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1.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 41(8): 1328-1334, 2020 Aug 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32867445

RESUMO

Objective: To understand the characteristics and differences of diarrhea-related symptoms caused by different pathogens, and the clinical features of various pathogens causing diarrhea. Methods: Etiology surveillance program was conducted among 20 provinces of China from 2010 to 2016. The acute diarrhea outpatients were collected from clinics or hospitals. A questionnaire was used to survey demographics and clinical features. VFeces samples were taken for laboratory detection of 22 common diarrhea pathogens, to detect and analyze the clinical symptom pattern characteristics of the patient's. Results: A total of 38 950 outpatients were enrolled from 20 provinces of China. The positive rates of Rotavirus and Norovirus were the highest among the five diarrhea-causing viruses (Rotavirus: 18.29%, Norovirus: 13.06%). In the isolation and culture of 17 diarrhea-causing bacterial, Escherichia coli showed the highest positive rates (6.25%). The clinical features of bacterial diarrhea and viral diarrhea were mainly reflected in the results of fecal traits and routine examination, but pathogenic Vibrio infection was similar to viral diarrhea. Conclusion: Infectious diarrhea presents different characteristics due to various symptoms which can provide a basis for clinical diagnosis.


Assuntos
Disenteria/microbiologia , Disenteria/virologia , Vigilância da População , China/epidemiologia , Disenteria/epidemiologia , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Fezes/microbiologia , Fezes/virologia , Humanos , Norovirus/isolamento & purificação , Rotavirus/isolamento & purificação
2.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 673, 2020 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32938424

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Urinary tract infection is one of the most common bacterial infections in children. Understanding the characteristics of uropathogens and their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern in a particular setting can provide evidence for the appropriate management of cases. This study aimed to assess the bacterial profile of urinary tract infection, their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern and associated factors among clinically suspected children attending at Felege-Hiwot Comprehensive Specialized Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia. METHODS: A hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted from February-April, 2019. A systematic sampling technique was employed. A mid-stream urine sample was inoculated on cystine lactose electrolyte deficient media and incubated for 24-48 h. Sub-culturing was done on Mac-Conkey and blood agar. Antimicrobial susceptibility test was done on Muller-Hinton agar. A binary logistic regression model was used to see the association between dependent and independent factors. A p-value< 0.05 at 95% CI was considered as statistically significant. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of urinary tract infection was 16.7% (95% CI 12.4-21.1). Both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacterial isolates were recovered with a rate of 44/50 (88%) and 6/50 (12%) respectively. Among Gram-negative isolates, E. coli 28/44(63.6%) was predominant while S. saprophyticus 2/6(33.3%) was prevalent among Gram-positive bacterial isolates. Overall, a high level of resistance to ampicillin, augmentin, and tetracycline was shown by Gram-negative bacteria with a rate of 44/44(100%), 39/44(88.6%), and36/44 (81.8%) respectively. About 33/50(66%) of overall multidrug resistance was observed (95% CI 52-78). About six Gram-negative bacterial isolates were extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producers. Having a history of urinary tract infection (P-0.003, AOR 1.86-22.15) and male uncircumcision (p-0.00, AOR 5.5-65.35) were the independent variables that associate for urinary tract infections. CONCLUSION: In the present study, the prevalence of urinary tract infection among children was high and considerably a high proportion of multidrug resistance was observed. This result will have a significant impact on the selection of appropriate antimicrobial agents for the treatment of urinary tract infection.


Assuntos
Infecções Urinárias/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/isolamento & purificação , Hospitais , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Razão de Chances , Estudos Prospectivos , Infecções Urinárias/microbiologia , beta-Lactamases/genética , beta-Lactamases/metabolismo
3.
Nature ; 584(7820): 274-278, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32760003

RESUMO

Colonization by the microbiota causes a marked stimulation of B cells and induction of immunoglobulin, but mammals colonized with many taxa have highly complex and individualized immunoglobulin repertoires1,2. Here we use a simplified model of defined transient exposures to different microbial taxa in germ-free mice3 to deconstruct how the microbiota shapes the B cell pool and its functional responsiveness. We followed the development of the immunoglobulin repertoire in B cell populations, as well as single cells by deep sequencing. Microbial exposures at the intestinal mucosa generated oligoclonal responses that differed from those of germ-free mice, and from the diverse repertoire that was generated after intravenous systemic exposure to microbiota. The IgA repertoire-predominantly to cell-surface antigens-did not expand after dose escalation, whereas increased systemic exposure broadened the IgG repertoire to both microbial cytoplasmic and cell-surface antigens. These microbial exposures induced characteristic immunoglobulin heavy-chain repertoires in B cells, mainly at memory and plasma cell stages. Whereas sequential systemic exposure to different microbial taxa diversified the IgG repertoire and facilitated alternative specific responses, sequential mucosal exposure produced limited overlapping repertoires and the attrition of initial IgA binding specificities. This shows a contrast between a flexible response to systemic exposure with the need to avoid fatal sepsis, and a restricted response to mucosal exposure that reflects the generic nature of host-microbial mutualism in the mucosa.


