Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 17.841
Filtrar
1.
Cent Eur J Public Health ; 27(3): 245-250, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31580562

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are common problems in women, and important reason for visiting primary care physicians, resulting in substantial financial burden to community. The aim of this study was to determine the resistance rates of E. coli to commonly prescribed antimicrobial drugs for community-acquired UTIs in women and to establish the association between age and resistance to antibiotics among isolates of E. coli from urine. METHODS: The study was designed as a retrospective cross-sectional study during the 5-years period. It was conducted on a sample of urinary tract isolates of E. coli taken from women with community-acquired UTIs. After prevalence of E. coli resistance to antibiotics was established, the analysis of risk factors for emergence of resistance was conducted. RESULTS: There were 10,734 isolates of E. coli, comprising 70.62% of all samples analyzed. E. coli was the most frequently resistant to ampicillin (54.68%), followed by trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole (37.46%), first and second generation cephalosporins (cephalexin and cefaclor) (29.53% both), and ciprofloxacin (23.80%). Less than 50% of E. coli isolates was sensitive to all three tested antibiotics, and nearly 13% acquired triple-resistance. Prevalence of isolates resistant to two or three agents was higher in the subgroup of women older than 65 years. CONCLUSIONS: Empirical choice of antimicrobial agent for community-acquired non-complicated UTIs in women should be individualized on the basis of the patient's age, prevalence of resistance in the local community, and compliance history of the patient.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Infecções por Escherichia coli , Escherichia coli/química , Infecções Urinárias , Estudos Transversais , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Infecções Urinárias/epidemiologia , Infecções Urinárias/microbiologia
2.
N Engl J Med ; 381(21): 2043-2050, 2019 11 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31665575

RESUMO

Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is an emerging therapy for recurrent or refractory Clostridioides difficile infection and is being actively investigated for other conditions. We describe two patients in whom extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli bacteremia occurred after they had undergone FMT in two independent clinical trials; both cases were linked to the same stool donor by means of genomic sequencing. One of the patients died. Enhanced donor screening to limit the transmission of microorganisms that could lead to adverse infectious events and continued vigilance to define the benefits and risks of FMT across different patient populations are warranted.


Assuntos
Bacteriemia/etiologia , Disbiose/terapia , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Transplante de Microbiota Fecal/efeitos adversos , Fezes/microbiologia , Idoso , Bacteriemia/microbiologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Disbiose/etiologia , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Evolução Fatal , Encefalopatia Hepática/complicações , Encefalopatia Hepática/terapia , Humanos , Masculino , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/complicações , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/terapia , beta-Lactamases/metabolismo
3.
Biochem Med (Zagreb) ; 29(3): 030801, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31624465

RESUMO

Introduction: It has already been reported that subinhibitory concentrations of ß-lactam antibiotics can cause abnormal changes of bacterial forms, such as spheroplasts. Herein we report a case of Croatian male patient with Escherichia coli spheroplasts present in urine after treatment with tazobactam, on the tenth day of hospitalization. The aim of this report is to emphasize the inability of imaging based automated urine analysers to recognize some relatively uncommon forms of bacterial presentation in urine sediment. Materials and methods: During routine urine analysis, unusual particles were observed in patient urine. Urine sediment was examined by two urine analysers: Atellica 1500 (Siemens, Germany) and Iris iQ200 (Beckman Coulter, USA). Additionally, urine was sent for culture testing to Microbiology department. Results: Both urine analysers didn't indicate presence of bacteria in urine sediment. Unusual particles observed on the tenth day were classified as erythrocytes by both instruments. Dipstick test showed blood trace and microscopic analysis revealed bacteria in urine. Urine culture was positive for Escherichia coli. Careful examination of urine sediment has confirmed that shapes present in urine were abnormal bacterial forms called spheroplasts. Conclusions: Imaging based automated urine analysers are not able to recognize bacterial spheroplasts in urine sediment misclassifying it as erythrocytes. Microscopic examination remains the gold standard for urines with blood trace or negative blood, in which erythrocytes are reported by urine analyser in urine sediment. Failure to identify and follow up such cases may lead to inaccurate treatment decisions and puts patient safety at risk.


