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1.
Nature ; 585(7823): 96-101, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32814898

RESUMO

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) are neurodegenerative disorders that overlap in their clinical presentation, pathology and genetic origin. Autoimmune disorders are also overrepresented in both ALS and FTD, but this remains an unexplained epidemiologic observation1-3. Expansions of a hexanucleotide repeat (GGGGCC) in the C9orf72 gene are the most common cause of familial ALS and FTD (C9-ALS/FTD), and lead to both repeat-containing RNA and dipeptide accumulation, coupled with decreased C9orf72 protein expression in brain and peripheral blood cells4-6. Here we show in mice that loss of C9orf72 from myeloid cells alone is sufficient to recapitulate the age-dependent lymphoid hypertrophy and autoinflammation seen in animals with a complete knockout of C9orf72. Dendritic cells isolated from C9orf72-/- mice show marked early activation of the type I interferon response, and C9orf72-/- myeloid cells are selectively hyperresponsive to activators of the stimulator of interferon genes (STING) protein-a key regulator of the innate immune response to cytosolic DNA. Degradation of STING through the autolysosomal pathway is diminished in C9orf72-/- myeloid cells, and blocking STING suppresses hyperactive type I interferon responses in C9orf72-/- immune cells as well as splenomegaly and inflammation in C9orf72-/- mice. Moreover, mice lacking one or both copies of C9orf72 are more susceptible to experimental autoimmune encephalitis, mirroring the susceptibility to autoimmune diseases seen in people with C9-ALS/FTD. Finally, blood-derived macrophages, whole blood and brain tissue from patients with C9-ALS/FTD all show an elevated type I interferon signature compared with samples from people with sporadic ALS/FTD; this increased interferon response can be suppressed with a STING inhibitor. Collectively, our results suggest that patients with C9-ALS/FTD have an altered immunophenotype because their reduced levels of C9orf72 cannot suppress the inflammation mediated by the induction of type I interferons by STING.


Assuntos
Proteína C9orf72/genética , Proteína C9orf72/metabolismo , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Células Mieloides/metabolismo , Envelhecimento/imunologia , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/genética , Animais , Proteína C9orf72/deficiência , Células Dendríticas/citologia , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Encefalomielite Autoimune Experimental/genética , Encefalomielite Autoimune Experimental/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação/genética , Inflamação/imunologia , Interferon Tipo I/biossíntese , Interferon Tipo I/imunologia , Proteínas de Membrana/antagonistas & inibidores , Camundongos , Células Mieloides/imunologia , Neoplasias/imunologia , Linfócitos T/citologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia
2.
Nature ; 585(7824): 251-255, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32848248

RESUMO

Mutation of C9orf72 is the most prevalent defect associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal degeneration1. Together with hexanucleotide-repeat expansion2,3, haploinsufficiency of C9orf72 contributes to neuronal dysfunction4-6. Here we determine the structure of the C9orf72-SMCR8-WDR41 complex by cryo-electron microscopy. C9orf72 and SMCR8 both contain longin and DENN (differentially expressed in normal and neoplastic cells) domains7, and WDR41 is a ß-propeller protein that binds to SMCR8 such that the whole structure resembles an eye slip hook. Contacts between WDR41 and the DENN domain of SMCR8 drive the lysosomal localization of the complex in conditions of amino acid starvation. The structure suggested that C9orf72-SMCR8 is a GTPase-activating protein (GAP), and we found that C9orf72-SMCR8-WDR41 acts as a GAP for the ARF family of small GTPases. These data shed light on the function of C9orf72 in normal physiology, and in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal degeneration.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/genética , Proteínas Relacionadas à Autofagia/química , Proteína C9orf72/química , Proteína C9orf72/genética , Proteínas de Transporte/química , Microscopia Crioeletrônica , Demência Frontotemporal/genética , Haploinsuficiência , Complexos Multiproteicos/química , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/química , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/metabolismo , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/metabolismo , Proteínas Relacionadas à Autofagia/deficiência , Proteínas Relacionadas à Autofagia/metabolismo , Proteínas Relacionadas à Autofagia/ultraestrutura , Proteína C9orf72/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte/ultraestrutura , Demência Frontotemporal/metabolismo , Humanos , Lisossomos/metabolismo , Modelos Moleculares , Complexos Multiproteicos/genética , Complexos Multiproteicos/metabolismo , Complexos Multiproteicos/ultraestrutura , Proteínas Mutantes/genética , Proteínas Mutantes/metabolismo , Mutação , Domínios Proteicos
3.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3848, 2020 07 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32737286