Assuntos
Linfócitos B/citologia , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Imunidade nas Mucosas/imunologia , Mucosa Intestinal/imunologia , Mucosa Intestinal/microbiologia , Simbiose/imunologia , Administração Intravenosa , Administração Oral , Animais , Clostridiales/imunologia , Clostridiales/isolamento & purificação , Escherichia coli/imunologia , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Vida Livre de Germes , Imunoglobulina A/química , Imunoglobulina A/imunologia , Imunoglobulina G/química , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Cadeias Pesadas de Imunoglobulinas/imunologia , Memória Imunológica/imunologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Plasmócitos/citologia , Plasmócitos/imunologia , Priming de Repetição
4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(28): e21113, 2020 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32664134

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Emphysematous osteomyelitis is a rare disease caused by gas-forming bacteria. But only 45 cases have been reported in the literature since then. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 72-year-old female presented to our hospital with severe lower back pain that aggravated 4 days ago. DIAGNOSES: Computed tomography (CT) revealed intraosseous mottled air in the T12 and L1 vertebral bodies and epidural space. The enhanced T1 and T2 magnetic resonance imaging scans showed heterogeneous signal intensity of vertebral bodies, suggestive of emphysematous osteomyelitis. INTERVENTIONS: Surgery was performed to identify culture strains and to remove emphysematous lesions of the vertebral body using extensive transpedicular irrigation. OUTCOMES: Escherichia coli (E coli) was identified in the surgical specimen, and intravenous antibiotic therapy was continued with cefotaxime. The patient had a significant decrease in lower back pain after the surgery and the final CT scan before discharge revealed significantly decreased air at T12 and L1 vertebral bodies and no air density in the epidural space. LESSONS: We present a patient diagnosed with emphysematous osteomyelitis in vertebral bodies caused by E coli and successfully treated with surgical intervention.


Assuntos
Enfisema/diagnóstico , Infecções por Escherichia coli/diagnóstico , Vértebras Lombares , Osteomielite/diagnóstico , Doenças da Coluna Vertebral/diagnóstico , Vértebras Torácicas , Idoso , Enfisema/etiologia , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Escherichia coli/complicações , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Osteomielite/complicações , Doenças Raras , Doenças da Coluna Vertebral/complicações , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
5.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0235391, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32603368

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neonatal septicemia is a life threatening medical emergency that requires timely detection of pathogens with urgent rational antibiotics therapy. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted between March 2017 to September 2018 among 317 septicemia suspected neonates at neonatal intensive care unit, Ayder Comprehensive Specialized Hospital, Mekelle, Tigray, North Ethiopia. A 3 mL of blood was collected from each participant. Identification of bacterial species was done using the standard microbiological techniques. Antibiotic sensitivity test was done using disk diffusion method. Data were entered and analyzed using computer software SPSS version 22. Bivariate and multivariate regression analysis was applied to determine the association between variables. RESULTS: Of the 317 (190 male and 127 female) neonates, 116 (36.6%) were found to be with culture proven septicemia. Klebsiella species were the predominant etiologic agents. Length of hospital stay (AOR (adjusted odds ratio) = 3.65 (2.17-6.13), p < 0.001) and low birth weight (AOR = 1.64 (1.13-2.78), p = 0.04) were the factors associated with neonatalsepticemia. Most isolates showeda frightening drug resistance rate to the commonly used antimicrobial drugs. K. pneumoniae, E. coli, Enterobacter and Citrobacter species were 57% to100% resistant to ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, gentamycin, amoxacillin-clavulunic acid and ampicillin. All, 9 (100%) isolates of S. aureus were resistant to oxacilline, ampicillin,erythromycin and gentamycin. Furthermore, 55.6% S. aureus isolates were Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus. CONCLUSION: Neonaltal septicemia is found to be significantly high in the present study. As most of the isolates are potentially related to hospital acquired infections, prevention and control policy should have to be more strengthening in the neonatal intensive care unit.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Bactérias , Sepse Neonatal , Ampicilina/uso terapêutico , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Citrobacter/efeitos dos fármacos , Citrobacter/isolamento & purificação , Estudos Transversais , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Enterobacter/efeitos dos fármacos , Enterobacter/isolamento & purificação , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Etiópia , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal , Klebsiella/efeitos dos fármacos , Klebsiella/isolamento & purificação , Masculino , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/isolamento & purificação , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Sepse Neonatal/tratamento farmacológico , Sepse Neonatal/microbiologia , Oxacilina/uso terapêutico , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação
6.
J Environ Public Health ; 2020: 2571293, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32612664

