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1.
Medicina (B Aires) ; 79 Suppl 3: 60-65, 2019.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31603846

RESUMO

Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an autoimmune, inflammatory and de myelinat ing disorder of the central nervous system with a predilection for the optic nerves and spinal cord. In 2004 the association of NMO with an antibody against the water channel aquaporin 4 (anti-AQP4) was published as a different pathology from multiple sclerosis (MS). Currently the term NMO spectrum disorders (NMOSD) is proposed, because the manifestations of the disease can be more extensive, affecting in addition to the optic nerve and spinal cord, the area postrema of the dorsal medulla, brainstem, diencephalon and typical brain areas (periependymal, corpus callosum, internal capsule and subcortical white matter). NMOSD is also applied to patients who meet the NMO criteria and are negative for AQP4-IgG. Within the latter group, the presence of another antibody, anti-MOG, has been detected in 20%, with a different physiopathological mechanism, but with a similar clinic and a better prognosis. The immunosuppressive treatment in the attack, as well as the long-term treatment in the cases that are indicated, is fundamental to avoid sequelaes and recurrences. The correct diagnosis of this entity is essential since it can be aggravated with the use of drugs useful in the treatment of MS. In this publication we will review the pathophysiology, clinical and diagnostic criteria of NMOSD, and discuss the different therapeutic options.


Assuntos
Autoanticorpos/imunologia , Neuromielite Óptica/diagnóstico , Neuromielite Óptica/tratamento farmacológico , Autoanticorpos/efeitos adversos , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Humanos , Esclerose Múltipla/diagnóstico , Neuromielite Óptica/imunologia , Neuromielite Óptica/fisiopatologia
2.
Ideggyogy Sz ; 72(9-10): 317-323, 2019 Sep 30.
Artigo em Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31625698

RESUMO

Gait disturbance is a major symptom in patients with multiple sclerosis. The Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) was first used in clinical trials of multiple sclerosis for the assessment of disability, however it has become more and more widely used in clinical practice as well. Nowadays its use is essential in application of the new diagnostic criteria, the new clinical form classification and in monitoring the efficacy of therapies. EDSS is based on a standardised neurological examination, but focuses on those symptoms that are frequent in multiple sclerosis. Based on the examination it assesses seven functional systems: visual, brainstem, pyramidal, cerebellar, sensory, bowel-bladder and cerebral functions. EDSS scores can be determined based on the scores given in the functional systems and on testing the walking distance. In newer versions the "Ambulation score" has been added. This chapter clarifies the scores based on the maximal walking distance and the need for a walking aid to walk this distance. The Neurostatus/EDSS training method improves the reproducibility of the standardised neurological examination that forms the basis of the EDSS scoring. Of the tests assessing walking, the Timed-25 Foot Walk Test and the self-administered 12-Item Multiple Sclerosis Walking Scale are suitable for routine evaluation of walking performance. An increase of more than 20% in the Timed-25 Foot Walk may be considered a significant change in gait.


Assuntos
Pessoas com Deficiência , Marcha , Esclerose Múltipla/diagnóstico , Caminhada/fisiologia , Avaliação da Deficiência , Marcha/fisiologia , Humanos , Esclerose Múltipla/complicações , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
4.
Bratisl Lek Listy ; 120(10): 723-729, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31663345

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Multiple sclerosis is a chronic inflammatory and autoimmune demyelinating disease of the brain and spinal cord. Vitamin D has anti-inflammatory and anti-Th1, Th17 activities, activates the function of regulatory T cells, shifts the immune response towards Th2, so it might be favorable for downregulation of the disease pathogenesis, and if inflammation and Th1 and Th17 immunity are hyperactivated. The aim of our study was to highlight the role of vitamin D in multiple sclerosis pathogenesis. METHODS: We investigated 178 patients with multiple sclerosis. Plasma levels of 25(OH)D and HMGB1 were investigated. RESULTS: Despite a regular use of VD by patients, the plasma levels of 25(0H)D were significantly decreased in 57% of them, 14.1% had VD deficiency (level of 25(OH)D < 20 ng/mL) and more than 6 % of patients had VD severe deficiency with the plasma level of 25(OH)D < 12 ng/mL. The level of 25(OH)D negatively correlated with the severity of the disease (EDSS, index of progression, duration of the disease) and negative association was found also with Herbert´s six severity grades. HMGB1 levels were higher in patients (p < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: Our result showed that vitamin D deficiency plays a role in multiple sclerosis pathogenesis. We believe that administration of vitamin D to patients at a sufficient dose providing a physiological level of vitamin D could have a positive effect on the course of the disease. However, regular monitoring of vitamin D levels is required, which should be at least within 30-75 ng/mL, and even more, but below the toxicity limit (Tab. 6, Ref. 66).


