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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e254016, 2024. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1364529

RESUMO

The present study was conducted to isolate and characterize bacteria from water and soil sample taken from the Lahore Canal at different sites i.e. Mall Road, Mohlanwal and Khera site. Isolated bacterial strains were identified on the basis of morphological and biochemical tests. Identification was confirmed by culturing bacteria on selective media. Antibiotic resistance test was also performed to observe the resistance of bacteria against different antibiotics. Blood agar test was performed for identification of different pathogenic bacteria. The result revealed that water and soil samples of Lahore Canal Lahore from different sites were contaminated with Escherichia coli, Salmonella sp., Vibrio sp., Bacillus spp., Enterococcus sp. and Staphylococcus spp. Due to presence of these pathogens, this water is not suitable for any domestic and irrigation use. Study also revealed that water of the Lahore Canal is harmful for human health as it is contaminated with bacteria that can cause severe disease e.g., Escherichia coli can cause gastroenteritis, Bacillus spp. can cause nausea and vomiting, Enterococcus may infect urinary tract, Salmonella sp. is responsible for Bacteremia, Staphylococcus spp. can cause mild fever and Vibrio sp. can be the reason of cholera. Thus it is rendered unfit for any kind of human use even other than drinking like swimming, bathing, washing etc., until and unless some remedial measures are employed to eradicate pathogenic microorganisms by WASA and LWMS according to standards of WHO. Similarly, it is quite harmful, when and where ever it is used for irrigation without proper treatment.


O presente estudo foi realizado para isolar e caracterizar bactérias de amostras de água e solo retiradas do Canal Lahore, em Lahore, em diferentes locais, ou seja, Mall Road, Mohlanwal e Khera. As cepas bacterianas isoladas foram identificadas com base em testes morfológicos e bioquímicos. A identificação foi confirmada por cultura de bactérias em testes de meios seletivos. O teste de resistência aos antibióticos também foi realizado para observar a resistência das bactérias a diferentes antibióticos. Foi realizado o teste de ágar sangue para identificar diferentes bactérias patogênicas. O resultado revelou que amostras de água e solo do Canal Lahore, Lahore, de diferentes localidades estavam contaminadas com Escherichia coli, Salmonella sp., Vibrio sp., Bacillus spp., Enterococcus sp. e Staphylococcus spp. Por causa da presença desses patógenos, essa água não é adequada para qualquer uso doméstico e de irrigação. O estudo revelou que a água do Canal Lahore é prejudicial à saúde humana, pois está contaminada com bactérias que podem causar doenças graves, por exemplo: Escherichia coli pode ocasionar gastroenterite; Bacillus spp. pode causar náuseas e vômitos; Enterococcus sp. pode infectar o trato urinário; Salmonella sp. é responsável pela bacteremia; Staphylococcus spp. pode causar febre leve; e Vibrio sp. pode ser a razão da cólera. Assim, torna-se imprópria para uso humano, como natação, banho, lavagem etc., até que algumas medidas corretivas sejam empregadas para erradicar microrganismos patogênicos por WASA e LWMS de acordo com os padrões da OMS. Da mesma forma, é bastante prejudicial, quando usada para irrigação sem tratamento adequado.


Assuntos
Animais , Solo , Staphylococcus , Vibrio , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Amostras de Água , Enterococcus , Escherichia coli
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e255755, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355898

RESUMO

Abstract The present study involves the chemical and bacteriological analysis of water from different sources i.e., bore, wells, bottle, and tap, from Peshawar, Mardan, Swat and Kohat districts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP) province, Pakistan. From each district, 50 water samples (10 samples from each source), regardless of urban and rural status, were collected from these sources and analysed for sulphates, nitrates, nitrites, chlorides, total soluble solids and coliforms (E. coli). Results indicated that majority of the water sources had unacceptable E. coli count i.e.> 34 CFU/100mL. E. coli positive samples were high in Mardan District, followed by Kohat, Swat and Peshawar district. Besides this, the some water sources were also chemically contaminated by different inorganic fertilizers (nitrates/nitrites of sodium, potassium) but under safe levels whereas agricultural and industrial wastes (chloride and sulphate compounds) were in unsafe range. Among all districts, the water quality was found comparatively more deteriorated in Kohat and Mardan districts than Peshawar and Swat districts. Such chemically and bacteriologically unfit water sources for drinking and can cause human health problems.


Resumo O presente estudo envolve a análise química e bacteriológica de água de diferentes fontes, ou seja, furo, poços, garrafa e torneira, dos distritos de Peshawar, Mardan, Swat e Kohat da província de Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP), Paquistão. De cada distrito, 50 amostras de água (10 amostras de cada fonte), independentemente do status urbano e rural, foram coletadas dessas fontes e analisadas para sulfatos, nitratos, nitritos, cloretos, sólidos solúveis totais e coliformes (E. coli). Os resultados indicaram que a maioria das fontes de água tinha uma contagem inaceitável de E. coli, ou seja, > 34 UFC / 100 mL. As amostras positivas para E. coli foram elevadas no distrito de Mardan, seguido por Kohat, Swat e distrito de Peshawar. Além disso, algumas fontes de água também foram contaminadas quimicamente por diferentes fertilizantes inorgânicos (nitratos/nitritos de sódio, potássio), mas em níveis seguros, enquanto os resíduos agrícolas e industriais (compostos de cloreto e sulfato) estavam em níveis inseguros. Entre todos os distritos, a qualidade da água foi considerada comparativamente mais deteriorada nos distritos de Kohat e Mardan do que nos distritos de Peshawar e Swat. Essas fontes de água química e bacteriologicamente impróprias para beber podem causar problemas à saúde humana.