RESUMO

Waterborne Escherichia coli are a major reservoir of antimicrobial resistance (AMR). Carbapenem-resistance, especially when mediated by transferable carbapenemase-encoding genes, is spreading worldwide and causing dramatically limiting treatment options. In our country, studies for the detection of carbapenem resistance in drinking water do not exist; therefore, this work was carried out to determine the prevalence of carbapenem-resistant genes "blaKPC, blaIMP, blaNDM, blaSPM, blaVIM, and blaOXA-48" among Escherichia coli isolated from drinking water in Khartoum, Sudan. A total of forty-five E. coli bacteria were isolated from different sources of drinking water. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed using imipenem (10 mg/disc), gentamicin (10 mg/disc), ceftriaxone (30 mg/disc), ciprofloxacin (5 mg/disc), chloramphenicol (30 mg/disc), and tetracycline (30 mg/disc). "Sensitive" or "resistant" patterns of E. coli were judged using antibiotic minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Bacterial genomic DNA was extracted by the boiling method, and then multiplex polymerase chain reaction was performed to detect the carbapenemase genes (blaKPC, blaIMP, bla NDM , blaSPM, blaVIM, and blaOXA-48). Multiplex PCR assays confirmed the presence of carbapenemase genes in 28% of all water isolates. OXA-48 gene was the most predominant gene, detected in 15.5% of the isolates. The blaKPC and bla SPM genes were also detected in 4.4% and 8.8% of the isolates, respectively. However, the isolates were negative for bla NDM , blaVIM, and blaIMP genes. The isolates showed a high rate of tetracycline resistance (97.7%), followed by gentamicin (57.7%), ciprofloxacin (46.6%), ceftriaxone (35.5%), and chloramphenicol (31.1%). In conclusion, this study confirmed for the first time the presence of E. coli carried carbapenem-resistant genes in the drinking water of Khartoum state, Sudan. These isolates commonly carried OXA-48 (7/45), followed by SPM (4/45) and KPC (2/45).


Assuntos
Carbapenêmicos/farmacologia , Água Potável/microbiologia , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Resistência beta-Lactâmica/genética , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Escherichia coli/genética , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Sudão , beta-Lactamases/genética
7.
Khirurgiia (Mosk) ; (5): 102-108, 2020.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32500699

RESUMO

Hemorrhoidal disease is the most common proctologic disease and the search for new treatment methods, as well as an in-depth understanding of the mechanisms underlying effects of well-known agents on disease pathogenesis still remain relevant. There have been long recognized the effects of the E.coli bacterial culture suspension (BCS) as a therapeutic means eliciting decreased exudation during inflammation, wound healing, tissue regeneration, and stimulated immunity. Here, based on recent findings related to innate and adaptive immune cells, we set out to present mechanisms accounting for some effects coupled to commensal bacteria, particularly inactivated E.coli BCS, which are important for understanding pathogenesis-related action of drug Posterisan and Posterisan forte, and outline their broad application in therapy of hemorrhoids. Based on the analysis, it was concluded that such effects are mediated via multi-pronged and complementary interactions between diverse human receptors expressed in the anorectal region cells and microbial components: NOD ligands, metabolites, enzymes, heat shock proteins and nucleic acids, which lead to production of pro-inflammatory cytokines by anodermal colonocytes, innate and adaptive immune cells, neurons in the submucosal plexus covered by transitional zone epithelium, and hemorrhoid plexus endothelium. Based on current concepts, it may be plausible that E.coli BCS-derived biologically active components contained in drug Posterisan are capable of exerting both positive local and systemic effects, which extend our understanding and substantiate its use in hemorrhoidal disease. The effectiveness of using Posterisan and Posterisan forte is corroborated by their indications in real-life clinical practice, both as a conservative therapy as well as after surgical interventions.


Assuntos
Escherichia coli , Hemorroidas/terapia , Canal Anal/microbiologia , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Hemorroidas/imunologia , Hemorroidas/microbiologia , Humanos , Pomadas/administração & dosagem , Soluções/administração & dosagem
8.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0233853, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32502212

RESUMO

Rapid detection of bacterial pathogens is a critical unmet need for both food and environmental samples such as irrigation water. As a part of the Food safety Modernization Act (FSMA), The Produce Safety rule has established several requirements for testing for the presence of generic Escherichia coli in water, but the current method available for testing (EPA M1603) demands specified multiple colony verification and highly trained personnel to perform these tests. The purpose of the study was to assess a phage induced bacterial lysis using quantitative image analysis to achieve rapid detection of E. coli at low concentrations within 8 hours. This study aimed to develop a simple yet highly sensitive and specific approach to detect target bacteria in complex matrices. In the study, E. coli cells were first enriched in tryptic soy broth (TSB), followed by T7 phage induced lysis, concentration, staining and fluorescent imaging. Image analysis was conducted including image pre-processing, image segmentation and quantitatively analysis of cellular morphological features (area, eccentricity and full width at half maximum). Challenge experiments using realistic matrices, including simulated fresh produce wash water, coconut water and spinach wash water, demonstrated the method can be applied for use in situations that occur in food processing facilities. The results indicated E. coli cells that are lysed by T7 phages demonstrated significantly (P < 0.05) higher extracellular DNA release, altered cellular shape (from rod to circular) and diffused fluorescent signal intensity. Using this biosensing strategy, a sensitivity to detect Escherichia coli at 10 CFU/ml within 8 hours was achieved, both in laboratory medium and in complex matrices. The proposed phage based biosensing strategy enables rapid detection of bacteria and is applicable to analysis of food systems. Furthermore, the steps involved in this assay can be automated to enable detection of target bacteria in food facilities without extensive resources.