Assuntos
Esclerose Múltipla/sangue , Esclerose Múltipla/diagnóstico , Deficiência de Vitamina D/complicações , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Progressão da Doença , Proteína HMGB1/sangue , Humanos , Vitamina D/sangue
5.
J Immunoassay Immunochem ; 40(5): 555-563, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31422745

RESUMO

Mediators have important roles in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. Interleukin 4 (IL-4) is one of the most important cytokines that has a regulatory effect on immune cells. In the current study, the serum level of IL-4 was assessed in the newly diagnosed neuromyelitis optica (NMO) and multiple sclerosis (MS) patients compared to healthy subjects. ELISA technique was used for assessment of the serum level of IL-4, and data analysis was performed by SPSS software. Serum level of IL-4 was elevated in both NMO and MS patients compared with healthy individuals (P < .001), but no statistically significant difference was identified between MS and NMO patients (P = .071). Furthermore, gender (female) and AQP4-Ab had significant impacts on the level of IL-4 in NMO patients (P < .001). These data show the crucial role of IL-4 in the pathogenesis of NMO and MS diseases. However, we suggest future studies to investigate the serum level of IL-4 in NMO and MS patients to clarify more roles of this cytokine in the pathogenesis of both diseases.


Assuntos
Interleucina-4/sangue , Esclerose Múltipla/sangue , Neuromielite Óptica/sangue , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Esclerose Múltipla/diagnóstico , Neuromielite Óptica/diagnóstico
6.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31464296

RESUMO

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic autoimmune disease affecting brain and spinal cord. Nowadays, MS diagnosis at early stages is difficult since the causes and mechanisms of the disease onset have not yet been fully discovered. The MS diagnosis is a complex process, and understanding molecular mechanisms of the disease as well as searching for biomarkers are principal directions in MS diagnosis. In this review, the authors present promising biomarkers for MS found in the cerebrospinal fluid.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores , Esclerose Múltipla , Biomarcadores/análise , Humanos , Esclerose Múltipla/diagnóstico
7.
NeuroRehabilitation ; 44(4): 587-597, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31256089

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Downslope walking (DSW) is an eccentric-based exercise intervention that promotes neuroplasticity of spinal reflex circuitry by inducing depression of Soleus Hoffman (H)-reflexes in young, neurologically unimpaired adults. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to evaluate the effects of DSW on spinal excitability (SE) and walking function (WF) in people with multiple sclerosis (PwMS). METHODS: Our study comprised two experiments on 12 PwMS (11 women; 45.3±11.8 years). Experiment 1 evaluated acute effects of a single 20-minute session of treadmill walking at three different walking grades on SE, 0% or level walking (LW), - 7.5% DSW, and - 15% DSW. Experiment 2 evaluated the effects of 6 sessions of DSW, at - 7.5% DSW (with second session being - 15% DSW) on SE and WF. RESULTS: Experiment 1 showed significantly greater acute % H-reflex depression following - 15% DSW compared to LW (p = 0.02) and - 7.5% DSW (p = 0.05). Experiment 2 demonstrated significant improvements in WF. PwMS who showed greater acute H-reflex depression during the - 15% DSW session also demonstrated greater physical activity, long-distance WF, and the ability to have greater H-reflex depression after DSW training. Significant changes were not observed in regards to SE. CONCLUSIONS: Though significant changes were not observed in SE after DSW training, we observed an improvement in WF which merits further investigation of DSW in PwMS.