Assuntos
Humanos , Água Potável , Qualidade da Água , Paquistão , Escherichia coli
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e243332, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345537

RESUMO

Abstract The present study was aimed to manifest the antibacterial and antifungal activity of methanolic extracts of Salix alba L. against seven Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial pathogens e.g. Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus (1), S. aureus (2), Shigella sonnei, Escherichia coli (1), E. coli (2) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae and three fungal isolates from the air such as Aspergillus terreus, A. ornatus, and Rhizopus stolonifer. Two different serotypes of S. aureus and E. coli were used. The agar well-diffusion method results showed the dose-dependent response of plant extracts against bacterial and fungal strains while some organisms were found resistant e.g. E. coli (1), S. sonnei, A. terreus and R. stolonifer. The highest antibacterial activity was recorded at 17.000±1.732 mm from 100 mg/mL of leaves methanolic extracts against S. pyogenes while the activity of most of the pathogens decreased after 24 h of incubation. The highest antifungal activity was reported at 11.833±1.0 mm against A. ornatus at 50 mg/mL after 48 h of the incubation period. These experimental findings endorse the use of S. alba in ethnopharmacological formulations and suggest the use of methanolic extracts of the said plant to develop drugs to control the proliferation of resistant disease causing pathogenic microbes.


Resumo O presente estudo teve como objetivo manifestar a atividade antibacteriana e antifúngica de extratos metanólicos de Salix alba L. contra sete patógenos bacterianos Gram-positivos e Gram-negativos. Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus (1), S. aureus (2), Shigella sonnei, Escherichia coli (1), E. coli (2) e Neisseria gonorrhoeae e três isolados de fungos do ar, como Aspergillus terreus, A. ornatus, e Rhizopus stolonifer. Dois sorotipos diferentes de S. aureus e E. coli foram usados. Os resultados do método de difusão em ágar mostraram a resposta dependente da dose de extratos de plantas contra cepas de bactérias e fungos, enquanto alguns organismos foram considerados resistentes, e.g. E. coli (1), S. sonnei, A. terreus e R. stolonifer. A maior atividade antibacteriana foi registrada em 17.000 ± 1.732 de 100 mg/mL de extratos metanólicos de folhas contra S. pyogenes, enquanto a atividade da maioria dos patógenos diminuiu após 24 h de incubação. A maior atividade antifúngica foi relatada em 11,833 ± 1,0 contra A. ornatus a 50 mg/mL após 48 h do período de incubação. Esses achados experimentais endossam o uso de S. alba em formulações etnofarmacológicas e sugerem o uso de extratos metanólicos da referida planta para o desenvolvimento de fármacos que controlem a proliferação de doenças resistentes que causam micróbios patogênicos.


Assuntos
Salix , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Aspergillus , Rhizopus , Staphylococcus aureus , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Metanol , Escherichia coli , Antibacterianos/farmacologia
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e249159, 2023. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339415

RESUMO

Abstract There is a paucity of research conducted on microbial prevalence in pheasants. The microbiota of captive birds has zoonotic significance and must be characterize. Present study is therefore planned to assess the microbiota from oral, fecal and gut content of captive avian species. It will be helpful in characterization of harmful microbes. Different samples taken from oral, gut and feces of ring-necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus), green pheasants (Phasianus versicolor), golden pheasant (Chrysolophus pictus) and silver pheasant (Lophura nycthemera). Samples were collected, diluted, and inoculated onto different agar plates (MacConkey, SS agar, MSA and nutrient agar) for cultivation of bacterial species. Colonies of E.coli, Staphylococcus spp. Brachyspira spp. and Campylobacter spp were observed based on colony morphology. Colony forming unit showed E. coli as frequently found bacteria in fecal, oral and gut contents of all the above pheasants. The overall significance difference was found among bacterial species of golden pheasants, green pheasant, ring-necked pheasant, and silver pheasants. It was concluded that E.coli is predominant isolated from heathy pheasants followed by Campylobacter, Staphylococcus and Brachyspira.


Resumo Há uma escassez de pesquisas realizadas sobre a prevalência microbiana em faisões. A microbiota de aves em cativeiro tem significado zoonótico e deve ser caracterizada. O presente estudo está, portanto, planejado para avaliar a microbiota do conteúdo oral, fecal e intestinal de espécies aviárias em cativeiro. Será útil na caracterização de micróbios nocivos. Diferentes amostras retiradas da boca, intestino e fezes de faisões de pescoço redondo (Phasianus colchicus), faisões verdes (Phasianus versicolor), faisões dourados (Chrysolophus pictus) e faisão prateado (Lophura nycthemera). As amostras foram coletadas, diluídas e inoculadas em diferentes placas de ágar (MacConkey, ágar SS, MSA e ágar nutriente) para o cultivo de espécies bacterianas. Colônias de E. coli, Staphylococcus spp., Brachyspira spp. e Campylobacter spp foram observados com base na morfologia da colônia. A unidade formadora de colônia mostrou E. coli como bactéria frequentemente encontrada no conteúdo fecal, oral e intestinal de todos os faisões acima. A diferença de significância geral foi encontrada entre as espécies bacterianas de faisões dourados, faisões verdes, faisões de pescoço anelado e faisões prateados. Verificou-se que a E.coli é predominantemente isolada de faisões saudáveis, seguida por Campylobacter, Staphylococcus e Brachyspira.