Assuntos
Bacteriófago T7 , Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , DNA Ambiental/isolamento & purificação , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , DNA Bacteriano/isolamento & purificação , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/virologia , Microbiologia de Alimentos/normas , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Microbiologia da Água/normas
9.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0233704, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32516308

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The pathogenic spectrum of bloodstream infections (BSIs) varies across regions. Monitoring the pathogenic profile and antimicrobial resistance is a prerequisite for effective therapy, infection control and for strategies aimed to counter antimicrobial resistance. The pathogenic spectrum of BSIs in blood cultures was analysed, focusing on the resistance patterns of Acinetobacter baumannii, Escherichia coli, and Klebsiella pneumoniae, in Aljouf region. METHODS: This descriptive cross-sectional study analysed the culture reports of all non-duplicate blood samples collected from January 1 to December 31, 2019. Antibiograms of A. baumannii, E. coli, and K. pneumoniae were analysed for antibiotic resistance. The frequency and percentages of multi-drug, extensively-drug, pan-drug and carbapenem resistance were calculated. RESULTS: Of the 222 bloodstream infections, 62.2% and 36.4% were caused by gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria, respectively. Most BSIs occurred in patients aged ≥60 years (59.5%). Among the 103 isolates of the studied Gram-negative bacteria (GNB), 47.6%, 38.8%, and 2.9% were multi-drug, extensively drug and pan-drug resistant respectively. 46% of K. pneumoniae isolates were carbapenemase producers. Resistance to gentamycin, 1st-4th generation cephalosporins, and carbapenems was observed for A. baumannii. More than 70% of E. coli isolates were resistant to 3rd- and 4th-generation cephalosporins. Klebsiella pneumoniae presented a resistance rate of >60% to imipenems. CONCLUSIONS: Gram-negative bacteria dominate BSIs, with carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae most frequently detected in this region. Resistant GNB infections make it challenging to treat geriatric patients. Regional variations in antimicrobial resistance should be continually monitored.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bacteriemia/microbiologia , Carbapenêmicos/farmacologia , Infecções por Klebsiella/epidemiologia , Klebsiella pneumoniae/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Acinetobacter/sangue , Infecções por Acinetobacter/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Acinetobacter/epidemiologia , Infecções por Acinetobacter/microbiologia , Acinetobacter baumannii/efeitos dos fármacos , Acinetobacter baumannii/isolamento & purificação , Adulto , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Bacteriemia/sangue , Bacteriemia/tratamento farmacológico , Bacteriemia/epidemiologia , Carbapenêmicos/uso terapêutico , Estudos Transversais , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Escherichia coli/sangue , Infecções por Escherichia coli/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Escherichia coli/epidemiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Infecções por Klebsiella/sangue , Infecções por Klebsiella/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Klebsiella/microbiologia , Klebsiella pneumoniae/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Arábia Saudita , Adulto Jovem
10.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0228234, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32589639

RESUMO

A major issue in the surveillance of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is "de-duplication" or removal of repeated isolates, for which there exist multiple methods. The World Health Organization (WHO) Global Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance System (GLASS) requires de-duplication by selecting only the first isolate of a given bacterial species per patient per surveillance period per specimen type per age group, gender, and infection origin stratification. However, no study on the comparative application of this method has been reported. The objective of this study was to evaluate differences in data tabulation between the WHO GLASS and the Japan Nosocomial Infections Surveillance (JANIS) system, which counts both patients and isolates after removing repeated isolates of the same bacterial species isolated from a patient within 30 days, regardless of specimen type, but distinguishing isolates with change of antimicrobial resistance phenotype. All bacterial data, consisting of approximately 8 million samples from 1795 Japanese hospitals in 2017 were exported from the JANIS database, and were tabulated using either the de-duplication algorithm of GLASS, or JANIS. We compared the tabulated results of the total number of patients whose blood and urine cultures were taken and of the percentage of resistant isolates of Escherichia coli for each priority antibiotic. The number of patients per specimen type tabulated by the JANIS method was always smaller than that of GLASS. There was a small (< 3%) difference in the percentage of resistance of E. coli for any antibiotic between the two methods in both out- and inpatient settings and blood and urine isolates. The two tabulation methods did not show considerable differences in terms of the tabulated percentages of resistance for E. coli. We further discuss how the use of GLASS tabulations to create a public software and website that could help to facilitate the understanding of and treatment against AMR.


Assuntos
Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Organização Mundial da Saúde , Adolescente , Adulto , Sangue/microbiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/microbiologia , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Escherichia coli/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Urina/microbiologia , Adulto Jovem
11.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234364, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32530933

RESUMO

Inadequate sanitation can lead to exposure to fecal contamination through multiple environmental pathways and can result in adverse health outcomes. By understanding the relative importance of multiple exposure pathways, sanitation interventions can be tailored to those pathways with greatest potential public health impact. The SaniPath Exposure Assessment Tool allows users to identify and quantify human exposure to fecal contamination in low-resource urban settings through a systematic yet customizable process. The Tool includes: a project management platform; mobile data collection and a data repository; protocols for primary data collection; and automated exposure assessment analysis. The data collection protocols detail the process of conducting behavioral surveys with households, school children, and community groups to quantify contact with fecal exposure pathways and of collecting and analyzing environmental samples for E. coli as an indicator of fecal contamination. Bayesian analyses are used to estimate the percentage of the population exposed and the mean dose of fecal exposure from microbiological and behavioral data. Fecal exposure from nine pathways (drinking water, bathing water, surface water, ocean water, open drains, floodwater, raw produce, street food, and public or shared toilets) can be compared through a common metric-estimated ingestion of E. coli units (MPN or CFU) per month. The Tool generates data visualizations and recommendations for interventions designed for both scientific and lay audiences. When piloted in Accra, Ghana, the results of the Tool were comparable with that of an in-depth study conducted in the same neighborhoods and highlighted consumption of raw produce as a dominant exposure pathway. The Tool has been deployed in nine cities to date, and the results are being used by local authorities to design and prioritize programming and policy. The SaniPath Tool is a novel approach to support public-health evidence-based decision-making for urban sanitation policies and investments.


