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1.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0277459, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36367892

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Correctional centres provide ideal conditions for tuberculosis (TB) transmission and disease progression. Despite the high TB incidence and incarceration rate in South Africa, data from South African correctional centres are scarce. Thus, the study evaluated TB diagnosis, treatment initiation and completion, and identified prevalent Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains among detainees entering a South African correctional centre. METHODS: This study was a prospective observational study that enrolled participants between February and September 2017 from a correctional centre located in the Western Cape, South Africa. All adult male detainees who tested positive for TB during admission screening were eligible to participate in the study. Sputum samples from enrolled participants underwent smear microscopy and culture. Strain typing was performed on culture-positive samples. The time between specimen collection and diagnosis, the time between diagnosis and treatment initiation, and the proportion of detainees completing TB treatment at the correctional centre were calculated. RESULTS: During the study period, 130 TB cases were detected through routine admission screening (126 male, 2 female, 2 juvenile). Out of the 126 eligible male detainees, 102 were enrolled in the study (81%, 102/126). All TB cases were detected within 30 hrs of admission screening. The majority (78%, 80/102) of participants started treatment within 48 hrs of TB diagnosis. However, only 8% (9/102) of participants completed treatment at the correction centre. Sputa from 90 of the 102 participants were available for smear and culture. There was a high smear positivity, with 49% (44/90) of isolates being smear positive. The Beijing family was the most frequent lineage (55.2%) in the study. CONCLUSION: The strengths of the current TB control efforts at the correctional centre include rapid detection of cases through admission screening and prompt treatment initiation. However, a high number of detainees exiting before treatment completion highlights the need to strengthen links between correctional TB services and community TB services to ensure detainees complete TB treatment after release and prevent TB transmission.


Assuntos
Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Tuberculose Pulmonar , Tuberculose , Adulto , Masculino , Feminino , Humanos , Tuberculose Pulmonar/epidemiologia , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Escarro/microbiologia , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Tuberculose/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose/epidemiologia
2.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 1018699, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36339333

RESUMO

The research of childhood tuberculosis is inadequate in china. The cross-priming amplification (CPA) of specific DNA in clinical samples is increasingly adopted for the diagnosis of childhood tuberculosis. In this study, a multicenter research was performed to investigate the incidence and characteristics of childhood tuberculosis in suspected populations mainly by CPA method. 851 children suspected of tuberculosis were enrolled in seven centers across China. All samples were tested by a CPA method and 159 subjects were tested by Xpert MTB/RIF and liquid culture method in parallel to assess the reliability of the CPA method. A positive result in any one of the three methods provided a definitive diagnosis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) infection. The MTBC-positive rate was 9.5% (81/851) by the combined methods; 93.8% of the cases were detected by CPA technology (76/81). The rate of pulmonary infection was significantly higher than that of extrapulmonary infection (7.1%, 60/851 vs 2.5%, 21/851; P < 0.001). Scrofula was the predominant type of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. The MTBC positive rates in 12-18-year-old group (middle school), was 28.4% (23/81), higher than in those under-six-year-old (preschool; 39/525) and the 6~11-year-old (primary school; 18/235) groups combined (P < 0.001). The MTBC positive rate in patients with a clear history of tuberculosis exposure was significantly higher than in cases in which there was no history of tuberculosis contact(35.3%, 18/51 vs 7.8%, 61/782; P < 0.001). In conclusion, this multicenter investigation showed that pulmonary tuberculosis and extrapulmonary tuberculosis are not uncommon in children in China, with teenagers being particularly susceptible to infection. The incidence of pulmonary tuberculosis in children is higher than that of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. History of exposure to tuberculosis is a high risk factor for childhood tuberculosis.


Assuntos
Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Tuberculose Pulmonar , Tuberculose , Criança , Adolescente , Humanos , Pré-Escolar , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Tuberculose Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Escarro/microbiologia
3.
Thorax ; 77(10): 1023-1029, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36357344

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Childhood pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) remains a diagnostic challenge. This study aimed to evaluate the performance of Xpert Ultra for the diagnosis of pulmonary TB in children in a low TB prevalence setting. METHODS: Prospective, multicentre, diagnostic accuracy study. Children with clinical or radiological suspicion of pulmonary TB were recruited at 11 paediatric units in Spain. Up to three gastric or sputum specimens were taken on 3 consecutive days, and analysed by Xpert MTB/RIF, Xpert Ultra and culture in parallel. RESULTS: 86 children were included (median age 4.9 years, IQR 2.0-10.0; 51.2% male). The final diagnosis was pulmonary TB in 75 patients (87.2%); 33 (44.0%) were microbiologically confirmed. A total of 219 specimens, comprising gastric aspirates (n=194; 88.6%) and sputum specimens (n=25; 11.4%), were analysed. Using culture as reference standard and comparing individual specimens, the sensitivity was 37.8% (14/37) for Xpert MTB/RIF and 81.1% (30/37) for Xpert Ultra (p<0.001); specificity was 98.4% (179/182) and 93.4% (170/182), respectively (p=0.02). In the per-patient analysis, considering positive results on any specimen, the sensitivity was 42.9% (9/21) for Xpert MTB/RIF and 81.0% for Xpert Ultra (17/21, p=0.01); specificity was 96.9% (63/65) and 87.7% (57/65, p=0.07), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: In children with pulmonary TB in a low burden setting, Xpert Ultra has significantly higher sensitivity than the previous generation of Xpert assay and only marginally lower specificity. Therefore, in children undergoing evaluation for suspected pulmonary TB, Xpert Ultra should be used in preference to Xpert MTB/RIF whenever possible.