Assuntos
Teste de Esforço/métodos , Reflexo H/fisiologia , Esclerose Múltipla/fisiopatologia , Esclerose Múltipla/terapia , Caminhada/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Eletromiografia/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Esclerose Múltipla/diagnóstico , Músculo Esquelético/fisiopatologia , Plasticidade Neuronal/fisiologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
8.
Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova ; 119(2. Vyp. 2): 12-17, 2019.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31156235

RESUMO

AIM: To study clinical-epidemiological characteristics of multiple sclerosis (MS) and neuroopticomyelitis spectrum diseases (NOMSD) in Semej town (Kazakhstan) taking into account ethnic identity. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Epidemiological indicators and clinical characteristics of MS and NOMSD in Semej (the Central Asia region) were studied. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: General MS prevalence was 10.1 per 100 000 population, 16.8 in Caucasians, 4.9 in Asians (OR=2.64; 95% CI 1.31-5.36). General female to male (F/M) ratio was 1:2.5, 1:1.2 in Asians; 1:5 in Caucasians. Mean age of patients and EDSS index at the time of observation were equal in both ethnic groups. Ten cases of NOMSD were found, all of them were recorded in the Asian population (prevalence 4.9 per 100 000 population). F/M was 1:9. Mean age (p=0.02) and age at disease onset (p=0.01), as well as EDSS indexes at time of onset and observation (p<0.001 and p<0.001) were higher in NOMSD patients compared to MS. No NOMSD cases were identified in Caucasians, while in Asians the equal prevalence of MS and NOMSD was shown. This finding may be explained by the presence of both Asian and Caucasian haplogroups in the Kazakh population.


Assuntos
Esclerose Múltipla , Ásia/epidemiologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Humanos , Cazaquistão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Esclerose Múltipla/diagnóstico , Esclerose Múltipla/etnologia
9.
Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova ; 119(2. Vyp. 2): 18-23, 2019.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31156236

RESUMO

AIM: To evaluate the diagnostic value of MOG-IgG antibodies in multiple sclerosis (MS) and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty-nine patients with definitive MS according to the criteria of McDonald, 2010 (21 with relapse-remitting MS and 8 with secondary progressive MS), 7 patients with ADEM confirmed by clinical and instrumental data and 27 healthy volunteers were included in the study. Serum MOG-IgG levels were evaluated in all patients. MOG-IgG levels in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were evaluated in 22 cases with MS, 6 cases with ADEM, and 8 healthy volunteers using ELISA. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Serum MOG-IgG levels are significantly higher in patients with MS and ADEM compared to the control group. No statistically significant differences in the serum MOG-IgG levels were found between MS and ADEM groups. When analyzing the level of MOG-IgG in CSF, no statistically significant between-group differences were obtained. The sensitivity and specificity of the determination of MOG-IgG in serum in patients with MS are 75,8% and 92.59%, respectively. MOG-IgG is detected in serum and CSF in patients with demyelinating diseases that indicates its pathogenetic significance in the development of MS and ADEM. Serum MOG-IgG may be a valuable biomarker for demyelinating diseases. Further research in a large population of patients is required.


Assuntos
Encefalomielite Aguda Disseminada , Esclerose Múltipla , Glicoproteína Mielina-Oligodendrócito , Autoanticorpos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Sistema Nervoso Central , Encefalomielite Aguda Disseminada/diagnóstico , Humanos , Esclerose Múltipla/diagnóstico , Glicoproteína Mielina-Oligodendrócito/análise
10.
Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova ; 119(2. Vyp. 2): 24-27, 2019.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31156237

RESUMO

AIM: To assess the possibility of using serum levels of chemokine CXCL13, B-cell activating factor (BAFF), interleukin 1 and 17 (IL-10, IL-17) as markers of the development/progression of multiple sclerosis (MS). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Sixty-seven patients with MS in remission and 14 healthy volunteers were examined. The levels of BAFF, CXCL13 and the main products of Th17 and Treg - interleukin 17 (IL-17) and IL-10 in the serum were determined, their relationship with clinical characteristics of MS during remission was assessed. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The content of IL-17 and BAFF in the serum of patients with MS did not differ significantly from the control group, and the levels of IL-10 and CXCL13 were lower than the corresponding indicators of healthy donors. In patients with MS, no correlation was found between IL-17, IL-10, BAFF and clinical characteristics of MS. The level of CXCL13 correlated with quality of life, fatigue, clinical and functional status of patients. According to the results of this study, BAFF and CXCL13 cannot be proposed as diagnostic biomarkers of MS.