Assuntos
Microbiologia Ambiental , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Fezes/microbiologia , Saneamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Software , Cidades , Tomada de Decisões , Exposição Ambiental , Monitoramento Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Contaminação de Alimentos , Gana , Humanos , Projetos Piloto , Formulação de Políticas , Pobreza , Saúde Pública , Saúde da População Urbana , Microbiologia da Água
12.
J Med Microbiol ; 69(7): 932-943, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32530393

RESUMO

Introduction. Diarrhoeagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) are difficult to distinguish from non-pathogenic commensal E. coli using traditional culture methods. The implementation of PCR targeting specific virulence genes characteristic of the five DEC pathotypes, has improved the detection of DEC in faecal specimens from patients with symptoms of gastrointestinal disease.Aim. Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) profiles of 660 strains of DEC isolated between 2015 and 2017 from UK travellers reporting symptoms of gastrointestinal disease were reviewed to look for evidence of emerging AMR associated with travellers' diarrhoea.Methodology. All isolates of DEC were sequenced, and sequence type, serotype, pathotype markers and AMR profiles were derived from the genome data.Results. A travel history was provided for 54.1 % (357/660) of cases, of which 77.0 % (275/357) reported travel outside the UK within 7 days of onset of symptoms, and 23.0 % (82/357) reported no travel in that time frame. Of the 660 strains of DEC in this study, 265 (40.2 %) samples were identified as EAEC, 48 (7.3 %) as EIEC, 61 (9.2 %) were ETEC and 286 (43.3 %) were EPEC. EPEC caused the highest percentage of infections in children (40.6 %) whilst the highest proportion of cases reporting recent travel were infected with ETEC (86.1 %). There were 390/660 (59.0 %) isolates resistant to at least one antimicrobial on the panel tested (EIEC, 81.3 %; ETEC, n=65.6 %; EAEC, n=73.2 %; EPEC, 40.9 %) and 265/660 (40.2 %) were multidrug-resistant (EIEC, 33.3 %; ETEC, 32.8 %; EAEC, 56.2 %; EPEC, 28.0 %). Genes conferring resistance to the beta-lactams and fluroquinolones were highest in the EAEC pathotype, 56.6 and 60.7%, respectively.Conclusions. Increasing MDR, along with resistance to the fluroquinolones and the third-generation cephalosporins, in DEC causing travellers' diarrhoea provides further evidence for the need to restrict the use of antimicrobial agents and continuous monitoring.


Assuntos
Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Disenteria/genética , Escherichia coli/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Diarreia/patologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Disenteria/epidemiologia , Disenteria/microbiologia , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Escherichia coli/patogenicidade , Infecções por Escherichia coli/genética , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Gastroenteropatias/epidemiologia , Gastroenteropatias/genética , Gastroenteropatias/microbiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Viagem , Reino Unido , Virulência/efeitos dos fármacos
13.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0235294, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32598400

RESUMO

Drosophila melanogaster's blood cells (hemocytes) play essential roles in wound healing and are involved in clearing microbial infections. Here, we report the transcriptional changes of larval plasmatocytes after clean injury or infection with the Gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli or the Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus compared to hemocytes recovered from unchallenged larvae via RNA-Sequencing. This study reveals 676 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in hemocytes from clean injury samples compared to unchallenged samples, and 235 and 184 DEGs in E. coli and S. aureus samples respectively compared to clean injury samples. The clean injury samples showed enriched DEGs for immunity, clotting, cytoskeleton, cell migration, hemocyte differentiation, and indicated a metabolic reprogramming to aerobic glycolysis, a well-defined metabolic adaptation observed in mammalian macrophages. Microbial infections trigger significant transcription of immune genes, with significant differences between the E. coli and S. aureus samples suggesting that hemocytes have the ability to engage various programs upon infection. Collectively, our data bring new insights on Drosophila hemocyte function and open the route to post-genomic functional analysis of the cellular immune response.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Infecções por Escherichia coli/complicações , Hemócitos/metabolismo , Sepse/genética , Infecções Estafilocócicas/complicações , Infecção dos Ferimentos/genética , Animais , Drosophila melanogaster/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Drosophila melanogaster/microbiologia , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Feminino , Hemócitos/microbiologia , Incidência , Larva/genética , Larva/microbiologia , Masculino , RNA-Seq/métodos , Sepse/epidemiologia , Sepse/microbiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação , Infecção dos Ferimentos/epidemiologia , Infecção dos Ferimentos/microbiologia
14.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0228294, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32479536