Assuntos
Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Tuberculose Pulmonar , Tuberculose , Criança , Humanos , Masculino , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Escarro/microbiologia , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética , Estudos Prospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Tuberculose Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Tuberculose Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/microbiologia , Tuberculose/diagnóstico
4.
BMC Pulm Med ; 22(1): 427, 2022 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36402959

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Currently, the microbial etiology of community-acquired pneumonia in children remains challenging. While Gram stain and sputum culture are commonly used to detect bacterial pathogens, it is unclear whether these approaches can predict single pathogen from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) culture. METHODS: A retrospective study involving 287 children hospitalized for pneumonia was conducted. Sputum specimens were collected on admission; and BALF specimens were collected within 24 h after admission. Taking BALF culture as the reference standard, the sensitivity and specificity of Sputum Gram stain (SGS), sputum culture, and BALF Gram stain (BGS) were calculated. The agreement between these approaches and BALF culture was compared using kappa statistics. RESULTS: For SGS, the specificity was 23%. The overall sensitivity was 70%, including 87% for Gram-positive (G+) cocci, 56% for Gram-negative (G-) cocci, and 50% for G-bacilli. For sputum culture, the specificity was 70%. The overall sensitivity was 64%, including 71% for Streptococcus pneumoniae, 71% for Moraxella catarrhalis, and 64% for Haemophilus influenzae. For BGS, the specificity was 71%. The overall sensitivity was 60%, including 77% for G+cocci, 38% for G-cocci, and 44% for G-bacilli. While SGS had poor agreement with BALF culture, both sputum culture and BGS had moderate agreement with BALF culture. CONCLUSIONS: Both sputum culture and BGS are helpful in predicting single bacterial pathogen from BALF culture among children with community-acquired pneumonia. Sputum cultures and BGS can provide early clues for BALF pathogen when BALF culture results are pending or bronchoscopy is not performed.


Assuntos
Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas , Pneumonia , Humanos , Criança , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/microbiologia , Escarro/microbiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/diagnóstico , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/microbiologia , Pneumonia/diagnóstico , Bactérias
5.
Respir Res ; 23(1): 321, 2022 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36403054

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The role of the sputum microbiome in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) progression remains elusive. As the advent of the new culture-independent microbial sequencing technique makes it possible to disclose the complex microbiome community of the respiratory tract. The aim of this study was to use metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS) to confirm whether there are differences in sputum microbiome of COPD between different exacerbation frequencies and lung function. METHODS: Thirty-nine COPD patients were divided into a frequent exacerbators (FE) group (n = 20) and a non-frequent exacerbators (NFE) (n = 19) group according to their exacerbation history, or a mild group (FEV1/pre ≥ 50%, n = 20) and a severe group (FEV1/pre < 50%, n = 19) according to the lung function. Sputum was collected during their stable phase, followed by DNA extraction, untargeted metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS) and bioinformatic analysis. RESULTS: mNGS identified 3355 bacteria, 71 viruses and 22 fungi at the specie level. It was found that Shannon index and Simpson index in FE group was lower than that in NFE group (p = 0.005, 0.008, respectively) but similar between mild and severe groups. Out of top 10 bacteria taxa, Veillonella, Fusobacterium and Prevotella jejuni had a higher abundance in NFE group, Rothia had a higher abundance in mild group. Linear discriminant analysis revealed that many bacterial taxa were more abundant in NFE group, and they mostly belonged to Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Fusobacteria phyla. Frequency of exacerbations was also found to be negatively correlated with alpha diversity (with Shannon index, r = - 0.423, p = 0.009; with Simpson index, r = - 0.482, p = 0.002). No significant correlation was observed between alpha diversity and FEV1/pre. CONCLUSIONS: Microbiome diversity in FE group was lower than that in NFE group. There was a significant difference in microbiome taxa abundance between FE and NFE groups, or mild and severe groups. These findings demonstrated that sputum microbiome community dysbiosis was associated with different exacerbation frequencies and lung function in stable COPD.


Assuntos
Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Escarro , Humanos , Escarro/microbiologia , Metagenoma/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/genética , Bactérias/genética , Pulmão/microbiologia
6.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 17382, 2022 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36253384