RESUMO

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal disease characterized by the degeneration of upper and lower motor neurons (MNs). We find a significant reduction of the retromer complex subunit VPS35 in iPSCs-derived MNs from ALS patients, in MNs from ALS post mortem explants and in MNs from SOD1G93A mice. Being the retromer involved in trafficking of hydrolases, a pathological hallmark in ALS, we design, synthesize and characterize an array of retromer stabilizers based on bis-guanylhydrazones connected by a 1,3-phenyl ring linker. We select compound 2a as a potent and bioavailable interactor of VPS35-VPS29. Indeed, while increasing retromer stability in ALS mice, compound 2a attenuates locomotion impairment and increases MNs survival. Moreover, compound 2a increases VPS35 in iPSCs-derived MNs and shows brain bioavailability. Our results clearly suggest the retromer as a valuable druggable target in ALS.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/tratamento farmacológico , Hidrazonas/farmacologia , Neurônios Motores/efeitos dos fármacos , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Proteínas de Transporte Vesicular/genética , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/genética , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/metabolismo , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/patologia , Animais , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Encéfalo/patologia , Diferenciação Celular , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Hidrazonas/síntese química , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/citologia , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/metabolismo , Locomoção/efeitos dos fármacos , Locomoção/fisiologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Neurônios Motores/metabolismo , Neurônios Motores/patologia , Neuroproteção/efeitos dos fármacos , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/síntese química , Ligação Proteica/efeitos dos fármacos , Multimerização Proteica , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Superóxido Dismutase-1/genética , Superóxido Dismutase-1/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte Vesicular/metabolismo
4.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3354, 2020 07 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32620797

RESUMO

Expansion of an intronic (GGGGCC)n repeat region within the C9orf72 gene is a main cause of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal dementia (c9ALS/FTD). A hallmark of c9ALS/FTD is the accumulation of misprocessed RNAs, which are often targets of cellular RNA surveillance. Here, we show that RNA decay mechanisms involving upstream frameshift 1 (UPF1), including nonsense-mediated decay (NMD), are inhibited in c9ALS/FTD brains and in cultured cells expressing either of two arginine-rich dipeptide repeats (R-DPRs), poly(GR) and poly(PR). Mechanistically, although R-DPRs cause the recruitment of UPF1 to stress granules, stress granule formation is independent of NMD inhibition. Instead, NMD inhibition is primarily a result from global translational repression caused by R-DPRs. Overexpression of UPF1, but none of its NMD-deficient mutants, enhanced the survival of neurons treated by R-DPRs, suggesting that R-DPRs cause neurotoxicity in part by inhibiting cellular RNA surveillance.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/genética , Proteína C9orf72/genética , Demência Frontotemporal/genética , Degradação do RNAm Mediada por Códon sem Sentido , RNA Helicases/metabolismo , Transativadores/metabolismo , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/patologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/genética , Expansão das Repetições de DNA , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Embrião de Mamíferos , Feminino , Lobo Frontal/patologia , Demência Frontotemporal/patologia , Humanos , Íntrons/genética , Camundongos , Neurônios/metabolismo , Neurônios/patologia , Cultura Primária de Células , Biossíntese de Proteínas , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , RNA-Seq , Transativadores/genética
6.
N Engl J Med ; 383(2): 151-158, 2020 07 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32640133