RESUMO

Even though Escherichia coli are common bacteria of the bovine vaginal microbiota, they represent an important pathogen that causes diseases in the reproductive tract and subfertility. However, the actual endometrial virulence profile of E. coli is poorly understood. The present study aims to characterize the phylogenetic structure and virulence potential of native vaginal populations of E. coli from healthy heifers (H), and cows with postpartum uterine diseases (PUD), such as metritis/endometritis (MT) or repeat breeder cows (RB). To this end, the virulence repertoire of 97 E. coli isolates was genotypically and phenotypically assessed. Most of them were assigned to phylogenetic group A (74%), followed by B1 (17%) and D (9%); RB strains were significantly (p < 0.05) more represented by B1. Seven of the 15 evaluated virulence genes (VFG) were detected and the most prevalent were fimH (87%), agn43 (41%) and csgA (35%); while traT (27%), fyuA (11%), hlyA (5%) and kpsMT II (5%) were observed in a lower proportion. Particularly, fyuA was significantly higher (p < 0.05) in MT cows whereas csgA showed the same behavior in PUD animals (p < 0.05). When comparing H and PUD strains, these last ones were associated to positive expression of biofilm, fimbriae curli/cellulose and motility; yet RB strains did not show motility. Vaginal B1 E. coli populations, that possess VFG (fyuA and csgA) as well as the expression of motility, curli fimbriae/cellulose and biofilm, may represent risk factors for endometrial disorders; specifically, those that also, have kpsMT II may have a pathogenic potential for causing the RB syndrome. Future research focusing on the detection of these strains in the vaginal microbiota of cows with postpartum uterine diseases should be done since the control of their presence in vagina could reduce the risk that they access the uterus during the postpartum period.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Doenças Uterinas/veterinária , Vagina/microbiologia , Animais , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bovinos , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/fisiologia , Feminino , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica , Variação Genética , Intestinos/microbiologia , Filogenia , Doenças Uterinas/microbiologia
15.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234127, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32492060

RESUMO

Several studies have shown the ubiquitous presence of bacteria in hospital surfaces, staff, and patients. Frequently, these bacteria are related to HAI (healthcare-associated infections) and carry antimicrobial resistance (AMR). These HAI-related bacteria contribute to a major public health issue by increasing patient morbidity and mortality during or after hospital stay. Bacterial high-throughput amplicon gene sequencing along with identification of AMR genes, as well as whole genome sequencing (WGS), are biotechnological tools that allow multiple-sample screening for a diversity of bacteria. In this paper, we used these methods to perform a one-year cross sectional profiling of bacteria and AMR genes in adult and neonatal intensive care units (ICU and NICU) in a Brazilian public, tertiary hospital. Our results showed high abundances of HAI-related bacteria such as S. epidermidis, S. aureus, K. pneumoniae, A. baumannii complex, E. coli, E. faecalis, and P. aeruginosa in patients and hospital surfaces. Most abundant AMR genes detected throughout ICU and NICU were mecA, blaCTX-M-1 group, blaSHV-like, and blaKPC-like. We found that NICU environment and patients were more widely contaminated with pathogenic bacteria than ICU. Patient samples, despite the higher bacterial load, have lower bacterial diversity than environmental samples in both units. Finally, we also identified contamination hotspots in the hospital environment showing constant frequencies of bacterial and AMR contamination throughout the year. Whole genome sequencing (WGS), 16S rRNA oligotypes, and AMR identification allowed a high-resolution characterization of the hospital microbiome profile.


Assuntos
Bactérias/genética , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Adulto , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Carga Bacteriana , Brasil , Infecção Hospitalar/microbiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/patologia , Estudos Transversais , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal , RNA Ribossômico 16S/química , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/metabolismo , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus/genética , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
16.
An Real Acad Farm ; 86(2): 117-124, abr.-jun. 2020. graf, ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-193547

RESUMO

Uno de los quesos frescos tradicionales típicos del Ecuador es el queso de hoja, un queso de pasta hilada, que se elabora de manera artesanal envuelto en hoja de achira (Canna indica), mientras en la industria es empacado al vacío en bolsas de polietileno. En el presente estudio se comparó la calidad microbiológica de estos quesos, evaluando los indicadores de la calidad higiénico-sanitaria, además se cuantificaron y caracterizaron fenotípicamente bacterias ácido lácticas (BAL). Las muestras se recolectaron en queseras artesanales y plantas industriales de la ciudad de Latacunga. Se determinaron recuentos de aerobios mesófilos aplicando la Norma Técnica Ecuatoriana NTE INEN 1529 5, coliformes totales, Escherichia coli y Staphylococcus aureus se analizaron utilizando placas Petrifilm (AOAC 991.14 - AOAC 2003.07). El recuento de bacterias ácido lácticas empleó el método PRT-712.02-047. Los resultados de los indicadores de la calidad higiénico-sanitaria: coliformes, E. coli y S. aureus examinados en los quesos de hoja artesanales y de elaboración industrial, en todos los casos superaron los límites de aceptabilidad establecidos por la normativa ecuatoriana, sugiriendo deficiente calidad higiénica de los procesos o incorrecta manipulación de la leche empleada como materia prima. Los recuentos de Lactobacillus y Lactococcus en los quesos industriales presentaron una reducción estadísticamente significativa comparados con los recuentos de estos microorganismos en los quesos artesanales, esto corresponde a una diferencia en porcentaje de 18,15 % y 14,27 % respectivamente. Se aisló un total de 32 cepas de bacterias de ácido láctico, estas mostraron características fenotípicas similares, pero tuvieron una respuesta diferente a la tolerancia a niveles de pH (4.4; 9.4) y NaCl (6.5 %). Es importante complementar la evaluación microbiológica con un análisis sensorial para evaluar el efecto de las BAL sobre las características organolépticas de los quesos de hoja de procedencia artesanal e industrial