RESUMO

Diagnostics that more accurately detect and quantify viable Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) in the sputum of patients undergoing therapy are needed. Current culture- and molecular-based tests have shown limited efficacy for monitoring treatment response in TB patients, either due to the presence of viable sub-populations of Mtb which fail to grow under standard culture conditions (termed differentially detectable/culturable Mtb, DD Mtb) or the prolonged half-life of Mtb DNA in sputum. Here, we report an optimized RNA-based method for detecting and quantifying viable Mtb from patient sputum during the course of therapy. We first empirically derived a novel RNA extraction protocol from sputum that improves recovery of Mtb RNA while almost completely eliminating contamination from Mtb DNA and host nucleic acids. Next, we identified five Mtb 16S rRNA primer sets with varying limits of detection that were capable of distinguishing between live versus dead H37Rv Mtb. This combined protocol was then tested on sputa from a longitudinal cohort of patients receiving therapy for drug sensitive (DS) or drug resistant (DR) TB with first-line or second-line regimens, respectively. Results were compared with that of culture, including CFU, BACTEC MGIT, and a limiting dilution assay capable of detecting DD Mtb. The five 16S rRNA primer sets positively identified nearly all (range 94-100%) culture positive sputa, and a portion (19-37%) of culture negative sputa. In comparison, ten highly expressed Mtb mRNAs showed positivity in 72-86% of culture positive sputa, and in 0-13% of culture negative sputa. Two of the five 16S rRNA primer sets were able to positively identify 100% of culture positive sputa, and when tested on culture negative sputa from the DS cohort at 2 months post-initiation of therapy, identified 40% of samples as positive; a percentage that is in line with expected treatment failure rates when first-line therapy is discontinued early. These two primer sets also detected 16S rRNA in 13-20% of sputa at 6 months post-initiation of therapy in the DR cohort. Cycle threshold values for 16S rRNA showed a strong correlation with Mtb numbers as determined by culture (R > 0.87), including as Mtb numbers declined during the course of treatment with first-line and second-line regimens. The optimized molecular assay outlined here may have utility for monitoring treatment response in TB patients.


Assuntos
Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Tuberculose dos Linfonodos , Tuberculose Pulmonar , Humanos , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Escarro/microbiologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Tuberculose Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose Pulmonar/microbiologia
7.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 922996, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36268227

RESUMO

Leptospirosis is a zoonotic infection caused by the pathogenic Leptospira. Leptospirosis is transmitted mainly through contact with contaminated rivers, lakes, or animals carrying Leptospira. Human leptospirosis has a wide range of non-specific clinical manifestations ranging from fever, hypotension, and myalgia to multi-organ dysfunction, which severely hampers the timely clinical diagnosis and treatment of leptospirosis. Therefore, there is an urgent clinical need for an efficient strategy/method that can be used for the accurate diagnosis of leptospirosis, especially in critically ill patients. Here, we report a case of a 75-year-old male patient with clinical presentation of fever, cough, and diarrhea. Initial laboratory tests and a computed tomography (CT) scan of the chest suggested only tuberculosis. The patient was finally diagnosed with pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) combined with leptospirosis by sputum Xpert MTB RIF, epidemiological investigations, and delayed serological testing. Furthermore, through metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS) of clinical samples of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), urine, plasma and sputum, the causative pathogens were identified as Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex and Leptospira spp. With specific treatment for both leptospirosis and tuberculosis, and associated supportive care (e.g., hemodialysis), the patient showed a good prognosis. This case report suggests that mNGS can generate a useful complement to conventional pathogenic diagnostic methods through more detailed etiological screening (i.e., at the level of species or species complex).


Assuntos
Leptospira , Leptospirose , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Tuberculose Pulmonar , Tuberculose , Humanos , Masculino , Idoso , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética , Tuberculose Pulmonar/complicações , Tuberculose Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Tuberculose Pulmonar/microbiologia , Escarro/microbiologia , Leptospirose/complicações , Leptospirose/diagnóstico , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Leptospira/genética , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
8.
Int J Tuberc Lung Dis ; 26(11): 1058-1064, 2022 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36281051

RESUMO

SETTING: Mulago Hospital, Kampala, Uganda.OBJECTIVE: To quantify Mycobacterium tuberculosis in sputum during the first 8 weeks of pulmonary multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) treatment.DESIGN: We enrolled consecutive adults with pulmonary MDR-TB treated according to national guidelines. We collected overnight sputum samples before treatment and weekly. Sputum samples were cultured on Middlebrook 7H11S agar to measure colony-forming units per mL (cfu/mL) and in MGIT™ 960™ media to measure time to detection (TTD). Linear mixed-effects regression was used to estimate the relational change in log10 cfu/mL and TTD.RESULTS: Twelve adults (median age: 27 years) were enrolled. Half were women, and two-thirds were HIV-positive. At baseline, median log10 cfu/mL was 5.1, decreasing by 0.29 log10 cfu/mL/week. The median TTD was 116.5 h, increasing in TTD by 36.97 h/week. The weekly change was greater in the first 2 weeks (-1.04 log10 cfu/mL/week and 120.02 h/week) than in the remaining 6 weeks (-0.17 log10 cfu/mL/week and 26.11 h/week).CONCLUSION: Serial quantitative culture measures indicate a slow, uneven rate of decline in sputum M. tuberculosis over 8 weeks of standardized pulmonary MDR-TB treatment.