RESUMO

Two patients with familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and mutations in the gene encoding superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) were treated with a single intrathecal infusion of adeno-associated virus encoding a microRNA targeting SOD1. In Patient 1, SOD1 levels in spinal cord tissue as analyzed on autopsy were lower than corresponding levels in untreated patients with SOD1-mediated ALS and in healthy controls. Levels of SOD1 in cerebrospinal fluid were transiently and only slightly lower in Patient 1 but were not affected in Patient 2. In Patient 1, meningoradiculitis developed after the infusion; Patient 2 was pretreated with immunosuppressive drugs and did not have this complication. Patient 1 had transient improvement in the strength of his right leg, a measure that had been relatively stable throughout his disease course, but there was no change in his vital capacity. Patient 2 had stable scores on a composite measure of ALS function and a stable vital capacity during a 12-month period. This study showed that intrathecal microRNA can be used as a potential treatment for SOD1-mediated ALS.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/terapia , MicroRNAs/uso terapêutico , Superóxido Dismutase-1/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/genética , Dependovirus , Evolução Fatal , Inativação Gênica , Terapia Genética , Vetores Genéticos , Humanos , Injeções Espinhais , Masculino , Meningoencefalite , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Estudo de Prova de Conceito , Medula Espinal/química , Medula Espinal/patologia , Superóxido Dismutase-1/análise , Superóxido Dismutase-1/genética , Capacidade Vital , Adulto Jovem
8.
Mol Cell ; 79(3): 443-458.e7, 2020 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32649883

RESUMO

Despite the prominent role of TDP-43 in neurodegeneration, its physiological and pathological functions are not fully understood. Here, we report an unexpected role of TDP-43 in the formation of dynamic, reversible, liquid droplet-like nuclear bodies (NBs) in response to stress. Formation of NBs alleviates TDP-43-mediated cytotoxicity in mammalian cells and fly neurons. Super-resolution microscopy reveals distinct functions of the two RRMs in TDP-43 NB formation. TDP-43 NBs are partially colocalized with nuclear paraspeckles, whose scaffolding lncRNA NEAT1 is dramatically upregulated in stressed neurons. Moreover, increase of NEAT1 promotes TDP-43 liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS) in vitro. Finally, we discover that the ALS-associated mutation D169G impairs the NEAT1-mediated TDP-43 LLPS and NB assembly, causing excessive cytoplasmic translocation of TDP-43 to form stress granules, which become phosphorylated TDP-43 cytoplasmic foci upon prolonged stress. Together, our findings suggest a stress-mitigating role and mechanism of TDP-43 NBs, whose dysfunction may be involved in ALS pathogenesis.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Corpos de Inclusão Intranuclear/metabolismo , Neurônios/metabolismo , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/metabolismo , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/patologia , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Arsenitos/farmacologia , Córtex Cerebral/efeitos dos fármacos , Córtex Cerebral/metabolismo , Córtex Cerebral/ultraestrutura , Grânulos Citoplasmáticos/efeitos dos fármacos , Grânulos Citoplasmáticos/metabolismo , Grânulos Citoplasmáticos/ultraestrutura , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Drosophila melanogaster , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Células HEK293 , Células HeLa , Humanos , Corpos de Inclusão Intranuclear/efeitos dos fármacos , Corpos de Inclusão Intranuclear/ultraestrutura , Camundongos , Mutação , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios/ultraestrutura , Cultura Primária de Células , Transporte Proteico/efeitos dos fármacos , RNA Longo não Codificante/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Estresse Fisiológico
9.
N Engl J Med ; 383(2): 109-119, 2020 07 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32640130

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tofersen is an antisense oligonucleotide that mediates the degradation of superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) messenger RNA to reduce SOD1 protein synthesis. Intrathecal administration of tofersen is being studied for the treatment of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) due to SOD1 mutations. METHODS: We conducted a phase 1-2 ascending-dose trial evaluating tofersen in adults with ALS due to SOD1 mutations. In each dose cohort (20, 40, 60, or 100 mg), participants were randomly assigned in a 3:1 ratio to receive five doses of tofersen or placebo, administered intrathecally for 12 weeks. The primary outcomes were safety and pharmacokinetics. The secondary outcome was the change from baseline in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) SOD1 concentration at day 85. Clinical function and vital capacity were measured. RESULTS: A total of 50 participants underwent randomization and were included in the analyses; 48 participants received all five planned doses. Lumbar puncture-related adverse events were observed in most participants. Elevations in CSF white-cell count and protein were reported as adverse events in 4 and 5 participants, respectively, who received tofersen. Among participants who received tofersen, one died from pulmonary embolus on day 137, and one from respiratory failure on day 152; one participant in the placebo group died from respiratory failure on day 52. The difference at day 85 in the change from baseline in the CSF SOD1 concentration between the tofersen groups and the placebo group was 2 percentage points (95% confidence interval [CI], -18 to 27) for the 20-mg dose, -25 percentage points (95% CI, -40 to -5) for the 40-mg dose, -19 percentage points (95% CI, -35 to 2) for the 60-mg dose, and -33 percentage points (95% CI, -47 to -16) for the 100-mg dose. CONCLUSIONS: In adults with ALS due to SOD1 mutations, CSF SOD1 concentrations decreased at the highest concentration of tofersen administered intrathecally over a period of 12 weeks. CSF pleocytosis occurred in some participants receiving tofersen. Lumbar puncture-related adverse events were observed in most participants. (Funded by Biogen; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02623699; EudraCT number, 2015-004098-33.).