Assuntos
Eritrócitos , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Esferoplastos/isolamento & purificação , Urinálise/métodos , Urinálise/normas , Croácia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
4.
Ann Agric Environ Med ; 26(3): 405-408, 2019 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31559794

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae have spread rapidly through the countries and continents to become a global concern. One of the main reservoirs of NDM-1 positive strains from the Enterobacteriaceae family is the Indian subcontinent (Bangladesh, Pakistan, India). MATERIAL AND METHODS: During June 2017 - June 2018, rectal swab samples were collected routinely in all patients returning to Poland from South and South-East Asia. During molecular examinations gene blaNDM-1 encoding NDM-1 carbapenemase was detected. RESULTS: 31 patients were examined after returning to Poland from a trip to South and South-East Asia. The presence of New Delhi Metallo-ß-lactamase-1 producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae was confirmed in three patients (9.7%) returning to Poland from travels to India. All the positive patients were hospitalized during the trip in a New Delhi hospital. CONCLUSIONS: Digestive tract carriage of NDM in a group of Polish travelers is a significant health and epidemiological problem. The study confirms the necessity for screening for carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE), particularly among travellers. Rectal swabs should be collected in every case of patients returning from international trips, and the possibility of environment-associated infections should be emphasized.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/microbiologia , Escherichia coli/enzimologia , Klebsiella pneumoniae/enzimologia , Viagem , beta-Lactamases/metabolismo , Adulto , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Humanos , Índia , Klebsiella pneumoniae/genética , Klebsiella pneumoniae/isolamento & purificação , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Polônia , beta-Lactamases/genética
5.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 40(8): 889-894, 2019 Aug 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31484249

RESUMO

Objective: To understand the seasonality and etiological characteristics of infectious diarrhea in adults from Shanghai. Methods: Adult patients with diarrhea who had visited the enteric disease clinics in 22 hospitals that carrying on the Diarrhea Comprehensive Surveillance sentinel programs in Shanghai during 2014-2017, were surveyed. Stool specimens were collected according to the different intervals of sampling and detected for 12 bacteria and 5 viruses. Concentration ratio and circular distribution method were used for data analysis. Results: From 2014 to 2017, a total of 9 573 stool specimens were collected from the targeted diarrhea patients ≥18 years old (n=96 067), through the Shanghai Diarrhea Comprehensive Surveillance program. The positive rate of detection was 46.44%. Seasonal peaks of infectious diarrhea were both seen in summer (bacteria peak, diarrheagenic Escherichia coli and Vibrio parahaemolyticus, etc.) and in winter (virus peak, Norovirus, etc.). Both bacterial and viral infections presented seasonal concentration (Raleigh's test P<0.001) but more obvious with bacterial infection. Viral infection accounted for 60.19% of the cause of infectious diarrhea. The top five predominant pathogens appeared as Norovirus, Rotavirus, diarrheagenic Escherichia coli, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, and Salmonella spp.. Conclusions: Among the adult outpatients with infectious diarrhea in Shanghai, obvious seasonality was seen, with peaks in both summer and winter. Viral infection with Norovirus in particular, appeared as the predominant source of infection. Active, continuous and comprehensive diarrhea-related surveillance programs would be able to monitor the changing dynamic of pathogen spectrum, and lead to the adoption of targeted preventive measures.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Diarreia/diagnóstico , Diarreia/etiologia , Disenteria/diagnóstico , Disenteria/etiologia , Fezes , Pacientes Ambulatoriais/estatística & dados numéricos , Vigilância da População/métodos , Vírus/isolamento & purificação , Adolescente , Adulto , Bactérias/classificação , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Disenteria/epidemiologia , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Fezes/microbiologia , Fezes/virologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Norovirus/isolamento & purificação , Rotavirus/isolamento & purificação , Salmonella/classificação , Salmonella/isolamento & purificação , Estações do Ano , Vibrio parahaemolyticus/isolamento & purificação , Vírus/classificação
7.
Rev Med Suisse ; 15(661): 1545-1550, 2019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31496187

RESUMO

Pyelonephritis is a frequent infection mostly found in women. Urine must be collected for culture before beginning antibiotherapy. The predominant pathogen identified is E coli. Ciprofloxacin may be used right away if the E. coli susceptibility to this antibiotic is at least 90% in the local population. Otherwise, a dose of ceftriaxone or amikacin (outside pregnancy) should be administered. For inpatient care, initial treatment is different according to clinical severity. In case of complication, specialists of urology and infectiology should be consulted. An antibiotic de-escalation should be considered if permitted by the clinical evolution and the antibiogram; in favor of amoxicillin in women and ciprofloxacin in men. In case of history of ESBL infection or carriage, the empirical treatment should be adapted.