Assuntos
Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos , Tuberculose Pulmonar , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Escarro/microbiologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Tuberculose Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose Pulmonar/microbiologia , Ágar/farmacologia , Uganda , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/diagnóstico , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/microbiologia
9.
Biomolecules ; 12(10)2022 10 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36291689

RESUMO

Frequent acute exacerbations are the leading cause of high rates of hospitalization and mortality in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Despite the enormous worldwide medical burden, reliable molecular markers for effective early diagnosis and prognosis of acute exacerbations are still lacking. Both the host genetics and airway microbiome are known to play potential roles in the pathogenesis of frequent exacerbations. Here, we performed whole exome sequencing (WES) and 16S rRNA gene sequencing to explore the interaction between these two factors and their implications in the pathogenesis of frequent exacerbations. We collected peripheral blood (n = 82), sputum samples (n = 59) and clinical data from 50 frequent-exacerbation phenotype (FE) COPD patients and 32 infrequent-exacerbation phenotype (IE) as controls. Based on filtering the deleterious sites, candidate mutated genes shared only in FE patients and did not occur in the IE group were identified. Microbiota analysis revealed significant differences in bacterial diversity and composition between FE and IE groups. We report the underlying pathogenic gene including, AATF, HTT, CEP350, ADAMTS9, TLL2 genes, etc., and explore their possible genotypic-phenotypic correlations with microbiota dysbiosis. Importantly, we observed that AATF gene mutations were significantly negatively correlated with microbial richness and diversity. Our study indicated several deleterious mutations in candidate genes that might be associated with microbial dysbiosis and the increased risk of frequent acute exacerbations in COPD patients. These results provide novel evidence that exomes and related microbiomes may potentially serve as biomarkers for predicting frequent acute exacerbations in COPD patients.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Humanos , Escarro/química , Escarro/microbiologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Disbiose , Exoma , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/genética , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/patologia , Microbiota/genética , Biomarcadores , Progressão da Doença , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/genética
10.
Eur J Med Chem ; 244: 114835, 2022 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36270089

RESUMO

Tuberculosis is a chronic lethal infectious disease caused by a single pathogen, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). Previous studies developed nitrofuranyl calanolide (NFC) compounds as new class of Mtb diagnostic reagent, such as NFC-Tre-5. Through structure-fluorescence relationships (SFR) investigation, in this article, a new fluorescent probe, 3-vinylcoumarin (17a) with a 20-fold increase in the fluorescent fold change (FFC) value, was gained. Taking the advantage of specific trehalose metabolic mechanism of Mtb, 17a was further cooperated with a trehalose motif through modification of 4-propyl group to obtain 17a-Tre. The 17a-Tre could label the live infected mycobacteria in signal murine macrophage such as M. smeg, specifically mark the living Mtb in single cell from other typical species of bacteria, and detect the Mtb cells under microscope from the sputum of patients.


Assuntos
Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Piranocumarinas , Tuberculose , Humanos , Camundongos , Animais , Trealose , Tuberculose/microbiologia , Escarro/microbiologia
11.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 16972, 2022 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36216964

RESUMO

Tuberculosis (TB) remains a significant cause of mortality worldwide. Metagenomic next-generation sequencing has the potential to reveal biomarkers of active disease, identify coinfection, and improve detection for sputum-scarce or culture-negative cases. We conducted a large-scale comparative study of 428 plasma, urine, and oral swab samples from 334 individuals from TB endemic and non-endemic regions to evaluate the utility of a shotgun metagenomic DNA sequencing assay for tuberculosis diagnosis. We found that the composition of the control population had a strong impact on the measured performance of the diagnostic test: the use of a control population composed of individuals from a TB non-endemic region led to a test with nearly 100% specificity and sensitivity, whereas a control group composed of individuals from TB endemic regions exhibited a high background of nontuberculous mycobacterial DNA, limiting the diagnostic performance of the test. Using mathematical modeling and quantitative comparisons to matched qPCR data, we found that the burden of Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA constitutes a very small fraction (0.04 or less) of the total abundance of DNA originating from mycobacteria in samples from TB endemic regions. Our findings suggest that the utility of a minimally invasive metagenomic sequencing assay for pulmonary tuberculosis diagnostics is limited by the low burden of M. tuberculosis and an overwhelming biological background of nontuberculous mycobacterial DNA.


Assuntos
Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Tuberculose , Biomarcadores , DNA , Humanos , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética , Micobactérias não Tuberculosas/genética , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Escarro/microbiologia , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Tuberculose/microbiologia
12.
Front Immunol ; 13: 1005692, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36189292