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/tratamento farmacológico , Oligonucleotídeos Antissenso/administração & dosagem , Oligonucleotídeos/administração & dosagem , Superóxido Dismutase-1/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Adulto , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/genética , Progressão da Doença , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Cefaleia/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Injeções Espinhais/efeitos adversos , Filamentos Intermediários , Leucocitose/induzido quimicamente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Oligonucleotídeos/efeitos adversos , Oligonucleotídeos/farmacocinética , Oligonucleotídeos Antissenso/efeitos adversos , Oligonucleotídeos Antissenso/farmacocinética , Superóxido Dismutase-1/genética , Capacidade Vital
10.
Nature ; 582(7810): 89-94, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32483373

RESUMO

A hexanucleotide-repeat expansion in C9ORF72 is the most common genetic variant that contributes to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal dementia1,2. The C9ORF72 mutation acts through gain- and loss-of-function mechanisms to induce pathways that are implicated in neural degeneration3-9. The expansion is transcribed into a long repetitive RNA, which negatively sequesters RNA-binding proteins5 before its non-canonical translation into neural-toxic dipeptide proteins3,4. The failure of RNA polymerase to read through the mutation also reduces the abundance of the endogenous C9ORF72 gene product, which functions in endolysosomal pathways and suppresses systemic and neural inflammation6-9. Notably, the effects of the repeat expansion act with incomplete penetrance in families with a high prevalence of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis or frontotemporal dementia, indicating that either genetic or environmental factors modify the risk of disease for each individual. Identifying disease modifiers is of considerable translational interest, as it could suggest strategies to diminish the risk of developing amyotrophic lateral sclerosis or frontotemporal dementia, or to slow progression. Here we report that an environment with reduced abundance of immune-stimulating bacteria10,11 protects C9orf72-mutant mice from premature mortality and significantly ameliorates their underlying systemic inflammation and autoimmunity. Consistent with C9orf72 functioning to prevent microbiota from inducing a pathological inflammatory response, we found that reducing the microbial burden in mutant mice with broad spectrum antibiotics-as well as transplanting gut microflora from a protective environment-attenuated inflammatory phenotypes, even after their onset. Our studies provide further evidence that the microbial composition of our gut has an important role in brain health and can interact in surprising ways with well-known genetic risk factors for disorders of the nervous system.


Assuntos
Proteína C9orf72/genética , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Gliose/microbiologia , Gliose/patologia , Inflamação/genética , Inflamação/microbiologia , Medula Espinal/patologia , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/genética , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/patologia , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Autoimunidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Autoimunidade/genética , Autoimunidade/imunologia , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Citocinas/imunologia , Transplante de Microbiota Fecal , Feminino , Demência Frontotemporal/genética , Demência Frontotemporal/patologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/imunologia , Gliose/genética , Gliose/prevenção & controle , Inflamação/patologia , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Mutação com Perda de Função/genética , Masculino , Camundongos , Microglia/imunologia , Microglia/microbiologia , Microglia/patologia , Medula Espinal/imunologia , Medula Espinal/microbiologia , Taxa de Sobrevida
11.
Mol Cell ; 79(1): 54-67.e7, 2020 07 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32521226