Assuntos
Linfócitos B , Biomarcadores , Quimiocinas , Esclerose Múltipla , Quimiocinas/análise , Humanos , Esclerose Múltipla/diagnóstico , Qualidade de Vida , Células Th17
11.
Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova ; 119(2. Vyp. 2): 28-35, 2019.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31156238

RESUMO

The review presents data on brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), its structure and functions, the effect on the pathogenesis of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and multiple sclerosis (MS). The correlation of BDNF level with clinical manifestations of MS and the changes of its level during disease-modifying therapy is considered.


Assuntos
Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo , Encefalomielite Autoimune Experimental , Esclerose Múltipla , Animais , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/análise , Esclerose Múltipla/diagnóstico
12.
NeuroRehabilitation ; 44(3): 445-449, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31177245

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While there is evidence of differences in the disease characteristics of multiple sclerosis (MS) across ethnic and racial groups, there has been limited research on cognitive functioning. OBJECTIVE: To explore potential differences among Caucasian (CA), African-American (AA), and Hispanic (HA) adults from a clinical sample on the Minimal Assessment of Cognitive Function in MS (MACFIMS). METHODS: A total of 245 age- and disease duration-matched individuals (194 CA, 23 AA, and 28 HA) were included in the analyses. Their rates of impairment, using the criterion of two standard deviations (SD) below the normative mean, on the MACFIMS were compared using chi-square analyses with post-hoc pairwise comparisons (Bonferroni adjusted). RESULTS: Compared to CA, AA had higher rates of impairment on measures of complex attention (p < 0.001) and executive functions (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: These findings raise questions of whether the observed differences reflect the more aggressive disease course noted among AA or are due to discrepancies in performance on neuropsychological assessment that is associated with race/ethnicity in the general population. Future directions and implications are discussed.


Assuntos
Cognição/fisiologia , Grupos de Populações Continentais/psicologia , Grupos Étnicos/psicologia , Esclerose Múltipla/etnologia , Esclerose Múltipla/psicologia , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Adulto , Afro-Americanos/etnologia , Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Atenção/fisiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Transtornos Cognitivos/complicações , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/etnologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/psicologia , Feminino , Hispano-Americanos/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Esclerose Múltipla/diagnóstico
13.
Life Sci ; 229: 116-123, 2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31082401

RESUMO

AIMS: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the leading cause of non-traumatic neurological disability in young adults, and its diagnosis is often delayed due to the lack of diagnostic markers. Initiation of disease -modifying therapy in the early stages of MS is especially critical because currently available therapy mostly target relapsing-remitting MS, and is less effective as disease progresses into the more chronic form of secondary-progressive MS. Therefore, exploring specific and sensitive biomarkers will facilitate an expedited and more accurate diagnosis to allow currently available therapies to be more effective. MAIN METHODS: Western blotting was conducted to detect the expression of neurolymphatic proteins in human brain endothelial cells in culture. Additionally, using a cohort of 150 patients with relapsing remitting MS, 26 with secondary progressive MS, and 60 healthy control samples, neurolymphatic protein expression was detected in serum samples using dot blot analysis. KEY FINDINGS: Human brain microvascular endothelial cells express neurolymphatic markers. Neurolymphatic protein abundance increases with tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α stimulation but decreases with interferon (IFN)- γ or combined (TNF + IFN) treatment. Circulating neurolymphatic protein levels is significantly lower in MS patients. Further, one of the markers, FOXC2, is associated with the clinical stages of MS, with significantly lower expression in secondary progressive MS compared to relapsing remitting MS. SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings describe brain endothelial expression of neurolymphatic proteins, which is altered under inflammatory stress, and provide a possibility of using a collective pool of circulating neurolymphatic proteins as a diagnostic and prognostic biomarker of MS.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Inflamação/sangue , Esclerose Múltipla Crônica Progressiva/sangue , Esclerose Múltipla Recidivante-Remitente/sangue , Esclerose Múltipla/sangue , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Células Cultivadas , Células Endoteliais/citologia , Células Endoteliais/imunologia , Endotélio Vascular/citologia , Endotélio Vascular/imunologia , Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação/diagnóstico , Inflamação/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Esclerose Múltipla/diagnóstico , Esclerose Múltipla/imunologia , Esclerose Múltipla Crônica Progressiva/diagnóstico , Esclerose Múltipla Crônica Progressiva/imunologia , Esclerose Múltipla Recidivante-Remitente/diagnóstico , Esclerose Múltipla Recidivante-Remitente/imunologia
14.
Rev. neurol. (Ed. impr.) ; 68(10): 431-441, 16 mayo, 2019. graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-180739