RESUMO

Background: Tuberculosis (TB) is a difficult-to-treat disease requiring the combination of four antibiotics for a minimum of 6 months. Rapid and quantitative biomarkers to monitor treatment response are urgently needed for individual patient management and clinical trials. C-reactive protein (CRP) is often used clinically as a rapid marker of inflammation caused by infection. We assessed the relationship of TB bacillary load and CRP as biomarkers of treatment response. Methods: Xpert MTB/RIF-confirmed pulmonary TB cases were enrolled for treatment response assessment in Mozambique. Treatment response was measured using the Tuberculosis Molecular Bacterial Load Assay (TB-MBLA) in comparison with standard-of-care Mycobacterium Growth Indicator Tube (MGIT) culture at baseline and at weeks 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, 17, and 26 of treatment. Blood CRP concentration was measured at baseline, week 8, and week 26. Treatment response was defined as increase in MGIT culture time to positivity (TTP), and reduction in TB-MBLA-measured bacillary load and blood CRP concentration. Results: Out of the 81 screened presumptive TB cases, 69 were enrolled for 6-month treatment follow-up resulting in 94% treatment completion rate. Four participants did not complete TB treatment and 22 participants had missing CRP or TB-MBLA results and were excluded from TB-MBLA-CRP analysis. The remaining 43 participants-median age, 31 years old [interquartile range (IQR): 18-56]; 70% (30/43) male; and 70% (30/43) infected with HIV-were considered for analysis. Culture TTP and bacillary load were inversely correlated, Spearman's r = -0.67, p < 0.0001. Resolution of sputum bacillary load concurred with reduction of blood CRP, r = 0.70, p < 0.0001. At baseline, bacillary load had a median (IQR) of 6.4 (5.5-7.2), which reduced to 2.4 (0.0-2.9) and 0.0 (0.0-0.0) log10 CFU/ml at months 2 and 6 of treatment, respectively. Correspondingly, blood CRP reduced from 1.9 (1.6-2.1) at baseline to 1.3 (0.9-1.7) and 0.4 (0.1-0.8) log10 mg/dl at months 2 and 6 of treatment, respectively. CRP reduction trialed bacteriological resolution at a rate of -0.06 log10 mg/dl compared to a bacillary load of 0.23 log10 CFU/ml per week. Consequently, 14 (33%) and 37 (88%) patients had reduced CRP to normal concentration and bacillary load to zero by the end of treatment, respectively. Pre-treatment CRP concentration and bacillary load, and resolution during treatment were slightly lower in HIV co-infected patients but not significantly different from HIV-uninfected TB patients. Conclusion: TB-MBLA-measured bacillary load and blood CRP complement each other in response to anti-TB therapy. Slow CRP reduction probably reflects residual TB bacilli in the lung not expectorated in sputum. Combining both measures can improve the accuracy of these biomarkers for monitoring TB treatment response and shorten turnaround time since the results of both assays could be available in 24 h.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Lactobacillus casei , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Tuberculose , Adulto , Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores , Proteína C-Reativa , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Masculino , Escarro/microbiologia , Tiamina , Tuberculose/microbiologia
13.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 798, 2022 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36284285

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) is a significant risk factor for fungal infection. The cavitary lesions post PTB serves as a good reservoir for fungal colonization and subsequent infection. Furthermore, the severe immunosuppression associated with HIV and TB co-infection is another predisposition. The inadequate capacity to investigate and manage fungal infection in PTB patients increases their morbidity and mortality. The study aimed to provide serological evidence of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA) among PTB patients in Kenya. Towards this, we analysed 234 serum samples from patients presenting with persistent clinical features of PTB infections despite TB treatment in four referral hospitals. METHODS: This was a cross sectional laboratory based study and patients were recruited following an informed consent. Serological detection of Aspergillus fumigatus IgG was done using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Bordier Affinity Products SA). Sputum samples were subjected to microscopy and standard fungal culture. The isolated fungi were subjected to macro and micro morphological identifications and confirmed by sequence analysis of calmadulin, betatubilin and ITS genes. RESULTS: Serological evidence of CPA or fungal sensitization was 46(19.7%) and equivocal or borderline was 14(6.0%). Mycological investigations of sputum resulted in 88(38%) positive for fungal culture. Aspergillus spp. accounted for 25(28%) of which A. fumigatus was 13(14.8%), A. niger 8(9.1%), A. terreus, A. flavus, A. candidus and A. clavatus 1 (1.1%) each. This was followed by Penicillium spp. 10 (11.4%), Scedosporium spp. 5 (5.7%) and Rhizopus spp. 3 (3.4%). Among the yeasts; Candida albicans accounted for 18(20.5%) followed by C. glabrata 5(5.7%). Cryptococcus spp. was isolated from 3(3.4%) of the samples while 13(14.8%) were other yeasts. CONCLUSION: Chronic pulmonary aspergillosis is a significant co-morbidity in PTB patients in Kenya that could be misdiagnosed as relapse or treatment failures in the absence of reliable diagnostic and clinical management algorithm. It could be the cause of persistent clinical symptoms despite TB treatment often misdiagnosed as TB smear/GeneXpert MTB/RIF® negative or relapse. We recommend that all patients with persistent clinical symptoms despite TB treatment should be subjected to fungal investigations before retreatment.


Assuntos
Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Micoses , Aspergilose Pulmonar , Tuberculose Pulmonar , Tuberculose , Humanos , Estudos Transversais , Quênia/epidemiologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Tuberculose Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Escarro/microbiologia , Tuberculose/complicações , Aspergilose Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Aspergilose Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Aspergilose Pulmonar/complicações , Micoses/complicações , Doença Crônica , Imunoglobulina G , Recidiva
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36197418

RESUMO

Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is a simple and efficient nucleic acid amplification method for the rapid diagnosis of infectious diseases. This study assessed the performance of an in-house LAMP for tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis at a remote reference laboratory in the endemic setting of Thailand. As part of the routine service, 1,882 sputum samples were processed for mycobacterial culture in Lowenstein-Jensen and MGIT media. The DNA was extracted from the remaining decontaminated samples after the culture procedure for real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis using Anyplex plus MTB/NTM detection kit. 785 (40.28%) were positive by mycobacterial culture. Of these, 222 DNA remnants were available and subjected to LAMP analysis. Based on culture as reference (Mycobacterium tuberculosis; MTB= 209/ non-tuberculous mycobacteria; NTM= 13), the overall sensitivity of LAMP and Anyplex plus assays for MTB detection were 89.95% (188/209; 95% confidential interval [CI]: 85.05-93.67%) and 96.65% (202/209; 95% CI: 93.22-98.64%), and the accuracy values were 88.74% (197/222; 95% CI: 83.83-92.58) and 96.40% (214/222; 93.02-98.43%), respectively. The sensitivity and accuracy of the in-house LAMP and the Anyplex plus real-time PCR assay were high in comparison to culture results. The high sensitivity and accuracy suggested that this in-house LAMP was promising and might be useful for early TB diagnosis.


Assuntos
Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Ácidos Nucleicos , Tuberculose , Humanos , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética , Micobactérias não Tuberculosas/genética , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico/métodos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Escarro/microbiologia , Tailândia , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Tuberculose/microbiologia
15.
Respir Med ; 204: 107010, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36272858

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with biomass exposure-related COPD (BE-COPD) is a prevalent disease in developing countries and requires a detailed study of its clinical and inflammatory characteristics, specifying interventions that may differ from tobacco exposure-related COPD (TE-COPD). The objective was to describe clinical characteristics, biomarkers of inflammation, T-helper cells, and microbiological agents during a COPD exacerbation in BE-COPD in comparison with TE-COPD. METHODS: A prospective observational study in patients with moderate or severe exacerbation was recruited either in the emergency room or the COPD clinic. At enrollment, nasopharyngeal swabs and sputum were collected to identify viral and bacterial pathogens. Blood samples were also collected to measure inflammatory biomarkers and T-helper cells levels. Days of hospitalization and mechanical ventilation requirement was evaluated. RESULTS: Clinical characteristics, vaccination history, hospitalization, history of exacerbations, and microbiological pattern between BE-COPD and TE-COPD were similar. The Th2 profile was higher in BE-COPD than in TE-COPD (2.10 [range 1.30-3.30] vs. 1.40 [range 1.20-1.80], p = 0.001). The Th2/Th1 ratio was higher in BE-COPD than TE-COPD (1.22 [range 0.58-2.57 ] vs. 0.71 [range 0.40-1.15], p = 0.004). The need of mechanical ventilation (MV) was higher in TE-COPD than BE-COPD (13% vs. 31.1%, p = 0.01). Nonvaccination history and high CRP levels were significantly associated with hospitalization [OR 1.48 (CI 95% 1.30-4.61, p = 0.005) and OR 1.17 (CI 95% 1.10-1.24, p = 0.001), respectively]. CONCLUSIONS: Clinical characteristics, inflammatory markers, and microbiological isolates were similar in both groups but BE-COPD show a tendency to present higher inflammatory Th2 cells and low requirement MV compared with TE-COPD.


Assuntos
Asma , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Humanos , Tabaco , Biomassa , Escarro/microbiologia , Biomarcadores , Progressão da Doença
17.
J Clin Microbiol ; 60(10): e0113122, 2022 10 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36121216

RESUMO

Manual reading of fluorescent acid-fast bacilli (AFB) microscopy slides is time-intensive and technically demanding. The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of MetaSystems' automated fluorescent AFB slide scanner and analyzer. Auramine O-stained slides corresponding to 133 culture-positive and 363 culture-negative respiratory (n = 284), tissue (n = 120), body fluid (n = 81), and other (n = 11) sources were evaluated with the MetaSystems Mycobacteria Scanner running the NEON Metafer AFB Module. The sensitivity and specificity of the MetaSystems platform was measured as a standalone diagnostic and as an assistant to technologists to review positive images. Culture results were used as the reference method. The MetaSystems platform failed to scan 57 (11.5%) slides. The MetaSystems platform used as a standalone had a sensitivity of 97.0% (129/133; 95% CI 92.5 to 99.2) and specificity of 12.7% (46/363; 95% CI 9.4 to 16.5). When positive scans were used to assist technologists, the MetaSystems platform had a sensitivity of 70.7% (94/133; 95% CI 62.2 to 78.3) and specificity of 89.0% (323/363; 95% CI 85.3 to 92.0). The manual microscopy method had a sensitivity of 79.7% (106/133; 95% CI 71.9 to 86.2) and specificity of 98.6% (358/363; 95% CI 96.8 to 99.6). The sensitivity of the MetaSystems platform was not impacted by smear grade or mycobacterial species. The majority (70.3%) of false positive smears had ≥2+ smear results with the MetaSystems platform. Further performance improvements are needed before the MetaSystems' automated fluorescent AFB slide reader can be used to assist microscopist in the clinical laboratory.


Assuntos
Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Mycobacterium , Humanos , Escarro/microbiologia , Benzofenoneídio , Neônio , Microscopia de Fluorescência , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
18.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 9: CD013359, 2022 09 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36065889

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Every year, an estimated one million children and young adolescents become ill with tuberculosis, and around 226,000 of those children die. Xpert MTB/RIF Ultra (Xpert Ultra) is a molecular World Health Organization (WHO)-recommended rapid diagnostic test that simultaneously detects Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex and rifampicin resistance. We previously published a Cochrane Review 'Xpert MTB/RIF and Xpert MTB/RIF Ultra assays for tuberculosis disease and rifampicin resistance in children'. The current review updates evidence on the diagnostic accuracy of Xpert Ultra in children presumed to have tuberculosis disease. Parts of this review update informed the 2022 WHO updated guidance on management of tuberculosis in children and adolescents. OBJECTIVES: To assess the diagnostic accuracy of Xpert Ultra for detecting: pulmonary tuberculosis, tuberculous meningitis, lymph node tuberculosis, and rifampicin resistance, in children with presumed tuberculosis. Secondary objectives To investigate potential sources of heterogeneity in accuracy estimates. For detection of tuberculosis, we considered age, comorbidity (HIV, severe pneumonia, and severe malnutrition), and specimen type as potential sources. To summarize the frequency of Xpert Ultra trace results. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register, MEDLINE, Embase, three other databases, and three trial registers without language restrictions to 9 March 2021. SELECTION CRITERIA: Cross-sectional and cohort studies and randomized trials that evaluated Xpert Ultra in HIV-positive and HIV-negative children under 15 years of age. We included ongoing studies that helped us address the review objectives. We included studies evaluating sputum, gastric, stool, or nasopharyngeal specimens (pulmonary tuberculosis), cerebrospinal fluid (tuberculous meningitis), and fine needle aspirate or surgical biopsy tissue (lymph node tuberculosis). For detecting tuberculosis, reference standards were microbiological (culture) or composite reference standard; for stool, we also included Xpert Ultra performed on a routine respiratory specimen. For detecting rifampicin resistance, reference standards were drug susceptibility testing or MTBDRplus. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently extracted data and, using QUADAS-2, assessed methodological quality judging risk of bias separately for each target condition and reference standard. For each target condition, we used the bivariate model to estimate summary sensitivity and specificity with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We stratified all analyses by type of reference standard. We summarized the frequency of Xpert Ultra trace results; trace represents detection of a very low quantity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA. We assessed certainty of evidence using GRADE. MAIN RESULTS: We identified 14 studies (11 new studies since the previous review). For detection of pulmonary tuberculosis, 335 data sets (25,937 participants) were available for analysis. We did not identify any studies that evaluated Xpert Ultra accuracy for tuberculous meningitis or lymph node tuberculosis. Three studies evaluated Xpert Ultra for detection of rifampicin resistance. Ten studies (71%) took place in countries with a high tuberculosis burden based on WHO classification. Overall, risk of bias was low. Detection of pulmonary tuberculosis Sputum, 5 studies Xpert Ultra summary sensitivity verified by culture was 75.3% (95% CI 64.3 to 83.8; 127 participants; high-certainty evidence), and specificity was 97.1% (95% CI 94.7 to 98.5; 1054 participants; high-certainty evidence). Gastric aspirate, 7 studies Xpert Ultra summary sensitivity verified by culture was 70.4% (95% CI 53.9 to 82.9; 120 participants; moderate-certainty evidence), and specificity was 94.1% (95% CI 84.8 to 97.8; 870 participants; moderate-certainty evidence). Stool, 6 studies Xpert Ultra summary sensitivity verified by culture was 56.1% (95% CI 39.1 to 71.7; 200 participants; moderate-certainty evidence), and specificity was 98.0% (95% CI 93.3 to 99.4; 1232 participants; high certainty-evidence). Nasopharyngeal aspirate, 4 studies Xpert Ultra summary sensitivity verified by culture was 43.7% (95% CI 26.7 to 62.2; 46 participants; very low-certainty evidence), and specificity was 97.5% (95% CI 93.6 to 99.0; 489 participants; high-certainty evidence). Xpert Ultra sensitivity was lower against a composite than a culture reference standard for all specimen types other than nasopharyngeal aspirate, while specificity was similar against both reference standards. Interpretation of results In theory, for a population of 1000 children: • where 100 have pulmonary tuberculosis in sputum (by culture): - 101 would be Xpert Ultra-positive, and of these, 26 (26%) would not have pulmonary tuberculosis (false positive); and - 899 would be Xpert Ultra-negative, and of these, 25 (3%) would have tuberculosis (false negative). • where 100 have pulmonary tuberculosis in gastric aspirate (by culture): - 123 would be Xpert Ultra-positive, and of these, 53 (43%) would not have pulmonary tuberculosis (false positive); and - 877 would be Xpert Ultra-negative, and of these, 30 (3%) would have tuberculosis (false negative). • where 100 have pulmonary tuberculosis in stool (by culture): - 74 would be Xpert Ultra-positive, and of these, 18 (24%) would not have pulmonary tuberculosis (false positive); and - 926 would be Xpert Ultra-negative, and of these, 44 (5%) would have tuberculosis (false negative). • where 100 have pulmonary tuberculosis in nasopharyngeal aspirate (by culture): - 66 would be Xpert Ultra-positive, and of these, 22 (33%) would not have pulmonary tuberculosis (false positive); and - 934 would be Xpert Ultra-negative, and of these, 56 (6%) would have tuberculosis (false negative). Detection of rifampicin resistance Xpert Ultra sensitivity was 100% (3 studies, 3 participants; very low-certainty evidence), and specificity range was 97% to 100% (3 studies, 128 participants; low-certainty evidence). Trace results Xpert Ultra trace results, regarded as positive in children by WHO standards, were common. Xpert Ultra specificity remained high in children, despite the frequency of trace results. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: We found Xpert Ultra sensitivity to vary by specimen type, with sputum having the highest sensitivity, followed by gastric aspirate and stool. Nasopharyngeal aspirate had the lowest sensitivity. Xpert Ultra specificity was high against both microbiological and composite reference standards. However, the evidence base is still limited, and findings may be imprecise and vary by study setting. Although we found Xpert Ultra accurate for detection of rifampicin resistance, results were based on a very small number of studies that included only three children with rifampicin resistance. Therefore, findings should be interpreted with caution. Our findings provide support for the use of Xpert Ultra as an initial rapid molecular diagnostic in children being evaluated for tuberculosis.