RESUMO

Exposure of cells to heat or oxidative stress causes misfolding of proteins. To avoid toxic protein aggregation, cells have evolved nuclear and cytosolic protein quality control (PQC) systems. In response to proteotoxic stress, cells also limit protein synthesis by triggering transient storage of mRNAs and RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) in cytosolic stress granules (SGs). We demonstrate that the SUMO-targeted ubiquitin ligase (StUbL) pathway, which is part of the nuclear proteostasis network, regulates SG dynamics. We provide evidence that inactivation of SUMO deconjugases under proteotoxic stress initiates SUMO-primed, RNF4-dependent ubiquitylation of RBPs that typically condense into SGs. Impairment of SUMO-primed ubiquitylation drastically delays SG resolution upon stress release. Importantly, the StUbL system regulates compartmentalization of an amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)-associated FUS mutant in SGs. We propose that the StUbL system functions as surveillance pathway for aggregation-prone RBPs in the nucleus, thereby linking the nuclear and cytosolic axis of proteotoxic stress response.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/patologia , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Grânulos Citoplasmáticos/metabolismo , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/metabolismo , Proteína SUMO-1/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Ubiquitina/metabolismo , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/genética , Núcleo Celular/genética , Células HeLa , Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Humanos , Mutação , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Proteólise , Proteína FUS de Ligação a RNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/genética , Proteína SUMO-1/genética , Sumoilação , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Ubiquitinação
12.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(26): 15230-15241, 2020 06 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32513711

RESUMO

Mutations in UBQLN2 cause amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), frontotemporal dementia (FTD), and other neurodegenerations. However, the mechanism by which the UBQLN2 mutations cause disease remains unclear. Alterations in proteins involved in autophagy are prominent in neuronal tissue of human ALS UBQLN2 patients and in a transgenic P497S UBQLN2 mouse model of ALS/FTD, suggesting a pathogenic link. Here, we show UBQLN2 functions in autophagy and that ALS/FTD mutant proteins compromise this function. Inactivation of UBQLN2 expression in HeLa cells reduced autophagic flux and autophagosome acidification. The defect in acidification was rescued by reexpression of wild type (WT) UBQLN2 but not by any of the five different UBQLN2 ALS/FTD mutants tested. Proteomic analysis and immunoblot studies revealed P497S mutant mice and UBQLN2 knockout HeLa and NSC34 cells have reduced expression of ATP6v1g1, a critical subunit of the vacuolar ATPase (V-ATPase) pump. Knockout of UBQLN2 expression in HeLa cells decreased turnover of ATP6v1g1, while overexpression of WT UBQLN2 increased biogenesis of ATP6v1g1 compared with P497S mutant UBQLN2 protein. In vitro interaction studies showed that ATP6v1g1 binds more strongly to WT UBQLN2 than to ALS/FTD mutant UBQLN2 proteins. Intriguingly, overexpression of ATP6v1g1 in UBQLN2 knockout HeLa cells increased autophagosome acidification, suggesting a therapeutic approach to overcome the acidification defect. Taken together, our findings suggest that UBQLN2 mutations drive pathogenesis through a dominant-negative loss-of-function mechanism in autophagy and that UBQLN2 functions as an important regulator of the expression and stability of ATP6v1g1. These findings may have important implications for devising therapies to treat UBQLN2-linked ALS/FTD.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/metabolismo , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/genética , Autofagossomos/fisiologia , Proteínas Relacionadas à Autofagia/metabolismo , Autofagia/genética , Demência/genética , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/metabolismo , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/patologia , Animais , Proteínas Relacionadas à Autofagia/genética , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Demência/metabolismo , Demência/patologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Glicoproteínas de Membrana Associadas ao Lisossomo/genética , Glicoproteínas de Membrana Associadas ao Lisossomo/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/genética , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/metabolismo , Mutação , Ligação Proteica , Proteína Sequestossoma-1/genética , Proteína Sequestossoma-1/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima , ATPases Vacuolares Próton-Translocadoras/genética , ATPases Vacuolares Próton-Translocadoras/metabolismo
13.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(22): e20423, 2020 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32481440