RESUMO

La reunión Post-ECTRIMS es un encuentro emblemático en España que persigue revisar y difundir los principales avances en esclerosis múltiple presentados en el congreso anual ECTRIMS. En octubre de 2018, la reunión Post-ECTRIMS celebró en Madrid su undécima edición, contando con los mayores expertos de ámbito nacional en esclerosis múltiple. Como resultado de esta reunión, se presentan dos artículos donde se recogen las novedades más destacadas en la misma. En esta primera parte se incluyen los últimos resultados sobre la influencia de los factores de riesgo modificables y no modificables en la esclerosis múltiple, destacando los progresos realizados en el ámbito genético, donde el descubrimiento de genes asociados a la esclerosis múltiple ha aumentado exponencialmente. Se aborda la complejidad del sistema inmune y se realizan algunas aportaciones sobre los mecanismos de autoinmunidad, en los que se observan relaciones bidireccionales entre las células inmunes y las células residentes del sistema nervioso central, como la microglía y los astrocitos. Los biomarcadores, tanto en suero y líquido cefalorraquídeo como de imagen, ganan cada vez más atención por su papel actual, y sobre todo potencial, en el diagnóstico y pronóstico de la enfermedad y en la evaluación de la eficacia de los tratamientos. Por último, se presentan las observaciones realizadas respecto a los cambios en la conectividad estructural y funcional en los pacientes y su relación con las alteraciones clínicas


The Post-ECTRIMS Meeting is an emblematic event in Spain which seeks to review and disseminate the main advances in multiple sclerosis presented at the ECTRIMS annual congress. In October 2018, the eleventh Post-ECTRIMS meeting was held in Madrid and was attended by the country’s leading experts in multiple sclerosis. As a result of this meeting, we present two articles which outline the most interesting novelties discussed there. This first part includes the latest results obtained regarding the influence of modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors in multiple sclerosis, with emphasis on the progress made in the field of genetics, where the discovery of genes associated with multiple sclerosis has increased exponentially. The complexity of the immune system is addressed and some contributions are made on autoimmunity mechanisms, in which bidirectional relations are observed between immune cells and cells residing in the central nervous system, such as microglial cells and astrocytes. Biomarkers, both in serum and cerebrospinal fluid as well as in imaging, are gaining more and more attention due to their current and, above all, potential role in the diagnosis and prognosis of the disease and in the evaluation of the efficacy of treatments. Finally, the observations made regarding changes in structural and functional connectivity in patients and their relationship with clinical alterations are presented


Assuntos
Humanos , Esclerose Múltipla , Biomarcadores , Esclerose Múltipla/diagnóstico , Esclerose Múltipla/imunologia , Esclerose Múltipla/fisiopatologia , Congressos como Assunto , Espanha
15.
Ideggyogy Sz ; 72(3-4): 135-139, 2019 Mar 30.
Artigo em Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30957469