One of the traditional fresh cheeses in Ecuador is the artisanal leafcheese, a kind of stretched-curd cheese. The artisanal product is wrapped in achira leaves (Canna indica), while the industrial leafcheese is packed at vacuum in high density polyethylene bags. In this study the microbiological quality of both products was compared. The hygienic-sanitary microbial indicators and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were quantified. The LAB isolated were characterized phenotypically. The samples were obtained from artisanal cheese-making and industrial located in Latacunga city province Cotopaxi. The total aerobic mesophilic count was made based on national regulations (NTE INEN 1529 5); total coliforms, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus was evaluated using petrifilm methods (AOAC 991.14 - AOAC 2003.07) and to LAB was used PRT-712.02-047. The results show high quantities of total coliforms, E. coli and S. aureus in both products, these data exceed the limits of acceptability established in Ecuadorian regulations, this evidence poor hygienic quality of the processes or incorrect controls of milk as raw material. The lactic acid bacteria count showed statistically significant differences, the industrial cheeses had a reduction of 18,15% of Lactobacillus and 14,27% of Lactococcus compared with artisanal cheeses. A total of 32 strains of lactic acid bacteria were isolated, these showed similar phenotypic characteristics, but these had a different response at the level of pH (4,4;9,4) and NaCl (6,5%). The sensory evaluation will be an important complement in this type of study


Assuntos
Queijo/microbiologia , Microbiologia de Alimentos/normas , Coliformes , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação , Carga Bacteriana , Equador , Queijo/normas , Escherichia coli/genética , Staphylococcus aureus/genética , Fenótipo
17.
Top Companion Anim Med ; 39: 100429, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32482286

RESUMO

Many Escherichia coli (E. coli) strains produce biofilm that confers antimicrobial resistance. However, studies of biofilm production by E. coli from canine pyometra are lacking. Objectives were to elucidate the role of biofilm production by E. coli in pyometra by: (1) assessing the ability of E. coli to produce biofilm in vitro, and (2) confirming biofilm in situ. Endometrial biopsies were obtained from bitches with pyometra and preserved for microscopic analysis (n = 25). An endometrial swab was submitted for aerobic culture. Samples with confirmed E. coli were evaluated further for biofilm production in vitro and in vivo. Seventy percent of cases (16/23) resulted in pure growth of 1 or 2 E. coli strains, totaling 20 isolates. Fifteen isolates (15/20, 75%) had higher optical densities then negative controls (P < .05). On histopathology, all tissues exhibited endometrial inflammation and mucus was located within endometrial glands and occasionally overlying epithelium on 14 slides (14/16, 88%). Bacteria was noted in 50% of slides (8/16). During FISH acellular debris within the uterine lumen consistent with biofilm was noted on 94% of samples (15/16) and E coli was positively identified on all samples (15/15). Areas suggestive of the presence of biofilm were observed on all samples on scanning electron microscopy; but, bacteria consistent with E. coli were only visualized in 9 samples (9/16, 56%). In conclusion, we demonstrated that relevant strains of E. coli produce biofilm in vitro and in vivo, which may be considered in the development of new pyometra treatments aimed at disrupting these E. coli biofilm.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/microbiologia , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Piometra/veterinária , Animais , Biofilmes , Cães , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Feminino , Piometra/microbiologia
18.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 331: 108750, 2020 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32559710

RESUMO

For the first time, this study evaluates consumer exposure via poultry meat to Enterobacteriaceae with capacity to develop severe extraintestinal infections by either bacterial virulence and/or antibiotic resistance traits. The characterization of 256 isolates and the assessment of five parameters, showed that 96 of 100 poultry meat samples from supermarkets of northwest Spain posed ≥ one potential risk: i) 96% carried Enterobacteriaceae resistant to antimicrobials of categories A (64% to monobactams) or B (95% to cephalosporins 3rd and 4rd- generation, quinolones and/or polymixins) of the new categorization of EMA. ii) More than one extended-spectrum-ß-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae species were recovered from 28% of poultry meat. iii) High-risk lineages of E. coli, including multidrug-resistant ST131-H22, were present in 62% of samples. iv) E. coli recovered from 25% of samples conformed the ExPEC status. v) E. coli from 17% of samples satisfied the UPEC status. Of note, the recovery from different samples of two E. coli CC10-A (CH11-54) carrying mcr-1.1-bearing IncX4 plasmids, and four E. coli CC10-A (eae-beta1) of the hybrid pathotype aEPEC/ExPEC. (ESBL)-producing K. pneumoniae were isolated from 27% of samples. In summary, poultry meat microbiota is a source of genetically diverse Enterobacteriaceae, resistant to relevant antimicrobials and potentially pathogenic for consumers.