Assuntos
Assistência ao Paciente , Pielonefrite/tratamento farmacológico , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Escherichia coli/patogenicidade , Infecções por Escherichia coli/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Pielonefrite/microbiologia
8.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 309: 108330, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31493566

RESUMO

A probabilistic model based on logistic regression was developed for a target log reduction of microorganisms inactivated by high hydrostatic pressure. Published inactivation data of Salmonella Typhimurium in broth for 4 and 5 log reductions, and Escherichia coli in buffer and carrot juice for 5 log reduction were used. The probabilities of achieving 4 or 5 log reductions for S. Typhimurium in broth and 5 log reduction for E. coli in buffer and carrot juice could be calculated at different pressure, temperature and time levels. The fitted interfaces of achieving/not achieving the target log reduction were consistent with the experimental data. Although the reliability of the predictions of the developed models could be questioned due to strain variation and different food matrix, a validation study has demonstrated that the developed models could be used to predict the target log reduction of these microorganisms at different pressure, temperature and time levels. This study has indicated that the probabilistic modeling for target log reductions can be useful tool for HHP inactivation of microorganisms, but further studies could be performed with several other factors such as pH and water activity of the food, concentration of certain additives as well as initial number of bacteria present in the food.


Assuntos
Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Microbiologia de Alimentos/métodos , Conservação de Alimentos/métodos , Pressão Hidrostática , Salmonella typhimurium/isolamento & purificação , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Temperatura Ambiente
9.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 309: 108327, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31493567

RESUMO

The apparent international rise in foodborne virus outbreaks attributed to fresh produce and the increasing importance of fresh produce in the Australian diet has led to the requirement to gather information to inform the development of risk management strategies. A prevalence survey for norovirus (NoV) and hepatitis A virus (HAV) in fresh Australian produce (leafy greens, strawberries and blueberries) at retail was undertaken during 2013-2014 and data used to develop a risk profile. The prevalence of HAV in berries and leafy greens was estimated to be <2%, with no virus detected in produce during the yearlong survey. The prevalence of NoV in fresh strawberries and blueberries was also estimated to be <2% with no virus detected in berries, whilst for leafy greens the NoV prevalence was 2.2%. Prevalence of a bacterial hygiene indicator, Escherichia coli, was also investigated and found to range from <1% in berries to 10.7% in leafy greens. None of the NoV positive leafy green samples tested positive for E. coli, indicating it is a poor indicator for viral risk. The risk was evaluated using standard codex procedures and the Risk Ranger tool. Taking all data into account, including the hazard dose and severity, probability of exposure, probability of infective dose and available epidemiological data, the risk of HAV and NoV foodborne illness associated with fresh Australian berries (strawberries and blueberries) sold as packaged product was deemed to be low. The risk of foodborne illness from HAV associated with leafy greens was also deemed to be low, but higher than that for fresh berries, due mainly to the potential for recontamination post-processing if sold loose. The risk of foodborne illness from NoV associated with leafy greens was deemed to be low/moderate. Despite the prevalence of NoV in leafy greens being low and the inability to discriminate between infective and non-infective virus using PCR based methodologies, the fact that NoV was detected resulted in a higher risk associated with this pathogen-product pairing; compounded by the higher prevalence of NoV within the community compared to HAV, and the potential for leafy greens to become contaminated following processing if sold loose.


Assuntos
Mirtilos Azuis (Planta)/microbiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/epidemiologia , Fragaria/microbiologia , Frutas/virologia , Vírus da Hepatite A/isolamento & purificação , Norovirus/isolamento & purificação , Austrália/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/microbiologia , Humanos , Folhas de Planta/microbiologia , Probabilidade
10.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 823, 2019 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31533647