RESUMO

We report the case of a 60-year-old man who exhibited trigeminal autonomic symptoms on his right side (numbness of the face, reddening of the eye, nasal congestion) occurring several times a day, for a maximum of 60 se-conds, without any pain. The complaints were similar to trigeminal autonomic cephalalgia, just without any headache. Our 60-year-old male patient underwent a craniocervical MRI as part of his neurological workup, which revealed lesions indicative of demyelination. Further testing was guided (ophthalmological examination, VEP, CSF test) by the presumptive diagnosis of multiple sclerosis. It is likely that in his case the cause of these trigeminal and autonomic paroxysms is MS. Here we present an overview of the few cases we found in the literature, although we did not find any similar case reports. Perhaps the most interesting among these is one in which the author describes a family: a 54-year-old female exhibiting the autonomic characteristics of an episodic cluster headache, only without actual headache, her son, who had typical episodic cluster headaches with autonomic symptoms, and the woman's father, whose short-term periorbital headaches were present without autonomic symptoms. We had not previously encountered a case of trigeminal autonomic cephalalgia without headache in our practice, nor have we had an MS patient exhibiting similar neurologic symptoms. The significance of our case lies in its uniqueness.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Esclerose Múltipla/diagnóstico , Cefalalgias Autonômicas do Trigêmeo/diagnóstico , Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dor
16.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 67(5): 648-653, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31007230

RESUMO

Purpose: To compare different macular thickness parameters and peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness between recently diagnosed cases of multiple sclerosis (MS) without optic neuropathy (ON) and healthy individuals. Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed between June 2014 and June 2015. All subjects underwent ocular and retinal examination. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) was used to measure the thickness of different layers of the retina at macular and peripapillary regions and at different quadrants. Between groups comparison was performed with P < 0.05 indicating statistical significance. Results: There were 32 eyes in the MS group and 74 eyes in the control group. The MS group was significantly younger than the control group (P < 0.001). The mean ganglion cell complex (GCL++) thickness in superior macular area was 64.1 ± 8.9 µ in the MS group and 71.1 ± 5.9 µ in the control group. The thickness of the RNFL did not statistically differ in each of the quadrants between groups. Despite controlling for age, the macular thickness parameters were significantly thinner in eyes with MS compared to healthy eyes (P < 0.01). Conclusion: The macular ganglion cell complex (mGCC) parameters were significantly reduced in recently diagnosed cases of MS as compared to healthy individuals.


Assuntos
Macula Lutea/patologia , Esclerose Múltipla/diagnóstico , Fibras Nervosas/patologia , Células Ganglionares da Retina/patologia , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica/métodos , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Neurite Óptica , Estudos Retrospectivos
17.
J Neuroimmunol ; 330: 90-95, 2019 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30852181

RESUMO

Perfluorinated alkylated substances (PFASs) have immunomodulatory effects but the impact on multiple sclerosis (MS) and cellular immune functions is only sparsely described. In the present study, we found lower concentrations of the long chain PFAS perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) in MS than in healthy controls (HC). In HC, we did not detect associations between PFOS concentrations and immune phenotypes. Analyzing the impact of known MS risk factors on cellular immune functions, we found that smoking and Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen 1 antibodies were associated with distinct circulating immune cell changes. In summary, current background PFAS exposure is not an important risk factor for MS.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos/sangue , Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos/imunologia , Fluorcarbonetos/sangue , Fluorcarbonetos/imunologia , Imunidade Celular/imunologia , Esclerose Múltipla/sangue , Esclerose Múltipla/imunologia , Adulto , Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos/toxicidade , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Fluorcarbonetos/toxicidade , Humanos , Imunidade Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Esclerose Múltipla/diagnóstico , Fatores de Risco
18.
J Neuroimmunol ; 330: 123-129, 2019 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30875612

RESUMO

In this study, we analysed the association of rs703842 in CYP27B1 gene with multiple sclerosis (MS) risk and disability progression in a group of 496 MS patients and 521 controls. For the first time in Central European Slovak population, we found the rs703842 allele C to be protective factor against MS development (p = 1.09 × 10-5). Moreover, the risky genotypes TT and TC were showed to be associated with an increased MS risk, and this was aggravated by the homozygous carriage of the HLA-DRB1*15:01 allele (OR = 2.82 vs. 4.86, p < .0001). No association of rs703842 with MS disability progression or calcidiol serum level was found.


