots.


Assuntos
Bases de Dados Factuais , Escarlatina/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Taiwan/epidemiologia
18.
Sci Total Environ ; 663: 227-235, 2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30711589

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the relationship between meteorological factors and scarlet fever incidence from 2006 to 2017 in Guangzhou, the largest subtropical city of Southern China, and assist public health prevention and control measures. METHODS: Data for weekly scarlet fever incidence and meteorological variables from 2006 to 2017 in Guangzhou were collected from the National Notifiable Disease Report System (NNDRS) and the Guangzhou Meteorological Bureau (GZMB). Distributed lag nonlinear models (DLNMs) were conducted to estimate the effect of meteorological factors on weekly scarlet fever incidence in Guangzhou. RESULTS: We observed nonlinear effects of temperature, relative humidity, and wind velocity. The risk was the highest when the weekly mean temperature was 31 °C during lag week 14, yielding a relative risk (RR) of 1.48 (95% CI: 1.01-2.17). When relative humidity was 43.5% during lag week 0, the RR was 1.49 (95% CI: 1.04-2.12); the highest RR (1.55, 95% CI: 1.20-1.99) was reached when relative humidity was 93.5% during lag week 20. When wind velocity was 4.4 m/s during lag week 13, the RR was highest at 3.41 (95% CI: 1.57-7.44). Positive correlations were observed among weekly temperature ranges and atmospheric pressure with scarlet fever incidence, while a negative correlation was detected with aggregate rainfall. The cumulative extreme effect of meteorological variables on scarlet fever incidence was statistically significant, except for the high effect of wind velocity. CONCLUSION: Weekly mean temperature, relative humidity, and wind velocity had double-trough effects on scarlet fever incidence; high weekly temperature range, high atmospheric pressure, and low aggregate rainfall were risk factors for scarlet fever morbidity. Our findings provided preliminary, but fundamental, information that may be useful for a better understanding of epidemic trends of scarlet fever and for developing an early warning system. Laboratory surveillance for scarlet fever should be strengthened in the future.


Assuntos
Umidade , Escarlatina/epidemiologia , Vento , China/epidemiologia , Incidência , Conceitos Meteorológicos , Dinâmica não Linear , Escarlatina/microbiologia , Temperatura , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos
19.
Aerosp Med Hum Perform ; 90(2): 139-143, 2019 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30670126
20.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 25(3): 529-537, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30602121

RESUMO

The incidence of scarlet fever in England and Wales is at its highest in 50 years. We estimated secondary household risk for invasive group A Streptococcus (iGAS) disease within 60 days after onset of scarlet fever. Reports of scarlet fever in England during 2011-2016 were matched by residential address to persons with laboratory-confirmed iGAS infections. We identified 11 iGAS cases in ≈189,684 household contacts and a 60-day incidence rate of 35.3 cases/100,000 person-years, which was 12.2-fold higher than the background rate (2.89). Infants and contacts >75 years of age were at highest risk. Three cases were fatal; sepsis and cellulitis were the most common manifestations. Typing for 6 iGAS cases identified emm 1.0 (n = 4), emm 4.0 (n = 1), and emm 12.0 (n = 1). Although absolute risk in household contacts was low, clinicians assessing household contacts should be aware of the risk to expedite diagnosis and initiate life-saving treatment.


Assuntos
Escarlatina/epidemiologia , Escarlatina/transmissão , Infecções Estreptocócicas/epidemiologia , Infecções Estreptocócicas/transmissão , Streptococcus pyogenes , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Características da Família , Feminino , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Escarlatina/história , Escarlatina/microbiologia , Infecções Estreptocócicas/história , Infecções Estreptocócicas/microbiologia
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