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to gather temporal trends on bacteria epidemiology and resistance of intraoperative bone culture from chronic ostemyelitis at an affiliated hospital in South China. METHOD: Records of patients with chronic osteomyelitis from 2003 to 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. The medical data were extracted using a unified protocol. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was carried out by means of a unified protocol using the Kirby-Bauer method, results were analyzed according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute definitions. RESULT: Four hundred eighteen cases met our inclusion criteria. For pathogen distribution, the top five strains were Staphylococcus aureus (27.9%); Pseudomonas aeruginosa (12.1%); Enterobacter cloacae (9.5%); Acinetobacter baumanii (9.0%) and Escherichia coli (7.8%). Bacterial culture positive rate was decreased significantly among different year-groups. Mutiple bacterial infection rate was 28.1%. One strain of Staphylococcus aureus was resistant to linezolid and vancomycin. Resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa stains to Cefazolin, Cefuroxime, Cefotaxime, and Cefoxitin were 100% nearly. Resistance of Acinetobacter baumanii stains against Cefazolin, Cefuroxime were 100%. Ciprofloxacin resistance among Escherichia coli isolates increased from 25 to 44.4%. On the contrary, resistance of Enterobacter cloacae stains to Cefotaxime and Ceftazidime were decreased from 83.3 to 36.4%. CONCLUSIONS: From 2003 to 2014, positive rate of intraoperative bone culture of chronic osteomyelitis was decreased; the proportion of Staphylococcus aureus was decreased gradually, and our results indicate the importance of bacterial surveilance studies about chronic osteomyelitis.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteomielite/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Cefotaxima/farmacologia , Cefotaxima/uso terapêutico , China , Doença Crônica , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Hospitais , Humanos , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteomielite/tratamento farmacológico , Osteomielite/microbiologia , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/isolamento & purificação , Estudos Retrospectivos , Rifampina/farmacologia , Rifampina/uso terapêutico , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação , Adulto Jovem
11.
Shokuhin Eiseigaku Zasshi ; 60(4): 88-95, 2019.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31474656

RESUMO

Microbial colony counts of concern of food products are one of the most important items in microbiological examinations. The distributions of colony counts per agar plate of food samples are considered to be reflected with microbial cell distributions in food homogenates. However, (i) the probabilistic distributions of the colony counts per agar plate at the dilution of counting and (ii) the relationship between the colony counts per plate and the number of agar plates for food samples have not been intensively studied so far. In this study, therefore, these two points were studied with raw food samples of raw minced beef and chicken and raw milk and microbial culture samples of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Among four major probabilistic distributions, it was found that aerobic plate counts per plate of the foods were well described with negative binomial, Poisson, and normal distributions and that the colony counts per plate of microbial cultures were described well with binomial, Poisson, and normal distributions. The effect of the number of agar plates on the estimation of the mean of colony counts per plate of a sample was then studied with the data randomly resampled from the experimental data. The resampled data showed that with more number of plates the mean of counts fluctuated less and the coefficients of variation of colony counts per plate decreased further, which were coincident to the estimated by the central limit theory. Our study would provide useful information on the characteristics of colony counts per plate of food samples which are routinely examined.


Assuntos
Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Ágar , Animais , Bovinos , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Carne/microbiologia , Leite/microbiologia , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/isolamento & purificação , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação
13.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 746, 2019 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31455256

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial resistance is one of the most serious public health threats of the twenty-first century. The implementation of AMR surveillance in Zimbabwe is limited. However, data from a private laboratory in Harare revealed increasing resistance rates to common antibiotics like ampicillin (i.e., from 73.9% in 2011 to 74.6% in 2015). The increasing resistance rates indicate that Zimbabwe is affected by AMR. This study was done to determine the magnitude of AMR in Harare and determine the trends of AMR to first-line and to last-resort antibiotics and make recommendations to mitigate the problem. METHODS: A retrospective record review of data collected from the microbiology department at a private laboratory between January 2012 and December 2017 was done. The outcome of interest was the antibiotic susceptibility of bacterial isolates. Microsoft Excel 2016 was used to plot trends from 2012 to 2017 and Epi Info™7 was used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: A total of 23,432 isolates, of 12 medically important bacteria were analysed. Forty-three percent of the isolates were from urines, 36.7% were from pus swabs and 7% were from blood. The most common pathogen was Escherichia coli (43.2%), followed by Staphylococcus aureus (15.8%) and the least common was Neisseria gonorrhoea (0.2%). Resistance was highest to ampicillin followed by penicillin, both ranging between 70 and 100% over the six years. Statistically significant increases in resistance to commonly used antibiotics were observed in amoxicillin-resistant E. coli and Streptococcus pneumonia and third generation cephalosporin-resistant E. coli. There was an increase in resistance to last-line antibiotics i.e., fluoroquinolone-resistant Salmonella spp. and carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii. However, methicillin-resistant S. aureus showed a decreasing trend. CONCLUSIONS: There is a high burden of drug resistance to common antibiotics in Harare and an emergence of resistance to last-line antibiotics.