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is the most common cause of motor neuron disease, and effective treatment for ALS is still lacking. Transactive response (TAR) -DNA-binding protein-43 (TDP-43) is aggregated in the neurons of ALS patients. Animal studies shown TDP-43 aggregation can be attenuated by enhancing autophagy by tamoxifen. However, its beneficial effects for ALS patients remain unknown. METHODS: Eighteen patients with ALS without mutations in superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD-1) or fused in sarcoma (FUS) genes were randomly assigned into the tamoxifen 40 mg/day or placebo group in a double-blinded manner and all were given riluzole twice daily. Participants were followed up at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months. The primary end point was time to death or dependence on mechanical ventilation. Secondary end points were decline of the revised ALS Functional Rating Scale (ALSFRS-R) score and pulmonary function measured by forced vital capacity (FVC). RESULTS: Ten participants were randomly assigned in the treatment group with tamoxifen, 7 finished trial, 1 reach primary endpoint; while 8 participants in the placebo group, 2 finished trial and 2 reach primary end point. The proportion of participants reaching the primary end point was lower in the tamoxifen group but did not reach statistical significance. At the 1-, 3-, and 6-month follow-up, the average decline rates of the ALSFRS-R score were slower in the tamoxifen group. No significant difference was observed in FVC and ALSFRS-R score at 12 months between groups. CONCLUSION: Tamoxifen exerted only a modest effect on attenuate progression for 6 months in this small trial. Additional larger scale studies should be necessary to confirm whether enhancing autophagy can attenuate ALS progression.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/tratamento farmacológico , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/uso terapêutico , Tamoxifeno/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/genética , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Progressão da Doença , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Neuron ; 106(6): 899-911, 2020 06 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32553207

RESUMO

In recent years, the nuclear pore complex (NPC) has emerged as a key player in genome regulation and cellular homeostasis. New discoveries have revealed that the NPC has multiple cellular functions besides mediating the molecular exchange between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. In this review, we discuss non-transport aspects of the NPC focusing on the NPC-genome interaction, the extreme longevity of the NPC proteins, and NPC dysfunction in age-related diseases. The examples summarized herein demonstrate that the NPC, which first evolved to enable the biochemical communication between the nucleus and the cytoplasm, now doubles as the gatekeeper of cellular identity and aging.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/metabolismo , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Complexo de Proteínas Formadoras de Poros Nucleares/metabolismo , Poro Nuclear/metabolismo , Transporte Ativo do Núcleo Celular , Envelhecimento/genética , Senilidade Prematura/genética , Senilidade Prematura/metabolismo , Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/genética , Animais , Proteína de Ligação a CREB/metabolismo , Senescência Celular , Genoma , Humanos , Doença de Huntington/genética , Doença de Huntington/metabolismo , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/genética , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/metabolismo , Poro Nuclear/genética , Complexo de Proteínas Formadoras de Poros Nucleares/genética
15.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 48(12): 6889-6905, 2020 07 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32479602

RESUMO

Mutations in the RNA-binding protein FUS cause amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a devastating neurodegenerative disease. FUS plays a role in numerous aspects of RNA metabolism, including mRNA splicing. However, the impact of ALS-causative mutations on splicing has not been fully characterized, as most disease models have been based on overexpressing mutant FUS, which will alter RNA processing due to FUS autoregulation. We and others have recently created knockin models that overcome the overexpression problem, and have generated high depth RNA-sequencing on FUS mutants in parallel to FUS knockout, allowing us to compare mutation-induced changes to genuine loss of function. We find that FUS-ALS mutations induce a widespread loss of function on expression and splicing. Specifically, we find that mutant FUS directly alters intron retention levels in RNA-binding proteins. Moreover, we identify an intron retention event in FUS itself that is associated with its autoregulation. Altered FUS levels have been linked to disease, and we show here that this novel autoregulation mechanism is altered by FUS mutations. Crucially, we also observe this phenomenon in other genetic forms of ALS, including those caused by TDP-43, VCP and SOD1 mutations, supporting the concept that multiple ALS genes interact in a regulatory network.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/genética , Homeostase/genética , Proteína FUS de Ligação a RNA/genética , Animais , Citoplasma/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Humanos , Íntrons/genética , Mutação com Perda de Função , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Mutação/genética , Processamento de RNA/genética , Superóxido Dismutase-1/genética , Proteína com Valosina/genética
16.
Muscle Nerve ; 62(2): 272-283, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32369618