Assuntos
Animais , Galliformes , Escherichia coli , Fezes
5.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e245585, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339413

RESUMO

Abstract Many soil microorganisms' i.e., bacteria and fungi produce secondary metabolites called antibiotics. These are used for the treatment of some of the bacterial, fungal and protozoal diseases of humans. There is a need for isolation of a broad spectrum of antibiotics from microorganisms due to the emergence of antibiotic resistance. In the present study two antibiotic producing bacteria Klebsiella pneumoniae and Bacillus cereus were isolated from pharmaceutical and poultry feed industry of Hattar, Haripur Pakistan. Total 10 waste samples were collected from different industries (Marble, Ghee, Soap, Mineral, Steel, Poultry Feed, Pharmaceutical, Qarshi, Cosmetic and Glass). Thirty-three bacterial strains were isolated from industrial wastes of these ten different industries. Fourteen out of thirty-three bacterial strains exhibited antimicrobial activities against at least one of the test microbes considered in this study including Escherchia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella typhi. The bacteria were isolated by standard serial dilution spread plate technique. Morphological characterization of the isolates was done by Gram staining. Nine bacterial isolates out of fourteen were initially identified as B. cereus and five as K. pneumoniae through biochemical characterization. The antibacterial activities were tested by well diffusion method. Maximum number of antibiotic producing bacteria were isolated from pharmaceutical and poultry feed industry based on the results of primary screening, the most potential isolates S9, S19, S20, S22 and S23 were selected for secondary screening. The maximum activity against E. coli and S. aureus was recorded by bacterial isolate S19 i.e zones of inhibition of 6.5mm and 9mm while S20 showed 7.5mm and 6mm zones respectively. Molecular identification was carried out on the basis of 16S rRNA sequence analysis. Finally, the isolates were identified as B. cereus accession number LC538271and K. pneumoniae accession number MT078679. Analysis of bacterial extract S20 through GC-MS indicated the presence of 8 compounds of diverse nature and structure. Present study suggests that wastes of pharmaceutical and poultry feed industry may have antibiotic producing bacteria. These bacteria could be utilized for the production of antibiotics. B. cereus and K. pneumoniae isolated from wastes of poultry feed and pharmaceutical industries have the potential to produce antibiotics and could be used to control the microbial growth.


Resumo Muitos microrganismos do solo, ou seja, bactérias e fungos produzem metabólitos secundários chamados antibióticos. Eles são usados ​​para tratamento de algumas doenças bacterianas, fúngicas e protozoárias em humanos. Há necessidade de isolamento de um amplo espectro de antibióticos de microrganismos devido ao surgimento de resistência aos antibióticos. No presente estudo, duas bactérias produtoras de antibióticos, Klebsiella pneumoniae e Bacillus cereus, foram isoladas da indústria farmacêutica e de ração avícola de Hattar, Haripur, Paquistão. Um total de 10 amostras de resíduos foi coletado de diferentes indústrias (mármore, ghee, sabão, mineral, aço, ração para aves, farmacêutica, Qarshi, cosmética e vidro). Trinta e três cepas bacterianas foram isoladas de resíduos industriais dessas dez diferentes indústrias. Quatorze das 33 cepas bacterianas exibiram atividades antimicrobianas contra pelo menos um dos micróbios de teste considerados neste estudo, incluindo Escherchia coli, Staphylococcus aureus e Salmonella typhi. As bactérias foram isoladas pela técnica de placa de diluição em série padrão. A caracterização morfológica dos isolados foi feita por coloração de gram. Nove isolados bacterianos de 14 foram inicialmente identificados como B. cereus e cinco como K. pneumoniae por meio de caracterização bioquímica. As atividades antibacterianas foram testadas pelo método de difusão em poço. O número máximo de bactérias produtoras de antibióticos foi isolado da indústria farmacêutica e de ração avícola com base nos resultados da triagem primária, os isolados mais potenciais S9, S19, S20, S22 e S23 foram selecionados para a triagem secundária. A atividade máxima contra E. coli e S. aureus foi registrada pelo isolado bacteriano S19, ou seja, zonas de inibição de 6,5 mm e 9 mm, enquanto S20 mostrou zonas de 7,5 mm e 6 mm, respectivamente. A identificação molecular foi realizada com base na análise da sequência 16S rRNA. Finalmente, os isolados foram identificados como B. cereus número de acesso LC538271 e K. pneumoniae número de acesso MT078679. A análise do extrato bacteriano S20 por meio de GC-MS indicou a presença de oito compostos de natureza e estrutura diversas. O presente estudo sugere que resíduos da indústria farmacêutica e de ração para aves podem conter bactérias produtoras de antibióticos. Essas bactérias podem ser utilizadas para a produção de antibióticos B. cereus e K. pneumoniae isolados de resíduos de rações de aves e indústrias farmacêuticas têm potencial para produzir antibióticos e podem ser usados ​​para controlar o crescimento microbiano.


Assuntos
Humanos , Staphylococcus aureus , Resíduos Industriais , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Extratos Vegetais , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Escherichia coli , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Antibacterianos/farmacologia
6.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e239323, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339341

RESUMO

Abstract The β-lactam/lactamase inhibitors (BLBLIs) combination drugs are considered an effective alternative to carbapenems. However, there is a growing concern that the increased use of BLBLIs may lead to increased resistance. This study determined the temporal association between the consumption of BLBLI and the antimicrobial resistance in Gram-negative bacteria. In this retrospective study, electronic data on the Gram-negative bacterial isolates, including A. baumannii, P. aeruginosa, E. coli, and K. pneumoniae from in-patients and susceptibility testing results were retrieved from the medical records of the clinical laboratory. A linear regression and cross-correlation analysis were performed on the acquired data. Increasing trends (p<0.05) in the consumption of BIBLI and carbapenem with a median use of 27.68 and 34.46 DDD/1000 PD per quarter were observed, respectively. A decreased trend (p=0.023) in the consumption of fluoroquinolones with a median use of 29.13 DDD/1000 PD per quarter was observed. The resistance rate of K. pneumoniae was synchronized with the BIBLI and carbapenem consumptions with a correlation coefficient of 0.893 (p=0.012) and 0.951 (p=0.016), respectively. The cross-correlation analysis against the consumption of BIBLI and meropenem resistant K. pneumoniae was peaked at 0-quarter lag (r=951, p=0.016). There was an increasing trend in the consumption of BLBLI and carbapenems. The increasing trend in the rates of resistance to piperacillin/tazobactam, in line with the increasing consumption of BLBLI, suggests that BLBLI has to be used with caution and cannot be directly considered as a long-term alternative to carbapenems.


Resumo Os medicamentos combinados de β-lactâmicos / inibidores da lactamase (BLBLIs) são considerados uma alternativa eficaz aos carbapenêmicos. No entanto, existe uma preocupação crescente de que o aumento do uso de BLBLIs pode levar ao aumento da resistência. Este estudo determinou a associação temporal entre o consumo de BLBLI e a resistência antimicrobiana em bactérias gram-negativas. Neste estudo retrospectivo, os dados eletrônicos sobre as bactérias gram-negativas isoladas, incluindo A. baumannii, P. aeruginosa, E. coli e K. pneumoniae de pacientes internados e os resultados dos testes de suscetibilidade foram recuperados dos registros médicos do laboratório clínico. Uma regressão linear e análise de correlação cruzada foram realizadas nos dados adquiridos. Foram observadas tendências crescentes (p < 0,05) no consumo de BIBLI e carbapenem com uma mediana de uso de 27,68 e 34,46 DDD/1000 PD por trimestre, respectivamente. Foi observada uma tendência de diminuição (p = 0,023) no consumo de fluoroquinolonas com uma mediana de uso de 29,13 DDD/1000 PD por trimestre. A taxa de resistência de K. pneumoniae foi sincronizada com os consumos de BIBLI e carbapenem com coeficiente de correlação de 0,893 (p = 0,012) e 0,951 (p = 0,016), respectivamente. A análise de correlação cruzada contra o consumo de BIBLI e K. pneumoniae resistente ao meropenem atingiu o pico no intervalo de 0 quarto (r = 951, p = 0,016). Houve uma tendência de aumento no consumo de BLBLI e carbapenêmicos. A tendência crescente nas taxas de resistência a piperacilina/tazobactam, em linha com o consumo crescente de BLBLI, sugere que BLBLI deve ser usado com cautela e não pode ser considerado diretamente como alternativa de longo prazo aos carbapenêmicos.


Assuntos
Humanos , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/epidemiologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Estudos Retrospectivos , Escherichia coli , Bactérias Gram-Negativas
7.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e244435, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285619

RESUMO

Abstract Increasing trend in antimicrobial resistance and failure of chemically synthesized antibiotics lead to discover alternative methods for the treatment of bacterial infections. Various medicinal plants are in use traditionally and their active compounds can be further applied for treatment of bacterial diseases. This study was designed to determine the antibacterial activity of Punica granatum (P. granatum L.) (pomegranate) peel extract against Enterobacteriaceae [Escherichia coli (E. coli), Salmonella Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) and Shigella Dysenteriae (S. Dysenteriae)] and gram-positive bacterium [Staphylococcus aureus (Staph aureus)]. Methanolic extract of P. granatum L. peel was prepared by Soxhlet apparatus method. Total flavonoid and phenolic contents from the extract were determined by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). The antibacterial activity of P. granatum L. peel extract was evaluated through agar well diffusion method. HPLC showed the range of phenolics (gallic acid, caffeic acid, benzoic acid, cinnamic acid) and flavonoid compounds. The chemical structures of flavonoid and phenolics found in the methanolic extract of P. granatum L. peel have been reported for the first time. The methanolic peel extract (50 ul) of yellow P. granatum L. showed 26, 10, 10 and 9mm zones of inhibition (ZOI) against S. aureus, S. Typhimurium, S. Dysenteriae and E. coli, respectively. The methanolic extract of red P. granatum L. (100 ul) showed 27, 8, 12 and 15 mm ZOI against Staph. aureus, S. Typhimurium, S. Dysenteriae and E. coli, respectively. Highest ZOI was observed against Staph. aureus. Many of the bacteria studied in the present work may cause serious gastrointestinal infections, which can lead to hemorrhagic diarrhea in children. These infections can be life-threatening to young children and the elderly. There is an incentive to find alternative control measures, such as plant and herbal extracts, especially in lesser-developed countries where traditional antibiotics may not be readily available.