Assuntos
Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Acinetobacter baumannii/efeitos dos fármacos , Acinetobacter baumannii/isolamento & purificação , Ampicilina/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Cefalosporinas/farmacologia , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/isolamento & purificação , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/isolamento & purificação , Estudos Retrospectivos , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação , Zimbábue/epidemiologia
14.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 183: 109514, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31394374

RESUMO

This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of integrons and associated gene cassettes in Escherichia coli (E. coli) isolates from waterfowls in Hainan, China. The antimicrobial resistance profile of the isolates was examined by using disc diffusion test. In addition, PCR, RFLP, plasmid replicon typing and DNA sequencing analyses were used for the characterization of integrase genes (class 1, 2 and 3) and associated gene cassettes. Approximatively, 90% of the isolates were positive for the integrase genes by PCR. Specifically, class 1 and class 2 integrons were found in 252 (81%) and 7 (2.3%) strains, respectively. While 21 (6.7%) isolates were positive for both class 1 and class 2 integrons. However, none of the isolate was positive for the class 3 integrons. In addition, 5 various cassette arrays, dfrA1-orfC, aadA2, aadA1, dfrA1-aadA1, and dfrA1-orfC- aadA1, were found within the variable regions (VRs) of class 1 integron isolates. While only single cassette array, dfrA1-sat2- aadA1, was identified within VRs of class 2 integron isolates. We identified incF plasmid as the most common plasmid type, which was detected in 81 of 243 VRs containing isolates. This study is the first report showing the baseline characteristics of integrons in E. coli isolates from waterfowls in Hainan, China. Our results provide evidence of the waterfowl birds as a reservoir of class 1 and class 2 integrons carrying antibiotic resistance gene cassettes. Therefore, strict preventive measures should be taken to avoid the spread of mobile genetic resistance elements in waterfowls in China.


Assuntos
Anseriformes/microbiologia , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Integrons , Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , China , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Escherichia coli/genética , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Humanos , Integrons/genética
15.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 307: 108274, 2019 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31404780

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to determine the genetic characterization of ciprofloxacin resistant- Escherichia coli recovered from 7 different integrated broiler operations in Korea. Among the 157 E. coli isolated from chicken meat produced by integrated broiler operations, 75 (47.8%) were observed to be ciprofloxacin resistant-E. coli. However, the prevalence varied from 25.0 to 75.0%, in chicken meat, indicating variation in ciprofloxacin resistant E. coli occurrence among the operations. Among the 75 ciprofloxacin resistant-E. coli isolates, 10 showed plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes, aac(6')-Ib-cr, qnrS1 and qnrB4. Among the 10 PMQR-positive E. coli, a double amino-acid exchange in both gyrA and parC with ciprofloxacin minimum inhibitory concentrations of ≥16 µg/mL was noted in 8 isolates, and 4 transconjugants (40.0%) expressed similar antimicrobial resistance patterns and revealed the presence of PMQR genes and ß-lactamase genes. Our findings suggest that E. coli with resistance to ciprofloxacin can now be found in association with integrated broiler operations, thus highlighting the need for monitoring and prevention programs in integrated operations.


Assuntos
Ciprofloxacino/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Carne/microbiologia , Plasmídeos/genética , Quinolonas/farmacologia , Criação de Animais Domésticos/normas , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Galinhas , Escherichia coli/genética , Genes Bacterianos/genética , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , República da Coreia/epidemiologia
16.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(9): 558, 2019 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31402391