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The exact mechanisms underlying neuroinflammation and how they contribute to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) pathogenesis remain unclear. One possibility is the secretion of neurotoxic factors, such as lipocalin-2 (LCN2), that lead to neuronal death. METHODS: LCN2 levels were measured in human postmortem tissue using Western blot, quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction, and immunofluorescence, and in plasma by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. SH-SY5Y cells were used to test the pro-inflammatory effects of LCN2. RESULTS: LCN2 is increased in ALS postmortem motor cortex, spinal cord, and plasma. Furthermore, we identified several LCN2 variants in ALS patients that may contribute to disease pathogenesis. Lastly, while LCN2 treatment caused cell death and increased pro-inflammatory markers, treatment with an anti-LCN2 antibody prevented these responses in vitro. CONCLUSIONS: LCN2 upregulation in ALS postmortem samples and plasma may be an upstream event for triggering neuroinflammation and neuronal death.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/genética , Inflamação/metabolismo , Lipocalina-2/genética , Córtex Motor/metabolismo , Medula Espinal/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/metabolismo , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/fisiopatologia , Western Blotting , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Morte Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Citocinas/efeitos dos fármacos , Citocinas/metabolismo , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Imunofluorescência , Humanos , Técnicas In Vitro , Lipocalina-2/antagonistas & inibidores , Lipocalina-2/metabolismo , Lipocalina-2/farmacologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real
17.
Am J Hum Genet ; 106(6): 885-892, 2020 06 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32413284

RESUMO

Leveraging high-dimensional molecular datasets can help us develop mechanistic insight into associations between genetic variants and complex traits. In this study, we integrated human proteome data derived from brain tissue to evaluate whether targeted proteins putatively mediate the effects of genetic variants on seven neurological phenotypes (Alzheimer disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, depression, insomnia, intelligence, neuroticism, and schizophrenia). Applying the principles of Mendelian randomization (MR) systematically across the genome highlighted 43 effects between genetically predicted proteins derived from the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and these outcomes. Furthermore, genetic colocalization provided evidence that the same causal variant at 12 of these loci was responsible for variation in both protein and neurological phenotype. This included genes such as DCC, which encodes the netrin-1 receptor and has an important role in the development of the nervous system (p = 4.29 × 10-11 with neuroticism), as well as SARM1, which has been previously implicated in axonal degeneration (p = 1.76 × 10-08 with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis). We additionally conducted a phenome-wide MR study for each of these 12 genes to assess potential pleiotropic effects on 700 complex traits and diseases. Our findings suggest that genes such as SNX32, which was initially associated with increased risk of Alzheimer disease, may potentially influence other complex traits in the opposite direction. In contrast, genes such as CTSH (which was also associated with Alzheimer disease) and SARM1 may make worthwhile therapeutic targets because they did not have genetically predicted effects on any of the other phenotypes after correcting for multiple testing.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/metabolismo , Variação Genética/genética , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/genética , Fenômica , Proteoma/genética , Proteômica , Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/genética , Proteínas do Domínio Armadillo/genética , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Catepsina H/genética , Proteínas do Citoesqueleto/genética , Depressão/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Inteligência/genética , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/metabolismo , Neuroticismo , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Fenótipo , Proteoma/metabolismo , Esquizofrenia/genética , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/genética , Nexinas de Classificação/genética
18.
Am J Hum Genet ; 106(5): 659-678, 2020 05 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32386536