Resumo A tendência crescente na resistência antimicrobiana e na falha dos antibióticos sintetizados quimicamente leva à descoberta de métodos alternativos para o tratamento de infecções bacterianas. Várias plantas medicinais estão em uso tradicionalmente e seus compostos ativos podem ser posteriormente aplicados para o tratamento de doenças bacterianas. Este estudo foi desenhado para determinar a atividade antibacteriana do extrato de casca de Punica granatum (P. granatum L.) (romã) contra Enterobacteriaceae [Escherichia coli (E. coli), Salmonella Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) e Shigella Dysenteriae (S. Dysenteriae) ] e bactéria gram-positiva [Staphylococcus aureus (Staph aureus)]. O extrato metanólico da casca de P. granatum L. foi preparado pelo método do aparelho de Soxhlet. O conteúdo total de flavonoides e fenólicos do extrato foi determinado por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (HPLC). A atividade antibacteriana do extrato da casca de P. granatum L. foi avaliada através do método de difusão em ágar. HPLC mostrou a gama de compostos fenólicos (ácido gálico, ácido cafeico, ácido benzoico, ácido cinâmico) e flavonoides. As estruturas químicas de flavonoides e fenólicos encontradas no extrato metanólico da casca de P. granatum L. foram relatadas pela primeira vez. O extrato metanólico da casca (50 ul) de P. granatum L. amarelo apresentou zonas de inibição (ZOI) de 26, 10, 10 e 9mm contra S. aureus, S. Typhimurium, S. Dysenteriae e E. coli, respectivamente. O extrato metanólico de P. granatum L. vermelho (100 ul) apresentou 27, 8, 12 e 15 mm IOI contra Staph. aureus, S. Typhimurium, S. Dysenteriae e E. coli, respectivamente. O ZOI mais alto foi observado contra Staph. aureus. Muitas das bactérias estudadas no presente trabalho podem causar infecções gastrointestinais graves, que podem levar à diarreia hemorrágica em crianças. Essas infecções podem ser fatais para crianças pequenas e idosos. Há um incentivo para encontrar medidas de controle alternativas, como extratos de plantas e ervas, especialmente em países menos desenvolvidos, onde os antibióticos tradicionais podem não estar prontamente disponíveis.


Assuntos
Humanos , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Idoso , Romã (Fruta) , Staphylococcus aureus , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Escherichia coli , Anti-Infecciosos
8.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e243629, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285611

RESUMO

Abstract As an important enzyme, xylanase is widely used in the food, pulp, and textile industry. Different applications of xylanase warrant specific conditions including temperature and pH. This study aimed to carry out sodium alginate beads as carrier to immobilize previous reported mutated xylanase from Neocallimastix patriciarum which expressed in E. coli, the activity of immobilization of mutated xylanase was elevated about 4% at pH 6 and 13% at 62 °C. Moreover, the immobilized mutated xylanase retained a greater proportion of its activity than the wide type in thermostability. These properties suggested that the immobilization of mutated xylanase has potential to apply in biobleaching industry.


Resumo Como importante enzima, a xilanase é amplamente utilizada na indústria alimentícia, de celulose e têxtil. Diferentes aplicações de xilanase garantem condições específicas, incluindo temperatura e pH. Este estudo teve como objetivo realizar grânulos de alginato de sódio como carreador para imobilizar xilanase mutada relatada anteriormente de Neocallimastix patriciarum que expressa em E. coli, a atividade de imobilização da xilanase mutada foi elevada em cerca de 4% em pH 6 e 13% a 62 °C. Além disso, a xilanase mutada imobilizada reteve uma proporção maior de sua atividade do que o tipo amplo em termoestabilidade. Essas propriedades sugerem que a imobilização da xilanase mutada tem potencial para aplicação na indústria de biobranqueamento.


Assuntos
Neocallimastix , Temperatura , Escherichia coli/genética
9.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 124: 655-666, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36182171

RESUMO

Stormwater reuse is one of the most important ways to mitigate water resource shortage. However, urban stormwater contains many bacteria species, which threaten the reuse safety. Therefore, stormwater disinfection is highly needed. Although disinfection has been widely conducted in the drinking water and reclaimed water, it is rarely carried out for stormwater. This study collected the roof stormwater and undertook chlorination disinfection. Two typical bacteria, Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Staphylococcus aureus (S.aureus) were selected in this study to investigate the disinfection efficiency. It is found that bacteria species present in the stormwater had an important influence on disinfection efficiency while the original stormwater quality did not show an obvious affect. However, when the disinfected stormwater was stored, the stormwater quality was highly variable during its storage process and the variability was affected by bacteria species. The S.aureus containing stormwater showed a high variability of quality and S.aureus significantly regrew. However, the E.coli containing stormwater quality had a relatively low variability and E.coli did not significantly regrew. Additionally, it is noted that after storage, the dissolved form of stormwater was more positive to the freshwater algae's growth while the particulate form (including bacteria and other particulate matters) was less. This implies that a further treatment such as filtration is needed before the stored stormwater is recharged into receiving waters in order to remove particulate forms. These research outcomes can provide useful insight to effective stormwater disinfection and ensure reuse safety.


Assuntos
Desinfecção , Água Potável , Escherichia coli , Água Doce/microbiologia , Qualidade da Água
10.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2564: 75-97, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36107338

RESUMO

Directed evolution has revolutionized the way scientists create new biomolecules not found in nature. Error-prone polymerase chain reaction (PCR) introduces random mutations and was used to evolve jellyfish and coral fluorescent proteins in bacteria. We describe a novel method for the directed evolution of a far-red fluorescent protein in E. coli. The new method used genes to produce fluorophores inside E. coli and allowed changing the native fluorophore, phycocyanobilin, for a second small-molecule fluorophore, biliverdin. The directed evolution blueshifted the fluorescence, which enhanced the quantum yield to produce a brighter fluorescent protein. Finally, the evolution selected fluorescent proteins that expressed in large quantities in E. coli. The evolved fluorescent protein was named the small ultra-red fluorescent protein (smURFP) and was biophysically as bright as the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP). This chapter describes the materials and methods used to evolve a far-red fluorescent protein in bacteria. While the focus is a fluorescent protein, the protocol is adaptable for the evolution of other biomolecules in bacteria when using a proper selection strategy.