RESUMO

The use of a suitable method for the enumeration of indicator microorganisms is of crucial importance for reliable monitoring and assessment of the quality of bathing waters. Among other characteristics, the method should be selective enough and ensure acceptable relative recovery of target microorganisms. This study presents the basic parameters, relative recovery and categorical performance characteristics of Tryptone Bile X-glucuronide (TBX) agar for Escherichia coli (E. coli) enumeration in bathing water samples using the membrane filtration method.The results of the relative recovery study, in which TBX agar was compared against temperature-modified ISO 9308-1:2014, showed that in order to achieve a satisfactory relative recovery of E. coli with TBX agar at 44 ± 0.5 °C, the resuscitation period on a non-selective medium (Minerals Modified Glutamate Agar, MMGA) at 36 ± 2 °C is crucial. Incubation on a double-layer MMGA/TBX medium with a 6-h resuscitation period and alternating incubation on single-layer MMGA and TBX agar with a 4-h resuscitation period resulted in acceptable and very similar relative recovery. The achieved performance characteristics of the tested medium, double-layer MMGA/TBX agar, are acceptable. The selectivity was matrix-dependent and was 60.6% for inland and 69.9% for coastal waters. No significant effect of the resuscitation period on selectivity was recorded. Finally, the results showed that when the resuscitation period on a non-selective medium is included, TBX agar is a suitable medium for E. coli enumeration in bathing water samples using the membrane filtration method and that its use, theoretically, would not have negative effects on the assessment of bathing water quality.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Microbiologia da Água , Ágar , Banhos , Meios de Cultura , Filtração
17.
Sci Total Environ ; 686: 1238-1250, 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31412520

RESUMO

In densely populated urban areas of many low-income countries, water scarcity, poor water quality, and inadequate wastewater management present complex challenges to ensuring health and wellbeing. This study was conducted in an impoverished peri-urban community in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania that experiences water scarcity and relies on domestic wells for drinking water. The objective of this study was to identify the sources of domestic well water contamination and assess the relationship and association of water contamination with three variables 1) the proximity of the well to a sanitation system, 2) well age, and 3) well depth. Out of the 71 wells tested, samples from >80% of wells contained Escherichia coli (E. coli) and 58% had nitrate levels above WHO guidelines. The average concentration of total dissolved solids (TDS) was 882 mg/L, which exceeded the WHO guideline of 600 mg/L. Bivariate correlation analysis showed a strong correlation between water contamination and proximity of the well to a sanitation system along with well depth. Univariate regression analysis confirmed the association of contaminants with distance of a well from a sanitation system and well depth (p < 0.05) but age of the well did not show any significant influence on water quality. Our findings indicate significant contamination of wells from nearby septic tanks and pit latrines. New regulatory mandates for the distance of domestic wells from sanitation systems are essential to prevent groundwater contamination and to protect human health.


Assuntos
Água Potável/análise , Água Potável/microbiologia , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Qualidade da Água , Poços de Água , Cidades , Nitratos/análise , Tanzânia , Abastecimento de Água
18.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 584, 2019 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31349818

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Community-acquired sepsis is a life-threatening systemic reaction, which starts within ≤72 h of hospital admittance in an infected patient without recent exposure to healthcare risks. Our aim was to evaluate the characteristics and the outcomes concerning community-acquired sepsis among patients admitted to a Hungarian high-influx national medical center. METHODS: A retrospective, observational cohort study of consecutive adult patients hospitalized with community-acquired sepsis during a 1-year period was executed. Clinical and microbiological data were collected, patients with pre-defined healthcare associations were excluded. Sepsis definitions and severity were given according to ACCP/SCCM criteria. The primary outcome was in-hospital all-cause mortality. Secondary outcomes were intensive care unit (ICU) admittance, length-of-stay (LOS), source control and bacteraemia rates. Statistical differences were explored with classical comparison tests, predictors of in-hospital all-cause mortality were modelled by multivariate logistic regression. RESULTS: 214 patients (median age 60.0 ± 33.1 years, 57% female, median Charlson score 4.0 ± 5.0) were included, 32.7% of them (70/214) had severe sepsis, and 28.5% (61/214) had septic shock. Prevalent sources of infections were genitourinary (53/214, 24.8%) and abdominal (52/214, 24.3%). The causative organisms were dominantly E. coli (60/214, 28.0%), S. pneumoniae (18/214, 8.4%) and S. aureus (14/214, 6.5%), and bacteraemia was documented in 50.9% of the cases (109/214). In-hospital mortality was high (30/214, 14.0%), and independently associated with shock, absence of fever, male gender and the need for ICU admittance, but source control and de-escalation of empirical antimicrobial therapy were protective. ICU admittance was 27.1% (58/214), source control was achieved in 18.2% (39/214). Median LOS was 10.0 ± 8.0, ICU LOS was 8.0 ± 10.8 days. CONCLUSIONS: Community-acquired sepsis poses a significant burden of disease with characteristic causative agents and sources. Patients at a higher risk for poor outcomes might be identified earlier by the contributing factors shown above.