Assuntos
25-Hidroxivitamina D3 1-alfa-Hidroxilase/genética , Alelos , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Variação Genética/genética , Cadeias HLA-DRB1/genética , Esclerose Múltipla/genética , Adulto , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética/métodos , Predisposição Genética para Doença/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Esclerose Múltipla/diagnóstico , Esclerose Múltipla/epidemiologia , Eslováquia/epidemiologia
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(6)2019 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30871169

RESUMO

Metabolomics based on mass spectrometry represents an innovative approach to characterize multifactorial diseases, such as multiple sclerosis (MuS). To date, the most important biomarker source for MuS diagnosis is the cerebrospinal fluid. However, an important goal for research is to identify new molecules in more easily accessible biological fluids. A very interesting biofluid in MuS is represented by tears, considered as an intermediate fluid between the cerebrospinal fluid and serum. In this work, we developed a merged strategy for the analysis of lipids containing choline by Liquid Chromatography coupled to Tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), as well as for the targeted analysis of free carnitine, acylcarnitines and aminoacids by direct infusion mass spectrometry. Samples for both metabolomics and lipidomics approaches were obtained in a single extraction procedure from tears of patients affected by MuS and healthy controls. Tear lipidomics showed 30 phospholipids significantly modulated and, notably, many sphingomyelins resulted lower in MuS. Moreover, the metabolomics approach carried out both on tears and serum highlighted the diagnostic potential of specific aminoacids and acylcarnitines. In conclusion, the metabolic profiling of tears appears to reflect the pathological conditions of the central nervous system, suggesting that the molecular repository of tears can be considered as a source of potential biomarkers for MuS.


Assuntos
Aparelho Lacrimal/metabolismo , Lipídeos/química , Esclerose Múltipla/diagnóstico , Esclerose Múltipla/metabolismo , Lágrimas/química , Lágrimas/metabolismo , Adulto , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Carnitina/análogos & derivados , Carnitina/metabolismo , Sistema Nervoso Central/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Metabolômica/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fosfolipídeos/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos
20.
Rev. chil. radiol ; 25(1): 5-18, mar. 2019. tab, ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1003745

RESUMO

Resumen: La esclerosis múltiple (EM) es la enfermedad inflamatorio-desmielinizante del Sistema nervioso central más prevalente en adultos. La resonancia magnética (RM) juega un rol cada vez más importante en el estudio de esta patología, en especial en su diagnóstico precoz, por lo que la diferenciación imagenológica de variantes frecuentes e infrecuentes de EM con otras patologías de sustancia blanca que comprometen encéfalo y médula espinal es esencial. Mediante una revisión pictórica se ilustrarán características típicas en RM del compromiso por EM y de variantes menos habituales de lesión desmielinizante, y se ilustrarán hallazgos característicos de lesiones relacionadas a vasculopatías inflamatorias y no inflamatorias, encefalomielitis diseminada aguda (ADEM), neuromielitis óptica (NMO) y enfermedades vasculares de la médula espinal que pueden simular EM, con énfasis en el diagnóstico diferencial radiológico.


Abstract:Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most prevalent inflammatory-demyelinating disease of the central nervous system in adult population. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has an increasingly important role, especially in early diagnosis, so the imaging differentiation of frequent and infrequent variants of MS with other white matter diseases of brain and spinal cord is essential. Through a pictorial essay we show typical MR features of MS and more infrequent variants of demyelinating lesions and illustrate characteristic imaging findings of inflammatory and non-inflammatory vasculopathies, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM), neuromyelitis optica (NMO) and vascular diseases of spinal cord that may simulate MS, with emphasis on imaging differential diagnosis.


Assuntos
Radiografia/métodos , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Esclerose Múltipla/diagnóstico , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Doenças do Nervo Óptico/diagnóstico por imagem , Neuromielite Óptica/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças Vasculares da Medula Espinal/diagnóstico por imagem , Encefalomielite Aguda Disseminada/diagnóstico por imagem
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