Assuntos
Exposição Dietética/estatística & dados numéricos , Resistência a Múltiplos Medicamentos , Enterobacteriaceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Enterobacteriaceae/genética , Microbiologia de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Carne/microbiologia , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Galinhas/microbiologia , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/microbiologia , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Escherichia coli Extraintestinal Patogênica/genética , Escherichia coli Extraintestinal Patogênica/isolamento & purificação , Klebsiella pneumoniae/efeitos dos fármacos , Klebsiella pneumoniae/genética , Plasmídeos/genética , Espanha/epidemiologia , Perus , Escherichia coli Uropatogênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli Uropatogênica/genética , Escherichia coli Uropatogênica/isolamento & purificação
19.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0235059, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32574199

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To support effective antibiotic selection in empirical treatments, infection control interventions, and antimicrobial resistance containment strategies, many medical institutions collect antimicrobial susceptibility test data conducted at their facilities to prepare cumulative antibiograms. AIM: To evaluate how the setpoints of duplicate isolate removal period and data collection period affect the calculated susceptibility rates in antibiograms. METHODS: The Sakai City Medical Center is a regional core hospital for tertiary emergency medical care with 480 beds for general clinical care. In this study, all the Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates collected at the Sakai City Medical Center Clinical Laboratory between July 2013 and December 2018 were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility tests and the resulting data was analyzed. FINDINGS: The longer the duplicate isolate removal period, the fewer the isolates are available for every bacterial species. Differences in the length of the duplicate isolate removal period affected P. aeruginosa susceptibility rates to ß-lactam antibiotics by up to 10.8%. The setpoint of the data collection period affected the antimicrobial susceptibility rates by up to 7.3%. We found that a significant change in susceptibility could be missed depending on the setting of the data collection period, in preparing antibiogram of ß-lactam antibiotics for P. aeruginosa. CONCLUSIONS: When referring to antibiograms, medical professionals involved in infectious disease treatment should be aware that the parameter values, such as the duplicate isolate removal period and the data collection period, affect P. aeruginosa susceptibility rates especially to ß-lactam antibiotics. And antibiogram should be updated within the shortest time period that is practically possible, taking into account restrictions such as numbers of specimen.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Klebsiella pneumoniae/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/métodos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/normas , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Algoritmos , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Escherichia coli/fisiologia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Klebsiella pneumoniae/isolamento & purificação , Klebsiella pneumoniae/fisiologia , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/isolamento & purificação , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/fisiologia , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Fatores de Tempo
20.
J Med Microbiol ; 69(6): 806-811, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32490793

RESUMO

Introduction. Bloodstream infections (BSI) are growing in incidence and present a serious health threat. Most patients wait up to 48 h before microbiological cultures can confirm a diagnosis. Low numbers of circulating bacteria in patients with BSI mean we need to develop new methods and optimize current methods to facilitate efficient recovery of bacteria from the bloodstream. This will allow detection of positive blood cultures in a more clinically useful timeframe. Many bacterial blood recovery methods are available and usually include a combination of techniques such as centrifugation, filtration, serum separation or lysis treatment. Here, we evaluate nine different bacteria recovery methods performed directly from blood culture.Aim. We sought to identify a bacterial recovery method that would allow for a cost-effective and efficient recovery of common BSI pathogens directly from blood culture.Methods. Simulated E. coli ATCC 25922 blood culture was used as a model system to evaluate nine different bacteria recovery methods. Each method was assessed on recovery yield, cost, hands-on time, risk of contamination and ease of use. The highest scoring recovery method was further evaluated using simulated blood cultures spiked with seven of the most frequently occurring bloodstream pathogens. The recovery yield was calculated based on c.f.u. count before and after each recovery method. Independent t-tests were performed to determine if the recovery methods evaluated were significantly different based on c.f.u. ml-1 log recovery.Results. All nine methods evaluated successfully recovered E. coli ATCC 25922 from simulated blood cultures although the bacterial yield differed significantly. The MALDI-TOF intact cell method offered the poorest recovery with a mean loss of 2.94±0.37 log c.f.u. ml-1. In contrast, a method developed by Bio-Rad achieved the greatest bacterial yield with a mean bacteria loss of 0.27±0.013 log c.f.u. ml-1. Overall, a low-speed serum-separation method was demonstrated to be the most efficient method in terms of time, cost and recovery efficiency and successfully recovered seven of the most frequent BSI pathogens with a mean bacteria loss of 0.717±0.18 log c.f.u. ml-1.Conclusion. The efficiency of bacterial recovery can vary significantly between different methods and thereby can have a critical impact on downstream analysis. The low-speed serum-separation method offered a simple and effective means of recovering common BSI pathogens from blood culture and will be further investigated for use in the rapid detection of bacteraemia and susceptibility testing in clinical practice.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas Bacteriológicas/métodos , Hemocultura/métodos , Patógenos Transmitidos pelo Sangue/isolamento & purificação , Bacteriemia/diagnóstico , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Humanos
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