Assuntos
Sepse/tratamento farmacológico , Choque Séptico/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Coortes , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Hospitalização , Humanos , Hungria , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sepse/microbiologia , Sepse/mortalidade , Choque Séptico/microbiologia , Choque Séptico/mortalidade , Staphylococcus aureus/genética , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação , Adulto Jovem
19.
J Med Microbiol ; 68(9): 1330-1340, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31347999

RESUMO

Purpose. This study aimed to characterize 27 Escherichia coli isolates obtained from peritoneal dialysis (PD)-related peritonitis that occurred at the University Hospital of Botucatu Medical School, Brazil, between 1997 and 2015.Methodology. These isolates were characterized regarding the occurrence of 22 virulence factor-encoding genes, antimicrobial resistance and biofilm production. We then evaluated whether these factors influenced the clinical outcome.Results. Over an 18-year period, 726 episodes of PD-related peritonitis were diagnosed, with 27 of them (3.7 %) being due to E. coli. The majority of the isolates were classified in phylogroups B1 (33.3 %), B2 (30.0 %) or F (18.0 %). fimH (100.0 %), ompT (66.7 %) and irp2 (51.9 %) were the most prevalent genes, while papA, papC, iha, sat, irp2, iucD, ireA, ibe10, ompT and kpsMTII were significantly more prevalent among isolates belonging to phylogroups B2 and F (P<0.05). Non-susceptibility to quinolones was detected in six isolates, which harboured chromosomal and/or plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance determinants, while two CTX-M extended-spectrum ß-lactamase-producing E. coli were identified. Virulence factor-encoding genes (alone or in combination) and antimicrobial resistance were not associated with non-resolution outcomes. However, there was a trend for the ability to produce biofilm to be associated with treatment failure, although this association was not statistically significant.Conclusion. The E. coli isolates were heterogeneous in terms of the features investigated, and were susceptible to most of the antimicrobial drugs tested, despite the unsuccessful treatment observed in more than 50.0 % of the patients. Studies including more cases could help to clarify if biofilm production can influence the outcome in patients with PD-related peritonitis.


Assuntos
Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Diálise Peritoneal/efeitos adversos , Peritonite/microbiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Variação Biológica da População , Brasil/epidemiologia , Criança , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/patogenicidade , Infecções por Escherichia coli/epidemiologia , Variação Genética , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Hospitais Universitários , Humanos , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Peritonite/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Plasmídeos/análise , Fatores de Virulência/genética , Adulto Jovem
20.
Georgian Med News ; (290): 77-85, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31322520

RESUMO

The etiological structure of the acute diarrhoeal infections among the population of the Odessa region during 2015-2017 was analyzed. Based on the registered cases, an assessment of the frequency of hospitalization of sick persons from different age groups was undertaken. The most frequent pathogens from 18 detected bacterial causative agents were St. aureus, Kl. pneumoniae, Ps. aeruginosa, E. coli, Pr. vulgaris, Ent.cloacae. During 2016-2017 the mixed infection was detected in 54 fecal samples. Bacterial-virus associations were detected in 20 samples and were presented in St. aureus, Kl. pneumoniae, Ps. Aeruginosa and Rotavirus. During the summer period of 2016, the detection rate of rota-, noro-, adenovirus antigens in the examined fecal samples of adult patients was 13.60%. According to the results of genotyping of the circulating rotaviruses strains in 2016, strains G1P[8] (46.70%) and G3P[8] (26.70%) are most commonly detected.


Assuntos
Diarreia/microbiologia , Diarreia/virologia , Enterocolite/microbiologia , Enterocolite/virologia , Fezes/microbiologia , Fezes/virologia , Infecções por Rotavirus/epidemiologia , Rotavirus/isolamento & purificação , Doença Aguda , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Enterocolite/epidemiologia , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Genes Microbianos , Genótipo , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Rotavirus/genética , Infecções por Rotavirus/virologia , Ucrânia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA