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1.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0249408, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33819290

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An appropriate specimen is of paramount importance in Real Time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) based diagnosis of novel coronavirus (nCoV) disease (COVID-19). Thus, it's pertinent to evaluate various diversified clinical specimens' diagnostic utility in both diagnosis and follow-up of COVID-19. METHODS: A total of 924 initial specimens from 130 COVID-19 symptomatic cases before initiation of treatment and 665 follow up specimens from 15 randomly selected cases comprising of equal number of nasopharyngeal swab (NPS), oropharyngeal swab (OPS), combined NPS and OPS (Combined swab), sputum, plasma, serum and urine were evaluated by rRT-PCR. RESULTS: Demographic analysis showed males (86) twice more affected by COVID-19 than females (44) (p = 0.00001). Combined swabs showed a positivity rate of 100% followed by NPS (91.5%), OPS (72.3%), sputum (63%), while nCoV was found undetected in urine, plasma and serum specimens. The lowest cycle threshold (Ct) values of targeted genes E, ORF1b and RdRP are 10.56, 10.14 and 12.26 respectively and their lowest average Ct values were found in combined swab which indicates high viral load in combined swab among all other specimen types. Analysis of 665 follow-up multi-varied specimens also showed combined swab as the last specimen among all specimen types to become negative, after an average 6.6 (range 4-10) days post-treatment, having lowest (15.48) and average (29.96) Ct values of ORF1b respectively indicating posterior nasopharyngeal tract as primary nCoV afflicted site with high viral load. CONCLUSION: The combined swab may be recommended as a more appropriate specimen for both diagnosis and monitoring of COVID-19 treatment by rRT-PCR for assessing virus clearance to help physicians in taking evidence-based decision before discharging patients. Implementing combined swabs globally will definitely help in management and control of the pandemic, as it is the need of the hour.


Assuntos
/métodos , RNA Viral , Manejo de Espécimes , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , /virologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina , Feminino , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nasofaringe/virologia , Orofaringe/virologia , RNA Viral/sangue , RNA Viral/isolamento & purificação , RNA Viral/urina , Escarro/virologia , Adulto Jovem
2.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 6652, 2021 03 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33758241

RESUMO

How human respiratory physiology and the transport phenomena associated with inhaled airflow in the upper airway proceed to impact transmission of SARS-CoV-2, leading to the initial infection, stays an open question. An answer can help determine the susceptibility of an individual on exposure to a COVID-2019 carrier and can also provide a preliminary projection of the still-unknown infectious dose for the disease. Computational fluid mechanics enabled tracking of respiratory transport in medical imaging-based anatomic domains shows that the regional deposition of virus-laden inhaled droplets at the initial nasopharyngeal infection site peaks for the droplet size range of approximately 2.5-19 [Formula: see text]. Through integrating the numerical findings on inhaled transmission with sputum assessment data from hospitalized COVID-19 patients and earlier measurements of ejecta size distribution generated during regular speech, this study further reveals that the number of virions that may go on to establish the SARS-CoV-2 infection in a subject could merely be in the order of hundreds.


Assuntos
/transmissão , Nasofaringe/virologia , /fisiologia , /patologia , Simulação por Computador , Humanos , Escarro/virologia , Carga Viral
3.
Ann Clin Lab Sci ; 51(1): 140-144, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33653794

RESUMO

We compared SARS-CoV-2 detection rate of different respiratory specimens (nasopharyngeal swab [NPS], n=92; oropharyngeal swab [OPS], n=18; sputum, n=11). We also compared cycle threshold (Ct) values of paired specimen types obtained from the same patient on the same day. Then we characterized viral load kinetics of NPS (n=142), OPS (n=126), and sputum (n=75), during disease course. Sputum samples showed higher detection rate than NPS, and OPS exhibited the lowest detection rate. The median Ct values in NPS were significantly lower than in paired OPS, and higher than in paired sputum, respectively (P<0.05). During the disease course, viral load was the lowest in OPS and the highest in sputum samples.


Assuntos
/isolamento & purificação , Manejo de Espécimes , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , /virologia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Cinética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nasofaringe/virologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Escarro/virologia , Carga Viral , Adulto Jovem
4.
Mikrochim Acta ; 188(4): 121, 2021 03 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33694010

RESUMO

A voltammetric genosensor has been developed for the early diagnosis of COVID-19 by determination of RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP) sequence as a specific target of novel coronavirus. The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) uses an RdRP for the replication of its genome and the transcription of its genes. Here, the silver ions (Ag+) in the hexathia-18-crown-6 (HT18C6) were used for the first time as a redox probe. Then, the HT18C6(Ag) incorporated carbon paste electrode (CPE) was further modified with chitosan and PAMAM dendrimer-coated silicon quantum dots (SiQDs@PAMAM) for immobilization of probe sequences (aminated oligonucleotides). The current intensity of differential pulse voltammetry using the redox probe was found to decrease with increasing the concentration of target sequence. Based on such signal-off trend, the proposed genosensor exhibited a good linear response to SARS-CoV-2 RdRP in the concentration range 1.0 pM-8.0 nM with a regression equation I (µA) = - 6.555 log [RdRP sequence] (pM) + 32.676 (R2 = 0.995) and a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.3 pM. The standard addition method with different spike concentrations of RdRP sequence in human sputum samples showed a good recovery for real sample analysis (> 95%). Therefore, the developed voltammetric genosensor can be used to determine SARS-CoV-2 RdRP sequence in sputum samples. PAMAM-functionalized SiQDs were used as a versatile electrochemical platform for the SARS-CoV-2 RdRP detection based on a signal off sensing strategy. In this study, for the first time, the silver ions (Ag+) in the hexathia-18-crown-6 carrier were applied as an electrochemical probe.


Assuntos
/instrumentação , Nanotecnologia/métodos , /genética , Técnicas Biossensoriais , Dendrímeros , Diagnóstico Precoce , Eletrodos , Humanos , Limite de Detecção , Escarro/virologia , Replicação Viral/genética
5.
Zool Res ; 42(2): 161-169, 2021 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33554485

RESUMO

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) continue to impact countries worldwide. At present, inadequate diagnosis and unreliable evaluation systems hinder the implementation and development of effective prevention and treatment strategies. Here, we conducted a horizontal and longitudinal study comparing the detection rates of SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid in different types of samples collected from COVID-19 patients and SARS-CoV-2-infected monkeys. We also detected anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in the above clinical and animal model samples to identify a reliable approach for the accurate diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Results showed that, regardless of clinical symptoms, the highest detection levels of viral nucleic acid were found in sputum and tracheal brush samples, resulting in a high and stable diagnosis rate. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin M (IgM) and G (IgG) antibodies were not detected in 6.90% of COVID-19 patients. Furthermore, integration of nucleic acid detection results from the various sample types did not improve the diagnosis rate. Moreover, dynamic changes in SARS-CoV-2 viral load were more obvious in sputum and tracheal brushes than in nasal and throat swabs. Thus, SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid detection in sputum and tracheal brushes was the least affected by infection route, disease progression, and individual differences. Therefore, SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid detection using lower respiratory tract samples alone is reliable for COVID-19 diagnosis and study.


Assuntos
/veterinária , /genética , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Haplorrinos , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Faringe/virologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Manejo de Espécimes , Escarro/virologia
6.
Allergol Immunopathol (Madr) ; 49(1): 159-164, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33528945

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a disease caused by a new strain of coronavirus named as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). Globally, since the outbreak, more than seven million confirmed cases of COVID-19 have been reported. The rapid spread and increase in the number of new cases is due to person-to-person transmission. To further control its transmission, early laboratory diagnosis of both asymptomatic and symptomatic patients is crucial. Presently, the COVID-19 diagnosis of infected individuals is dependent on computed tomography scanning and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The latter is considered more sensitive and efficient for early diagnosis. In this review, general comparisons are made (cases, fatality rate, incubation period, clinical features, and reservoirs) and diagnostic laboratory procedures (specimens, extraction methods, and positive rates by real-time PCR) are compared between SARS, Middle East Respiratory Syndrome, and SARS-2. In total, 8982 SARS-2 suspected patients specimen data were retrieved, in which 40.9% (n = 3678) were detected as positive by real-time PCR. The specimen-wise high detection rate was observed from bronchoalveolar lavage, followed by saliva, nasal swabs, and sputum. As the COVID-19 cases are persistently increasing, the selection of appropriate specimens and laboratory assay would help in rapid and timely diagnosis.


Assuntos
/diagnóstico , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , /isolamento & purificação , Lavagem Broncoalveolar , /virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Humanos , Nasofaringe/virologia , Saliva/virologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/diagnóstico , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/virologia , Escarro/virologia
7.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 84, 2021 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33468070

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diabetes is a risk factor for infection with coronaviruses. This study describes the demographic, clinical data, and outcomes of critically ill patients with diabetes and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS). METHODS: This retrospective cohort study was conducted at 14 hospitals in Saudi Arabia (September 2012-January 2018). We compared the demographic characteristics, underlying medical conditions, presenting symptoms and signs, management and clinical course, and outcomes of critically ill patients with MERS who had diabetes compared to those with no diabetes. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to determine if diabetes was an independent predictor of 90-day mortality. RESULTS: Of the 350 critically ill patients with MERS, 171 (48.9%) had diabetes. Patients with diabetes were more likely to be older, and have comorbid conditions, compared to patients with no diabetes. They were more likely to present with respiratory failure requiring intubation, vasopressors, and corticosteroids. The median time to clearance of MERS-CoV RNA was similar (23 days (Q1, Q3: 17, 36) in patients with diabetes and 21.0 days (Q1, Q3: 10, 33) in patients with no diabetes). Mortality at 90 days was higher in patients with diabetes (78.9% versus 54.7%, p < 0.0001). Multivariable regression analysis showed that diabetes was an independent risk factor for 90-day mortality (odds ratio, 2.09; 95% confidence interval, 1.18-3.72). CONCLUSIONS: Half of the critically ill patients with MERS have diabetes; which is associated with more severe disease. Diabetes is an independent predictor of mortality among critically patients with MERS.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Complicações do Diabetes/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Corticosteroides , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/virologia , Estudos de Coortes , Comorbidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Estado Terminal , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/genética , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/isolamento & purificação , Nasofaringe/virologia , Insuficiência Respiratória/etiologia , Insuficiência Respiratória/mortalidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Escarro/virologia , Traqueia/virologia
9.
Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis ; 99(1): 115228, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33190093

RESUMO

In this study, 127 sputum/tracheal aspirate specimens were evaluated by a laboratory-developed real-time RT-PCR method and Fusion SARS-CoV-2 assay. These specimens were collected from the patients who have nasopharyngeal swab (NPS) samples being used for SARS-CoV-2 detection previously or simultaneously. The overall agreement was 96% between the lower respiratory tract (LRT) and NPS samples, suggesting that LRT specimens could be an option for patients who develop a productive cough or those receiving invasive mechanical ventilation.


Assuntos
/métodos , Nasofaringe/virologia , Escarro/virologia , Humanos , Limite de Detecção , /genética
10.
J Clin Lab Anal ; 35(1): e23605, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33320386

RESUMO

We compared the sensitivity and specificity of four commercial coronavirus disease (COVID-19) diagnostic kits using real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Kits I-IV approved by the State Drug Administration of China were selected, and the detection targets were ORF1ab gene and N gene. Specificity was evaluated by detecting other respiratory viruses. The sensitivity and batch effect of each kit were evaluated by testing 10-fold dilutions of RNA. Clinical application was verified by testing nasopharyngeal swab and sputum specimens from COVID-19 patients. Among the 78 cases infected by other respiratory viruses, no amplification curve was observed using these four COVID-19 RT-PCR kits. The minimum detection limits of kits I-IV were 10-6 , 10-5 , 10-5 , and 10-6 dilutions, respectively, and concentrations were 10 copies/mL (10-5 dilution) and 1 copies/mL (10-6 dilution). The sensitivities of kits I-IV detected using 142 nasopharyngeal swab specimens from COVID-19 patients were 91.55%, 81.69%, 80.28%, and 90.85%, respectively, while they were 92.68%, 85.37%, 82.93%, and 93.90%, respectively, for the 82 sputum samples. The specificity of each kit was 100.00% (77/77). The total expected detection rate using sputum samples was 88.59% (691/780) higher than 86.15% (672/780) of nasopharyngeal swabs. Comparison of nasopharyngeal swab and sputum samples from the same COVID-19 patient led to the detection of ORF1ab and N genes in 16 (100%) sputum samples; only ORF1ab and N genes were detected in 12 (75%) and 14 (87.5%) nasopharyngeal swab specimens, respectively. In conclusion, comparison of commercial COVID-19 RT-PCR kits should be performed before using a new batch of such kits in routine diagnostics.


Assuntos
/métodos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/métodos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa/métodos , China , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/métodos , Humanos , Nasofaringe/virologia , Kit de Reagentes para Diagnóstico , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Escarro/virologia
11.
J Hazard Mater ; 402: 123771, 2021 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33254782

RESUMO

Understanding the transmission mechanism of SARS-CoV-2 is a prerequisite to effective control measures. To investigate the potential modes of SARS-CoV-2 transmission, 21 COVID-19 patients from 12-47 days after symptom onset were recruited. We monitored the release of SARS-CoV-2 from the patients' exhaled breath and systematically investigated environmental contamination of air, public surfaces, personal necessities, and the drainage system. SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detected in 0 of 9 exhaled breath samples, 2 of 8 exhaled breath condensate samples, 1 of 12 bedside air samples, 4 of 132 samples from private surfaces, 0 of 70 samples from frequently touched public surfaces in isolation rooms, and 7 of 23 feces-related air/surface/water samples. The maximum viral RNA concentrations were 1857 copies/m3 in the air, 38 copies/cm2 in sampled surfaces and 3092 copies/mL in sewage/wastewater samples. Our results suggest that nosocomial transmission of SARS-CoV-2 can occur via multiple routes. However, the low detection frequency and limited quantity of viral RNA from the breath and environmental specimens may be related to the reduced viral load of the COVID-19 patients on later days after symptom onset. These findings suggest that the transmission dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 differ from those of SARS-CoV in healthcare settings.


Assuntos
/transmissão , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Fezes/virologia , Feminino , Fômites/virologia , Hospitais Universitários , Humanos , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , RNA Viral/análise , /isolamento & purificação , Escarro/virologia
12.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(52): e23800, 2020 Dec 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33350766

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Since December 2019, an outbreak of COVID-19 sweeping the world. Understanding the clinical and SARS-CoV-2 dynamic changes of mild and ordinary patients of COVID-19, so as to provide basis for the prevention and control of COVID-19.On February 1st, 2020, 16 SARS-CoV-2 RNA positive patients diagnosed in the same site in Beijing. The patients symptoms, signs, medication, and SARS-CoV-2 results were recorded.Of the 16 patients, 12 were female. Although they were infected at the same time in the same workplace, their clinical processes were very different and can be roughly divided into three different types: persistent sputum positive, persistent stool positive and persistent both positive. In 7 patients with mild clinical manifestations, the median days of SARS-CoV-2 RNA negative conversion in sputum samples were significantly later than those with obvious lung injury (27 days [range: 18 to 36]; 17 days, [range 6 to 25], P = .021). The negative conversion of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in stool was significant later than in sputum.There were various clinical manifestations after SARS-CoV-2 infection, even if they were infected by the same source of infection in the same place. The presence of SARS-CoV-2 virus RNA in stool samples was longer than that in respiratory tract.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Exposição Ocupacional , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Local de Trabalho , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Fezes/virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , RNA Viral/análise , Escarro/virologia
13.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 24(23): 12579-12588, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33336778

RESUMO

Management of SARS-CoV-2 requires safe decision-making to minimize contamination. Healthcare workers and professionals in confined areas are affected by the risk of the activity and the environment. Isolation of contaminated workers and healthcare professionals requires clinical and diagnostic criteria. On the other hand, interrupting the isolation of healthcare employees and professionals is critical because diagnostic tests do not support clinical decisions. In addition to defining the best test in view of its accuracy, it is necessary to consider aspects such as the stage of the disease or cure, the viral load and the individual's own immunity. Uncertainty about natural and herd immunity to the disease leads to the development of appropriate antivirals, diagnostic tests and vaccines.


Assuntos
/transmissão , Isolamento de Pacientes/normas , Imunidade Adaptativa/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Antígenos Virais/imunologia , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/química , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/virologia , /imunologia , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Fezes/química , Fezes/virologia , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Imunoglobulina M/imunologia , Nasofaringe/química , Nasofaringe/virologia , Isolamento de Pacientes/métodos , RNA Viral/análise , Escarro/química , Escarro/virologia , Carga Viral
14.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 818, 2020 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33167900

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To explore the kinetic changes in virology, specific antibody response and imaging during the clinical course of COVID-19. METHODS: This observational study enrolled 20 patients with COVID-19, who were hospitalized between January 20-April 6, 2020, in the two COVID-19 designated hospitals of Zhoushan, Zhejiang and Rushan, Shandong, China, The laboratory findings, imaging, serum response to viral infection, and viral RNA level in the throat and stool samples were assessed from onset to recovery phase in patients with COVID-19. RESULTS: SARS-COV-2 RNA was positive as early as day four. It remained positive until day 55 post-onset in the sputum-throat swabs and became negative in most cases (55%) within 14 days after onset. Lymphocytopenia occurred in 40% (8/20) of patients during the peak infection period and returned to normal at week five. The most severe inflammation in the lungs appeared in week 2 or 3 after onset, and this was completely absorbed between week 6 and 8 in 85.7% of patients. All patients had detectable antibodies to the receptor binding domain (RBD), and 95% of these patients had IgG to viral N proteins. The antibody titer peaked at week four. Anti-S IgM was positive in 7 of 20 patients after week three. CONCLUSIONS: All COVID-19 patients in this study were self-limiting and recovered well though it may take as long as 6-8 weeks. Our findings on the kinetic changes in imaging, serum response to viral infection and viral RNA level may help understand pathogenesis and define clinical course of COVID-19.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico por imagem , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico por imagem , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Betacoronavirus/genética , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas do Nucleocapsídeo/imunologia , Pandemias , Fosfoproteínas , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , RNA Viral/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Escarro/virologia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Adulto Jovem
15.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 24(20): 10879-10884, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33155251

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Among the illnesses that may develop from COVID-19, the disease caused by the novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), is pneumonia, a severe acute respiratory infectious disease. SARS-CoV-2 continues to spread worldwide and has caused hundreds of thousands of deaths thus far and has disrupted the world economy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This review summarized the reported distributions of SARS-CoV-2 in 13 biological samples of the human body, including nose, feces, sperm, tears, breast milk, cerebrospinal fluid, urine, organs, sputum, cell lines, bronchial brush, blood, throat, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Moreover, this review briefly describes the detection of SARS-CoV-2 in human body samples of five other coronaviruses. CONCLUSIONS: This review offers several recommendations for controlling the spread of SARS-CoV-2 control, specifically, sample collection from suspected cases from foreign countries and risk assessment of imported special goods (biological materials).


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Mama/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Infecções por Coronavirus/urina , Diagnóstico Precoce , Fezes/virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Nariz/virologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Pneumonia Viral/urina , Espermatozoides/virologia , Escarro/virologia , Lágrimas/virologia
16.
J Prev Med Hyg ; 61(3): E304-E312, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33150219

RESUMO

Introduction: COVID-19 is an emerging infectious disease. The study about features of this infection could be very helpful in better knowledge about this infectious disease. The current systematic review and meta-analysis were aimed to estimate the prevalence of clinical symptoms of COVID-19 in a systematic review and meta-analysis. Methods: A systematic review using Medline/PubMed, Scopus, and Google scholar has been conducted. In the current systematic review and meta-analysis, the articles published in the period January 1, 2020, to April 2, 2020, written in English and reporting clinical symptoms of COVID-19 was reviewed. To assess, the presence of heterogeneity, the Cochran's Q statistic, the I2 index, and the tau-squared test were used. Because of significant heterogeneity between the studies the random-effects model with 95% CI was used to calculate the pooled estimation of each symptom prevalence. Results: The most common symptoms in COVID-19 patients include: Fever 81.2% (95% CI: 77.9-84.4); Cough: 58.5% (95% CI: 54.2-62.8); Fatigue 38.5% (95% CI: 30.6-45.3); Dyspnea: 26.1% (95% CI: 20.4-31.8); and the Sputum: 25.8% (95% CI: 21.1-30.4). Based on the meta-regression results, the sample size used in different studies did not have a significant effect on the final estimate value (P > 0.05). Conclusions: Considering the main symptoms of COVID-19 such as Fever, Cough, Fatigue, and Dyspnea can have a key role in early detection of this disease and prevent the transmission of the disease to other people.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Betacoronavirus , Tosse/virologia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Dispneia/virologia , Fadiga/virologia , Febre/virologia , Humanos , Pandemias , Escarro/virologia
17.
Virulence ; 11(1): 1394-1401, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33073676