RESUMO

Access to large-scale genomics datasets has increased the utility of hypothesis-free genome-wide analyses. However, gene signals are often insufficiently powered to reach experiment-wide significance, triggering a process of laborious triaging of genomic-association-study results. We introduce mantis-ml, a multi-dimensional, multi-step machine-learning framework that allows objective assessment of the biological relevance of genes to disease studies. Mantis-ml is an automated machine-learning framework that follows a multi-model approach of stochastic semi-supervised learning to rank disease-associated genes through iterative learning sessions on random balanced datasets across the protein-coding exome. When applied to a range of human diseases, including chronic kidney disease (CKD), epilepsy, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), mantis-ml achieved an average area under curve (AUC) prediction performance of 0.81-0.89. Critically, to prove its value as a tool that can be used to interpret exome-wide association studies, we overlapped mantis-ml predictions with data from published cohort-level association studies. We found a statistically significant enrichment of high mantis-ml predictions among the highest-ranked genes from hypothesis-free cohort-level statistics, indicating a substantial improvement over the performance of current state-of-the-art methods and pointing to the capture of true prioritization signals for disease-associated genes. Finally, we introduce a generic mantis-ml score (GMS) trained with over 1,200 features as a generic-disease-likelihood estimator, outperforming published gene-level scores. In addition to our tool, we provide a gene prioritization atlas that includes mantis-ml's predictions across ten disease areas and empowers researchers to interactively navigate through the gene-triaging framework. Mantis-ml is an intuitive tool that supports the objective triaging of large-scale genomic discovery studies and enhances our understanding of complex genotype-phenotype associations.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/genética , Epilepsia/genética , Genômica/métodos , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/genética , Aprendizado de Máquina Supervisionado , Animais , Área Sob a Curva , Aprendizado Profundo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Exoma/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Humanos , Camundongos , Redes Neurais de Computação , Curva ROC , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Processos Estocásticos
19.
Neurology ; 94(24): e2592-e2604, 2020 06 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32414878

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To understand the progressive nature of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) by investigating differential brain patterns of gray and white matter involvement in clinically or genetically defined subgroups of patients using cross-sectional, longitudinal, and multimodal MRI. METHODS: We assessed cortical thickness, subcortical volumes, and white matter connectivity from T1-weighted and diffusion-weighted MRI in 292 patients with ALS (follow-up: n = 150) and 156 controls (follow-up: n = 72). Linear mixed-effects models were used to assess changes in structural brain measurements over time in patients compared to controls. RESULTS: Patients with a C9orf72 mutation (n = 24) showed widespread gray and white matter involvement at baseline, and extensive loss of white matter integrity in the connectome over time. In C9orf72-negative patients, we detected cortical thinning of motor and frontotemporal regions, and loss of white matter integrity of connections linked to the motor cortex. Patients with spinal onset displayed widespread white matter involvement at baseline and gray matter atrophy over time, whereas patients with bulbar onset started out with prominent gray matter involvement. Patients with unaffected cognition or behavior displayed predominantly motor system involvement, while widespread cerebral changes, including frontotemporal regions with progressive white matter involvement over time, were associated with impaired behavior or cognition. Progressive loss of gray and white matter integrity typically occurred in patients with shorter disease durations (<13 months), independent of progression rate. CONCLUSIONS: Heterogeneity of phenotype and C9orf72 genotype relates to distinct patterns of cerebral degeneration. We demonstrate that imaging studies have the potential to monitor disease progression and early intervention may be required to limit cerebral degeneration.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Idoso , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/genética , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/patologia , Comportamento , Encéfalo/patologia , Proteína C9orf72/genética , Cognição , Estudos Transversais , Imagem de Difusão por Ressonância Magnética , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Substância Cinzenta/diagnóstico por imagem , Substância Cinzenta/patologia , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Imagem Multimodal , Mutação , Estudos Prospectivos , Substância Branca/diagnóstico por imagem , Substância Branca/patologia
20.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1195: 205-212, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32468479

RESUMO

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease involving progressive and selective loss of motor neurons, muscle weakness, paralysis and death. The pathogenesis of ALS is not clearly understood, while reliable prognostic markers have not been identified to detect symptoms at earlier time points. The rapid development of microarray technology offers great potential for simultaneous analysis of the transcriptional expression of thousands of genes, aiming to determine novel candidate targets for efficient treatment. Additionally, metabolomics, as a high-throughput approach, is gaining significant attention in ALS research providing an opportunity to develop predictive biomarkers that may be utilized as indicators of clinical symptoms of ALS. In this review, recent evidences from gene expression profiling studies in ALS are illustrated in order to examine molecular signatures related to the disease's pathogenesis and potential discovery of therapeutic targets. Moreover, potent challenges are presented regarding the utilization of the metabolomics approach as a diagnostic tool in context with distinctive biomarkers' identification.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/genética , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/metabolismo , Metabolômica , Transcriptoma , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos
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