Assuntos
Antozoários , Escherichia coli , Animais , Antozoários/genética , Antozoários/metabolismo , Biliverdina/metabolismo , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Fluorescência , Mutação
11.
Food Chem ; 400: 134030, 2023 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36055144

RESUMO

The regular release kinetics of active ingredients is inconsistent with the demand of meat preservation. Herein, the pH-triggered dynamic mechanism of packaging film was developed based on L100 polymer incorporated with Cinnamon essential oil (CEO) by coaxial electrospinning. The acquired results revealed that UV-vis and fluorescence spectra confirmed the pH release behavior. The fabricated film was quickly dissolved and transformed from solid to liquid phase, resulting in a faster release rate of CEO from 68.9 % to 98.2 % with the pH increasing. The morphological structure verified the core-shell structure formation with a specific surface area value of 7.22 m2/g. The live/dead results of bacteria indicated good antibacterial efficacy against E. coli and S. aureus. The pH-sensitive film successfully extends the shelf-life of griskin by 3 days. In conclusion, this work will aid in optimizing durability of active ingredients in packaging.


Assuntos
Cinnamomum zeylanicum , Óleos Voláteis , Antibacterianos/química , Cinnamomum zeylanicum/química , Escherichia coli , Embalagem de Alimentos/métodos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Carne , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Polímeros , Staphylococcus aureus
12.
Food Chem ; 400: 133960, 2023 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36063680

RESUMO

A proper understanding of silver (Ag) nanoparticles properties is fundamental for developing new antimicrobial agents. In this study, Ag nanoparticles were obtained by green synthesis methods using natural reducing agents present in extracts of apples, oranges, potatoes, red pepper, white onion, garlic and radish. The antimicrobial properties of respective nanoparticles, expressed as the minimum inhibitory concentration, were assessed against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, and Candida krusei. Characterization of Ag nanoparticles was done with the application of transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and UV-vis spectroscopy. The obtained results led to the conclusions that in each extract (pH from 2.1 to 6.2) were obtained specific particles (size from 9 to 30 ± 2 nm) with different antimicrobial activity. Our study indicates that plant extracts gives the Ag nanoparticles specific properties, yet the best antimicrobial properties show nanoparticles obtained in the presence of potato extract.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Escherichia coli , Química Verde/métodos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Substâncias Redutoras , Prata/química , Prata/farmacologia , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
13.
J Hazard Mater ; 441: 129893, 2023 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36084468

RESUMO

Storm significantly deteriorates coastal water fecal pollution now and beyond. Questions relating to storm exerting on coastal water safety are often intertwined with both surface water and subsurface processes. Stormwater runoff is a vital metric for coastal water fecal pollution under current cognition, while the controls of subsurface system remain unclear. Here, this study leveraged two time-series field data collected in a sandy beach during storm and non-storm periods to probe subsurface Escherichia coli (E. coli) growth and exports to coastal waters under storm events. Results demonstrated that storm events can not only stimulate subsurface E. coli growth, but also accelerate subsurface E. coli exports into the receiving water. Storm-intensified rainfall injected more oxygenous rainwater in the shallow groundwater, subsequently stimulating subsurface E. coli growth. Storm-strengthened wave energy was responsible for accelerating subsurface E. coli exports through enhanced wave-induced recirculated seawater. This study proposes a new insight for the stress of storm events on microbial pollution in coastal waters. The findings are constructive to the prevention of beach ecosystem pollution and can pave the way for coastal safety management to future extreme weather.


Assuntos
Escherichia coli , Água Subterrânea , Ecossistema , Fezes , Água , Microbiologia da Água
14.
Biotechnol Bioeng ; 119(3): 994-1003, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34953069

RESUMO

Transition of rapid, ready-to-use, and low-cost nucleic acid-based detection technologies from laboratories to points of sample collection has drastically accelerated. However, most of these approaches are still incapable of diagnosis starting from sampling through nucleic acid isolation and detection in the field. Here we developed a simple, portable, low-cost, colorimetric, and remotely controllable platform for reliable, high-throughput, and rapid diagnosis using loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assays. It consists of a thermally isolated cup, low-cost electronic components, a polydimethylsiloxane sample well, and a fast prototyped case that covers electronic components. The steady-state temperature error of the system is <1%. We performed LAMP, Colony-LAMP, and Colony polymerase chain reactions (PCRs) using the yaiO2 primer set for Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa samples at 65°C and 30 min. We detected the end-point colorimetric readouts by the naked eye under day light. We confirmed the specificity and sensitivity of our approach using pure genomic DNA and crude bacterial colonies. We benchmarked our Colony-LAMP detection against Colony PCR. The number of samples tested can easily be modified for higher throughput in our system. We strongly believe that our platform can greatly contribute rapid and reliable diagnosis in versatile operational environments.


Assuntos
Colorimetria , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico , Escherichia coli/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/genética , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
15.
Environ Pollut ; 302: 118961, 2022 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35183667

RESUMO

The intestinal microbiota has a key role in human health via the interaction with the somatic and immune cells in the digestive tract environment. Food, through matrix effect, nutrient and non-nutrient molecules, is a key regulator of microbiota diversity. As a food contaminant, the pesticide chlorpyrifos (CPF) has an effect on the composition of the intestinal microbiota and induces perturbation of microbiota. Prebiotics (and notably inulin) are known for their ability to promote an equilibrium of the microbiota that favours saccharolytic bacteria. The SHIME® dynamic in vitro model of the human intestine was exposed to CPF and inulin concomitantly for 30 days, in order to assess variations in both the bacterial populations and their metabolites. Various analyses of the microbiota (notably temporal temperature gradient gel electrophoresis) revealed a protective effect of the prebiotic through inhibition of the enterobacterial (E. coli) population. Bifidobacteria were only temporarily inhibited at D15 and recovered at D30. Although other potentially beneficial populations (lactobacilli) were not greatly modified, their activity and that of the saccharolytic bacteria in general were highlighted by an increase in levels of short-chain fatty acids and more specifically butyrate. Given the known role of host-microbiota communication, CPF's impact on the body's homeostasis remains to be determined.


Assuntos
Clorpirifos , Microbiota , Clorpirifos/toxicidade , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Humanos , Inulina/metabolismo , Inulina/farmacologia , Prebióticos/análise
16.
Biochemistry (Mosc) ; 87(9): 871-889, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36180983

RESUMO

Design and synthesis of conjugates consisting of the macrolide antibiotic desmycosin and fragments of the antibacterial peptide oncocin were performed in attempt to develop new antimicrobial compounds. New compounds were shown to bind to the E. coli 70S ribosomes, to inhibit bacterial protein synthesis in vitro, as well as to suppress bacterial growth. The conjugates of N-terminal hexa- and tripeptide fragments of oncocin and 3,2',4''-triacetyldesmycosin were found to be active against some strains of macrolide-resistant bacteria. By simulating molecular dynamics of the complexes of these compounds with the wild-type bacterial ribosomes and with ribosomes, containing A2059G 23S RNA mutation, the specific structural features of their interactions were revealed.


Assuntos
Peptídeos Antimicrobianos , Escherichia coli , Antibacterianos/química , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/farmacologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Macrolídeos/análise , Macrolídeos/metabolismo , Inibidores da Síntese de Proteínas/química , RNA/metabolismo , Ribossomos/química , Tilosina/análogos & derivados
17.
Biochemistry (Mosc) ; 87(9): 932-939, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36180989

RESUMO

The autotransporter AT877 from Psychrobacter cryohalolentis belongs to the family of outer membrane proteins containing N-terminal passenger and C-terminal translocator domains that form the basis for the design of display systems on the surface of bacterial cells. It was shown in our previous study that the passenger domain of AT877 can be replaced by the cold-active esterase EstPc or the tenth domain of fibronectin type III (10Fn3). In order to increase efficiency of the 10Fn3 surface display in Escherichia coli cells, four deletion variants of the Fn877 hybrid autotransporter were obtained. It was demonstrated that all variants are present in the membrane of bacterial cells and facilitate binding of the antibodies specific against 10Fn3 on the cell surface. The highest level of binding is provided by the variants Δ239 and Δ310, containing four and seven beta-strands out of twelve that comprise the structure of the translocator domain. Using electrophoresis under semi-native conditions, presence of heat modifiability in the full-size Fn877 and its deletion variants was demonstrated, which indicated preservation of beta structure in their molecules. The obtained results could be used to optimize the bacterial display systems of 10Fn3, as well as of other heterologous passenger domains.


Assuntos
Escherichia coli , Sistemas de Secreção Tipo V , 1-(5-Isoquinolinasulfonil)-2-Metilpiperazina/análogos & derivados , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Esterases/metabolismo , Fibronectinas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Psychrobacter , Sistemas de Secreção Tipo V/metabolismo
18.
Biochemistry (Mosc) ; 87(9): 1015-1020, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36180996

RESUMO

One of the main obstacles to the successful use of Escherichia coli cells for steroid transformation in biotechnological processes is inefficient transport of steroid substrates into the cells. Here, we tested the possibility of using human cholesterol transfer protein STARD1 (steroidogenic acute regulatory protein) to increase the efficiency of steroid uptake by bacterial cells. Genetic constructs were obtained for the synthesis in E. coli BL21 (DE3) cells of a truncated version of STARD1 containing protein functional domain (residues 66-285) and STARD1 (66-285)-GFP fusion protein, both carrying bacterial periplasmic targeting sequence pelB at the N-terminus. Analysis of preparations of E. coli/pET22b/STARD1-GFP cells by fluorimetry and Western blotting confirmed that the used expression system ensured the synthesis of the heterologous protein. Using fluorescence spectroscopy, it was demonstrated that the presence of STARD1 in the cells increased the efficiency of assimilation of NBD-labeled cholesterol analogues by E. coli/pET22b/STARD1 cells 1.3-1.6 times (p < 0.05) compared to the wild-type cells, thus demonstrating that human STARD1 exhibits its functional activity in bacterial cells. This opens prospects for optimizing and using a fundamentally new approach to increase the efficiency of steroid uptake by cells - the inclusion of a specific carrier protein in the cell membrane, which can expand the arsenal of methods used to obtain strains of microorganisms for synthesis.


Assuntos
Escherichia coli , Fosfoproteínas , Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Colesterol/metabolismo , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Humanos , Fosfoproteínas/química , Esteroides/metabolismo
19.
BMC Microbiol ; 22(1): 234, 2022 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36182895

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Data on antibiotic resistance is essential to adapt treatment strategies against the rapidly changing reality of antimicrobial resistance. OBJECTIVE: To study the in vitro activity of ceftaroline, ceftazidime-avibactam, and comparators against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria collected from China in the year 2018. METHODS: A total of 2301 clinical isolates were collected from 17 medical center laboratories in China, which participated in the ATLAS program in 2018. Antimicrobial susceptibilities were determined by the broth microdilution method at a central laboratory. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) breakpoints were used to interpret the results except for tigecycline, for which the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) breakpoint were used. RESULTS: The susceptibility rates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae (PRSP), and ß-hemolytic streptococcus to ceftaroline were 83.9%, 100%, and 100%, respectively. Escherichia coli, imipenem-susceptible (IMP-S) Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter cloacae, IMP-S Enterobacter cloacae, Proteus mirabilis, Morganella morganii, Serratia marcescens and Pseudomonas aeruginosa had high susceptibility rates to ceftazidime-avibactam (95.8%, 100%, 97.7%, 94.5%, 100%, 90.2%, 96.0%, 97.5% and 90.7%, respectively). However, imipenem-resistant Escherichia coli and imipenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa demonstrated low susceptibility to ceftazidime-avibactam (33.3% and 75.8%, respectively). Against MRSA, methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA), S. pneumoniae and ß-hemolytic streptococci, the susceptibility rates of tigecycline were 93.5%, 99.2%, 100% and 100%, respectively. Levofloxacin also showed high in vitro activity against S. pneumoniae and ß-hemolytic streptococci with a susceptibility rate of 100% and 98.4%. The susceptibility rate of E. faecalis to ampicillin was 100%. Among Gram-negative isolates, tigecycline and colistin showed good activity against E. coli, K. pneumoniae, imipenem-resistant E. cloacae, C. freundii and A. baumannii (susceptibility rates and intermediate susceptibility rates of 99.3% and 96.8%, 95.4% and 94.5%, 100% and 87.5%, 96.4% and 89.3%, MIC90 of 2 mg/L and 97.4%, respectively). E. coli and E. cloacae had high susceptibility rates to imipenem and meropenem (93.0% and 92.8%, 89.8% and 92.1%, respectively). M. morganii and P. mirabilis demonstrated meropenem and piperacillin-tazobactam susceptibility rates of 96.0% and 94.0%, 94.1% and 92.2%, respectively. CONCLUSION: Ceftaroline showed good activity among tested antimicrobial agents against Gram-positive species, while ceftazidime-avibactam had good activity against Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter cloacae, Proteus mirabilis, Morganella morganii, Serratia marcescens and Pseudomonas aeruginosa excluding carbapenem-resistant isolates.


Assuntos
Bactérias Gram-Negativas , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina , Ampicilina , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Compostos Azabicíclicos , Ceftazidima , Cefalosporinas , Colistina , Combinação de Medicamentos , Escherichia coli , Bactérias Gram-Positivas , Imipenem , Inosina Monofosfato , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Levofloxacino , Meropeném , Meticilina , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Piperacilina , Tazobactam , Tigeciclina
20.
Antimicrob Resist Infect Control ; 11(1): 121, 2022 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36182905

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 seems to change antibiotic resistance pattern. Certain conditions in the Covid-19 era may be contributing to the rise of antimicrobial resistance (AMR). Due to the limited information on the impact of Covid-19 on antimicrobial resistance (AMR), the purpose of this research was to investigate the trend in antimicrobial resistance changes of E. coli, P. aeruginosa, K. pneumoniae, and A. baumannii in Hasheminezhad hospital. This hospital was a Corona center in Mashhad at the onset of this epidemic. METHODS: 1672 clinical samples were collected between January 21, 2020 and January 30, 2022from patients hospitalized at Hasheminezhad Hospital in Mashhad, Conventional microbiological procedures for identifying gram-negative bacteria and antibiotic susceptibility testing were used, according to the clinical and laboratory standards institute (CLSI) 2021. The two years of the pandemic, from the initial stage of the outbreak until the 6th peak, (January 2020 to and January 2022) were divided into 9 periods according to the seasons. RESULTS: Highest resistance rates were seen in E. coli (615 samples), K. pneumoniae (351 samples), P. aeruginosa (362 samples) and A. baumannii (344 samples) to Ampicillin (89.6%), Ampicillin (98%), Imipenem (91.8%), and Ceftazidime (94.6%), respectively. The largest change in antibiotic resistance was seen between Summer 2020 and Summer 2021 for K. pneumoniae with about a 30% rise in antibiotic resistance to Ceftriaxone. CONCLUSIONS: All 4 species evaluated in this study, have shown rising AMR rates during the first year of the pandemic in the northeast of Iran. This study revealed that E. coli, P. aeruginosa, K. pneumoniae, and A. baumannii strains in Northern Iran have a higher level of antibiotic resistance than what was measured in similar studies conducted before the pandemic. This will further restrict treatment choices and jeopardize global public health.


Assuntos
Acinetobacter baumannii , COVID-19 , Ampicilina/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Ceftazidima/farmacologia , Ceftriaxona/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Escherichia coli , Humanos , Imipenem/farmacologia , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Pandemias , Pseudomonas aeruginosa
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