RESUMO

We previously reported that sputum induction was more sensitive than throat swabs for the detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in two convalescent coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients; however, the value and safety of induced sputum testing require further study. We conducted a prospective multi-center cross-sectional study to compare induced sputum to throat swabs for SARS-CoV-2 detection. Confirmed COVID-19 patients from six hospitals in six cities across China who received one or more negative RT-PCR result for SARS-CoV-2 were enrolled, and paired specimens (induced sputum and throat swabs; 56 cases) were assayed. In three paired samples, both the induced sputum and throat swabs were positive for SARS-CoV-2. The positive rate for induced sputum was significantly higher than for throat swabs both overall (28.6% vs 5.4%, respectively; p < 0.01). Patients were divided according to time span from onset of illness to sample collection into the more-than-30-day (n = 26) and less-than-30-day (n = 30) groups. The positive rate for induced sputum was also significantly higher than for throat swabs in the less-than-30-day group (53.3% vs 10.0%, respectively; p < 0.001). For the more-than-30-day group, all paired samples were negative for SARS-CoV-2. Blood oxygen saturation, respiratory rate, and heart rate remained stable during sputum induction and no staff were infected. Because induced sputum is more reliable and has a lower false-negative rate than throat swabs, we believe induced sputum is more useful for the confirmation of COVID-19 and is safer as a criterion for release from quarantine.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Escarro/virologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Betacoronavirus/genética , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/virologia , China , Estudos Transversais , Reações Falso-Negativas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Estudos Prospectivos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Adulto Jovem
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32850506

RESUMO

A new type of coronavirus-induced pneumonia eventually termed "coronavirus disease 2019" (COVID-19) was diagnosed in patients in Wuhan (Hubei Province, China) in December 2019, and soon spread worldwide. To improve the detection rate of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), we analyzed the results of viral nucleic acid and serum-specific antibody tests on clinical samples from 20 patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection diagnosed at the First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University in China. By comparing various sample types collected from COVID-19 patients, we revealed multiple pathways for SARS-CoV-2 shedding, and a prolonged detectable period for viral nucleic acid test in sputum specimens, demonstrating that the timeline of the viral shedding is of great value in determining the time of release from quarantine or discharge from hospital. We also recommend for the application of serological test to assist in confirming SARS-CoV-2 infection judged by viral nucleic acid test, especially when COVID-19-related symptoms have appeared and the viral nucleic acid test was negative. Our findings are critical for the diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection and for determining deadline of restriction measures to prevent transmission caused by convalescent patients with COVID-19.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Fezes/virologia , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Escarro/virologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Betacoronavirus/genética , Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , RNA Viral/análise , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Testes Sorológicos , Eliminação de Partículas Virais
19.
Med Sci Monit ; 26: e925442, 2020 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32796810

RESUMO

BACKGROUND This population study aimed to investigate the demographic and clinical characteristics and outcome of cases of coronavirus disease 2019 in Lu'an City, China between January 22, 2020 and February 18, 2020 identified from the China Information System for Disease Control and Prevention (CISDCP). MATERIAL AND METHODS Laboratory-confirmed cases of COVID-19 reported in the CISDCP were included in this study. The distribution of cases, exposure history, clustered epidemic situation, and clinical manifestations, disease severity, and key time nodes were analyzed. Once the throat swab or sputum sample was positive for SARS-CoV-2 by real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction testing as confirmed cases. RESULTS There were 69 cases of COVID-19 that were confirmed between January 22 and February 18, 2020 reported. The onset time was concentrated on January 25, 2020 solstice to February 6, 2020 (71.0%), and the reporting dates were concentrated on January 31, 2020 and February 9, 2020 (69.6%). Nineteen cases (27.5%) had a history of sojourn in Hubei Province, and none of the cases reported after February 6, 2020 had a history of exposure in Hubei Province. There were 14 cluster outbreaks, and human-to-human transmission was the most common (78.6%). The most common symptoms were fever (56.5%), cough (37.7%), and self-conscious discomfort (14.5%). Besides, there were 9 severe cases (13.0%). CONCLUSIONS The epidemic prevention and control in Lu'an City has achieved phased results. Yet, new strict control measures need to be implemented to prevent a further outbreak, especially for those who will return to Lu'an City.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , China/epidemiologia , Cidades/epidemiologia , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Análise por Conglomerados , Busca de Comunicante , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Geografia Médica , Humanos , Nasofaringe/virologia , Orofaringe/virologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Estudos Retrospectivos , Escarro/virologia , Análise de Sobrevida , Avaliação de Sintomas
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