Assuntos
Antibióticos Antituberculose , Infecções por HIV , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Tuberculose dos Linfonodos , Tuberculose Meníngea , Tuberculose Pulmonar , Adolescente , Antibióticos Antituberculose/uso terapêutico , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética , Rifampina/farmacologia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Escarro/microbiologia , Tuberculose dos Linfonodos/diagnóstico , Tuberculose dos Linfonodos/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose Meníngea/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Tuberculose Meníngea/diagnóstico , Tuberculose Meníngea/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Tuberculose Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose Pulmonar/microbiologia
19.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 949370, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36159642

RESUMO

Several studies described the presence of non-replicating, drug-tolerant differentially culturable tubercle bacteria (DCTB) in sputum from patients with active tuberculosis (TB). These organisms are unable to form colonies on agar but can be recovered in liquid media supplemented with culture filtrate as a source of growth factors. Herein, we undertook to investigate the response of DCTB during the treatment of individuals with drug-resistant TB. A cohort of 100 participants diagnosed with rifampicin-resistant TB were enrolled and prospectively followed to monitor response to therapy using routine culture and limiting dilution assays, supplemented with culture filtrate (CF) to quantify DCTB. Fifteen participants were excluded due to contamination, and of the remaining 85 participants, 29, 49, and 7 were infected with rifampicin mono-resistant (RMR), multidrug-resistant (MDR), or extremely drug-resistant (XDR) TB, respectively. Analysis of baseline sputum demonstrated that CF supplementation of limiting dilution assays detected notable amounts of DCTB. Prevalence of DCTB was not influenced by smear status or mycobacterial growth indicator tube time to positivity. CF devoid of resuscitation promoting factors (Rpfs) yielded a greater amount of DCTB in sputum from participants with MDR-TB compared with those with RMR-TB. A similar effect was noted in DCTB assays without CF supplementation, suggesting that CF is dispensable for the detection of DCTB from drug-resistant strains. The HIV status of participants, and CD4 count, did not affect the amount of DCTB recovered. During treatment with second-line drug regimens, the probability of detecting DCTB from sputum specimens in liquid media with or without CF was higher compared with colony forming units, with DCTB detected up to 16 weeks post treatment. Collectively, these data point to differences in the ability of drug-resistant strains to respond to CF and Rpfs. Our findings demonstrate the possible utility of DCTB assays to diagnose and monitor treatment response for drug-resistant TB, particularly in immune compromised individuals with low CD4 counts.


Assuntos
Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos , Ágar/farmacologia , Ágar/uso terapêutico , Antituberculosos/farmacologia , Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Rifampina/farmacologia , Rifampina/uso terapêutico , Escarro/microbiologia , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/diagnóstico , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/epidemiologia
20.
J Microbiol Methods ; 200: 106547, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35926680

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to evaluate a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for the ability to diagnose tuberculosis directly from clinical samples rapidly. METHODS: LAMP assays were performed using previously reported primer sets to amplify three specific Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) gene targets, hspX, gyrB, and IS6110. Quantitated DNA from strain H37Rv were detected for assessment of analytical sensitivity; specificity was evaluated by testing eight species of non-tuberculosis Mycobacterium (NTM) and four unrelated bacterial species. Sputum samples from 68 pulmonary tuberculosis patients and a control group consisting of 45 lung cancer patients and 20 healthy controls were analyzed using LAMP assays, and then compared with smear, culture and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) methods. RESULTS: All three LAMP assays showed 100% specificity for MTB when tested against NTM and other bacterial species. The gyrB-LAMP assay was able to detect 60 cfu/ml of H37Rv suspension within 1 h, similar to qRT-PCR, but 10 times more sensitive than the hspX-LAMP and IS6110-LAMP assays. In clinical samples, when qRT-PCR was used as the reference method, the sensitivity of the three LAMP assays targeting hspX, gyrB, and IS6110 genes was 94.6, 98.2 and 92.9%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: LAMP is more sensitive than smear microscopy and close to qRT-PCR in sensitivity for the detection of MTB. LAMP has comparable specificity to qRT-PCR but was more rapid and convenient.


Assuntos
Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Tuberculose dos Linfonodos , Humanos , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética , Micobactérias não Tuberculosas/genética , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico/métodos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Escarro/microbiologia
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